Crucifixion Eclipse The Large Gizāh  Pyramid : Nostradamus’ Birthdate at Central Axis of Giza Pyramid :

 

Western Languages ( Latin )

Sanskrit, Greek, and then Latin were the three major westernized languages that appealed to what is called universal western languages. Each respectively  defined as the lingua – the administration or commerce language, such similarly understood as internationally accepted or dominate language  -- as The English Language has been understood globally for the last few centuries as the economic communication’s tool form spoken and written form's of business.  Almost all languages, except Arabic, Chinese and Egyptian (pictogramic) and a few others are considered Proto-Indo-European languages. Speculatively, this means there once was a single source consisting of a single language – but it has never been identified.  Various languages, as it has been said (I don’t believe this) broke-off into different nominative groups before writing evolved.  The American Heritage Dictionary of English Language, from the Houghton Mifflin Company (1981), has an illustrated & branched schemata of derivatives and origins of various languages from the single source we call Proto-Indo-European – which we classify as a family.

 

Latini were the first, so it was recorded and argued by the Etruscans, to use the Latin language. They had inhabited Italy, approximately living around Rome at the time of its foundation. And approximately after 31 B.C.E., Classical Latin arose in which Latin grammarians recodified rules and regulations on Syntax and paradigms, et cetera... Latin had well been codified and remained in wide use prior the Empire proper period, but as with mid-sixteenth century French, spelling of many words were not universal. Thus, the Latin Grammarians who had arisen during this ‘prosperous’ Roman Empire period defined the Classical period of Roman literature. This standardizing of Latin script lasted until about 310 A.D.E. Then it fell into disarray, still used and copied by monks in monasteries who probably had no idea of its syntactical  rules; and later reemerged slowly during the medieval European period to come back into wide acceptance during the renaissance – where it again, became the universal language (of business). This tells us that early on, the Renaissance was defined by Latin histories which had commented upon Greek antiquity, and so forth. The Romans, not the Greeks, were the closet large civilization of Europe's past. During the early part of the Northern Renaissance (c. 1500s), neo-Platonists, who arose during the Hellenistic and Roman periods, defined many of the knowledges of French intellectualism.

 

French was still a secondary by the early seventeenth century . Latin still had its universal appeal, such as English today is the international language in its relations to global commerce. French did become the lingua franca at various periods European history but eventually English supplanted it. Latin is a most inflected language. This means one needs to master all of Latin’s variables to utilize it well. It was considered a spoken language as well, as sources confirm. The Roman’s believed they were practical, so many ideas in the language are practical.  Orthography: “Latin spelling was phonetic, representing the actual sounds uttered in pronouncing the word, the cases where a  spelling was due to Grammarians’ theories [actually speculations] being few and exceptional. Such grammarians’ spelling’ was the bs or urbs, which was pronounced (and often spelt) ps, it being impossible to pronounce b along with the Latin s, which had the hard unvoiced sound of our noun ‘use.’ The spelling with b is due to the analogy of the Gen., Dat., &c., urbis, urbi. A variety of spelling may generally be taken to represent a variety of pronunciation. [1]

 

Morphology of Latin in General Time-Line.

Latini ruled by local rulers, then overthrew them, the language changed: Roman Republic, change, Empire Classical, change, Fall of empire, change, root-romances (also deemed chopping up of Latin), proto-renaissance , change...all occurring in Latin – as a general scheme of notice for the grammarians are their respective times changing spellings, preferences, and orthography.

 

Scheme of Latin Consonants

B as Engl.

C as Engl. k.

D as Engl.

F as Engl.

G as Engl. g in ‘ago,’ not as g in ‘age’

H as Engl.

J as Engl. y. [ but in Classical Latin, i was the correct notation. If an i begins a word, and it is followed by a consonant, the normal rule ( with exceptions) it is pronounced like a y.; exmp. Iupiter, is pronounced Yupiter. Since Latin does not include the j as a consonant, it is sometimes substituted in script for the i as a consonant, but not the vowel i. exmp. Jupiter was written but still pronounced as Yupiter, following the standard rule, and understood that its correct spelling was Iupiter, the six planet from our Sun or one of the Roman’s pantheon gods.]

K as Engl.

L as Engl.

M as Engl., but when final, Lat. – m should be dropped and a nasal pronunciation given to the preceding vowel, e. g. Lat. –om like Fr. on.

N as Engl.

P as Engl.

Q as Engl.

R as Scotch or Continental r, stronger than r in ‘opera.’

S as Engl. s of the noun ‘use,’ never as s the verb ‘use.’

