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Western Civilization -- Part 5

 

1600s Europe


By Michael Johnathan McDonald


• John Calvin
• War of Spanish Succession 1707-1713
• The four tenants:
• Commercial Revolution
• Bohemia
• Elizabeth I
• The 30 Years War
• Louis XIV
• Absolute Monarchy Period
• French Wars under Louis XIV
John Calvin
This man, undoubtedly the greatest of Protestant divines, and perhaps, after St. Augustine, the most perseveringly followed by his disciples of any Western writer on theology, was born at Noyon in Picardy, France, 10 July, 1509, and died at Geneva, 27 May, 1564. He speaks Swedish, French and Italian
Everyone born are destined to achieve salvation or damnation. Yet you must work at the four basic tenets he set up.

The Four Tenants
1. Pursue your God given talent.
2. Practice good morals.
3. Practice frugality (save money for a rainy day).
4. Practice things in moderation.

• If one practices this every-day; this would be a sign that possibly you will make it to heaven (saved).

“A generation divided him from Luther, whom he never met. By birth, education, and temper these two protagonists of the reforming movement were strongly contrasted. Luther was a Saxon peasant, his father a miner; Calvin sprang from the French middle-class, and his father, an attorney, had purchased the freedom of the City of Noyon, where he practiced civil and canon law. Luther entered the Order of Augustinian Hermits, took a monk’s vows, was made a priest and incurred much odium by marrying a nun. Calvin never was ordained in the Catholic Church; his training was chiefly in law and the humanities; he took no vows. Luther’s eloquence made him popular by its force, humour, rudeness, and vulgar style. Calvin spoke to the learned at all times, even when preaching before multitudes. His manner is classical; he reasons on system; he has little humour; instead of striking with a cudgel he uses the weapons of a deadly logic and persuades by a teacher’s authority, not by a demagogue’s calling of names. He writes French as well as Luther writes German, and like him has been reckoned a pioneer in the modern development of his native tongue. Lastly, if we term the doctor of Wittenberg a mystic, we may sum up Calvin as a scholastic; he gives articulate expression to the principles which Luther had stormily thrown out upon the world in his vehement pamphleteering; and the “Institutes” as they were left by their author have remained ever since the standard of orthodox Protestant belief in all the Churches known as “Reformed.” His French disciples called their sect “the religion”; such it has proved to be outside the Roman world.”1
Calvinist believed that it is OK to get rich as long as you follow the tenets. This is the case of most of American history. People worked hard and followed the tenets and because hugely successful and good people. As the left-wing ( Devil) started to make demands that God and everything related to him (The four tenants) be taken out of public life ( view) America ceased to be pure and started the slow decent to “fall.” This actually started the commercial revolution and this religion was a reinvent of the new middle classes that is essential in free societies and counteracts against Feudal and Two-class societies (Rich and the Poor).

Significance: of Calvin and Luther and the New Commercial religious revolution.
People follow Calvin rather than Luther because one can become rich.
Basic procedures to follow: Don’t blames others ( like the life and the victim mentality). Government does not regulate religion. Calvin is opposed to Monarchy. He adopted early Christianity ( Not what is in the Bible) but before that. “we are gods ancient people.” Monarchs determined what peoples religion was. Calvinist was against Monarchs determination of what religion you practice.
Some Calvinist names: English were the Puritans; Congregationalists were the Dutch Dutch Reform was from Holland, Huguenots were French. Another example is that the Amish of today are a direct off-shoot of the Puritans. Thousands of branches of churches have their off-shoots roots with Protestants of today. For example, in Southern California, the most diverse place on earth in year 2000, data was gathered that there are over 2000- plus different religious sects alone. More popular names include: Methodist; Baptist; Mormons; Holy Rollers; Jehovah witnesses; 7th Day Adventist; Quakers; Amish.

The Catholics were that and the Jesuits of the old dominating power.

The most important about the different of the two major movements is that Protestants said, “ You can interpret the Bible yourself, “ whereas the Catholic Church did that for you and that was their law.
1. Everyone must be on guard, because everyone is responsibly for their own actions.
2. No Pope; No Priests, don’t like it or need them anymore.
3. Most important, is that the Catholic Church rule is now split between the worlds now with Protestants. South America is fully Catholic and the new migration to America will be fully Protestant dominance changing the world for centuries.
4. Calvinists where simple clothes, no card playing, no theater (Mostly because women started to dominate the French stage, and no dirty dancing).
Catholics didn’t want you to make a profit. Tithes and supporting the Catholic Church was a duty of a good Catholic. Calvin said; keep your own dam money.” So what do you think people voted on? People seen this as Catholics not free and Protestants free.
This is the single utmost reason that Latin America (South and Middle) remained in the dark ages until the Mexican Revolution in the 19 Century.
1. Now in the 16 Century the Jews lived in Diaspora. The dispersion of Jews outside of Israel from the sixth century B.C., when they were exiled to Babylonia, until the present time.
2. often diaspora The body of Jews or Jewish communities outside Palestine or modern Israel.
3. diaspora
a. A dispersion of a people from their original homeland.
In 700 AD the Jews were kicked out of Judea by the fragmented remains of the Romans. Only recently has the Catholic Church acknowledged that the Jews did not kill Jesus. Protestants and Catholics hated the Jews all this time because the history was not correctly promulgated.


Commercial Revolution

After Commercialism in Europe Starts Elizabeth changes to the Anglican Church. The Puritans upset with Elizabeth with her choice move on out. According to Elizabeth, everyone must convert to the Anglican Church. The Puritans didn’t want government to appoint bishops, cardinals, or anyone for that matter in the clergy. They wanted to be what American would finally realize as a separation of “Church and State.”

