By Michael Johnathan McDonald
• John Calvin
• War of Spanish Succession 1707-1713
• The four tenants:
• Commercial Revolution
• Elizabeth I
• The 30 Years War
• Louis XIV
• Absolute Monarchy Period
• French Wars under Louis XIV
This man, undoubtedly the greatest of Protestant divines, and perhaps, after St.
Augustine, the most perseveringly followed by his disciples of any Western
writer on theology, was born at Noyon in Picardy, France, 10 July, 1509, and
died at Geneva, 27 May, 1564. He speaks Swedish, French and Italian
Everyone born are destined to achieve salvation or damnation. Yet you must work
at the four basic tenets he set up.
The Four Tenants
1. Pursue your God given talent.
2. Practice good morals.
3. Practice frugality (save money for a rainy day).
4. Practice things in moderation.
• If one practices this every-day; this would be a sign that possibly you will
make it to heaven (saved).
“A generation divided him from Luther, whom he never met. By birth, education,
and temper these two protagonists of the reforming movement were strongly
contrasted. Luther was a Saxon peasant, his father a miner; Calvin sprang from
the French middle-class, and his father, an attorney, had purchased the freedom
of the City of Noyon, where he practiced civil and canon law. Luther entered the
Order of Augustinian Hermits, took a monk’s vows, was made a priest and incurred
much odium by marrying a nun. Calvin never was ordained in the Catholic Church;
his training was chiefly in law and the humanities; he took no vows. Luther’s
eloquence made him popular by its force, humour, rudeness, and vulgar style.
Calvin spoke to the learned at all times, even when preaching before multitudes.
His manner is classical; he reasons on system; he has little humour; instead of
striking with a cudgel he uses the weapons of a deadly logic and persuades by a
teacher’s authority, not by a demagogue’s calling of names. He writes French as
well as Luther writes German, and like him has been reckoned a pioneer in the
modern development of his native tongue. Lastly, if we term the doctor of
Wittenberg a mystic, we may sum up Calvin as a scholastic; he gives articulate
expression to the principles which Luther had stormily thrown out upon the world
in his vehement pamphleteering; and the “Institutes” as they were left by their
author have remained ever since the standard of orthodox Protestant belief in
all the Churches known as “Reformed.” His French disciples called their sect
“the religion”; such it has proved to be outside the Roman world.”1
Calvinist believed that it is OK to get rich as long as you follow the tenets.
This is the case of most of American history. People worked hard and followed
the tenets and because hugely successful and good people. As the left-wing (
Devil) started to make demands that God and everything related to him (The four
tenants) be taken out of public life ( view) America ceased to be pure and
started the slow decent to “fall.” This actually started the commercial
revolution and this religion was a reinvent of the new middle classes that is
essential in free societies and counteracts against Feudal and Two-class
societies (Rich and the Poor).
Significance: of Calvin and Luther and the New Commercial religious revolution.
People follow Calvin rather than Luther because one can become rich.
Basic procedures to follow: Don’t blames others ( like the life and the victim
mentality). Government does not regulate religion. Calvin is opposed to
Monarchy. He adopted early Christianity ( Not what is in the Bible) but before
that. “we are gods ancient people.” Monarchs determined what peoples religion
was. Calvinist was against Monarchs determination of what religion you practice.
Some Calvinist names: English were the Puritans; Congregationalists were the
Dutch Dutch Reform was from Holland, Huguenots were French. Another example is
that the Amish of today are a direct off-shoot of the Puritans. Thousands of
branches of churches have their off-shoots roots with Protestants of today. For
example, in Southern California, the most diverse place on earth in year 2000,
data was gathered that there are over 2000- plus different religious sects
alone. More popular names include: Methodist; Baptist; Mormons; Holy Rollers;
Jehovah witnesses; 7th Day Adventist; Quakers; Amish.
The Catholics were that and the Jesuits of the old dominating power.
The most important about the different of the two major movements is that
Protestants said, “ You can interpret the Bible yourself, “ whereas the Catholic
Church did that for you and that was their law.
1. Everyone must be on guard, because everyone is responsibly for their own
2. No Pope; No Priests, don’t like it or need them anymore.
3. Most important, is that the Catholic Church rule is now split between the
worlds now with Protestants. South America is fully Catholic and the new
migration to America will be fully Protestant dominance changing the world for
4. Calvinists where simple clothes, no card playing, no theater (Mostly because
women started to dominate the French stage, and no dirty dancing).
Catholics didn’t want you to make a profit. Tithes and supporting the Catholic
Church was a duty of a good Catholic. Calvin said; keep your own dam money.” So
what do you think people voted on? People seen this as Catholics not free and
This is the single utmost reason that Latin America (South and Middle) remained
in the dark ages until the Mexican Revolution in the 19 Century.
1. Now in the 16 Century the Jews lived in Diaspora. The dispersion of Jews
outside of Israel from the sixth century B.C., when they were exiled to
Babylonia, until the present time.
2. often diaspora The body of Jews or Jewish communities outside Palestine or
a. A dispersion of a people from their original homeland.
In 700 AD the Jews were kicked out of Judea by the fragmented remains of the
Romans. Only recently has the Catholic Church acknowledged that the Jews did not
kill Jesus. Protestants and Catholics hated the Jews all this time because the
history was not correctly promulgated.
After Commercialism in Europe Starts Elizabeth changes to the Anglican Church.
The Puritans upset with Elizabeth with her choice move on out. According to
Elizabeth, everyone must convert to the Anglican Church. The Puritans didn’t
want government to appoint bishops, cardinals, or anyone for that matter in the
clergy. They wanted to be what American would finally realize as a separation of
“Church and State.”
Puritans believed that the truth was from God alone and no one, including
government could over rule him. The Bible was their tool. The ten Commandment
their laws. They were more interested in the Old Testament way of dong things.