T as Engl.

V as Engl. w.

X as Engl.

To these we may had the Greek letters, y, z, th, ph, ch, which, as we may have seen, occur only in Greek loan-words. Y ( Greek Upsilon) had the same modified u-sound as the i of optimus; z had the soft s sound of the verb ‘to use’; th, ph, ch, were pronounced as in our ‘ant-heap,’ up-hill,’ ink-horn.’[2]

 

 

Pronunciation

Her is a scheme of the pronunciation of the Latin Vowels: --

Ā Engl.  a in ‘father.’

Ă the same more rapidly uttered.

Ĕ Fr. é in été.

Ī Fr. i of ‘fini.’

Ĭ Engl. i on ‘in.’

Ō Fr. au in ‘chaud.’

Ŏ Engl. o in ‘not.’

Ū Germ. u in ‘gut.’ (Plautus compares the repetition of the pron. tu to the hooting of an owl. The y sound which we insert before u in ‘tune,’ &c. was unknown in Latin.)

Ŭ Engl. u in ‘full,’ oo in ‘good.’ (What we often call ‘short u,’ e.g. the vowel-sound in ‘but,’ is not a u-sound at all, but is properly called ‘the obscure vowel.’). [3]

 

Pronunciation

Syllable-Division. “A caution too must be given about the pronunciation of Latin Syllables, which should follow the Italian more than the English fashion. Each syllable should be pronounced distinctly, with its due share of utterance; it should never end in a consonant, if the consonant can possibly be pronounced at the beginning of the next syllable. And double consonants must be pronounced double, as in Italian, with one at the end of the first syllable and the other at the beginning of the second. So pronounce pro-fu-gus, not ‘ prof’gus,’ be-ne, not ‘ben-e,’ ma-guus, rathar than ‘mag-nus,’ bucca and penna like our ‘book-case,’ ‘pen-knife,’ and so on.[4]

 

Accentuation:

The macron, or long-bar over a letter-symbol (such as ā ) accounts for ‘two’ syllables, and is sounded longer than a short vowel. “The Last syllable in a Latin word is called the ultima (<Latin syllaba ultima [ “last syllable”]). The Second syllable from the end is called the penult (< Latin syllaba paenultima [“almost last syllable”]). The third syllable from the end is called the antepenult (< Latin syllaba antepaenultime [“before-the-almost-last syllable”]). Only the Penult or the AntePenult of a Latin word may be stressed. If a word has only two syllables, the penult is stressed.”[5]

 

As rule, the third to last syllable is stressed in Latin. If not, the second to last.

 

poēna: accentuated as po| ē | na, therefore the stress was used on the antepenult. Why would this be so? The long vowel, demarcated with a macron, has a longer sound and is treated as two syllables. Therefore, po is one syllable, and ē are two syllables, and na is one syllable, making up four syllables in all, meaning the stress is always, in this case, on the third to last syllable.

 

Venit, in the present tense, is pronounced  like “w(a)hen it,” but quickly—as the ‘h’ sound comes from an exasperation of air from the mouth –but short and quickly so as to barely hear the ‘h’ sound. It sounds with three syllables.  When the word is in the perfect tense, it is spelt vēnit. Noting the example of po| ē | na, it now becomes a four syllable word: v| ē | nit. It is now a different sounding word, and it is pronounced like “w(a)hey aye nit.” The stress in on the antepenult as a long sounding ā, as in way.  Again, try to sound the word as quickly as possibly while still sounding each syllable and the antepenult.

 

Macrons disappear, so one needs to memorize each word for pronunciation, where stress lay, as well as its inflection, morphology, and syntax.

Sounds of the Vowels

ā = a in father

ē = e in prey.

ī = i in caprice

ō= o in bone

ū = oo in moon.

y [a line over it] = u in sûr (French), German u.[6]

 

“But the full appreciation of Latin poetical rhythm can only be attained, when we learn to assign the proper difference of duration of the long and short vowels, but dwelling, for example, on the first syllable of māter double the time that the voice rested on the first syllable of păter.[7] Yet, for now, poetry and diagramming are more advanced than first level Latin (i.e. beginning Latin). First we must learn the words for basic sentences and how to place them in a sentence.

 

(2) Diphthongs. The rules for the pronunciation of Latin Diphthongs is also an easy one: -- Give both vowels of the diphthong their own vowel-sounds, and combine the two sounds in one syllable.[8]

 

Diphthongs

ae = aye (ăh-eh)

oe = oy in boy.

au = ou in our

ei = ei in feint ( drawled)

eu = eu in Spanish deuda (ĕh-00).