Puritans believed that the truth was from God alone and no one, including government could over rule him. The Bible was their tool. The ten Commandment their laws. They were more interested in the Old Testament way of dong things. Simple and togetherness; God was the congregation bypassing and governmental figure or laws. The “Bible” equaled “truth” and “truth” equaled “God.”


No government can be involved. Puritans didn’t like the Catholic stuff, so they gave up on the material things. ( Protestant acknowledged their religion was OK to be rich as long as you follow the “Four Tenants.”) The Protestants wanted no Flashy gowns, No stained glass windows, no gold chalices, no hanging chandeliers, or decorated megalo-churches, no confessions, ( You do this in secret to yourself) basically no pomp-and-circumstance at all. This will create thousands of offshoots that we call sects: All basic sects interpret the Bible in their own opinion, in contrast to the Catholic Church who told you that the interpretation is all done for you and these are the standard rules. Most of the Puritans are believed as fundamentalists, this is not true, as fire and brimstone preachers believe in the same thing but our to hysterical when problems that arise in tack and diplomacy are involved , where the Puritans excelled.

The thorn in the side of Elizabeth was the Puritans. While the puritans move away Elizabeth finds out that they were the literate and gifted, most likely because of their hard work ethic. Remember in South America the Hidalgos, were the slave owning Hacienda rulers and everyone did everything for them, they had no talent because they didn’t work hard. The work ethic of the Puritans made them literate, plus understanding the world around them. They saw the evils of the Anglican Church members who were the Nobles of Britain. – They wanted no part of it. Elizabeth made some concessions and asked them to come back. They were tricked and many persecuted and sometimes executed by other jealous Anglicans, but after their influence England becomes the most Literate of the world at the time.

Calvin talked to the Middle Class, the Burgesses. By Now the Puritans replace the Jews in saying they are the chosen of God. After much persecution they sail to America, and leave the intolerable British Anglicans.

1498 John Cabot an Italian sailing for England under Henry the VII. When he finds good places on American soil he tells the king, Henry VII, and Henry the VIII was too busy spending time battling his sins and others and his wives to be interested in America as Spain was pillaging the South Americas and France was sending their men North to Canada.

Raleigh substitutes 100 men to come to America. They land in hot and humid place, that is just a drag to live in. He leaves the settlers on this tiny island of “Roanoke” off the coast of N. Carolina which was full of insects, and bad water. At first the Algonquinn here w help out the settlers. They brought them food and material to live. But after a while when they noticed that the settlers were not leaving to go home they got mad. Raleigh could not return in 1588 because of the Spanish Armada, but in 1590 when he did come back to his settlers, no farming was done, no houses were built, no tools or evidence they were even their. He found no one there, only a carved name of an here tribe No one knows for sure what happened to them. But one could guess they wore out their welcome. On a tree was carved the word Cratian.” It is possibility that a tribe ate them. Raleigh named the eastern seaboard Virginia.


James the first in now in England, because Elizabeth didn’t want children so the Stuart line of rulers take over. This was her cousins, and on her death bed it was even then hard for her to hand the power over to them – they had a long standing feud. There will be four kings, James the I, Charles the I, Charles II, and James II. They were the worst king and they were also from Scotland. They knew nothing of English ruling. Germanic roots of the Saxon and Anglos. The Magna Carta was tried to be destroyed.

James the first creates companies to settle people into America. On the 35 degrees of Latitude up to 40 Parallel. The two main beginning corporations were the Plymouth Company and the London Company. Word gets out about the gold rush that the Spaniards made in South America and so the middle class thinks good fortune could fall their way, so they pool their money for expenses to travel to America to try their luck. Quickly this turns the tables to a way to get the poor and jailed out of the streets of prisons of Britain – off their backs. This would eventually hurt them. They also thought that the poor that would sent over would convert the here w to Protestantism.

Henry eventually took the Catholic Church and sold over 1/3 of all of British land that the Church owned, ( Now he posses the rights) this was called the “Enclosure rule.” Which left allot of homeless without work, because it was easier to raise livestock and agriculture with these new lands. Also, walled boarders took any ranchers who made a living watching livestock so they wouldn’t run away.

This causing of homelessness creates many into the town streets and causes a problem for England. A plan was devised to send the people over as “indentured servants.” These people contract was that for seven years they worked for a proprietor and after that they were free and helped to get their own life going. Once sent to America they worked and were free after seven years. They still had their rights as a British citizens, so no one could be a slave. This would come in later for the south as they devise cheaper workforce and more profits. The ruling body of England also told the indentured servants that why you are over their, why don’t you convert the here w to protestant..

The first group comes in 1607. The English camp starts at Jamestown. It is undesirable, but they call for more reinforcements to protect themselves from the here w and survive. 124 people arrive and only 36 people survive after nine-months. Some ate snakes, ousters, nuts, acorns and some got malaria. One person ate his wife – they found her body in his abode all chopped up in mealpieces and they executed him right away. Captain John Smith was the overseer.

Powhatan was the their leader, it wasn’t a tribe but a federation of tribes he presided over. His daughter was the famous Pocahontas; she was naked at that time running around enthralled with the new people from across the ocean. She help sneak food to the new settlers and informed them of what the here w were thinking and planning.

1614 John Ralfe, took seeds from the here w and planted tobacco, so this was the very first crop grown by the settlers. He planted them all over James town. Now the settlers had something to sell ( Give )England and show them they are prospering in England’s name. This excited England.

Pocahontas married John Ralfe and change her name to Lady Rebecca, she went to England to raise awareness’ of possible funding of an here school, she died their of tuberculosis.

Powhatan died and his brother took over. He hated the settler with a passion. He knew by then they were there for good. In 1624, he invaded the Jamestown and killed over 2/3 of the colonists. This was first blood. (remember the others were wiped out) So se3veral smaller wars ensured. The English were ready and supplies showed up and they wiped out the Powhatan tribe.

