Topical, uncorrected for
Continued- from part one
1) Thales 600 BC: Mathematics, geometry. (What the universe was made of.-
2) Tales says, “ its all matter of an equal age.” Answer is no! What can be the
oldest? Water permeated everything, he thought. Water: His answer was wrong but
the important thing is he was looking into the right place.
3) Sub – Science: Thales does not look for answers in the gods, myths, but by
looking for answers in science. What is the shape of the earth? 100 years after
Thales the Earth was considered round because during lunar eclipses they saw the
spiracle shadow of Earth on the Moon.
4) Elements: Fire, Air, Water, Earth. “ Any matter of what we see is a
combination of what we see.”
5) On God Thales says. Anthropomorphous = means in human form. When writing
about the gods he wants them to have human forms with supernatural abilities. So
they look like humans. ( Thus is the Bible Man and God are both images of each
other.) He also wants them to have human habits- some good and some bad. The
only differences is that between god and man is immortality and supernatural
6) Questions about the gods First to the question- are they really the same gods
as described in the Myth? (?) Answer: They are not. They do bad things, things
that common man wants to do but cannot get away with it. They are immoral. He
said gods were invented. (Just like stars-actors and politicians get away things
that ordinary people cannot get away with.) Humans imagine the gods are like
humans. Some start to suggest if you have bickering gods you have bickering
public, people deify them.
7) One God Some say make one God to end possible conflict. (This may give rise
to Jesus argument in history.) This may give rise to Greece Monotheism,
bickering seen as unproductive.
8) Anaxagoras Wrote the early book “ On the Universe. “ He was the earliest
author on the Universe. This caused a public outcry of teaching against the
gods. He escaped to Persia. From a trial (?) common people didn’t understand,
and people were suspicious. He made no mention of the gods, or attributed
anything to them that was a cause of nature. He said the Moon was just a pile of
dirt cloud in the sky, and the Sun was just Fire. People went crazy, he was
blasphemous against the gods. Even though the danger of it all, a few others
followed in his path.
1) Democritus He started to divide objects till they were so small they were
invisible. They cannot be split any further. He called this end a Atomos = means
2) All things are made up of atoms , he said. There is a finite number of atoms,
but there is allot of them- they form the elements.
History 101 Study Guide
1) Born ten years after the Persian wars.
2) The most important person to turn philosophy toward man. He was the first
3) Exploring Human Values: What is good? What is evil? What is justice?
4) Community of Virtue is what he studied. Is it possible to live in a virtuous
5) What do we have to do to have a ideal society, in political, and public. Some
said pass many laws to restrict men from doing bad things. But that was not the
answer. Too many laws, so some said have no laws. But that was not the answer
that would bring anarchy.
6) He saw that people thought that they were wise, when in fact they were not.
Horrified at this - passing laws on vague ideas, (people didn’t know to much) he
began to investigate about these laws and ideas, especially the laws of Athens.
7) Public meetings in the Agora, he would be there. He realized that people
needed some depth, because they were passing vague laws based on emotions and
not based on intellectual resolve that would solve a problem, and not to go off
half-cocked. (This is why the killed him – stupid people think they no better
than the enlightened [but that is history])
8) People started to ignore him. They would walk away past him and try to avoid
him. He started to get involved and press the issues.
9) Then trail, at the age 70 years old, extremely vague charges were levied
against him. The incitements were: Teaching against the gods; corrupting the
youth. These two charges were made up- to persuade him to shut up. He got
carried away by it.
10) 501 people made up the Jury. The Jury was prejudice- they all knew him and
resented him questioning them.
11) He was found guilty; the jury sentences him to death. But Athens laws gives
the convicted a say in his punishment, then the jury decides. Socrates told the
court to grant him a lifetime pension. He was playing with the court. They could
not execute him right away as a holy month started that day- they had to wait
for a month.
12) After the sentence went down, Athens became the laughing stock of the world.
The people started to think, How can we put to death a man who was charged with
what we hold so dear -- Free Speech. They started to resent the sentence. Socrates
friends came up with escape planes, even a boat to take him away. But Socrates
old age and of weary, I will abide by the rule of law. “ If I’m not tolerated
in my home town , how can I be tolerated in another town.”
13) Socrates left his adversaries in a stool. He went out with guns blazing.
History 101 Study Guide
Plato 427 – 348 BC
1) Plato was a student of Socrates. Was not p[resent when Socrates died. Claimed
he was ill. There was pressure on people who were associated with Socrates-
2) After Plato came back to Athens 10 after Socrates was executed, he started
the school called Academy. He had a self-contained package philosophy system,
where every question was answerable.
3) Allegory of the Cave: Imagine somewhere on Earth a cave, at the end of the
passage there is a large chamber. No light penetrates into the chamber.
Prisoners are chained to a bench facing forward where they are looking a blank
wall. There is a fire behind them. The prisoners have been so long in the cave
that they forget what the outside world was. Suppose someone comes behind them
and lights a fire, and has cut outs of various shapes that make shadows on the
wall. They are told this is reality. The prisoners think that they are real.
They think this is the highest form of reality. One of the prisoners escapes; he
makes his way to the outside world. He sees that the outside world has people
and animals and flowers and trees, and nature etc… But the first thing he
recognizes is his own shadow. He sees that it is not the reality but the sun
casting a shadow of his own image. The shadow is not real just his reflection.
He goes back down in the cave to tell the others, but is met with hostilities,
and the other prisoners do not believe him, and some suggest beating him up.
4) The cave is the world, the prisoners are the people, the darkness is the
ignorance, the escaped prisoner who returns is the enlighten-one, and going back
into the cave is responsibility. The lesson that education is a necessary. Plato
argued that the things wee see and touch and feel- all the physical realities
are of the lower order, called the Shadows. The mind is of the higher order-
called the Forms.
5) He also established absolutes. As a triangle always adds up to 180 degrees. (
History 101 Study Guide
Aristotle 439-322 BC ?
1) He was born not an Athenian. At the age of 20 he appeared in Athens, he went
directly to Plato’s Academy. He was vary sharp.
2) Plato’s school was Academy , and Aristotle’s school was Lyceum.