Simple and togetherness; God was the congregation bypassing and governmental
figure or laws. The “Bible” equaled “truth” and “truth” equaled “God.”
No government can be involved. Puritans didn’t like the Catholic stuff, so they
gave up on the material things. ( Protestant acknowledged their religion was OK
to be rich as long as you follow the “Four Tenants.”) The Protestants wanted no
Flashy gowns, No stained glass windows, no gold chalices, no hanging
chandeliers, or decorated megalo-churches, no confessions, ( You do this in
secret to yourself) basically no pomp-and-circumstance at all. This will create
thousands of offshoots that we call sects: All basic sects interpret the Bible
in their own opinion, in contrast to the Catholic Church who told you that the
interpretation is all done for you and these are the standard rules. Most of the
Puritans are believed as fundamentalists, this is not true, as fire and
brimstone preachers believe in the same thing but our to hysterical when
problems that arise in tack and diplomacy are involved , where the Puritans
The thorn in the side of Elizabeth was the Puritans. While the puritans move
away Elizabeth finds out that they were the literate and gifted, most likely
because of their hard work ethic. Remember in South America the Hidalgos, were
the slave owning Hacienda rulers and everyone did everything for them, they had
no talent because they didn’t work hard. The work ethic of the Puritans made
them literate, plus understanding the world around them. They saw the evils of
the Anglican Church members who were the Nobles of Britain. – They wanted no
part of it. Elizabeth made some concessions and asked them to come back. They
were tricked and many persecuted and sometimes executed by other jealous
Anglicans, but after their influence England becomes the most Literate of the
world at the time.
Calvin talked to the Middle Class, the Burgesses. By Now the Puritans replace
the Jews in saying they are the chosen of God. After much persecution they sail
to America, and leave the intolerable British Anglicans.
1498 John Cabot an Italian sailing for England under Henry the VII. When he
finds good places on American soil he tells the king, Henry VII, and Henry the
VIII was too busy spending time battling his sins and others and his wives to be
interested in America as Spain was pillaging the South Americas and France was
sending their men North to Canada.
Raleigh substitutes 100 men to come to America. They land in hot and humid
place, that is just a drag to live in. He leaves the settlers on this tiny
island of “Roanoke” off the coast of N. Carolina which was full of insects, and
bad water. At first the Algonquinn here w help out the settlers. They brought
them food and material to live. But after a while when they noticed that the
settlers were not leaving to go home they got mad. Raleigh could not return in
1588 because of the Spanish Armada, but in 1590 when he did come back to his
settlers, no farming was done, no houses were built, no tools or evidence they
were even their. He found no one there, only a carved name of an here tribe No
one knows for sure what happened to them. But one could guess they wore out
their welcome. On a tree was carved the word Cratian.” It is possibility that a
tribe ate them. Raleigh named the eastern seaboard Virginia.
James the first in now in England, because Elizabeth didn’t want children so the
Stuart line of rulers take over. This was her cousins, and on her death bed it
was even then hard for her to hand the power over to them – they had a long
standing feud. There will be four kings, James the I, Charles the I, Charles II,
and James II. They were the worst king and they were also from Scotland. They
knew nothing of English ruling. Germanic roots of the Saxon and Anglos. The
Magna Carta was tried to be destroyed.
James the first creates companies to settle people into America. On the 35
degrees of Latitude up to 40 Parallel. The two main beginning corporations were
the Plymouth Company and the London Company. Word gets out about the gold rush
that the Spaniards made in South America and so the middle class thinks good
fortune could fall their way, so they pool their money for expenses to travel to
America to try their luck. Quickly this turns the tables to a way to get the
poor and jailed out of the streets of prisons of Britain – off their backs. This
would eventually hurt them. They also thought that the poor that would sent over
would convert the here w to Protestantism.
Henry eventually took the Catholic Church and sold over 1/3 of all of British
land that the Church owned, ( Now he posses the rights) this was called the
“Enclosure rule.” Which left allot of homeless without work, because it was
easier to raise livestock and agriculture with these new lands. Also, walled
boarders took any ranchers who made a living watching livestock so they wouldn’t
This causing of homelessness creates many into the town streets and causes a
problem for England. A plan was devised to send the people over as “indentured
servants.” These people contract was that for seven years they worked for a
proprietor and after that they were free and helped to get their own life going.
Once sent to America they worked and were free after seven years. They still had
their rights as a British citizens, so no one could be a slave. This would come
in later for the south as they devise cheaper workforce and more profits. The
ruling body of England also told the indentured servants that why you are over
their, why don’t you convert the here w to protestant..
The first group comes in 1607. The English camp starts at Jamestown. It is
undesirable, but they call for more reinforcements to protect themselves from
the here w and survive. 124 people arrive and only 36 people survive after
nine-months. Some ate snakes, ousters, nuts, acorns and some got malaria. One
person ate his wife – they found her body in his abode all chopped up in
mealpieces and they executed him right away. Captain John Smith was the
Powhatan was the their leader, it wasn’t a tribe but a federation of tribes he
presided over. His daughter was the famous Pocahontas; she was naked at that
time running around enthralled with the new people from across the ocean. She
help sneak food to the new settlers and informed them of what the here w were
thinking and planning.
1614 John Ralfe, took seeds from the here w and planted tobacco, so this was the
very first crop grown by the settlers. He planted them all over James town. Now
the settlers had something to sell ( Give )England and show them they are
prospering in England’s name. This excited England.
Pocahontas married John Ralfe and change her name to Lady Rebecca, she went to
England to raise awareness’ of possible funding of an here school, she died
their of tuberculosis.
Powhatan died and his brother took over. He hated the settler with a passion. He
knew by then they were there for good. In 1624, he invaded the Jamestown and
killed over 2/3 of the colonists. This was first blood. (remember the others
were wiped out) So se3veral smaller wars ensured. The English were ready and
supplies showed up and they wiped out the Powhatan tribe.