“Anyone that stays gets 100 acres,” was the decrees that delighted some. If you brought along another person, such as your wife, you doubled this amount, and so on. For example, one man brought 17 people and he got 17 times 50 acres. This was much land.

1632 Williamsburg settlement and political system starts. They start their own Parliament of Burgess ( Middle Class) It is called the “House of Burgess:” So famous that many of the founding fathers went their. By 1936 its name was “Parliament of America.”


• Some facts:

• Bourgeoisie means middle class and come from the word Burghers

• Puritans in England
• The Tudor Dynasty 1485 - 1603

1503

Author, than Henry VIII

Henry VIII (1509-47 AD)

”Henry VIII, born in 1491, was the second son of Henry VII and Elizabeth of York. The significance of Henry’s reign is, at times, overshadowed by his six marriages: dispensing with these forthwith enables a deeper search into the major themes of the reign. He married Catherine of Aragon (widow of his brother, Arthur) in 1509, divorcing her in 1533; the union produced one daughter, Mary. Henry married the pregnant Anne Boleyn in 1533; she gave him another daughter, Elizabeth, but was executed for infidelity (a treasonous charge in the king’s consort) in May 1536. He married Jane Seymour by the end of the same month, who died giving birth to Henry’s lone male heir, Edward, in October 1536. Early in 1540, Henry arranged a marriage with Anne of Cleves, after viewing Hans Holbein’s beautiful portrait of the German princess. In person, alas, Henry found her homely and the marriage was never consummated. In July 1540, he married the adulterous Catherine Howard – she was executed for infidelity in March 1542. Catherine Parr became his wife in 1543, providing for the needs of both Henry and his children until his death in 1547.” 2

Henry was 17, and Catherine was 22 years-old when they betrothed. Henry wanted a son and when Mary was born, he looked elsewhere to a tet-de-tet with Ann Boleyn - not sex yet, but courting her waiting to marry her. You see Aragon’s was Aunt of Charles V ( Holy Roman Emperor) of Spain and Henry read that bible passage I make a paraphrases, “ no man can marry his brother or sister, cousin, and this was unclean would result in childless.” Meaning for Henry ‘no –boys.’ Henry would wait for sis years to Marry Ann Boleyn and she has a girl. She is named Elizabeth the bastard who becomes Elizabeth I of England. She was conceived before the two were officially married. When he divorced the Catholic Church excommunicated him. “All my sons will inherit the throne.” This determination is why he marries six wives. The Church of England sent Catherine one maid, no money and out her in a little apartment to live out the rest of her life. Ann runs around and is caught in extrametrical affair and is executed.

Next James Seymour, she gives him a son but the baby dies in childbirth. His name was Edward.. So Anne of Cleaves leaves after Henry finds her to down to Earth.

Catherine Howard was a beautiful girl and only 18 when Pervert Henry got around to her. Henry had boils and warts and was fat, not the muscular athletic man of his younger years. He was also impotent and after two year no sex. Sexual needs of the young girl are not met. Catherine played the young princes and boys of the court and was caught and executed.

• Catherine Parr would be his last and out live Henry.

Significance of Henry is that he took all the land of the Catholic Church they owned in England after they excommunicated him. This was about 1/3 of all the land in England. He sold it too Nobles who built walls around the lands and farmed animals that displaced many people and put them out of work. This will cause much homeless in England and a problem for Catherine in the future. What to do with them?

Henry was not a nice guy. “To some, Henry VIII was a strong and ruthless ruler, forcing through changes to the Church-State relationship which excluded the papacy and brought the clergy under control, thus strengthening the Crown’s position and acquiring the monasteries’ wealth.

However, Henry’s reformation had produced dangerous Protestant-Roman Catholic differences in the kingdom. The monasteries’ wealth had been spent on wars and had also built up the economic strength of the aristocracy and other families in the counties, which in turn was to encourage ambitious Tudor court factions. Significantly, Parliament’s involvement in making religious and dynastic changes had been firmly established. For all his concern over establishing his dynasty and the resulting religious upheaval, Henry’s six marriages had produced one sickly son and an insecure succession with two princesses (Mary and Elizabeth) who at one stage had been declared illegitimate – none of whom were to have children.”

“EDWARD VI (r. 1547-1553)

Edward VI was intellectually precocious (fluent in Greek and Latin, he kept a full journal of his reign) but not physically robust. His short reign was dominated by nobles using the Regency to strengthen their own positions. The King’s Council, previously dominated by Henry, succumbed to existing factionalism. On Henry’s death, Edward Seymour, Earl of Hertford and soon to be Duke of Somerset, the new King’s eldest uncle, became Protector. Seymour was an able soldier; he led a punitive expedition against the Scots, for their failure to fulfill their promise to betroth Mary, Queen of Scots to Edward, which led to Seymour’s victory at the Battle of Pinkie Cleugh in 1547 – although he failed to follow this up with satisfactory peace terms. 3
During Edward’s reign, the Church of England became more explicitly Protestant – Edward himself was fiercely so. The Book of Common Prayer was introduced in 1549, aspects of Roman Catholic practices (including statues and stained glass) were eradicated and the marriage of clergy allowed. “ (http://www.royal.gov.uk/)