3) Plato was a idealist; “all truth is contained inside you.” And Aristotle was
a realist. Scientific approach – inside you ( the thing its self)
4) Plato wrote “ The republic” best work on a republic. Aristotle investigated
various forms of governments. He noted that democracies could only survive if
they are small and everyone knows each other. If not you need a form of
socialism. “ Democracy was successful because Athens was small, “ said
Aristotle. “ Athens was small, everyone knew each other, distances were short,
people easily came together, and the voting was done by educated people. (Not
that America not all educated people vote.) He noted also that the Persians
could no way function as a democracy. Their Empire was too vast of distances
between the rulers and the subjects, so it was hard for the subjects to meet and
discuss issues, and there was terrible education. So the best he suggested for
them was “a one man imperial rule.” He claims that in his decision, you have to
look at everything, including the geography and people involved.
5) Aristotle also wrote on Theater criticism, he was one of the first. Also on
the all around individual, on ethics, investigation of the heavens, “ the earth
was spiracle,” he said. Note that it had been mentioned earlier, by the
observation of the Earths shadow upon the face of the Moon, during a Lunar
eclipse, where you could see the spiracle shadow of the Earth upon the Moon.
6) He studied geology and he started the study of biology. He was the first. He
catalogued many sea creatures and plants of the sea. His greatest contribution
was in the field of logic. Socrates did not teach a system of it. Aristotle who
says, above all- we would never be able to progress in Science without logic. He
created a system, data, and reasoning, as well as lists in his studies. We know
this as science. His system was so widely popular that not until Descartes in
1500 AD, was their something new on the subject. (?)
7) During Aristotle the Classical Age is coming to an end.
8) No age last forever. What brought down the age? Bickering and wars amongst
each other. So the Helens were skilled in bickering and wars between each other
History 101 Study Guide
In the Early Age of Greece.
1) The Persian war created a sense of community and a sprit of support Greece or
get out. (In this instance- Athens. In American community has turned towards
2) Everyone got involved in politics and so vary involved that “Either you
participate or get out,” they said. (Something you do not see in America
anymore. Only half the people who can vote due.)
3) Home was for only eating and sleeping, the main emphasis was on socializing.
( not watching TV and staying indoors as modern America has become.)
4) Amassing 2wealth was not a priority. “ it was not good to go after wealth,
look what the wealth has down the Persians,” said the Helens. ( note: that in
America its all about amassing wealth- especially threw peer pressure advertised
by the Media conglomerates)
5) Helens emphasized caricature, not money. (To day this is rarely considered a
trait of the respected in America, as in Wall Street the movie portrays.)
6) The Peloponnesian Wars 431-404 BC; Athens vs. Sparta.
7) Each had its allies; there were no neutrals in all of Greece.
8) Long wars have a way of undermining solidarity. So Athens politics changed
during the war period. Individuals furthered their own agenda’s (Something that
Socrates could not shut up about.) Many advanced their carries by clever and
divisible politics. Politics got dirtier; everyone was looking out for number
one. They lost a sense of togetherness. ( When Socrates was screaming about
corruption of the politics, it didn’t change them, they just resented his
questioning about their motives and stupid new laws.)
9) As Athens turned inwardly corrupted and fighting was going on, the outer
Greek states were slowly falling one-by-one to conquerors. The only way to
survive was that a person would amass as much wealth as they could and bury it
somewhere. They buried their pots of gold. “ You can buy yourself out of a jam
with money,” said the Helens. Alluding to Corrupted leaders, as this was the new
life in corrupted Greece. The people are selfish around 300 BC and a new
attitude evolves where absolutely no solidarity exists and everyone has a “me
first attitude.” ( You can see a civilization cannot survive under these
ethics.) The only way to survive was to make allot of money and put it way to
buy yourself out of jams. ( Socrates was seen as out-of-step with society
because he put no emphasis on acquiring money. The people resented that trait
10) After the war military person were out of work. Uneducated they could not
adapt to civilian life. About 10,000’s were out of work. They only knew
mercenary work. So some states that were bullied for a long time hired the out
of work mercenaries and made war against the other states they held grudges
against. The results were internal wars in Helens. Persians started fighting
with themselves and were still Greece number one enemy. The Helens did not form
a formal federal federation. You cannot have creativity and war/destruction in
civilization at the same time.
11) One man who wanted to unify the Greeks, though he was not a Greek , but a
what the Greeks called him a "barbarian." His name was Philip of Macedonia.
359-336 BC. He became the King.
History 101 Study Guide
12) Macedonia means barbarian peoples to the ancient Greeks. Macedonia is above
Greece, the language was different, and was still a tribal monarchy (Feudalism),
at the time. But they were influenced by Hellenistic culture. They liked it. In
fact Macedonia was heavily influenced by Greek culture throughout the Classical
Age. The Macedonians. For example, “the etymology of the word 'barbari' takes us
back to Greece which used the word 'barbaros' to speak of anyone who was not a
Greek citizen.” This term was mostly was referred to Macedonians who led a
feudalistic lifestyle, and immigrated to take over ancient Greece. No more did
Greece look upon itself as a founded in a just state. The Athenian leadership
promoted the feudalistic Macedonians for integration. The foreigners who
migrated to Athens and Greek states brought along with them feudalistic culture.
The Macedonians, as the Helens called them, were referred too as ‘barbarians.’
The term barbarian is the key phrase the Greeks used to distinguish the
differences in their cultures. The Macedonians wanted nothing to do with Greek
culture, although they proclaimed to in order to make it look as if they wanted
to assimilate. All the Macedonians wanted was Greek wealth. Political
correctness (Not called by that name at the time) of the left demanded, and
received tolerance for their race inside Greece’s borders. You could not talk
against their culture, as they grew in numbers, establishing prominence.
Macedonian political power in Greece grew fast. Later, this got out of hand.
This eventually made Greeks scared to the point that instead of investing, or
caring for their own birth country, hid their wealth, because they knew the
collapse was coming soon, of the new dominating cultures. Political correctness
forced onto the Greeks of accepting Macedonian culture (Feudalism) deeply
angered the Greeks. They were now in their own chains they made for themselves.
Their armies could not throughout the immigrant culture that wanted no part of
Greek assimilation. Greeks were forced to be Anti- Greeks or " politically
correct" and admit the Macedonians were sweet bunch of people. The Macedonians
took over ranks in the Greek military as Greek fighters. Greeks would be
blindsided as a result. A time came of crisis; the people did not unite together
on the battlefield! Military became ineffectual. Macedonians who were feudal by
culture (heritage) and brought along very different system of beliefs, unwilling
to assimilate Greece's Culture. Exactly thirty-years after Socrates was
sacrificed for his freedom of speech, his prophecy came to past, and no more
freedom of speech was the prize for ‘all’ the Helens. They now stood sheepishly
under Macedonian dictators (overlord).