(ui =  we, almost)

 

Note, --  before the time of Gracchi we find ai and oi instead of ae and oe.[9]

 

 

Nouns have three properties:

  1. Gender: Mas. Fem. neuter = L. neither.
  2. Number: singular or plural. The Greeks had a case for “both,” but not utilized in Latin. 
  3. Case: Latin has five “main” categories (Sometimes called class)  of nouns. (See below)

Declensions

 

Declensions, also called categories of nouns comes from the root declinō, declension = ‘to lean down from.’

 

  1. declension is an idea, as the Roman’s had envision it, of a falling tree; and each position to the fell, described visually as a tree leaning downwards from its previous upright position. As the tree moved positions downward, each section described the morphology of the ending(s) of words. When nouns are declensed, they are said to be in paradigm. A chart, called a paradigm is a function for memorizing the nouns.  
  2. Nouns have five ‘main’ categories assembled in what is called the case. The case that denotes A direct address (called Vocative), such as in statement uttered as Oh! Father, is not a part of the ‘main’ cases, but it is a case, none-the-less – it is rarely used.
  3. Cases are the most important in Latin because identifying the correct syntax of a noun follows its placement in a sentence, as well as its declension-morphology. Therefore cases in declension are inseparable functions of the Latin grammarians.
  4. Approximately 35%-40% of all Latin nouns reside in Declination’s 2-3. The bulk of nouns in declension 3 will divide the declensions of 4-5 as the remaining portion. Declension 1 is comprised of roughly 99% of feminine gender nouns. As will all languages, exceptions are often used in modern textbooks to confuse the student or often as it is thought in constructing the book to prepare the expert students to variables in rules and laws of a language.
  5. two meanings: (1) the name for each of the five families of nouns ( first declination, second declination, &c.), (2) a complete set of forms for an individual noun.

 

In Latin there are six cases:

  1. Nominative (Case of the Subject).

answers: who ? what ?

  1. Genitive (Case of the Compliment).

answers: whose ? whereof ?

  1. Dative (Case of Indirect Object or Personal Interest).

answers:  to whom ? from whom ?

  1. Accusative (Case of Direct Object).

Answers:  whom ? what ?

  1. Vocative (Case of Direct Address).
  2. Ablative (Case of Adverbial Relation).

Answers : where ? whence ? wherewith ? [10]

 

Latin expressions of the six cases:

  1. Nominative (Case of the Subject).

answers: who ? what ?

Genitive (expresses qualifications or limitations of other nouns)

answers: of. exp. of _____? common use is expressed as ownership or possession.

  1. Dative (usually in English accompanied with a preposition).

answers: with, to  for.

  1. Accusative (Case of Direct Object).

Answers: usually Accusative Direct Object; sometimes certain prepositions?

  1. Vocative (Case of Direct Address).

Answers:  Oh! _____ ?

  1. Ablative (expresses: (motion) separation, instrument, association, location).

Answers : ~ from, with, by, in , on , at.

 

 

Syntax: what is the function of the part of speech.

  1. Nominative (Case of the Subject).

Functions: (1) As subject, it is the thing that does the action. (2) Predicate nominative.

  1. Genitive (Case of the Compliment).

Functions: to limit a noun they go with. (2) First Level uses, “of” & for possession, as many functions. Advanced levels become more complicated with variations of functions.

  1. Dative (Case of Indirect Object or Personal Interest).

Functions:  as indirect object.

  1. Accusative (Case of Direct Object).

Functions:  as a direct object, it takes the action of the verb. Also as the object of a preposition.

  1. Vocative (Case of Direct Address).
  2. Ablative (Case of Adverbial Relation).

Functions: It takes whatever the other cases discarded, it is like a ‘junk box,’ thus the complexity. Can be an object or a preposition.

 

 

According to their form, the cases are divided into strong and weak:  The strong cases are Nominative, Accusative, and Vocative. The weak cases are Genitive, Dative, and Ablative.

According to their syntactical use, the cases are divided into Cāsūs Rēcti, or Independent Cases, and Cāsūs Obliqui, or Dependant Cases. Nominative and Vocative are Cāsūs Rēcti, the rest Cāsūs Obliqui.

 

The case-forms arise from the combination of the case-endings with the stem.

1. The stem is that which is common to a class of formation. [11]

 

There are five declensions in Latin, which are characterized by the final letter of their respected stems (stem-characteristic).

 

Stem Characteristic

Genitive Singular

I.

ă (ā).

ae.

II.

ŏ.