Significance is that Edward allows a printing go f the Bible in English. SO many people can read it. Although, it was expensive.
Bloody Mary
Mar became Queen for only five years.” Mary I was the first Queen Regnant (that is, a queen reigning in her own right rather than a queen through marriage to a king). Mary restored papal supremacy in England, abandoned the title of Supreme Head of the Church, reintroduced Roman Catholic bishops and began the slow reintroduction of monastic orders. Mary also revived the old heresy laws to secure the religious conversion of the country; heresy was regarded as a religious and civil offence amounting to treason (to believe in a different religion from the Sovereign was an act of defiance and disloyalty). As a result, around 300 Protestant heretics were burnt in three years – apart from eminent Protestant clergy such as Cranmer (a former archbishop and author of two Books of Common Prayer), Latimer and Ridley, these heretics were mostly poor and self-taught people. Apart from making Mary deeply unpopular, such treatment demonstrated that people were prepared to die for the Protestant settlement established in Henry’s reign. The progress of Mary’s conversion of the country was also limited by the vested interests of the aristocracy and gentry who had bought the monastic lands sold off after the Dissolution of the Monasteries, and who refused to return these possessions voluntarily as Mary invited them to do.” 4

Mary imprisoned Elizabeth in the tower for six-years. Marry becomes queen for only five years. She dies of Cancer in 1558. Over three hundred men and women burnt who were puritans. (Thus the name Bloody Mary).

ELIZABETH I (r. 1558-1603)

The Power Queen

Elizabeth I – the last Tudor monarch – was born at Greenwich on 7 September 1533, the daughter of Henry VIII and his second wife, Anne Boleyn. Her early life was full of uncertainties, and her chances of succeeding to the throne seemed very slight once her half-brother Edward was born in 1537. She was then third in line behind her Roman Catholic half-sister, Princess Mary. Roman Catholics, indeed, always considered her illegitimate and she only narrowly escaped execution in the wake of a failed rebellion against Queen Mary in 1554.
Elizabeth succeeded to the throne on her half-sister’s death in November 1558. She was very well-educated (fluent in six languages), and had inherited intelligence, determination and shrewdness from both parents. Her 45-year reign is generally considered one of the most glorious in English history. During it a secure Church of England was established. Its doctrines were laid down in the 39 Articles of 1563, a compromise between Roman Catholicism and Protestantism. Elizabeth herself refused to ‘make windows into men’s souls ... there is only one Jesus Christ and all the rest is a dispute over trifles’; she asked for outward uniformity. Most of her subjects accepted the compromise as the basis of their faith, and her church settlement probably saved England from religious wars like those which France suffered in the second half of the 16th century. 5



Elizabeth I (1558-1603 AD)

”Elizabeth I was born in 1533 to Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn. Although she entertained many marriage proposals and flirted incessantly, she never married or had children. Elizabeth, the last of the Tudors, died at seventy years of age after a very successful forty-four year reign. Elizabeth inherited a tattered realm: dissension between Catholics and Protestants tore at the very foundation of society; the royal treasury had been bled dry by Mary and her advisors.” 6

She never married and courted many men and flirted allot. Remember she saw her mother, murdered by her father (men) and she had issues about this. Also, her brother and sister died of small pox. She had a long reign, and spoke seven languages. She wanted England to free from other countries forces to control her. Angelo Church was renamed as the new country ‘state’ church. No more Church of England. At 25 years-old she becomes the ruler. The Puritans who ran out of the country who were persecuted are asked to come home because of their work ethic and literacy. In fact, when they do come back they make England the most literate nation of at that time of the 17 Century.

Significance of Elizabeth: One little problem is that she forces the puritans to change and now be the Anglican Church. They say no way and now a repeated persecution evolves yet again. “Everyone had to belong to the Anglican Church,” Elizabeth said. So now the puritans get up and leave to America.

The Significance of England in this chapter of the world.

1. Roman Catholic religion ( Romans leave this)
2. Leave legal system
3. Concept of king ( Saxons and Anglicans bring)

William the Conqueror:
4. Feudal system ( in the middle ages)
5. King appointing g his own Bishops
6. French Language introduced
Henry II
7. Common Law ( innocent to proven guilty)
John
8. Magna Carta
Edward I
9. Started Parliament ( Discussed taxation and Tax for wars)
10. Parlor means “to talk.”
11. Brought in Wales
Commercial revolution
Reformation
12. Luther
13. Calvin ( whole new religious system Changes world)
Henry VIII
The English ear should be seen as the steps of the beginning of the New World.

Our Modern world in Federalist Representative Republic makes one free. One of the great things in Elizabeth’s reign is she kept out the Spanish Inquisition that installed fear in people so much that they could never take steps towards this Representative Republic of America way of Freedom. The Spanish Inquisition can be looked at as a Gestapo enforcing the totalitarian laws of its dictators. Not living under totalitarian rule is the only way to advance in culture, technology and spiritual advancement.

The 30 Years War

The Thirty-Year war was a benchmark in time. This is the mother of all religious wars. Some consider it the last of the middle ages wars. Some call it the first modern war. All in all, this was a transitional war. First the war starts off as a religious war between the Catholics and the Protestants. Then are progresses into a war over nation’s boundaries.

Over long wars people usually change opinions and the changes are seen in the nations involved. This war cased allot of havoc, yet significant changes come out of the result.

First there are little wars in Germany. The Lutherans

The Religious Peace of Augsburg, 1555

A truce comes and fighting stops, but the treaty left loose ends. It did not settle anything. Then more fighting erupts. “ Do people have to change if a prince changes his religion. So there is a lot of jocking for power. The Thirty-Year war begins in the Holy Roman Empire ( Germany was in the empire).Ther ewere mostly Germains in the Holy Roman Empire. In Czechoslovakia there Checks and some German settlers who were middle classmen and women. The Checks were mostly peasants and thus Catholics. The Middle cases were mainly protestants ( Lutherans). The nobles were spit on the issue. The ruling population were Germans because they made up the bulk of the population, yet it was the elite ( Aristocracy – Higher than nobles) who held allegiance with the Church ( Catholics). They had the money to field troops for wars. So did the middle class, who had less money, yet were not poor. So the peasants are hired by Catholics because they were mainly Catholics. ( Note: In history the left are mainly poor and the rich and the middle classes are mainly right-wing). Charles V, backed by the power of Spain.