13) Most spoke Greek as a second language. (Similar how foreigners speak America
as their second language) Eventually after the over thorough of Greece, they
would adopt Greek Language and Greek some of the culture, yet remaining mostly
anti-democratic as feudal overlords took control. Macedonians worked as Greek
mercenaries in the wars. And Alexander the son of Philip the King went to school
in Greece, and one of his teachers was Aristotle.
14) Macedonian’s had Greek physicians look after them, the wealthy that is, who
could afford it.
15) Greeks called themselves Helens. We call them Greeks because the Romans
encountered a small tribe in Italy called the Greco’s or Greekens and that was
what they called them. Greek civilization is called Hellenic.
16) So the Macedonians, not Greek, but influenced by their culture arise with
Philips son Alexander. Who will be called “the great,” In the future!
17) Hellenistic means Greek like.
Classical Age comes to an end
1) Philip unifies the Greeks. Does it by any means possible, bribes, threats,
2) Also sweet talks.
3) Exploits some wars- by financing a Greek state for loyalty and protecting
them in case another state arises against them.
4) He systematically starts to concur and defeat Greek states one-by-one and
with crookedness- he finally takes over the whole country.
5) Greeks who saw this and were alarmed- but at this time they could not unite
because of the blotter-head mentality. Just a little to late. Some states try to
fight back, but it is useless, its over.
History 101 Study Guide
Greece Falls 338 BC
Hellenistic Age Begins
1) End of era. Individual policy in now gone.
2) All Greece unified under Philip of Macedonia. He is the King. The ruler now.
3) It’s a barbarian monarchy. The Greeks are forced to accept it. The culture of
Greeks and non Greeks are forced into play.
4) He made the Greeks worship him and Macedonia.
5) Philip plans a attack on the Persians were they would never be a threat
again. – And he would look to Hero. (?)
6) Two years after the takeover of Greece, Philip was assassinated so he was not
to lead the war against the Persians. Macedonians were at a party where they
loved their booze and rancor ( Wild Parties) Philip was at one of these royal
parties, when he had taken an insult from someone obviously drunk at the party
who was a relative of his. The result he was stabbed to death at this drunken
party. Alexander his son takes over.
7) Alexander his Son 359-323 BC.
8) He was said to be good looking, with blond hair. He was well trained to think
logical- Aristotle was his teacher. One unique feature was one blue eye and one
green. His military experience was born from attending battles with his father,
who was a vary capable military man.
9) 334 Alexander launches Attack against Persia with 32,000 men. Half of the
military were comprised men from Greece and half Macedonian, but all Macedonian
10) Persians were using Greek mercenaries, so it was Greeks against the Greeks.
Alexander was vary successful, and some Persians were glad he liberated the.
11) Now everywhere Alexander went and concurred, he left behind a man and wife,
or a few of his men, to Helenize the town they just defeated. This will be his
practice and his big accomplishment to his life. He loved the Greek culture and
wanted to plant it all over his territories that he would be concurring.
12) One year later, the Persians came with a big army against him but lost.
After this victory he goes down the Phoenician coast to cover his back when he
decides to go eastward. He makes a pit stop in Egypt, and is honored as a living
God their by the king, and takes off to concur all of Persia. He is
simultaneously called a President in Greece, and King in Macedonia, and god in
Egypt. Vary special possibly a trifecta (sp?)
300 - 100 BCE.
write that approximately one hundred years after the Classical
Age comes to an end, there are little to no faire-colored skin
people in the realms of Greece. They skin color turned toward
the dark skin people. Perhaps, like today in U.S.A., the
discourse is rather propagandized so that everything that white
colored people have done in history must be abolished and
replaced by the skin color of people of non-whites. The white
skin colored Greek people migrated to Italy and North Africa.
Greece eventually economically failed, and no high-standard of
academia contained historical notices. The migration of higher
academia moves westward toward the New Roman Republic and to
Alexandria. The color of a person’s skin and their
intelligence or ability to make a civilization thrive was a
popular topic under the period when Socrates was alive.
Apparently the conclusion was made that civilizations rise and
fall on the variations of purity of the skin color – which was
the major factor of past investigation. Greece turned toward
communism and radicalism of anti-Hellenism during and prior to
the death of Socrates. Slowly the Greek civilization
disintegrated under propaganda that all white colored people
were inherently evil and racist – which was opposite of the
Macedonian propaganda scheme.
History 101 Study Guide
13) He goes about liberating Persian provinces, and planting Helenistc
influence. Some people are glad to be liberated, some not. After he gets and
concurs Babylon, he calls it his capital; he fell in love with the old-culture
pasts. At a party in in one of the historic palaces, someone tips over a
fire-lamp and burns it to the ground. After a while he still needed to concur
some Persian military, so he set out eastward. He meets and Marries a Persian
wife. (Possibly for political reasons) Then he goes on to India to submit them.
He gets as far as the Ganges where his men tired and wary from being out on the
road for so many years mutiny against him. He goes with their wishes and turns
toward home direction. It is said that when he made this decision- or forced on
him, that he climbed a high mountain and cried his eyes out. It was said that he
wanted to be the first to reach the end of land. (Earth) To claim, “he went to
the ends of the earth and concurred it all.” In India their armies brought out
the first tanks, elephants mounted with soldiers and armor of a box shaped with
bow and arrows. They were hard to defend at first, but Alexander would have a
person run underneath the beast and cut it down (Stab him in the belly) in a
suicide mission. After the elephant wars they were off to the Ganges. The troops
rebel against Alexander who wanted to push-on. He wanted to be known as the “
Man who reached the ends of the Earth.” Though the pacific coast was a few
hundred miles away from the Ganges, he never made it. The difficult trip so far
caused, some starved and died, so he leaves back westward along the coast
finally reaching Babylon in 323. At this time, it was the greatest military
expedition in history. “ Victory celebrations commenced, 10,000 soldiers were
retired with pay, and married noble women.” Alexander had gotten a superficial
wound in India , but it got infected and he died all the sudden. The whole place
was shocked. This was the man who just achieved the biggest conquests of all
time. (At that time) and now he was gone. It was a “tremendous achievement.”
14) Alexander’s Significance More important than his military achievements, was
that vary deliberately he was spreading Hellenistic civilization, by building
cities and planting Greek culture. He planted architects, city planners, etc…
15) Also some Egyptian design as well. Alexander founded 70 cites, in which 17
of those were names after his name.