ī.

III.

ĭ, ū, a consonant.

ĭs.

IV.

ŭ.

ŭs.

V.

ē.

ēī. [e not the symbol shown]

 

Remark. – The First, Second, and Fifth Declensions are called Vowel Declensions ; the Third and Fourth, which really form but one, the Consonant Declination, i and u being semi—consonants.[12]

 

 

Declension(s)

Genitive Singular

I.

 

- ae.

II.

 

- ī.

III.

 

- is.

IV.

 

- ūs.

V.

 

- eī/ēī.

 

 

Scheme of the Third Declension.

Consonant –stems

Sing.

Mom. M., F.,  (1) -s.

(2) Vowel lengthened in R- and N-Stems,

 e. g. datōr (class. Dator), homō.

3D                 N. The Bare stem

 

Gen.

-ĕs, which became –ĭs.

Dat.

-ai, which became –ei, then –i.

Loc.

-ĭ, used also as Abl.

Acc.

-ĕm (from original -em

Abl.

(see Loc.)

Scheme of the Fourth Declension.

Consonant –stems

4D

Singular

Plural

Nom.

Mom. M. –ŭs; N. –u.

Mom. M. ( See Acc.)

Gen.

(1)–ūs from eus

(2)–uis from –ŭwes

(3)–ī, the O-stem suffix.

(1) –uŭm, from ĕwōm.

(2) –ŭm, from –ōm, the O-stem suffix.

Dat.

uī, older –uei, from ĕwai

} –ŭbŭs, older ŭbŏs,

} later –ĭbŭs from –ŭbhŏs.

Loc.

ū from eu (used also as Dat)

Acc.

ŭm.

ŭs.( from –ŭns).

Abl.

ūd, which became –ū.

(same as Dat., Loc.).

 

 

 

Scheme of the Fifth Declension.

Consonant –stems (often referred to as the ē declension). “The formation of the cases is closely modeled on the First Declension, ē being substituted everywhere for ā.”[13] The Republican writers have “facii, prenicii, progenii, &c. Some grammarians changed this ending [Empire, Classical period] – to –ie, in order that the Genitive might show the ē-vowel, which was the distinguishing mark of the Fifth Declension ; and Julius Caesar, we are told, stamped with his approval forms like specie and die.”[14]

5D

Singular

Plural

Nom.

Mom.–ēs

Mom. M. ( See Acc.)

Gen.

(1)– ēī , – ĕī , – ei[15] , – ī

(2)–ē (changed from – ī)

(3)–ī, the O-stem suffix.

(1) –uŭm, from ĕwōm.

(2) –ŭm, from –ōm, the O-stem suffix.

Dat.

uī, older –uei, from ĕwai

} –ŭbŭs, older ŭbŏs,

} later –ĭbŭs from –ŭbhŏs.

Loc.

ū from eu (used also as Dat)

Acc.

ŭm.

ŭs.( from –ŭns).

Abl.

ūd, which became –ū.

(same as Dat., Loc.).

 

 

 

 

D1

 

How to read a Latin Dictionary Entry.

The Nominative case comes first, followed by the Genitive Case for identifying purposes.

Exmp. Italia, Italiae, f., “Italy”

The diagram is called a paradigm.

Paradigm.  (Noun) stem Itali

D1

Singular

Plural

Nom.

Italia

Italiae

Gen.

Italiae

Italiārum

Dat.

Italiae

Italiīs

Acc.

Italiam

Italiās

Abl.

Italiā

Italiīs

Voc.

Italia

Italiae

Case Endings of the First Declination

So after reading the dictionary, and identifying the ‘genitive singular ending,’ as it is entered in the dictionary, one should be able to paradigm that noun. Note, do not identify the stem as a nominative plural case ending or the dative singular case ending! Even though their case endings are similar.  For a test, one can take any first declension noun now and make a paradigm chart. The endings of the nouns are called case endings. The genitive singular ending should always been given in a dictionary; thus after identifying the second work, look for the ae case ending, Italiae. After identifying it, take it off. Then write what is left, which is called the stem. Next, draw your paradigm chart and fill in the appropriate case endings. Now you are ready to use first declination nouns for sentence construction. Interpretation: If problems arise in interpretation of a sentence, try finding all the possibilities for identifying a form (a case) of a noun. Understand there are multi-forms for once case-ending, and when interpreting a sentence consider more than one possibility, attempting to identify the form in the context of the sentence. This should help for identification proposes.