“Anyone that stays gets 100 acres,” was the decrees that delighted some. If you
brought along another person, such as your wife, you doubled this amount, and so
on. For example, one man brought 17 people and he got 17 times 50 acres. This
was much land.
1632 Williamsburg settlement and political system starts. They start their own
Parliament of Burgess ( Middle Class) It is called the “House of Burgess:” So
famous that many of the founding fathers went their. By 1936 its name was
“Parliament of America.”
• Some facts:
• Bourgeoisie means middle class and come from the word Burghers
• Puritans in England
• The Tudor Dynasty 1485 - 1603
Author, than Henry VIII
Henry VIII (1509-47 AD)
”Henry VIII, born in 1491, was the second son of Henry VII and Elizabeth of
York. The significance of Henry’s reign is, at times, overshadowed by his six
marriages: dispensing with these forthwith enables a deeper search into the
major themes of the reign. He married Catherine of Aragon (widow of his brother,
Arthur) in 1509, divorcing her in 1533; the union produced one daughter, Mary.
Henry married the pregnant Anne Boleyn in 1533; she gave him another daughter,
Elizabeth, but was executed for infidelity (a treasonous charge in the king’s
consort) in May 1536. He married Jane Seymour by the end of the same month, who
died giving birth to Henry’s lone male heir, Edward, in October 1536. Early in
1540, Henry arranged a marriage with Anne of Cleves, after viewing Hans
Holbein’s beautiful portrait of the German princess. In person, alas, Henry
found her homely and the marriage was never consummated. In July 1540, he
married the adulterous Catherine Howard – she was executed for infidelity in
March 1542. Catherine Parr became his wife in 1543, providing for the needs of
both Henry and his children until his death in 1547.” 2
Henry was 17, and Catherine was 22 years-old when they betrothed. Henry wanted a
son and when Mary was born, he looked elsewhere to a tet-de-tet with Ann Boleyn
- not sex yet, but courting her waiting to marry her. You see Aragon’s was Aunt
of Charles V ( Holy Roman Emperor) of Spain and Henry read that bible passage I
make a paraphrases, “ no man can marry his brother or sister, cousin, and this
was unclean would result in childless.” Meaning for Henry ‘no –boys.’ Henry
would wait for sis years to Marry Ann Boleyn and she has a girl. She is named
Elizabeth the bastard who becomes Elizabeth I of England. She was conceived
before the two were officially married. When he divorced the Catholic Church
excommunicated him. “All my sons will inherit the throne.” This determination is
why he marries six wives. The Church of England sent Catherine one maid, no
money and out her in a little apartment to live out the rest of her life. Ann
runs around and is caught in extrametrical affair and is executed.
Next James Seymour, she gives him a son but the baby dies in childbirth. His
name was Edward.. So Anne of Cleaves leaves after Henry finds her to down to
Catherine Howard was a beautiful girl and only 18 when Pervert Henry got around
to her. Henry had boils and warts and was fat, not the muscular athletic man of
his younger years. He was also impotent and after two year no sex. Sexual needs
of the young girl are not met. Catherine played the young princes and boys of
the court and was caught and executed.
• Catherine Parr would be his last and out live Henry.
Significance of Henry is that he took all the land of the Catholic Church they
owned in England after they excommunicated him. This was about 1/3 of all the
land in England. He sold it too Nobles who built walls around the lands and
farmed animals that displaced many people and put them out of work. This will
cause much homeless in England and a problem for Catherine in the future. What
to do with them?
Henry was not a nice guy. “To some, Henry VIII was a strong and ruthless ruler,
forcing through changes to the Church-State relationship which excluded the
papacy and brought the clergy under control, thus strengthening the Crown’s
position and acquiring the monasteries’ wealth.
However, Henry’s reformation had produced dangerous Protestant-Roman Catholic
differences in the kingdom. The monasteries’ wealth had been spent on wars and
had also built up the economic strength of the aristocracy and other families in
the counties, which in turn was to encourage ambitious Tudor court factions.
Significantly, Parliament’s involvement in making religious and dynastic changes
had been firmly established. For all his concern over establishing his dynasty
and the resulting religious upheaval, Henry’s six marriages had produced one
sickly son and an insecure succession with two princesses (Mary and Elizabeth)
who at one stage had been declared illegitimate – none of whom were to have
“EDWARD VI (r. 1547-1553)
Edward VI was intellectually precocious (fluent in Greek and Latin, he kept a
full journal of his reign) but not physically robust. His short reign was
dominated by nobles using the Regency to strengthen their own positions. The
King’s Council, previously dominated by Henry, succumbed to existing
factionalism. On Henry’s death, Edward Seymour, Earl of Hertford and soon to be
Duke of Somerset, the new King’s eldest uncle, became Protector. Seymour was an
able soldier; he led a punitive expedition against the Scots, for their failure
to fulfill their promise to betroth Mary, Queen of Scots to Edward, which led to
Seymour’s victory at the Battle of Pinkie Cleugh in 1547 – although he failed to
follow this up with satisfactory peace terms. 3
During Edward’s reign, the Church of England became more explicitly Protestant –
Edward himself was fiercely so. The Book of Common Prayer was introduced in
1549, aspects of Roman Catholic practices (including statues and stained glass)
were eradicated and the marriage of clergy allowed. “ (http://www.royal.gov.uk/)
Significance is that Edward allows a printing go f the Bible in English. SO many
people can read it. Although, it was expensive.