16) His architects made a new system in city planning; this was the Grid street
system. Streets that were laid out perpendicular to each other, with out
curvature, so one could see a long distance down the street. (Just like today’s
big city street grids.)
17) Alexander also left behind some of his military men to marry Persian wives
and teach Greek. The Greek Language did become the international language.
18) He set up local democratic governments, (Remember Aristotle taught him
this.) even though he was King. He could not be there to rule the people. Mostly
this was directed to the cities. Thus the Persians learned a new system, called
capitalism. No more were they forced to work and slave for the leaders of
Persia, but now had new opportunities to make personal growth and own land, and
make profits. Many were glad of this new system Alexander brought them. They
would say, “ Just get out of bed and look and dress like a Greek and go to work
and make a living.”
19) Alexander’s Hellenistic collateralization spread to the Far East. Greek was
now the international language from the Atlantic Ocean from Spain to India; as
long as Alexander was alive it was the world’s first “One World.”
History 101 Study Guide
20) Different peoples now looked at the “One World.” Alexander spread
Hellenistic civilization. Everything was integrated now. A one world culture and
Greek international language.
21) The Bible New Testament was Greek. (Just to show the significance to the
22) Alexander dies, leaves a son to his wife. The son to young, so it is agreed
that the Generals will keep watch till the son reaches of age to rule as King,
they spit up the regions to each other. But this does not last long. The men are
ambitious themselves. Each one tries to one-upmanship the other, and fighting
between them breaks out. This causes civil war.
23) 17 years they battle, the baby is killed, and also all his relatives and his
wife are killed. All his heirs are gone.
24) Result: All of Alexander’s empires were divided between his generals, who
became kings. They divided it all up. This caused Independent Hellenistic
25) Though it was divided all up, the Generals agreed on one thing. To keep the
cultuer that Alexander brought to his empire.
History 101 Study Guide
Ptolemy’s 300 years rule
1) Last one of the Ptolemy’s to rule was that of Cleopatra.
2) In Egypt Alexandria one of the cities named after Alexander rose to
3) The greatest seaport in the in the Hellenistic age. Traded far and wide, even
to the British Isles. Plus, the Nile River was also a large trading rout with
the interior of Africa.
4) They build canal to India by the Red Sea. This creates merchants from
India-to-Alexandria. The result Alexandria gets rich off of trade.
5) Hellenists compete with each other – they continue to promote Greek culture.
6) The Ptolemy’s warn everyone that not to be outdone by anybody.
7) The First artificial harbor. They drop rocks to keep the waves out. They also
build a lighthouse, with a mirror; burning-fire so that ships can come in a
8) Streets are made like Alexander wants them. A grid. So big that one can see
for miles down one street. Most streets there before that time were narrow and
9) Sport stadiums are built, palaces, public baths with cold and hot running
water in them. Also theaters and libraries, horse tracks. The result was that
Alexandria became more educated world.
10) Children sent off to schools, everyone learns to read and write, thus a
literal public. And this causes a boom in small libraries, where books can be
checked out. The retrieval for overdue books was severe, as it was hard to
produce them, as they were each hand written. If you did not return them on
time, you would get a official at your door. Their interest in reading books at
this time, it caused a lively book-market. Multiple copies were made for each
library to house. Books were transcribed by hand, this employed allot of
scribes. Readers were employed, but the women did the writing, as the women had
better legibility than men, thus they wrote neater and wrote faster.
11) They started a library system. And Libraries in general.
12) They built a huge library called the Museum. Named after the Muses-Greek
gods of arts and sciences, and culture. They shelved the books by numbering
13) The Books were scrolls. The pubic could check them out.
14) The Ptolemy’s started a search and confiscation scheme, for a way to stock
of the library from any and all publications and rare books, by going on board
every ship that came to port and searching it, and if they found a book they
didn’t own, they took it copied it and put it the library to be housed.
History 101 Study Guide
15) The Old Testament was copied and translated into Greek. Helenised Jews had
already translated the New Testament into Greek.
16) Ptolemy’s made Alexandria into the worlds showcase city. How they did this
was to pay and attract the learned form all over the world to relocate and live
there. They would give grants to Scientists, architects, and Mathematicians, and
any one who was learned and could add to the culture and progress of Alexandria.
17) Euclid read at the library. Mostly geometry. He wound up writing The
Elements of Geometry. So good was the book, that nothing was added unto it for
18) Hero invented the first coin operated dispensing machine. Installed glugs of
holy water at the temples entrances. He also created static electricity by
rubbing amber woolen cloth, or a comb together. He invented, the first steam
engine, but it did not serve a purpose, as there were never needed labor saving
devices, because Alexandria had plenty of slaves to do the work, who were called
19) Archimedes was into physics. How to move large objects- pulley’s, levers,
and designed cranes. He also invented the screw and the screwdriver.
20) Eratosthemes (sp?) Was an Astronomer. He calculated how to measure the
Earth. About 25,000 miles circumference. See Astronomy notes: The lands and seas
and earth must be a sphere so land must be at the bottom of the earth. He
figured out the earth was round, but so did Aristotle and some Helens before
him. Also he discovered the Obliquity of the earth’s axis. That of 23.5 degrees
of the perpendicular. This brought him to conclude the tropics, pole alternation
intervals- Earths over balance. Some people were traveling as far as Iceland at
the time; this was considered the furthest reaches of the planet. But what also
interested him, was, that the Sun never set at all. (Seasons notwithstanding of
coerce) The ships continued to they reached pack ice and had to turn around.
21) There has survived Globes of the earth as spherical from the Hellenistic
22) Also mapping the glob by pinpointing using stars in relation to places on
the Earth. This caused them to start to make maps; From Atlantic to India with
reasonably accurate calculations. Still though commonly believed was that they
were the center of the universe. (Just like man’s ego) Aristarcho’s of Samos he
said, no we are not the center of the universe, but revolve around the sun.
(Result: See Plato Cave) it was a progressive age.
23) Aristarcho’s of Samos he said, no we are not the center of the universe, but
around the sun. (Result: See Plato Cave) it was a progressive age.
24) Literature in Alexandria
25) Sweet poetry, romantic novels were read widely. (Like cheesy novels on
supermarket bookshelves of today. Also write plays. In Greece the difference was
that most plays were tragedies, but the Alexandrians like something lighter than
the heavy stuff. Romantic-comedies with happy endings.