1618

The king of Bohemia died of old age. The accent to kingship in Bohemia did not always go threw the son or kids of the king. The Nobles elected the next king of their lands and even sometimes elected someone from the countryside. At the time both protestants and catholic were living peacefully side-by-side. So the election brought about a reason to begin to fight. Each side wanted their own religious king. “Is the new king going to be protestant or Catholics?” this causes agitation/tension between the two religions. The Protestants were the minority of the population. One of the candidates was a man from Austria who was a duke, Ferdinand. Bohemia held one of the seven electorates within the Holy Roman Empire. They didn’t want to loose their stranglehold on the Church with their European dominant family the Hapsburgs. They needed a Catholic king. Despite a protestant majority in the council of electors, Ferdinand of Habsburg was elected because of the pressure of the Church and the overwhelming Catholic peasantry had special interest groups that leech-off the money of the Church and the agriculture businesses by way of class warfare (i.e. racism of today by way of immigrant workers that sees institution that gives them free services by taxing the middle class, the Catholic Church). All hell would break loose as the tide of justice of the middle class was being forced by the hand of the demons that had taken control of the Church of God and turned it into a house of greed.

The slogans of the special interest groups was no protestant was a good person, he was a person that would kill all Catholics ( Modern day form of leftist vitriol of all conservatives [ middle classes] are NAZIs).

The protestants campaign slogan was “let it be a Turk or a devil, but not Ferdinand.”

The Hapsburg family kept its hold by intermarrying their family with the royalty of Spain. This created a powerful relationship that would band them together to fight the ‘heretics’ ( The words they used to describe anyone not making payments to them).

The election is held and Ferdinand becomes king. Ferdinand immediately says :” Kill all the protestants.” “You have a short time to pack your bags and get out. So, like the Spanish who kicked out all the Moors from Spain, so is Ferdinand’s passion of leftist policy – no peace for others who do not like centralized government in the hands of the few ( Like most leftist regimes). Ferdinand gives a short deadline for the protestants to leave. This will plant enmity in the protestants who cannot believe such a cruel hasty decision. The protestants protest for more time. The kings representatives say “ no!” The cruel Catholic council says “ get out now!” They begin to slaughter. At one location, upstairs, a king representatives is surveying the building to get the protestants out on time, or kill them ( Like the NAZIs) and some protestants thought them out the upstairs’ windows. The kings representatives land on a pile-load of manure – they were not hurt. Yet, this makes news all over the kingdom, and is remembered as a defiant reactionary position of the protestants who champion it and become new to fighting a battle now. It is like the western democracy nations going up against the NAZIs.

The protestants are not against God or Jesus. They are for the Bible and living by what the Bible and Jesus said, not by some Church who overtook the Bibles authority and plays gambling for dollars on the backs of the middle class so they can build lavish churches and exact high-rents form the middle class people because they own much of the land in Europe. So like the NAZI that wanted to take over the world and own it, the Church now is in the business of genocide of the middle class (Protestants) and taking over land.

Not everyone agreed with the Church so the Protestants will have many people and kings who pledge to help them over the thirty years. The window episode is remembered as the ‘the first Prague de-fenestration’ In French the word fenêtre was the etymology of the word fenestration. The circumflex over the second “e” means that in Old French an “s” used to be after the “e.”

This window episode officially will start the 30 Years War ( Well at least in History they want you to think this) but in reality, the battle was forming because the plan was to get rid of all the protestants in Europe, just like the NAZI wanted everyone out of Europe that was not German or belonged to the NAZI government.

Ferdinand collects a Roman army and his side goes out for the Genocide. Middle class do their best to buy arms and places they can make into forts. The protestants will put up brave and courageous fights like patriots of the American Revolution and allied troops in WWI and WWII. The protestants will appeal to Northern Germany for troops but all they receive is food. They are afraid like the French were of the Hitler type NAZI forces of the Church. Some say they are afraid it will spill into Germany, yet this, in later periods of the war happens anyway as this war will turn out to entail almost all of Europe peoples.

There are four phases of the war in history:

The first is called the protestant revolt. 1618-30

Out numbered by the Catholic armies, the protestants are brave. By 1630 the Catholics win. The protestants are forces to leave Bohemia. From that time on this land was recovered for the Roman Catholics. They are happy and feel strong. What does this mean that they feel strong and happy. What happens next?
The second phase.

The German Phase brings in the Danish for the second phase. 1630-35

The second phase can be called the “Crazy Catholics” Like German troops were the Crazy NAZIs. They want to conquer all of Germany. Now it is an all German war and the ones who were afraid are now forced into the battle. The battles are fearsome and brutal.

The Danish intervention now enters the war and equals out the numbers in the competition numbers of troops on either side. By 1635 an even stalemate occurred, and the Catholics say they are exhausted and need a break. The emotional exhaustion is also felt as sentiment is felt for the protestants who were the victims in all of this from the beginning. So they call for meeting for a work out of a truce. The Catholics say “give us all your money to pay back all of our pain and suffering of not getting you land for our ownership so we can make you pay rent and keep you poor and we will stop the fighting.” The protestants say “ up yours” and the fighting’s back on. Meanwhile the protestants keep looking for other European supporters. Now the war enters the third stage.


Swedish intervention marks the thirds stage of the war. 1635-40

Gustave- Adolf was a benevolent king with a little aspirations on his part. His people loved him and he decides to help out under economic and terriroy conditions. He was trying to get lands around the Baltic Sea area ( on the European land) so that his little empire would be encompassed by that sea. At the time Sweaden already went protestant and the nerw help was strong. The Sweads had gone strong and progressive with the middle class making huge progress in inventions and life ( Like America left the feudalistic South America in the dark).