 

Exmp. puella, puellae, f., “girl”

Paradigm.  (Noun)              stem puell

 

Singular

Plural

Nom.

puella

puellae

Gen.

puellae

puellārum

Dat.

puellae

puellīs

Acc.

puellam

puellās

Abl.

puellā

puellīs

Voc.

puella

puellae

 

 

 

 

 

 

Singular

functions (or syntactical)

Nom.

puella

the girl (subj. or pred. nom.)

Gen.

puellae

of a girl

Dat.

puellae

to the girl/ for the girl.

Acc.

puellam

a girl (d.o.)

Abl.

puellā

from a girl; by/with a girl; in the girl.

Voc.

puella

the girl (addressed directly by you)

 

 

 

 

Plural

functions

Nom.

puellae

these girls ; girls (subj. or pred. nom.) (also Voc.)

Gen.

puellārum

of these girls

Dat.

puellīs

to these girls/ for these girls.

Acc.

puellās

some girls (d.o.)

Abl.

puellīs

from some girls; by/with some girls; in some girls.

 

D2

Most of the nouns of the second declination are masculine, some are feminine, and many are neuter, which appear with slightly different endings than masculine or feminine second declension nouns. neuter in Latin means ‘neither.’

 

Exmp. ager, agrī, m., “field”

Paradigm.  (Noun)              stem agr

D2

Singular

Plural

Nom.

agrus

agrī

Gen.

agrī

agrōrum

Dat.

agrō

agrīs

Acc.

agrum

agrōs

Abl.

agrō

agrīs

Voc.

agre

agrī

 

 

 

Case Endings of the Second Declination

Masculine and Feminine nouns of the second declension use –us as the nominative singular ending. However, there are variable nouns that do not follow this pattern. Instead they follow “a form of the stem of the noun” as the nominative singular form. Thus, servus, servī, m., “slave”, but puer, puerī, m., “boy” and liber, librī, m. book.[16]

 

(2:N)

Singular

functions

Nom.

agrus

a field (subj. or pred. nom.)

Gen.

agrī

of a field

Dat.

agrō

to a field/ for a field.

Acc.

agrum

a field (d.o.)

Abl.

agrō

from a field; by/with a field; in a field.

Voc.

agre

field! (addressed directly by you)

 

 

 

(2:N)

Plural

functions

Nom.

agrī

fields (subj. or pred. nom.) (also Voc.)

Gen.

agrōrum

of some fields

Dat.

agrīs

to these field/ for these fields.

Acc.

agrōs

some fields (d.o.)

Abl.

agrīs

from some fields; by/with some fields; in some fields.

 

Most Latin case-nouns do not need articles or prepositions, necessarily, they have them inflected within the word itself.

Vocabulary

First Level (simple - beginning)

Prepositions (praepōnō) placed before a noun or pronoun to show its relationships to words in the sentence (prep. + noun = prepositional phrase).

Accusative: motion toward

Ablative: Locative

Ablative: Motion from

 

ā, ab (prep.+ abl.) “(away) from.” (both used before words beginning with consonants, ā is more frequent) (ab is also often used before words beginning with vowels or h-)

ad (prep.+ acc.) toward, to

cum (prep.+ abl.)

 (down) from; about, concerning. (to tell someone)

ē, ex (prep.+ abl.) “(out) from.” (ex is used before words beginning with vowels of –h); (both e and ex are used before words beginning with consonants, but ex is more frequent).

et (coordinating conj.) and;

(adv.) even, also

et....et...both...and..

in (prep. +acc.) into; onto; against

(prep. + abl.) in, on (may take either accusative or ablative case)

ō (interjective). O

-que (enclitic conj. ) and (enklīnō Gr., lean on), leans on or is directly attached to a word proceeding it. exp. vir feminaque ( husband and wife (subject)); for and,  the use of que...que is only used in poetry. que is replaced in first phrase position of et...et (exp. que....et) by historians Livy, Sallust, and Tacitus, not Caesar or Cicero.[17]

Accusative: motion toward

in: “into”

ad: “toward”

Ablative: Locative

in: “in”

in: “on”

Ablative: Motion from

ā, ab: “(away) from”

dē:     “(down ) from”

ē, ex:  “(out) from”

 

Nouns       (“reason for gender(s)” as speculation)

m. masculine, f. feminine, n. neuter

 

filia, filiea, f. daughter, noun [1:F]

fēmina, fēminae f. women, wife, noun [1:F]

fīlius, fīliī. m. son, noun [2:M]

fāma, fāmae f. report, rumor, reputation, fame [1:F] (women carried the news on the home-front why men were at war, turning to news, gossip, reports and discursive utterances, leading to tall tales and/or recognition resulting in the connotation fame –as myths (part fact, part fabricated)

puer, puerī m. boy, noun [2:M] ( another odd Nom. Stem for 2D, gender as relative)

poēta, poētae. m. poet [1:M]

via, viae, f. way, road, street [1:F]