History 101 Study Guide
26) Art was improved upon from the Classical Age. The biggest change was the
statues. The Greek statues spread toward India and South Asia, and even into
China. Idealism of sculptures was of the Greek Classical Age. Now in Hellenistic
Age, realism took over. Statues were now made having wrinkles, and people
looking old, with deformities and amoralities, compared to the perfect idealist
bodies of the Classical Age. Some were shown to have sickness, or agonizing
pain. The detail now was much more advanced, so much detail, that it was
tremendously difficult subjects matters were taken on now. Three men strangled
by a serpent for example were done. And they started to take on a composite of
Middle Eastern influence.
27) Beautiful pottery was now made, but with an over emphasized decorative
aspect. All the pottery was over done, leaving no place on the pottery with out
a decorative piece. They filled every last niche of the pottery.
28) Public buildings were made to look high and big. In the old world, the
buildings were to be wide and not vary tall. The opposite was now done, where a
building was not wide, but vary tall in height.
29) Summed up Art of the time; realism, size, and wealth.
30) Philosophy: it was a bigger world now. This overwhelmed people. So new
philosophies rose up.
31) Stoicism was the philosophy of the Hellenistic age.
32) Great variety of worship of gods, religious practices. Questions began to be
asked. Why so many Gods? The Stoics came up with the answers. Different people
have different concepts, but all have in common only one deity. (They gravitated
toward monotheist “ One God.” He was not material, and was the master of the
universe. “We have a little spark of God in all of us,” they said. Father of all
mankind, we all are the brothers, sisters of each other. (Note: Jesus picks this
concept up- the connection; all are sisters, brothers, mothers, and fathers.)
What this meant was “ One World,” no isolationism. This “one world” influenced
the Biblical writers. (Jesus)
33) So books about the one world prop up in Stoicism. “ Individuals are the
citizens of the world,” they said. Also about the troubles of the world, they
would teach, “How can we all get along.” Stoics thought get educated was a big
idea. (Note: Socrates-Plato-Aristotle said the same. Notice how some corrupted
political governments use dummying down the public as a weapon to stay in
power.) So the Stoics say education is a big idea to promote.
34) Natural science, and philosophy dominated, but still people were
superstitious. (Has this ever changed?) people would say, “the gods our out to
punish me!” The Stoics would refute and say, No! it is “ the study of natural
science n nature- strange things happen.” With this thinking to the problem the
Stoics saw as stress to these questions, they said “Parts of the way nature
works, it does not mean the gods are out to get you.” This was meant to put less
distress onto the unfortunate natural occurrences that happen to people.
35) Basic philosophy was aimed at better relations with people, to solve
problems for a better way of life. The Stoics would “ stiffing the back bone and
grin an bare it.” It was there philosophy to the hardships that nature brings.
The key word was “ accepting fate.”
36) The Stoics almost became a religion in it self. Friendliness and kindness to
each other were vary popular at the time. (Note: Liberalism is a close to
comparison of the Stoics in the Hellenistic Age)
History 101 Study Guide
37) Epicureanism started at the same time as the Stoics. (Note: Liberals and
formed about the same time in American history, “but under different names-for
38) The only thing in common with the Stoics were - Love, and Study. (Education
39) Epicureans said, the gods are not interested in us, no prayer works. “The
gods left things to happen- they do not help at all,” they said. (Anti-god? This
is not a universal statement in that all philosophies have there own little
strays- where some agree with some things about the party, and oppose other
issues while still staying in that party. Thus you cannot call all Conservatives
God-Loving, and all Liberals god-less people. It just doesn’t work that way.)
They went on to say, “ There is no particle evidence to show that prayer works
or that God is involved in your life.” They got bad publicity for that
statement. What they really believed that there were gods, but that they did not
get involved in every last detail of your life. You can see it in their
statement: “Gods were just not interested.”
40) There basic philosophy was to party hard and live for pleasure. (Note: You
can see both conservative and Liberals can agree on that. In Greece, the
conservatives said they love to party, but in moderation- they didn’t mean to be
drunk out of your mind at all. Just a few glasses of wine with dinner before
going out socializing.) To them pleasure was the best, but also like the Greeks,
they would say in moderation. (This would put into contradiction of the Stoics
who were more common people who some must have been drunkards. Still this
applies to all people and is out of party affiliations.)
41) Security: Don’t get involved with too much helping others “ you will become
poor.” First put your life in order before helping others.
42) Summery: Stoics popular. (Liberals) Epicureans not as popular.
43) In the Hellenistic Age Greece becomes unimportant, as the middle east and
New World Power
1) Indo-European immigrants migrate after year 2000 BC. Pre-Rome tribes form,
they are farmers with livestock’s, but not vary advanced
2) When Greeks started their colonization throughout Europe is when the Romans
were planted with advanced culture. Trade as well as Greek influences brought
3) Etruscans tribe were a mystery, and we still do not understand their system
of language today. But it was a form of Italian. They were the quickest culture
in progressive traits. They made the first buildings, sculptures and formed
4) The Tiber River is where the Etruscans lived just north and the Latin’s lived
just south. And on the River itself on the South is where the city of Rome will
History 101 Study Guide
Tiber River Roma
5) Rome will start as a boarder settlement.
6) Good for nothing border village, just a reject real estate, hilly and wooded.
7) Origins are vary obscure. There are only legends for reference.
8) Legends are just distortion of the truth, but have some reality to them.
9) Legend of Rome: Princess niece of the king came home pregnant; she had twin
boys, Romulus & Remiss. Rea Sylvia was her name (?) The uncle did not like that
it he had no children - the simple solution, through the children into the
river. (Note: that legends are thrown into rivers and also raised by animals.)
But as all legends go , the servant botches the job. An animal mother wolf finds
the boys floating down the river and raises them as her own. They become
wolf-boys. A Shepard see them an adopts them as there own and they grow to
adult-hood. AS adults they find out what the uncle has done- he tried to drown
them-they kill uncle. No communities want these troublemakers. So they decide to
build their own town. Nobody wanted them. They buy the reject real estate,
because it was cheap, and fence off the land, and build mud-huts. The fence
causes a vicious fight, and the two brothers duel it out. Romulus wins killing
Remiss. Then calls Romulus the city after his own name- Rome.
History 101 Study Guide
1) Archeology finds mud-huts and date to this time.