Mar became Queen for only five years.” Mary I was the first Queen Regnant (that
is, a queen reigning in her own right rather than a queen through marriage to a
king). Mary restored papal supremacy in England, abandoned the title of Supreme
Head of the Church, reintroduced Roman Catholic bishops and began the slow
reintroduction of monastic orders. Mary also revived the old heresy laws to
secure the religious conversion of the country; heresy was regarded as a
religious and civil offence amounting to treason (to believe in a different
religion from the Sovereign was an act of defiance and disloyalty). As a result,
around 300 Protestant heretics were burnt in three years – apart from eminent
Protestant clergy such as Cranmer (a former archbishop and author of two Books
of Common Prayer), Latimer and Ridley, these heretics were mostly poor and
self-taught people. Apart from making Mary deeply unpopular, such treatment
demonstrated that people were prepared to die for the Protestant settlement
established in Henry’s reign. The progress of Mary’s conversion of the country
was also limited by the vested interests of the aristocracy and gentry who had
bought the monastic lands sold off after the Dissolution of the Monasteries, and
who refused to return these possessions voluntarily as Mary invited them to do.”
Mary imprisoned Elizabeth in the tower for six-years. Marry becomes queen for
only five years. She dies of Cancer in 1558. Over three hundred men and women
burnt who were puritans. (Thus the name Bloody Mary).
ELIZABETH I (r. 1558-1603)
The Power Queen
Elizabeth I – the last Tudor monarch – was born at Greenwich on 7 September
1533, the daughter of Henry VIII and his second wife, Anne Boleyn. Her early
life was full of uncertainties, and her chances of succeeding to the throne
seemed very slight once her half-brother Edward was born in 1537. She was then
third in line behind her Roman Catholic half-sister, Princess Mary. Roman
Catholics, indeed, always considered her illegitimate and she only narrowly
escaped execution in the wake of a failed rebellion against Queen Mary in 1554.
Elizabeth succeeded to the throne on her half-sister’s death in November 1558.
She was very well-educated (fluent in six languages), and had inherited
intelligence, determination and shrewdness from both parents. Her 45-year reign
is generally considered one of the most glorious in English history. During it a
secure Church of England was established. Its doctrines were laid down in the 39
Articles of 1563, a compromise between Roman Catholicism and Protestantism.
Elizabeth herself refused to ‘make windows into men’s souls ... there is only
one Jesus Christ and all the rest is a dispute over trifles’; she asked for
outward uniformity. Most of her subjects accepted the compromise as the basis of
their faith, and her church settlement probably saved England from religious
wars like those which France suffered in the second half of the 16th century. 5
Elizabeth I (1558-1603 AD)
”Elizabeth I was born in 1533 to Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn. Although she
entertained many marriage proposals and flirted incessantly, she never married
or had children. Elizabeth, the last of the Tudors, died at seventy years of age
after a very successful forty-four year reign. Elizabeth inherited a tattered
realm: dissension between Catholics and Protestants tore at the very foundation
of society; the royal treasury had been bled dry by Mary and her advisors.” 6
She never married and courted many men and flirted allot. Remember she saw her
mother, murdered by her father (men) and she had issues about this. Also, her
brother and sister died of small pox. She had a long reign, and spoke seven
languages. She wanted England to free from other countries forces to control
her. Angelo Church was renamed as the new country ‘state’ church. No more Church
of England. At 25 years-old she becomes the ruler. The Puritans who ran out of
the country who were persecuted are asked to come home because of their work
ethic and literacy. In fact, when they do come back they make England the most
literate nation of at that time of the 17 Century.
Significance of Elizabeth: One little problem is that she forces the puritans to
change and now be the Anglican Church. They say no way and now a repeated
persecution evolves yet again. “Everyone had to belong to the Anglican Church,”
Elizabeth said. So now the puritans get up and leave to America.
The Significance of England in this chapter of the world.
1. Roman Catholic religion ( Romans leave this)
2. Leave legal system
3. Concept of king ( Saxons and Anglicans bring)
William the Conqueror:
4. Feudal system ( in the middle ages)
5. King appointing g his own Bishops
6. French Language introduced
7. Common Law ( innocent to proven guilty)
8. Magna Carta
9. Started Parliament ( Discussed taxation and Tax for wars)
10. Parlor means “to talk.”
11. Brought in Wales
13. Calvin ( whole new religious system Changes world)
The English ear should be seen as the steps of the beginning of the New World.
Our Modern world in Federalist Representative Republic makes one free. One of
the great things in Elizabeth’s reign is she kept out the Spanish Inquisition
that installed fear in people so much that they could never take steps towards
this Representative Republic of America way of Freedom. The Spanish Inquisition
can be looked at as a Gestapo enforcing the totalitarian laws of its dictators.
Not living under totalitarian rule is the only way to advance in culture,
technology and spiritual advancement.
The 30 Years War
The Thirty-Year war was a benchmark in time. This is the mother of all religious
wars. Some consider it the last of the middle ages wars. Some call it the first
modern war. All in all, this was a transitional war. First the war starts off as
a religious war between the Catholics and the Protestants. Then are progresses
into a war over nation’s boundaries.
Over long wars people usually change opinions and the changes are seen in the
nations involved. This war cased allot of havoc, yet significant changes come
out of the result.
First there are little wars in Germany. The Lutherans
The Religious Peace of Augsburg, 1555
A truce comes and fighting stops, but the treaty left loose ends. It did not
settle anything. Then more fighting erupts. “ Do people have to change if a
prince changes his religion. So there is a lot of jocking for power. The
Thirty-Year war begins in the Holy Roman Empire ( Germany was in the
empire).Ther ewere mostly Germains in the Holy Roman Empire. In Czechoslovakia
there Checks and some German settlers who were middle classmen and women. The
Checks were mostly peasants and thus Catholics. The Middle cases were mainly
protestants ( Lutherans). The nobles were spit on the issue. The ruling
population were Germans because they made up the bulk of the population, yet it
was the elite ( Aristocracy – Higher than nobles) who held allegiance with the
Church ( Catholics). They had the money to field troops for wars. So did the
middle class, who had less money, yet were not poor. So the peasants are hired
by Catholics because they were mainly Catholics. ( Note: In history the left are
mainly poor and the rich and the middle classes are mainly right-wing). Charles
V, backed by the power of Spain.