The good leader Gustav, fair, but ambitious, brings his people on the side of the protestants. He truly wanted to help the protestants, yet wanted the lands for a reward. At that time Sweden captured every land around the Baltic Sea except for the Northern European parts ( Northernmost Germany area by the sea). Now the protestants start to win. What made this possibly the last middle age war, and sometimes called the first modern war?

First, because armies had not been disciplined into units like we see today, so they are still fighting like in the middle ages in bands of men. But fire arms make their appearance, and the musket is revolutionary tool for killing of men. The cannons already in use are made better and this results in mass casualties. Much of Germany’s population was wiped out. These are accurate types of muskets used in the war. So this is a gunpowder war.

The Modern Argumet:
1. a gunpowder war
2. muskets are more accurate. This means there are firearms
3. Great victories won on both sides

The middle age argument:
1. No uniforms
2. Disorganization
3. no clear lines of commands as officers

Camps of people follow the soldiers and act like scavengers taking all the goods from the dead soldiers. A fad begins to torture the almost dead soldiers or severely wounded ones. Some say that it was a thrill to torture these soldiers, and this included women who conducted the gruesome scenes. Protestants act in high honor on the battle field but the Catholics do not. Some say that both sides showed forms of barbarism, like raping people and pillaging the villages when they passed. “ Crows and Wolfs” are bywords of troops. In order to devastate the lands Catholics would burn the agriculture of the enemy and run off leaving the towns people to starve to death. Some of this went on with the protestants, yet most of the fighting at first was in protestant regions. Meanwhile the iron and lead mines keep churning out weapons and is a economic boom because of the demand for the materials, making onlookers, people in power only feel benefited by the war ( What has changed?).

The result is that 1/3 of the population is wipe-out.

The Rome situation had a man named Wallenstien who was a brilliant leader and strategist. There was only one problem with him. He like to do things his way ( They should have let him, some say). He would always say “ give me a free hand, or let me go.” At that time Rome was trying to think of ways of negotiation ( You see how that went before). Most possibly the Roman Catholic controllers had Wallenstien assassinated and that turned out to be bad new for them. Now in 1640 the Catholic side looks totally defeated. Then something unusual happens in their favor. Gustav riding in the war gets shot on his horse and the Swedes pull out. Now the Catholics regroup and start making advances on the territories they had once held. Later the Catholics look like they are going to win the war.

The French Intervention is the fourth stage of the War. 1640-48

France was a prosperous nation at the time of the war. It had a population of 15 million people. They had great agriculture lands – not too many mountainous ranges in the main body of the country. Ever since the Huguenots got their peace the country had been developing at a good pace. Things were going well for the French. A king who loved not to be bothered because women, hunting, parities, entertainment ruled his daily existence, gave his daily reins over to a Cardinal who was only looking out for Frances best interests and not the protestants or the catholics.

The king Louis XIII was in a mode of don’t bother me I’m parting. Cardinal Richelieu was the personal confessor to the king and also given the duties of the day-to-day administration of the country. Other words, he was Frances main policy maker. He wanted to expand France to its natural defensive boundaries. The Pyrenees protected France for the Spaniards, the Alps from the Italians, Mediterranean sea flanked Frances southern borders and the Eastern-northern portion ( The English Channel) of its boarders need a natural defensive boundaries. Richelieu wanted to make France the most powerful country on the Continent.

His plan:

1. Secure the natural boundaries for defensive purposes
2. natural geographic structures as mountains and rivers are the objects
3. Alps, Pyrenees, English Channel, and Rein River.

Richelieu wanted a reef-valley that the Rein River was like to be the new defensive boundaries for France. In order for him to get this he didn’t care what side of the war to be on or his allegiance to the Church. Remember at this time he certainly feels life the ruler of France as the party-boy Luis XIII was off playing on a permanent vacation. “Sp what I need to do is to make the Rein River my N. Eastern Border of France.” This was his number one objective. The only obstacle was the Hapsburg family ( Who were the richest/strongest family in Europe at the time). The Hapsburg family had holdings in Austria and family members married to Spanish royalty. In southern Italy they had territories and also in Switzerland. Also, they had some territories in Holland and the Spanish Netherlands. So they are strong, but not for long.

“I need a weaker Hapsburg family, “ said Richelieu. The Hapsburg being the most rich , of course, sides with the left ( The Catholics) whose plan was to rid the Protestants and tax the populace again to economic servitude. So Richelieu, whose original name was Italian and had been change by the French so they could say it, decided to side with the protestants.

So now, on the side of the protestants, France brings in its big armies to battle the corrupted Church. This decision was for territory and not for religion. Now the Catholics are defeated again. 1648.

The peoples attitudes changed with the realization of territory battling of the French and people said “Look were not battling over religion anymore lets stop this.”

Peace Treaty of West Phalia

This treaty brings the most bloodiest religion war to an end. There were large significance things that came out of this “mother of all battles.”

1. Protestants are now accepted ( because France was continuing to war as long as the Catholics wanted to make them servants to the rich).
2. No more fighting wars over religion.
3. France conjured up areas by the Rein.
4. New French weapons make war more powerful.
5. Live and let live mentality
6. Safety from persecution of ones religion.
7. Hapsburgs had been weakened
8. everyone was horrified by how bad that war had really been.
9. Germany recovered their depopulation quicker than normal.
10. Cultural changes emerged.
11. Kings will take into account discipline and lines of commands for their armies. More efficiency.
12. Uniforms for soldiers so each side can know who they are shooting at ( from a distance).
13. The creation of generals ( again in history). A line of command that you do what you are told to do but do not question in the army ( Something that is standard today in America’s Army. You had to either, in the army, take orders or get shot by your superiors. This was not laughing matter anymore. Today you are court-martialed. So there are clear lines of commands and each of the European kings take these plans into account.