2) Romulus takes in the dregs of the land, the drunkards, nomadic, criminals,
rejects. People are free to live there-they do not have much money, but under
one rule alone. That is they have to defend the city in case of attack, as other
villages always try to submit another under its rule. (Most of the time to pay
tribute.) After a while most people come from the Etruscan communities and Latin
tribes. At this time the Etruscans are advanced in culture and Romulus calls
3) The early kings of Rome were formidable generals.
4) At the time of the beginning of Rome, there were just farmers, and people
herded livestock and enjoyed a decent existence. (See comparisons to Puritans of
early America.) People were generally hard workers and had no ambitions of
warlike aspirations and were conservative. They had no artistic ability, not
well at writing, vary superstitious (Note: Puritans were the same way about
anyone upsetting their way of thinking and life) But were into divination,
future telling in big things, lucky days, but had no religious temples.
5) There attitude was a practical one- “they worship the gods and expected the
gods to do good things to them,” they said.
6) In superstitiousness they had augurs who foretold the future by sacrificing
pigs and pulling out the liver and guts and entrails out and reading them, in
predicting the future.
7) Conservative in family life- uncles and cousins, grandparents would all come
together in family gatherings. The only thing was there was one male dominant
whose powers were over the whole family. (Note: Like the mob-boss.) There beef
was not to damage family respect. (Just like the mob.)
8) In general they did not want to provoke any war, but were no pacifists
either. They would never attack, but if some other tribe happened to attack they
would defend the city. They got so good a defensive warfare it became their
specialty, and no one could defeat them. But they were also revengeful, and if
were attacked they would counter attack almost every time. Then they would make
friends with their enemies, which led to the success of Roma. To gain domain
over others and eventually over all of Europe.
9) They would make their enemies sign treaties and then make friends this
creates the success of there system.
10) Strategy: Good defense-counter-attack-make enemy sign treaty- becomes
friends-expand Empire. Result domain over all of Europe.
11) The first 200 years nothing more than village kingdoms. Etruscan ancestry is
one man became king was allied with most progressive culture; they both upgrade
the City Roma. Put stonewalls to replace the wood fence. Build stone paved
streets, erect a little downtown and thus create a city. And survived enemies
that attacked it.
12) 510 BC Monarchy comes to an end. A government is formed.
13) They found out as always that “absolute power corrupts.”
History 101 Study Guide
14) “No government ruled by one leader,” they say. Because kings abuse their
powers. (As always.)
15) They decide to have a government called the Republic.
16) Class and Society: Patricians were upper class and Plebeians were lower
17) There was a big wall between the classes, and no socializing or marriages
18) Plebeians were only goof for (Patri) for cheap labor. But it was the
Patricians who were the ones who kicked out the king, and also the king’s son
abused his position by harassing and doing crime against the Patricians.
19) The Patricians new government was for them to vote on only. The Patricians
rule. Only they can elect and have poles.
20) The Patrician government: districts were set up, and year by year there were
elections, called a tribunal. These were members of the central law-called
21) At first it was a limited Democratic government only to the Patricians.
22) They see a need for executive branch called the council.
23) Curia is the equivalent to U.S. Congress- a body of legislators.
24) A problem existed about the elected leader of the government. His popularity
could become an issue feathering is own kingship ambitions. So they decide to
elect two simultaneous leaders, in case they have to get rid of one. If one
happens to die accidentally, then an immediate election is held to acquire
another to take up the vacancy. They called these leaders the Consuls.
25) The Curia limited the Consuls powers. They had to always get authorization
from them before acting on anything.
26) The legal system consisted of judges for administrating, laws under limited
History 101 Study Guide
27) The lasting things about the Patricians form of government were, division of
power, and checks and balances.
28) Their government lasted 480 years. That’s a vary long time!
1) The first 150 years the Patricians only ruled.
2) Their came a time when the battles against the republic needed more soldiers.
The Patricians called on the Plebeians to help in the cause. But it was at a
price to the Patricians. They struck a deal in which the Plebeians would have a
say in the politics in exchange for them risking their lives in battle.
3) The wars with the Etruscans in the mid-200 BC brought this on. They
controlled all the loot.
4) In the year 264 BC, Romans came eyeball to eyeball and scared out of their
wits to face a formidable enemy. Carthage!
5) Carthage was wealthy and was originally a Phoenician colony of traders. They
grew into a merchant Republic and controlled the African coast.
6) The Romans got scared when the new Mediterranean power invaded and took over
Sicily-Italy. Completed by 264 BC by concurring Sicily, tensions grew a war
comes. So Roma is in for a big war. But, Roma has become a big power too.
7) Three big vicious wars to come. They are called the Punic Wars.
8) 264-243 BC Carthaginians have boat power, while the Romans have the land
power expertise. Roma will change their tactics by capturing one of
Carthaginians war ships. They disassemble it and dissect it and learn to build
their own. This proves invaluable.
9) In the first war a great loss of life about 200,000 died in the war. The war
ended in a draw. Both call truce and re-armed.
Interval of Peace
1) Carthage for some reason retreated from Sicily and looked to conqurer Iberia
(modern Spain and Portugal).
History 101 Study Guide
The Rise of the Roman Republic!
Punic War #2
Migration of white skin colored people out from Greece and
Aegean Sea area to Italy. These people’s skin color were not
wanted in the Aegean Sea area any longer.
1) This is the biggest war. They attack Roma.
2) Hannibal is their General
3) They bring armored elephants.
4) They moved into Italy from the North.
5) “You do not face Hannibal face-to-face,” said Roma.
6) They started to use guerrilla tactics and hit water supplies, attack basic
7) Hannibal goes about 15 years up and down the coast of Italy, but never got a
clear shot at Roma. (Remember Romans were expertise on defensive war from the
8) In 201 decides to pull a fast one on Hannibal and Carthaginians. While the
Carthaginians have their army busy in Italy, the Romans plan an attack on
Carthage with the new ships they built courtesy of designs from Cartages
9) It’s an overwhelming surprise and Romans will the war. Carthage surrenders.
10) The news to everyone was a big surprise. Carthage surrenders all their
property except a little piece in the left corner of the city.
11) The treaty was to pay the indemnity and destroy all the ships.
12) Even after the victory, the Romans still feel uncomfortable about Carthage.
13) Cato the elder always ended his speeches with “Carthage should be
destroyed.” In his speech Cato also referred to the Greeks as “ wicked and evil
people.” “Greeks are a wicked and scoundrel race,” said Cato.
Punic War #3
1) 146 Romans start over some pretext economic issue.(?)