The king of Bohemia died of old age. The accent to kingship in Bohemia did not
always go threw the son or kids of the king. The Nobles elected the next king of
their lands and even sometimes elected someone from the countryside. At the time
both protestants and catholic were living peacefully side-by-side. So the
election brought about a reason to begin to fight. Each side wanted their own
religious king. “Is the new king going to be protestant or Catholics?” this
causes agitation/tension between the two religions. The Protestants were the
minority of the population. One of the candidates was a man from Austria who was
a duke, Ferdinand. Bohemia held one of the seven electorates within the Holy
Roman Empire. They didn’t want to loose their stranglehold on the Church with
their European dominant family the Hapsburgs. They needed a Catholic king.
Despite a protestant majority in the council of electors, Ferdinand of Habsburg
was elected because of the pressure of the Church and the overwhelming Catholic
peasantry had special interest groups that leech-off the money of the Church and
the agriculture businesses by way of class warfare (i.e. racism of today by way
of immigrant workers that sees institution that gives them free services by
taxing the middle class, the Catholic Church). All hell would break loose as the
tide of justice of the middle class was being forced by the hand of the demons
that had taken control of the Church of God and turned it into a house of greed.
The slogans of the special interest groups was no protestant was a good person,
he was a person that would kill all Catholics ( Modern day form of leftist
vitriol of all conservatives [ middle classes] are NAZIs).
The protestants campaign slogan was “let it be a Turk or a devil, but not
The Hapsburg family kept its hold by intermarrying their family with the royalty
of Spain. This created a powerful relationship that would band them together to
fight the ‘heretics’ ( The words they used to describe anyone not making
payments to them).
The election is held and Ferdinand becomes king. Ferdinand immediately says :”
Kill all the protestants.” “You have a short time to pack your bags and get out.
So, like the Spanish who kicked out all the Moors from Spain, so is Ferdinand’s
passion of leftist policy – no peace for others who do not like centralized
government in the hands of the few ( Like most leftist regimes). Ferdinand gives
a short deadline for the protestants to leave. This will plant enmity in the
protestants who cannot believe such a cruel hasty decision. The protestants
protest for more time. The kings representatives say “ no!” The cruel Catholic
council says “ get out now!” They begin to slaughter. At one location, upstairs,
a king representatives is surveying the building to get the protestants out on
time, or kill them ( Like the NAZIs) and some protestants thought them out the
upstairs’ windows. The kings representatives land on a pile-load of manure –
they were not hurt. Yet, this makes news all over the kingdom, and is remembered
as a defiant reactionary position of the protestants who champion it and become
new to fighting a battle now. It is like the western democracy nations going up
against the NAZIs.
The protestants are not against God or Jesus. They are for the Bible and living
by what the Bible and Jesus said, not by some Church who overtook the Bibles
authority and plays gambling for dollars on the backs of the middle class so
they can build lavish churches and exact high-rents form the middle class people
because they own much of the land in Europe. So like the NAZI that wanted to
take over the world and own it, the Church now is in the business of genocide of
the middle class (Protestants) and taking over land.
Not everyone agreed with the Church so the Protestants will have many people and
kings who pledge to help them over the thirty years. The window episode is
remembered as the ‘the first Prague de-fenestration’ In French the word fenêtre
was the etymology of the word fenestration. The circumflex over the second “e”
means that in Old French an “s” used to be after the “e.”
This window episode officially will start the 30 Years War ( Well at least in
History they want you to think this) but in reality, the battle was forming
because the plan was to get rid of all the protestants in Europe, just like the
NAZI wanted everyone out of Europe that was not German or belonged to the NAZI
Ferdinand collects a Roman army and his side goes out for the Genocide. Middle
class do their best to buy arms and places they can make into forts. The
protestants will put up brave and courageous fights like patriots of the
American Revolution and allied troops in WWI and WWII. The protestants will
appeal to Northern Germany for troops but all they receive is food. They are
afraid like the French were of the Hitler type NAZI forces of the Church. Some
say they are afraid it will spill into Germany, yet this, in later periods of
the war happens anyway as this war will turn out to entail almost all of Europe
There are four phases of the war in history:
The first is called the protestant revolt. 1618-30
Out numbered by the Catholic armies, the protestants are brave. By 1630 the
Catholics win. The protestants are forces to leave Bohemia. From that time on
this land was recovered for the Roman Catholics. They are happy and feel strong.
What does this mean that they feel strong and happy. What happens next?
The second phase.
The German Phase brings in the Danish for the second phase. 1630-35
The second phase can be called the “Crazy Catholics” Like German troops were the
Crazy NAZIs. They want to conquer all of Germany. Now it is an all German war
and the ones who were afraid are now forced into the battle. The battles are
fearsome and brutal.
The Danish intervention now enters the war and equals out the numbers in the
competition numbers of troops on either side. By 1635 an even stalemate
occurred, and the Catholics say they are exhausted and need a break. The
emotional exhaustion is also felt as sentiment is felt for the protestants who
were the victims in all of this from the beginning. So they call for meeting for
a work out of a truce. The Catholics say “give us all your money to pay back all
of our pain and suffering of not getting you land for our ownership so we can
make you pay rent and keep you poor and we will stop the fighting.” The
protestants say “ up yours” and the fighting’s back on. Meanwhile the
protestants keep looking for other European supporters. Now the war enters the
Swedish intervention marks the thirds stage of the war. 1635-40
Gustave- Adolf was a benevolent king with a little aspirations on his part. His
people loved him and he decides to help out under economic and terriroy
conditions. He was trying to get lands around the Baltic Sea area ( on the
European land) so that his little empire would be encompassed by that sea. At
the time Sweaden already went protestant and the nerw help was strong. The
Sweads had gone strong and progressive with the middle class making huge
progress in inventions and life ( Like America left the feudalistic South
America in the dark).