Summery and Significance of the Middle Age and the End of the Religious Wars

After the Thirty-Years War kings solidify their sovereignty. Now it is back to absolute power of ruler ship. This didn’t mean that they were tyrannical, as in totalitarianism, where the absolute dictator has no regard for his people, like Saddam Hussein made up his ruler ship.

In the middle ages the nobles became the aristocracies that dictated much of the policy. It was the rich and the poor. There was no middle class to make up the conservative views. It was a leftwing power grab that lasted over 900 years. It was a sad time for the western world, yet now they are becoming right-winged and progress will follow not far behind. This is the case with all middle classes of the western civilizations. When people are given some types of freedom they excel in progress. Many of the entertainment communities who champion left-wing ideals somehow manage to become like nobles ( rich and star struck) and somehow loose reality of the hard working middle class. The peasants, for the most part, who could not become middle class because of some form of mental discrepancy always will remain left as the aristocracy ( nobles) of the middles ages and even today cater to their basic needs thought tax programs charged to the middle classes so that they can keep their power. To keep the poor ( Peasants) without an education was the number one weapon of the nobles of the middle ages to keep them dependant and left-wing throughout the period. So some opportunist tradesmen who saw their political empire devastated by the Mongols and then their own infighting managed to perk up Northern Italy, which sparked of the Renaissance to bring back education that made for the weapon to defeat the demons ( left-wing) that had take over the Church and subdued the middle classes.

After the reawakening of the Classical Times (renaissance) there were opportunist that said, hey I’m a noble, I cannot be taxed. The Architect of the Victory of the war (France involvement), Richelieu, wanted absolute power. He died during the war (Cardinal Richelieu had died in 1642).. He promised that it would be fulfilled. Another Cardinal Mazarin, an Italian, takes the position of fulfilling Frances future of greatness, but starts looting the treasures of France. The problem was that Louis dies and left a boy king who would not be of age for many years to come. The Cardinal decides to punish the boy by keeping him hidden away wearing rag-clothes and not great food; although, he manage to give him an adequate education. The boy became to resent the fiend. The difference with Mazarin and Richelieu was that the former wanted the best for France and looked out for it, while the newcomer to the position wanted absolute power of robbery of its treasures.

Marzairn’s stinginess to the boy king kept him in rags, but in the public appearances he was trotted out like a divine dove in jewels. The significance of this is that the boy-king grows up resenting him, yet garners a street sense most other kings never had. This will help him out in dealing with reality in the future as he becomes of age to rule.

Population of France grew to 20 Million people and as Louis XIV grew up he wants to make France the best in the world. Louis starts to say “ I’m France; I am the most powerful in the world. I’m the Sun King.” Louis XIV called himself the sun king echoes of Akhenaton and Genghis Khan Statements. To get ahead anyone coming to him would have to kiss his ego., praise him, and glorify him. Louis manages to work hard for France.

1. He establishes “absolute Rule.”
2. He was not totalitarian, as some absolute rulers turn into.
3. Difference between Absolute Rule and Totalitarian, is that the leader of Absolute rule can reign with benevolence.
4. Totalitarian uses his/her full power to suppress his peoples
5. Louis XIV says “ God controls my Mind.”
6. The Bishops keep finding scriptural support for the kings claims.
7. A number of cabinets broken up under Louis reign.
8. Louis picks out able people to run his country
9. Louis is the first man to have ministries in Europe. It was a Chinese idea in the middle ages. First adopted by Italians in the Renaissance, then by France.
10. Financial wiz-kid J. B. Colbert can balance nay budget, he is the impetus behind the schemes of Louis wars and he finds money whenever the kin needs it.
11. Verifying procedures of nobles so no fake ones can skip taxes.
12. this policy got a lot of hanger-on’s off the free ride list.

In the Army Now:

Ministry of War idea creates a disciplined army, which many army-values that are still in place today, like taking orders from commanding officers and following them without question.

13. “ Only obey orders.”
14. French start the marching of units in unison.
15. The neat folded clothes, the shoes shines along with the brass and buckles.
16. Equipment oiled, shoes shined
17. This brings France to the Forefront of the World.


ABOSOLUTE MONARCHY PERIOD


18. Louis would spend 55 years on the throne.
19. France becomes the international language now.

Louis believes he was too good for Paris, a mansion he was staying in. Apparently he didn’t want to be close to the commoners. He also was super-suspicious of his nobles. He makes a rule that each noble must spend six-months out of the year in close eye distant to him. This way he could watch over their motives.

Louis relocated to Versailles and prepared to build the largest most expensive house in the world. It would be a place that had man made everything. From rivers and lakes, to streams and hills and imagine ( Life size) battle grounds for game playing. The [place had fresh flowers replanted every morning so when Louis woke up se could see fresh new flowers. The Palaces employed 30,000 workers over 30 years and most of the Nobles who had to stay there for at least six months of the year become servants to the King. For example, some became his personal butler, getting him dressed in morning. Others became his cooks and house cleaners.

Versailles is ten-miles out of Paris in a patch of scraggly pine-woods. He wanted all the landscaping to be geometric, including the fountains, lakes and pools. This huge palace had over 100 rooms. It had military barracks for his play-military games and for the real deal. He could house 10,000 troops for his own person protection if the common people arose against him. As he built everything one part at a time he moved in quickly.

E had a battle field constructed so he could play soldier. Louis appeared in Paris every once in a while so that people still new he was alive. Thus, he was the Absent Monarch.