 

ager, agrī, m. field, noun [2:M] (men worked in the field)

agricola, agricolae m. farmer [1:M] (rare masc. in 1d, Men were famers, but women cooked)

gladius, gladiī, m. sword, [2:M] (men made swords, a man’s job)

pecūnia, pecūniae f. money, noun [1:F] (women cost men money)

aurum, auri n. gold, noun [2:N] (men searched and dug for gold)

īnsula, īnsulae f. island [1D] (Some French later retracted their glee when it had been said at a time of passion that Napoleon was whished off to his Sancho Panza’s īnsula.).

patria, patriae f. country, homeland. [1:F]

nauta, nautae , m. sailor [1:M]

liber, librī, m. book. [2:M] ( Men controlled language and education as general, not absolute)

factum, factī, n, deed. [2:N]

cōnsilium, sonsiliī, n. deliberation; plan, advice; judgment. [2:N]

deus, deī m. god. [2:M:irreg.]

dea, deae, f. goddess [1:F]

perīculum, perīculī n. danger [2:N], stem: perīcul.

oppidum, oppidī, n. town. [2:N]

dominus, domini, m. master, lord.[2:M]

servus, servī, m. slave. [2:M]

bellum, bellī n. war [2:N]

ferrum, ferrī n. iron; sword [2:N]. ( sword was connotative, used by Roman soldiers, “ where is my iron [sword]?”)

verbum, verbī n. word [2:N]

dōnum, dōnī n. gift [2:N]

 

Paradigm charts.  (Noun Morphology)

Case endings of the Second Declension: Masculine/Feminine

2:M,F.

Singular

Plural

Nom.

- us/---

- ī

Gen.

- ī

- ōrum

Dat.

- ō

- īs

Acc.

- um

- ōs

Abl.

- ō

- īs

Voc.

- e

- ī

 

Case endings of the Second Declension: Neuter (All (2:N) use these endings!)

2:N

Singular

Plural

Nom.

- um

- a

Gen.

- ī

- ōrum

Dat.

- ō

- īs

Acc.

- um

- a

Abl.

- ō

- īs

Voc.

 

 

 

Paradigm.  (Noun Morphology)

Case Endings of the First Declination

1:

Singular

Plural

Nom.

- a

- ae

Gen.

- ae

- ārum

Dat.

- ae

- īs

Acc.

- am

- ās

Abl.

- ā

- īs

Voc.

 

 

 

 

 

 

factum, factī, n, deed. [2D], neuter variation (2:N)

Paradigm.  (2:N)                 stem fact

2:N

Singular

Plural

Nom.

factum

facta

Gen.

factī

factōrum

Dat.

factō

factīs

Acc.

factum

facta

Abl.

factō

factīs

Voc.

factum

facta

 

Descendants: fait (Fr.)

Derivatives: fact, Cognates, Thesis

 

Paradigm.  (irregular noun)

deus, deī m. god.                           stem de (d)

2:M:ir.

Singular

Plural

Nom.

deus (same as Voc.)

dī or deī (alternate Gen. Pl.)

Gen.

deī

deōrum

Dat.

deō

dīs

Acc.

deum

deōs

Abl.

deō

dīs

 

Paradigm.  (Noun)

 

Singular

Plural

Nom.

 

 

Gen.

 

 

Dat.

 

 

Acc.

 

 

Abl.

 

 

Voc.

 

 

 

 

 

 

perīculum, perīculī n. danger

 Paradigm.  (2:N)                stem: perīcul

2:N

Singular

Plural

Nom.

perīculum

perīcula

Gen.

perīculī

perīculōrum

Dat.

perīculō

perīculīs

Acc.

perīculum

perīcula

Abl.

perīculō

perīculīs

Voc.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Identify case endings, class, number, gender. (memorization: if musically inclined, make up a tune)

um

ī

ō

um

ō

 

ī

ōrum

īs

ōs

īs

 

 

 

 

 

Recommended Reading:

 

W. M. Lindsay, “A Short Historical Latin Grammar” (London: Oxford University Press Warehouse, 1895), at the Claredon Press. He was a fellow of Jesuit College, Oxford.

Lindsay, W. M.,  A Short Historical Latin Grammar (London: Oxford University Press Warehouse, 1895).