The good leader Gustav, fair, but ambitious, brings his people on the side of
the protestants. He truly wanted to help the protestants, yet wanted the lands
for a reward. At that time Sweden captured every land around the Baltic Sea
except for the Northern European parts ( Northernmost Germany area by the sea).
Now the protestants start to win. What made this possibly the last middle age
war, and sometimes called the first modern war?
First, because armies had not been disciplined into units like we see today, so
they are still fighting like in the middle ages in bands of men. But fire arms
make their appearance, and the musket is revolutionary tool for killing of men.
The cannons already in use are made better and this results in mass casualties.
Much of Germany’s population was wiped out. These are accurate types of muskets
used in the war. So this is a gunpowder war.
The Modern Argumet:
1. a gunpowder war
2. muskets are more accurate. This means there are firearms
3. Great victories won on both sides
The middle age argument:
1. No uniforms
3. no clear lines of commands as officers
Camps of people follow the soldiers and act like scavengers taking all the goods
from the dead soldiers. A fad begins to torture the almost dead soldiers or
severely wounded ones. Some say that it was a thrill to torture these soldiers,
and this included women who conducted the gruesome scenes. Protestants act in
high honor on the battle field but the Catholics do not. Some say that both
sides showed forms of barbarism, like raping people and pillaging the villages
when they passed. “ Crows and Wolfs” are bywords of troops. In order to
devastate the lands Catholics would burn the agriculture of the enemy and run
off leaving the towns people to starve to death. Some of this went on with the
protestants, yet most of the fighting at first was in protestant regions.
Meanwhile the iron and lead mines keep churning out weapons and is a economic
boom because of the demand for the materials, making onlookers, people in power
only feel benefited by the war ( What has changed?).
The result is that 1/3 of the population is wipe-out.
The Rome situation had a man named Wallenstien who was a brilliant leader and
strategist. There was only one problem with him. He like to do things his way (
They should have let him, some say). He would always say “ give me a free hand,
or let me go.” At that time Rome was trying to think of ways of negotiation (
You see how that went before). Most possibly the Roman Catholic controllers had
Wallenstien assassinated and that turned out to be bad new for them. Now in 1640
the Catholic side looks totally defeated. Then something unusual happens in
their favor. Gustav riding in the war gets shot on his horse and the Swedes pull
out. Now the Catholics regroup and start making advances on the territories they
had once held. Later the Catholics look like they are going to win the war.
The French Intervention is the fourth stage of the War. 1640-48
France was a prosperous nation at the time of the war. It had a population of 15
million people. They had great agriculture lands – not too many mountainous
ranges in the main body of the country. Ever since the Huguenots got their peace
the country had been developing at a good pace. Things were going well for the
French. A king who loved not to be bothered because women, hunting, parities,
entertainment ruled his daily existence, gave his daily reins over to a Cardinal
who was only looking out for Frances best interests and not the protestants or
The king Louis XIII was in a mode of don’t bother me I’m parting. Cardinal
Richelieu was the personal confessor to the king and also given the duties of
the day-to-day administration of the country. Other words, he was Frances main
policy maker. He wanted to expand France to its natural defensive boundaries.
The Pyrenees protected France for the Spaniards, the Alps from the Italians,
Mediterranean sea flanked Frances southern borders and the Eastern-northern
portion ( The English Channel) of its boarders need a natural defensive
boundaries. Richelieu wanted to make France the most powerful country on the
1. Secure the natural boundaries for defensive purposes
2. natural geographic structures as mountains and rivers are the objects
3. Alps, Pyrenees, English Channel, and Rein River.
Richelieu wanted a reef-valley that the Rein River was like to be the new
defensive boundaries for France. In order for him to get this he didn’t care
what side of the war to be on or his allegiance to the Church. Remember at this
time he certainly feels life the ruler of France as the party-boy Luis XIII was
off playing on a permanent vacation. “Sp what I need to do is to make the Rein
River my N. Eastern Border of France.” This was his number one objective. The
only obstacle was the Hapsburg family ( Who were the richest/strongest family in
Europe at the time). The Hapsburg family had holdings in Austria and family
members married to Spanish royalty. In southern Italy they had territories and
also in Switzerland. Also, they had some territories in Holland and the Spanish
Netherlands. So they are strong, but not for long.
“I need a weaker Hapsburg family, “ said Richelieu. The Hapsburg being the most
rich , of course, sides with the left ( The Catholics) whose plan was to rid the
Protestants and tax the populace again to economic servitude. So Richelieu,
whose original name was Italian and had been change by the French so they could
say it, decided to side with the protestants.
So now, on the side of the protestants, France brings in its big armies to
battle the corrupted Church. This decision was for territory and not for
religion. Now the Catholics are defeated again. 1648.
The peoples attitudes changed with the realization of territory battling of the
French and people said “Look were not battling over religion anymore lets stop
Peace Treaty of West Phalia
This treaty brings the most bloodiest religion war to an end. There were large
significance things that came out of this “mother of all battles.”
1. Protestants are now accepted ( because France was continuing to war as long
as the Catholics wanted to make them servants to the rich).
2. No more fighting wars over religion.
3. France conjured up areas by the Rein.
4. New French weapons make war more powerful.
5. Live and let live mentality
6. Safety from persecution of ones religion.
7. Hapsburgs had been weakened
8. everyone was horrified by how bad that war had really been.
9. Germany recovered their depopulation quicker than normal.
10. Cultural changes emerged.
11. Kings will take into account discipline and lines of commands for their
armies. More efficiency.