2) They besiege Carthage easily in 146 BC and Carthage falls.
3) Some women and children become slaves.
4) They burn Carthage, and pry apart the buildings with crowbars. They take
every stone apart. This leaves total destruction.
5) They plow up the central city. They put so much salt into the dirt that
nothing can grow there ever again. So Carthage could not grow any more food. “
So Carthage can not rise again,” they said.
6) So in 149-146 Carthage fell.
7) Romans became the undisputable power. The rebuild Carthage eventually.
8) Now the Romans look on Greeks as despicable people, they will receive their
influence that will result in their downfall.
History 101 Study Guide
9) Now the Romans become aware of the Greece people bearing gifts. The Greeks
sent emissaries to Rome. (This will be bad luck to the Romans.)
10) Greeks become aggressive and attack Italy.
11) Greeks raid into Italy. (?) They Greeks are called “ Aggressors from
Macedonia.” Alexander who Hellenized Persia and most of the then known middle
east, was educated enough to understand that Greek Freedom laws created a more
advantageous people who could advance in civilization progress. However, most of
the Macedonians were either, not educated enough or willing enough to advance
his themes and most cities fell backwards into feudalism.
12) Greeks attack Macedonia and the Romans had to defend it. Ambassadors sent to
Rome. Romans counter attacked them back to Macedonia.
13) Romans who concurred the city had to now defend it from the Greek attack.
14) All the fury, the Greeks send ambassadors to Roma. When they got their “It
looked outdated and shabby,” said the Greeks ambassadors. (Compared to the
Greeks) They said, “We will have to make Rome look more impressive.”
15) They start hiring Greek architects and talented designers to spruce up the
buildings. They make art like buildings.
16) The Romans could build sewers, plumbing, but the fancy stuff, like art
buildings they hired the Greeks. (This will be bad news for the likes of people
like Cato the Elder.)
17) For statues the Romans hire Greek sultriest. Greeks paint the exteriors of
Roman buildings, because the Greeks had more talent. But with that talent they
taught Romans to drink and eat in abundance- a type of decadent lifestyle.
18) It became fashionable to teach Romans the Greek language, law and
philosophy. So at this time Hellenistic cultures floods into Rome.
19) The first history of Rome was written in Greek.
20) Greek influence in Rome: By bringing them, written play, architecture,
statuettes, painters, and law, and philosophy.
21) The Romans learn allot from Greeks. Some good and some bad. The emphasis on
acquiring riches, the Greeks taught them new ways of living, parting with
expensive parties, ETC… So the Romans lifestyle changes with Greek influence.
22) Greeks taught the Romans in fine tasting foods. A chef can be made out of
servants, so they have more duties. They learn that “food can be a sensuous
pleasure.” Huge food parties are thrown that even lasted months.
23) The Romans never before seen this, it affected them like a disease. The life
of pleasure led them down a wrong path. Like the early Greeks, pleasure was
taken in moderation. To the later Greeks pleasure was all there was and was
looked upon as sort of a peer pressure. “ Before it was said to live life in
moderation,” said Romans before they met the later Greeks. Now every Roman was
getting fat and slothy, and that is not good for the Army. People over stuff
themselves at parties. So much so, that a special room was created for over
zealous partiers, to use as reprieve from all the overindulgence. It was called
a vomitorium. It was tiled room to through up your food.
24) So there were parties and orgies.
25) A big problem arose, not everyone could get rich. People thought you could
get rich by learning from the Hellenistic world. This caused bickering and
fighting, because leaders became corrupted from Hellenistic politics. “ The
Greeks political motto was to advance ones own agenda at any cost, and Money was
a way to buy yourself out of any jam.
26) Bribery and corruption flourished in the new lifestyles they had found. Rich
corrupt individuals bring a republic down.
27) Summery: Rome’s turning point in history was the Punic wars Then they came
in contact with the Greeks, in that comes a good influence and a bad influence.
Some cannot resist that are corruptions- love of luxury, accumulation of wealth,
and political corruption.
28) Senate: assemble of elected tribunes. The group of old boys, [Old men] as
the Punic War took all the young men off to battle, the Old Men stepped into the
Curia to run the country. (?) This turned out so well that when the Punic War’s
ended that the citizens decided just to keep it that way. The senior citizens
that ran the body of government created an advisory body that gave advisors to
the King. These were experienced men, but in themselves held no public power.
The Senate in Rome as it was called, is advisable body to the Council and the
Curia. They had no public power, but were so influential that metaphorically
they could move mountains. They could have big influence on legislation. So if
they wanted to they could indirectly influence with enormous powers (like
lobbyist do today and big corporations with money.) but they did not use their
power (Well in the beginning.) Before the Punic War. All the young men went off
to fight in the Punic War’s. The old senior citizens did a good job of running
the home front during the wars. The senate stayed home during the war and sat in
positions to make decisions as the young Curia and Councils were at the war.(?)
So they did OK and the people accepted them (Threw circumstance), then after the
Punic Wars, the Senate became a Senatorial Republic.
29) After the War the Senatorial as they were called became the lawmakers now
the Senate is the legislative branch of Roma.
30) The wealth and loot from war brought problems to the old men. [Senate] for
bribery set in to corrupt the old men. The senators started to take bribes of
huge amounts of booty, and this corrupted the country, because fights and
31) Senators give large pieces of land to their friends. (Land are big money
generators) some from the Carthaginian war, for exchange of money under the
table. The families who bought off the senators did not even have to go to
Carthage to work the fields, for they hired labors for cheap. (Think of American
big business using Chinese slave labor’s to make everything from our flags, to
nuts and bolts.)
32) The families put farms under managers, and made allot of food at vary cheap
prices that put the local Roman farmers out of business. They imported mass
quantities of slave labor products produced by slaves from countries where out
of the public view could be seen toil of non-human life just for money favors
under the table.
33) Rome had become corrupted by wealth. (Note Alexander Hamilton saw and argued
this in his Federalist-Papers in New York newspapers. That when a nation
accumulates too much wealth its downfall in morality and ethics and eventually
the civilization crumble.)
34) So Italian farmers are out of business, This bankrupts the local farmers,
and creates poor now moving towards the cities looking for jobs, and this
creates a jobless market that in turns creates a need for socializing programs
to take care of the poor, which means you have to tax the public more and more.