 

The diaeresis or trema is the diacritic mark ( ¨ ), used to indicate a phonological diaeresis, or, more generally, that a vowel should be pronounced apart from the letter which precedes it. The umlaut is a diacritic consisting of a pair of dots or lines placed over a letter. A very similar diacritic is the diaeresis (or trema). When the vowel is an i, the diacritic replaces the tittle. The two diacritics are very similar in appearance, and the distinction between them is not always made.


 


[1] Lindsay, W. M., A Short Historical Latin Grammar (London: Oxford University Press Warehouse, 1895), p. 21.

[2] Ibid., A Short Historical Latin Grammar, p. 15.

[3] Ibid., A Short Historical Latin Grammar, p. 10.

[4] Ibid., A Short Historical Latin Grammar, p. 15.

[5] Keller, Andrew & Stephanie Russell, “Learn to Read Latin,” in Yale Language Series (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2004), p. 7

[6] Ibid., Gildersleeve’s Latin Grammar, p. 2.

[7] Lindsay, W. M., A Short Historical Latin Grammar (London: Oxford University Press Warehouse, 1895), p. 11.

[8] Ibid., A Short Historical Latin Grammar, pp. 11-12.

[9]  Gildersleeve, B. L. & G. Lodge, Gildersleeve’s Latin Grammar, 3d ed. (Wauconda, IL.: Bolchazy-Carducci Publishers, Inc., 1997),  p. 3.

[10] Gildersleeve, B. L. & G. Lodge, Gildersleeve’s Latin Grammar, 3d ed. (Wauconda, IL.: Bolchazy-Carducci Publishers, Inc., 1997),  p. 12. This is a reprint of the third edition, and the First Edition of this ‘Latin Grammar’ appeared in 1867; the second in 1872; and this third edition would be part of fourteen reprints.

[11] Ibid., Gildersleeve’s Latin Grammar, p. 12.

[12] Ibid., Gildersleeve’s Latin Grammar, p. 13.

[13] Ibid., A Short Historical Latin Grammar, p. 61.

[14] Ibid., A Short Historical Latin Grammar, p. 61. also, note 2, Many so-called Nominatives in –ēs are really Nominatives Plural of I-stems, e.g. ambāgēs, nūbēs (with the by form nūbis), saepes (with a by-form saeps). Some feminine animal-names seem to be dialectal, e.g. fēles, pălumbes. They take the I-stem declension.

[15] no symbol on this word processor for a arc over both vowels.

[16] Ibid., Learn to Read Latin, p. 21., note 6. 

[17] Ibid., Learn to Read Latin, pp. 13-14. 

 

 

The first conjugation

The first conjugation is characterized by the vowel ā and can be recognized by the -āre ending of the present active infinitive. The principal parts usually adhere to the following patterns.

  • perfect with –vī

portō, portāre, portāvī, portātum — to carry, bring

amō, amāre, amāvī, amātum — to love, be fond of

—— All regular first conjugation verbs follow this pattern. ——

  • perfect with –uī

secō, secāre, secuī, sectum — to cut, divide

fricō, fricāre, fricuī, frictum — to rub

vetō, vetāre, vetuī, vetitum — to forbid, prohibit

  • perfect with –ī and stem vowel lengthening

lavō, lavāre, lāvī, lautum — to wash, bathe

iuvō, iuvāre, iūvī, iūtum — to help, assist

  • reduplicated perfect

stō, stāre, stetī, statum — to stand

dō, dare, dedī, datum – to give, bestow irregular

The second conjugation

The second conjugation is characterized by the vowel ē, and can be recognized by the -eō ending of the first person present indicative and the -ēre ending of the present active infinitive.

  • perfect with –uī

terreō, terrēre, terruī, territus — to frighten, deter

doceō, docēre, docuī, doctus — to teach, instruct

teneō, tenēre, tenuī, tentus — to hold, keep

—— All regular second conjugation verbs follow this pattern. ——

  • perfect with –vī

dēleō, dēlēre, dēlēvī, dēlētus — to destroy, efface

cieō, ciēre, cīvī, citum — to arouse, stir

  • perfect with –sī and –xī

augeō, augēre, auxī, auctus — to increase, enlarge

jubeō, jubēre, jussī, jussus — to order, bid

  • reduplicated perfect with –ī

mordeō, mordēre, momordī, morsum — to bite, nip

spondeō, spondēre, spopondī, spōnsum — to vow, promise

  • perfect with –ī and vowel lengthening

videō, vidēre, vīdī, vīsus — to see, notice

foveō, fovēre, fōvī, fōtus — to caress, cherish

  • perfect with –ī only

strīdeō, strīdere, strīdī — to hiss, creak

ferveō, fervēre, fervī1 — to boil, seethe

1may be fervuī.