12. Uniforms for soldiers so each side can know who they are shooting at ( from
13. The creation of generals ( again in history). A line of command that you do
what you are told to do but do not question in the army ( Something that is
standard today in America’s Army. You had to either, in the army, take orders or
get shot by your superiors. This was not laughing matter anymore. Today you are
court-martialed. So there are clear lines of commands and each of the European
kings take these plans into account.
Summery and Significance of the Middle Age and the End of the Religious Wars
After the Thirty-Years War kings solidify their sovereignty. Now it is back to
absolute power of ruler ship. This didn’t mean that they were tyrannical, as in
totalitarianism, where the absolute dictator has no regard for his people, like
Saddam Hussein made up his ruler ship.
In the middle ages the nobles became the aristocracies that dictated much of the
policy. It was the rich and the poor. There was no middle class to make up the
conservative views. It was a leftwing power grab that lasted over 900 years. It
was a sad time for the western world, yet now they are becoming right-winged and
progress will follow not far behind. This is the case with all middle classes of
the western civilizations. When people are given some types of freedom they
excel in progress. Many of the entertainment communities who champion left-wing
ideals somehow manage to become like nobles ( rich and star struck) and somehow
loose reality of the hard working middle class. The peasants, for the most part,
who could not become middle class because of some form of mental discrepancy
always will remain left as the aristocracy ( nobles) of the middles ages and
even today cater to their basic needs thought tax programs charged to the middle
classes so that they can keep their power. To keep the poor ( Peasants) without
an education was the number one weapon of the nobles of the middle ages to keep
them dependant and left-wing throughout the period. So some opportunist
tradesmen who saw their political empire devastated by the Mongols and then
their own infighting managed to perk up Northern Italy, which sparked of the
Renaissance to bring back education that made for the weapon to defeat the
demons ( left-wing) that had take over the Church and subdued the middle
After the reawakening of the Classical Times (renaissance) there were
opportunist that said, hey I’m a noble, I cannot be taxed. The Architect of the
Victory of the war (France involvement), Richelieu, wanted absolute power. He
died during the war (Cardinal Richelieu had died in 1642).. He promised that it
would be fulfilled. Another Cardinal Mazarin, an Italian, takes the position of
fulfilling Frances future of greatness, but starts looting the treasures of
France. The problem was that Louis dies and left a boy king who would not be of
age for many years to come. The Cardinal decides to punish the boy by keeping
him hidden away wearing rag-clothes and not great food; although, he manage to
give him an adequate education. The boy became to resent the fiend. The
difference with Mazarin and Richelieu was that the former wanted the best for
France and looked out for it, while the newcomer to the position wanted absolute
power of robbery of its treasures.
Marzairn’s stinginess to the boy king kept him in rags, but in the public
appearances he was trotted out like a divine dove in jewels. The significance of
this is that the boy-king grows up resenting him, yet garners a street sense
most other kings never had. This will help him out in dealing with reality in
the future as he becomes of age to rule.
Population of France grew to 20 Million people and as Louis XIV grew up he wants
to make France the best in the world. Louis starts to say “ I’m France; I am the
most powerful in the world. I’m the Sun King.” Louis XIV called himself the sun
king echoes of Akhenaton and Genghis Khan Statements. To get ahead anyone coming
to him would have to kiss his ego., praise him, and glorify him. Louis manages
to work hard for France.
1. He establishes “absolute Rule.”
2. He was not totalitarian, as some absolute rulers turn into.
3. Difference between Absolute Rule and Totalitarian, is that the leader of
Absolute rule can reign with benevolence.
4. Totalitarian uses his/her full power to suppress his peoples
5. Louis XIV says “ God controls my Mind.”
6. The Bishops keep finding scriptural support for the kings claims.
7. A number of cabinets broken up under Louis reign.
8. Louis picks out able people to run his country
9. Louis is the first man to have ministries in Europe. It was a Chinese idea in
the middle ages. First adopted by Italians in the Renaissance, then by France.
10. Financial wiz-kid J. B. Colbert can balance nay budget, he is the impetus
behind the schemes of Louis wars and he finds money whenever the kin needs it.
11. Verifying procedures of nobles so no fake ones can skip taxes.
12. this policy got a lot of hanger-on’s off the free ride list.
In the Army Now:
Ministry of War idea creates a disciplined army, which many army-values that are
still in place today, like taking orders from commanding officers and following
them without question.
13. “ Only obey orders.”
14. French start the marching of units in unison.
15. The neat folded clothes, the shoes shines along with the brass and buckles.
16. Equipment oiled, shoes shined
17. This brings France to the Forefront of the World.
ABOSOLUTE MONARCHY PERIOD
18. Louis would spend 55 years on the throne.
19. France becomes the international language now.
Louis believes he was too good for Paris, a mansion he was staying in.
Apparently he didn’t want to be close to the commoners. He also was
super-suspicious of his nobles. He makes a rule that each noble must spend
six-months out of the year in close eye distant to him. This way he could watch
over their motives.
Louis relocated to Versailles and prepared to build the largest most expensive
house in the world. It would be a place that had man made everything. From
rivers and lakes, to streams and hills and imagine ( Life size) battle grounds
for game playing. The [place had fresh flowers replanted every morning so when
Louis woke up se could see fresh new flowers. The Palaces employed 30,000
workers over 30 years and most of the Nobles who had to stay there for at least
six months of the year become servants to the King. For example, some became his
personal butler, getting him dressed in morning. Others became his cooks and
Versailles is ten-miles out of Paris in a patch of scraggly pine-woods. He
wanted all the landscaping to be geometric, including the fountains, lakes and
pools. This huge palace had over 100 rooms. It had military barracks for his
play-military games and for the real deal. He could house 10,000 troops for his
own person protection if the common people arose against him. As he built
everything one part at a time he moved in quickly.
E had a battle field constructed so he could play soldier. Louis appeared in
Paris every once in a while so that people still new he was alive. Thus, he was
the Absent Monarch.