Armies of artists were employed and entire factories invented to provide the building and furnishings for Versailles. Tapestries, silk on walls, and glued on gold leaf on the ceilings were expensive. Although money was an issue, the wiz-kid Colbert kept the money rolling in. Louis ordered all recipes burned so that no one would know exactly how much Versailles cost. The Monarch now partied like some people only dream of. To get his favors, nobles would offer him gifts and let him win at playing cards. Getting him a young girl for sex would get a noble a good favor from the king. Monitoring the nobles at Versailles made better control of sometimes plotting nobles. Louis had them at his beck and call.

Good Aspects/ Bad Aspects:

1. Good: King was in control
2. Six months that the nobles spend at Versailles is six months not managing their estates. They lose money and so does the economy of France as a whole. Bad management because the nobles are not at their estates cost the crown money.
3. Good aspects for the Nobles: they are close to the King and have access to sak him favors.
4. The nobles were always kissing the behind of the kings and trying to outdo the others at parties in dress and clothes as long as they didn’t upstage the king.
5. Louis loved to play cards and when he lost he would pay out of the national treasury ( e.g. the peoples taxes).
6. All the nobles are given various duties while at Versailles. They lived in beautiful surroundings, but are reduced to servants.
7. Endless balls, endless dancing, endless parties, endless theater and endless decadence surrounded Versailles.
8. This would put France on the map and the other leaders would try to build their own Versailles.
9. So Versailles is almost a Las Vegas type lifestyle.
10. Louis employed the best fashion designers in which France became the fashion trend setter for the rest of Europe. The rest of Europeans imitate France now.
11. For example: Louis was short so he orderd a special shoe to help him appear taller – he began what is known as high-heals.
12. Now Louis has everything; he wants to be known as a great conqueror.
13. Richelieu had attained gaining the natural boarders of France by conquest, except the Northern areas of the Rein which were in Germany’s territory. Louis wants to push the French boarders to the Spanish Netherlands. He needs an excuse.
14. Leaders that wanted to go to war usually need an excuse for their acts of aggression.
15. Louis puts his troops on the boarders of the Spanish Neatherlands and plans a quick-grab.
16. Louis excuse was that he marries to a Spanish princess in which when the King of Spain dies he becomes the rightful owner of that land. So his excuse is that “Why not take it know because inevitably it will be mine.”


The War of Devolution

Louis masked soldiers on the boarder and marched them in and Spain’s King goes ballistic. Holland gets afraid that Louis will target them next. “ We will likely be next,” they said. So they formed a coalition with England and Spain to pressure France to move out. He finally does, yet they allow him a small area so that he could boost to his peoples that he was victorious. This has major consequences for the monarchy of France.

Now Louis says that the pressure was all of the “Dutch’s fault,” so he marches his troops through the Netherlands and attacks Holland. The Dutch were quickly conquered even thought they had become rich through trade. The French armies were too advanced for them. They needed a plan so, Holland being below sea level the Dutch decides to break the dykes and release million of tons of water. They stop the French army cold in its tracks. The French army is waist ( Some armpits) deep I water and began to retreat. Louis claims victory again, but pulls out of Holland.

Meanwhile, the war costs allot of money and the wiz-kid keeps the money coming in. Now Louis tries to invade Germany and take it all. He just claims he has the right to the country (remember he thinks he is the sun king and he owns everything). This is the war with Augsburg. France looses this, third, war. Colbert, the wiz-kid dies. This will have profound affects on Louise’s ability to get money to play conqueror.

Now France is in financial trouble. The king of Spain dies (Louis brother in law) so now Louis thinks he owns the throne to Spain. The Spanish nobles detest anyone sitting on their thrown but a Spaniard, so they tell him no! He says..Oh yes…they say no! This goes on for a few years. “I’m king of Madrid, I’m King of Spain,” Louis would say.


1700

The Spanish nobles keep blocking Louis from becoming the King of Spain. Louis says in 1707, “ if Diplomacy does not work, then I will just take Spain!”

War of Spanish Succession 1707-1713


Louis attacks Spain directly. The Spanish fight back and the Dutch see a little man out of control so they join in to put an end to his mess. German states join in as well. This becomes a big war. Louis sees no money coming in ( Note: Colbert is no longer with him). He was to give up in 1713 and he is now a old man in his sixties. The Peace Treaty held will constrict France from doing things like this again.

1. Laws: No French Monarch could be an heir to the Spanish Throne.
2. No more right to Germany, Holland.
3. Louis dies in 1715 and had a legacy of failing in all his wars.
4. Party dudes usually do not command respect from their troops.
5. The debt that incurred for France will not be paid off for 100 years. ( Note: see what happens when you have absolute Rulers who just party till there is no tomorrow.
6. Next king move right in to Versailles and begins to party it up. “ Who cares about the debt, after me the deluge could come – I don’t care.”
7. He does not care for anything but his own comforts and entertainment.
8. So the significance is that France has bad luck.
9. Absolute Monarchy did not work!
10. Significances: culture was the best in France.
11. Society was divided into classes.
12. Commoner heavily taxed with no political power.
13. Imbalanced budget and kings that wanted to play war and party all year round. These types of attitudes ( and the debt that accumulates) of kings in France will start the sentiments about making the changes in society and moving toward the French Revelation.
14. Louis magnificent rule sucked.


Foot Notes:
1 (The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume III Copyright © 1908 by Robert Appleton Company Online Edition Copyright © 2003 by Kevin Knight Nihil Obstat, November 1, 1908. Remy Lafort, S.T.D., Censor Imprimatur. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York)
2,6 <2000 Britannia.com>
3,4,5 <http://www.royal.gov.uk/>
Copyright © 2003 Michael Johnathan McDonald Book of Life org.


 

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