The third conjugation

The third conjugation is characterized by a short thematic vowel, which alternates between e, i, and u in different environments. Verbs of this conjugation end in an –ere in the present active infinitive. There is no one regular rule for constructing the perfect stem of third-conjugation verbs, but the following patterns are used.

  • perfect with –sī and –xī

carpō, carpere, carpsī, carptum — to pluck, select

trahō, trahere, trāxī, trāctum — to drag, draw

gerō, gerere, gessī, gestum — to wear, bear

flectō, flectere, flexī, flexum — to bend, twist

  • reduplicated perfect with –ī

currō, currere, cucurrī, cursum — to run, race

caedō, caedere, cecīdī, caesum — to kill, slay

tangō, tangere, tetigī, tāctum — to touch, hit

pellō, pellere, pepulī, pulsum — to beat, drive away

  • perfect with -vī

petō, petere, petīvī, petītum — to seek, attack

linō, linere, līvī, lītum — to smear, befoul

serō, serere, sēvī, satum — to sow, plant

terō, terere, trīvī, trītum — to rub, wear out

sternō, sternere, strāvī, strātum — to spread, stretch out

  • perfect with –ī and vowel lengthening

agō, agere, ēgī, āctum — to do, drive

legō, legere, lēgī, lēctum — to collect, read

emō, emere, ēmī, ēmptum — to buy, purchase

vincō, vincere, vīcī, victum — to conquer, master

fundō, fundere, fūdī, fūsum — to pour, utter

  • perfect with –ī only

īcō, īcere, īcī, īctum — to strike, smite

vertō, vertere, vertī, versum — to turn, alter

vīsō, visere, vīsī, vīsum — to visit

  • perfect with –uī

metō, metere, messuī, messum — to reap, harvest

vomō, vomere, vomuī, vomitum — to vomit

colō, colere, coluī, cultum — to cultivate, till

texō, texere, texuī, textum — to weave, plait

gignō, gignere, genuī, genitum — to beget, cause

  • present stem with a –u

minuō, minuere, minuī, minūtum — to lessen, diminish

ruō, ruere, ruī, rutum — to collapse, hurl down

struō, struere, strūxī, strūctum — to build, erect

  • verbs with –scō

nōscō, nōscere, nōvī, nōtum — to investigate, learn

adolēscō, adolēscere, adolēvī — to grow up, mature

flōrēscō, flōrēscere, flōruī — to begin flourish, blossom

haerēscō, haerēscere, haesī, haesum — to adhere, stick

pāscō, pāscere, pāvī, pāstum — to feed, nourish

Intermediate between the third and fourth conjugation are the third-conjugation –iō verbs, discussed below.

The fourth conjugation

The fourth conjugation is characterized by the vowel ī and can be recognized by the -īre ending of the present active infinitive. The fourth conjugation verbs' principal parts generally adhere to the following patterns.

  • perfect with –vī

audiō, audīre, audīvī, audītus, a, um — to hear, listen (to)

muniō, munīre, munīvī, munītus, a, um — to fortify, build

—— All regular fourth conjugation verbs follow this pattern.

  • perfect with –uī

aperiō, aperīre, aperuī, apertum – to open, uncover

  • perfect with –sī and –xī

saepiō, saepīre, saepsī, saeptum – to surround, enclose

sanciō, sancīre, sānxī, sānctum – to confirm, ratify

sentiō, sentīre, sēnsī, sēnsum – to feel, perceive

  • perfect with –ī and vowel lengthening

veniō, venīre, vēnī, ventum – to come, arrive

 

Personal endings are used in all tenses. The present, imperfect, future, pluperfect and future perfect tenses use the same personal endings in the active voice. However, the pluperfect and future perfect do not have personal endings in the passive voice. The perfect tense uses its own personal endings in the active voice.

 

Active

Passive

Singular

Plural

Singular

Plural

Familiar

First Person

ō, m

mus

or, r

mur

Second Person

s

tis

ris (re)

minī

Third Person

t

nt

Tur

ntur

 

Active

 

Singular

Plural

Perfect

First Person

ī

imus

Second Person

istī

istis

Third Person

it

ērunt (ēre)

Source, wiki, Latin Verbs, Conjugation.

Transitive verbs take direct objects, nouns that receive the action of the verb

Intransitive verbs act in sentences that lack direct objects.