35) The corrupted people put foreign slave labors on local farms. The senate
does nothing, because their corrupted friends paid them under the table. The
judicial is being paid off as well so no one can sue the old corrupted men. Mass
unemployment farmers in groves lose everything, they all move to the city. And
this is battled between a small number of good senators and vast majority of
36) A good senator calls for land reform. 133 BC, land reform is introduced.
37) Those corrupted senators tried to block the land reform. A big fight ensues
and the reformers beat up and kill a senator, but the senators use mob tactics
to squelch the uprising. The result: Land reform fails and from 133 BC – 31 BC
was the last 100 years of the republic.
38) 133-31 BC: The senators are running the republic- no Curia and no elections.
The common people realize the senators are all just crooks. The people want
their power back. Everything gets violent.
39) Civil War breaks out 100 BC- 90 BC. The war is between the supporters of the
senate and the supporters of the common people. On and off again the negotiation
40) Social War 80 BC: Citizenship for all foreigners. (Just how foreigners are
calling for citizenship today in America.) In the past only citizenship was for
Romans. Now all foreigners say, all are citizens. The Romans say no, so the
foreigners form a city called Italy for themselves, but still in Roman
territory. After the Social was the Romans win, but they go ahead and grant all
41) 70’s: Efforts now turn to military generals who try to become dictators. “
More and more clear to the Romans that they needed military generals to guide
their armed forces,” said the people. So sought after were military generals.
But they make bids to become dictators.
42) 71: a Slave revolt; Sparticus (?) starts his famous slave revolt to try to
liberate others from slavery. The slave revolt turns out to be a major revolt.
Romans are scared out of their wits. The slaves made armies, and defeated the
roman armies. Then slave armies started to march on Rome itself. They wanted to
pressure the senate, and the Senate “was scared out of their wits.” The senators
offer great rewards to any general to defeat the slaves. A general named Pompey;
he rose up and defeated the slave armies. The slaves were crucified on crosses
as a result. (Note: about this time crucifixion was a major death penalty
procedure. Jesus stand in would be crucified in this manner as well.)
43) Pompey saved the senate. “ I’m stronger than the senate,” says Pompey. He
uses his influence to make a bid for dictatorship. He pressures the senate by
keeping his army outside of Rome. This intimidates the senate.
44) Then he demands pay for his soldiers, as a result a large numbers of
senators are forced to support him. Then Pompey wants control of the senate.
There is a struggle and he looks to join forces that will help him
diplomatically. He finds Crassus.
45) Crassus was corrupt himself. He would start fires an be at the fire to offer
low bids to the homeowner’s who house he set fire too. The homeowner seeing he
lost everything would sell him the property for cash. Once the ownership would
change hands, then he would call his boys out, who were waiting behind a alley
with buckets of water to douse the flames and rebuild the home an sell it for
huge profits. It was business for him. For he was corrupt person.
46) So Pompey would intimidate and Crassus would bribe, and they became a team.
Now they control the senate, but not the people.
47) Their eyes were set on Julius Caesar, who was from an old Patrician family
and was a good military leader. He was quite ambitious and he had a sense of how
to control the common people. He was in charge of the gladiator Coliseum
spectacle. He was the darling of the people. So the two acquired him.
48) The result: This became the Triumvirate. Pompey, Crassus and Caesar. Called
“the rule of the three.”
49) After a while they start to fight against each other. In 66 BC Pompey goes
out and fights a triumphant Asia War, and became vary popular.
50) So Crassus tries his hand at what Pompey did, and goes out into war , but
51) Caesar does something vary unusual. He asked to be stationed in Gaul and
become their governor. (You see he was Ruling Rome with Pompey, but some how
something was wrong, and asked to be shipped out to Gaul.) Anyway Pompey wants
to get Caesar out of Rome, and when Caesar does go he becomes vary happy as he
will rule rome by himself.
52) 10 years Caesar concurs all of Gaul and some of Briton. Also as well he was
doing something spectacular. He was writing his memoirs about his exploits in
war. (And yes he was exaggerating.) Caesar gets rich by looting Gaul.
53) 49 BC: Pompey hears about Caesar exploits and gets jealous so he gets the
Senate to recall him. But, under the condition that he comes alone. Julius
smells a rat. Instead of coming home alone where he would be met by Pompey’s men
outside of Rome and ambushed, Caesar marches his entire Army into Rome. And
proclaims himself dictator. (He was doing this he claims to save the Republic.)
Pompey runs away and Caesars men find him on one of Carthages beaches and kill
him right there.
49 –44 BC
1) What does Caesar do? Well he builds nice places, like the central city, which
gets a new paving. “I found Rome a city of brick, and I leave it a city of
marble,” Caesar boasted. (Notice that phrase in one of Nostradamus quatrains.)
2) The people start to panic. Word comes out that Caesar is exaggerating
[thinking] about calling himself the King. The Senators call a secret meeting
and think of a way to dispose him. Especially where he will least expect it. So
on March 15 year 44 BC, 63 members of the senate put knives under their clocks
and walk into the senate auditorium, where they pull out the knives and preceded
the assignation of him. Caesar who was calm at the time just pulled his clock
over his head so that the other senators would not see the pain on his face.
3) Caesar relatives went to the senate. “ We need to find the killers,” they
said. This caused a little wars. Then the relatives jockey for position of power
themselves, all between each other.
4) Octavian a nephew emerges as the victor. He is adopted as the direct heir,
being a son of Caesar. He emerges military victory over his enemies, and the
Senate are in submission to him.
5) Octavian formally does away with the Republic. (It wasn’t a republic anyway,
as it was just a corrupted leaders fighting for the last 100 years.)
6) Then he names himself the Emperor. And changes his name to “Augustus the
emperor of Rome.”
7) All of Rome was stunned, but could do nothing about it. They came to resent
it, but it did something that no one thought would happen. It gave Rome thr
first peace in over 100 years.
8) So the people said its better that we have peace and accept this. ( They were
worn out from all the fighting.)
9) So this started the Roman Empire
60 BC- 14 AD
Golden Age of Rome
1) 60 BC- 14 AD is called the Golden Age of Rome.
2) This will be comparable to the classical age of Greece. They build beautiful
3) Writers come out and write great literature. You see they were not great
talented artists like the Greeks were, but they excelled in literature. Even the
book Gallic War was written by Caesar when he was doing his battle things in
Gaul (France called Gaul back then)
4) Horace wrote about farming problems.
5) Virgil wrote Aeneid, the greatest piece of Roman literature of their history.
It was an epic poem on the likes of great Beowolf and Gilgamesh epics.