Armies of artists were employed and entire factories invented to provide the
building and furnishings for Versailles. Tapestries, silk on walls, and glued on
gold leaf on the ceilings were expensive. Although money was an issue, the
wiz-kid Colbert kept the money rolling in. Louis ordered all recipes burned so
that no one would know exactly how much Versailles cost. The Monarch now partied
like some people only dream of. To get his favors, nobles would offer him gifts
and let him win at playing cards. Getting him a young girl for sex would get a
noble a good favor from the king. Monitoring the nobles at Versailles made
better control of sometimes plotting nobles. Louis had them at his beck and
Good Aspects/ Bad Aspects:
1. Good: King was in control
2. Six months that the nobles spend at Versailles is six months not managing
their estates. They lose money and so does the economy of France as a whole. Bad
management because the nobles are not at their estates cost the crown money.
3. Good aspects for the Nobles: they are close to the King and have access to
sak him favors.
4. The nobles were always kissing the behind of the kings and trying to outdo
the others at parties in dress and clothes as long as they didn’t upstage the
5. Louis loved to play cards and when he lost he would pay out of the national
treasury ( e.g. the peoples taxes).
6. All the nobles are given various duties while at Versailles. They lived in
beautiful surroundings, but are reduced to servants.
7. Endless balls, endless dancing, endless parties, endless theater and endless
decadence surrounded Versailles.
8. This would put France on the map and the other leaders would try to build
their own Versailles.
9. So Versailles is almost a Las Vegas type lifestyle.
10. Louis employed the best fashion designers in which France became the fashion
trend setter for the rest of Europe. The rest of Europeans imitate France now.
11. For example: Louis was short so he orderd a special shoe to help him appear
taller – he began what is known as high-heals.
12. Now Louis has everything; he wants to be known as a great conqueror.
13. Richelieu had attained gaining the natural boarders of France by conquest,
except the Northern areas of the Rein which were in Germany’s territory. Louis
wants to push the French boarders to the Spanish Netherlands. He needs an
14. Leaders that wanted to go to war usually need an excuse for their acts of
15. Louis puts his troops on the boarders of the Spanish Neatherlands and plans
16. Louis excuse was that he marries to a Spanish princess in which when the
King of Spain dies he becomes the rightful owner of that land. So his excuse is
that “Why not take it know because inevitably it will be mine.”
The War of Devolution
Louis masked soldiers on the boarder and marched them in and Spain’s King goes
ballistic. Holland gets afraid that Louis will target them next. “ We will
likely be next,” they said. So they formed a coalition with England and Spain to
pressure France to move out. He finally does, yet they allow him a small area so
that he could boost to his peoples that he was victorious. This has major
consequences for the monarchy of France.
Now Louis says that the pressure was all of the “Dutch’s fault,” so he marches
his troops through the Netherlands and attacks Holland. The Dutch were quickly
conquered even thought they had become rich through trade. The French armies
were too advanced for them. They needed a plan so, Holland being below sea level
the Dutch decides to break the dykes and release million of tons of water. They
stop the French army cold in its tracks. The French army is waist ( Some
armpits) deep I water and began to retreat. Louis claims victory again, but
pulls out of Holland.
Meanwhile, the war costs allot of money and the wiz-kid keeps the money coming
in. Now Louis tries to invade Germany and take it all. He just claims he has the
right to the country (remember he thinks he is the sun king and he owns
everything). This is the war with Augsburg. France looses this, third, war.
Colbert, the wiz-kid dies. This will have profound affects on Louise’s ability
to get money to play conqueror.
Now France is in financial trouble. The king of Spain dies (Louis brother in
law) so now Louis thinks he owns the throne to Spain. The Spanish nobles detest
anyone sitting on their thrown but a Spaniard, so they tell him no! He says..Oh
yes…they say no! This goes on for a few years. “I’m king of Madrid, I’m King of
Spain,” Louis would say.
The Spanish nobles keep blocking Louis from becoming the King of Spain. Louis
says in 1707, “ if Diplomacy does not work, then I will just take Spain!”
War of Spanish Succession 1707-1713
Louis attacks Spain directly. The Spanish fight back and the Dutch see a little
man out of control so they join in to put an end to his mess. German states join
in as well. This becomes a big war. Louis sees no money coming in ( Note:
Colbert is no longer with him). He was to give up in 1713 and he is now a old
man in his sixties. The Peace Treaty held will constrict France from doing
things like this again.
1. Laws: No French Monarch could be an heir to the Spanish Throne.
2. No more right to Germany, Holland.
3. Louis dies in 1715 and had a legacy of failing in all his wars.
4. Party dudes usually do not command respect from their troops.
5. The debt that incurred for France will not be paid off for 100 years. ( Note:
see what happens when you have absolute Rulers who just party till there is no
6. Next king move right in to Versailles and begins to party it up. “ Who cares
about the debt, after me the deluge could come – I don’t care.”
7. He does not care for anything but his own comforts and entertainment.
8. So the significance is that France has bad luck.
9. Absolute Monarchy did not work!
10. Significances: culture was the best in France.
11. Society was divided into classes.
12. Commoner heavily taxed with no political power.
13. Imbalanced budget and kings that wanted to play war and party all year
round. These types of attitudes ( and the debt that accumulates) of kings in
France will start the sentiments about making the changes in society and moving
toward the French Revelation.
14. Louis magnificent rule sucked.
1 (The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume III Copyright © 1908 by Robert Appleton
Company Online Edition Copyright © 2003 by Kevin Knight Nihil Obstat, November
1, 1908. Remy Lafort, S.T.D., Censor Imprimatur. +John Cardinal Farley,
Archbishop of New York)
2,6 <2000 Britannia.com>
Copyright © 2003 Michael Johnathan McDonald Book of Life org.