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See how the world treats the homeless and poor? that was Jesus' life and so since the world hates the poor‚ orphans and such‚ they must love the rich and powerful, golden guilded Muhammad of Islam. So please join the rich elite Muslims and be happy‚ there seems to be no happiness with Jesus. — January 13 th 2015 A.D.
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Western Civilization — Part 1

by Michael Johnathan McDonald
History 101 Study Guide

Civilization: Combinations of institutions and ideas by which a large number of people conduct their collective way of life over an extended period of time.

 

In correlation to three archeological and academic occurring floods, and a slow melting of global ice.

(a) 100,000 Ice Age, Ocean Levels diminished from modern levels.

(b) This describes three global floods created by the rising sea levels as the Ice Age diminishes.

100,000 – 17,000 B.C.E.

17,000 Ice Age Ends in slow irregular cycles, three floods develop, one possibly rising 100 feet of ocean in a short span of time. Over 600 cultures have their own versions of a global flood myth.

Lost Civilizations with different names: Atlantis, Mu, Pinchu

  • 600 Cultures have Global Flood stories.

Atlantis: 360 B.C.E. Plato records an oral tradition of a lost civilization beyond the straits of Gibraltar, then called the Pillars of Hercules. The ledged details a great advanced civilization later destroyed by a great catastrophe, perhaps a global flood.  Twentieth Century A.C.E., Sumerian cylinder-seals describes Gilgamesh recalling a global flood – unknown to the Greeks, but perhaps known as an oral language; Considered not real until evidence arises with language inscriptions which accompany monuments.

Lost Monuments.

Yonaguni, Japan:  The ancient tropic of Cancer!, geographical area: 5 kilometers, some rocks are about eight stories high ( 8 ∙ 12 feet.),  ( Japan’s southern western tip- region, less developed of early 2500 B.C.E. humans. monoliths, stages, maybe petrogliphs., the last date 8,000 B.C.E., or an early date of 10,000 B.C.E.  Skeptical for persons that have not seen these with their own eyes, about 90%. 99% who make the dive and see this for themselves are all in wonderment. Tombs on Yonaguni, Island, not a traditional Okanagan tomb designs – perhaps adopted designs to the now submerged structures underwater. Skeptics believe it is a natural rock formation which cuts precise 90 degree angles, and no such studies are planned because rewriting the history books costs too much money and would destroy AcaGreedemia.

  1. Eastern Island: Legend of Mu. China’s history of the term used as a name: Duke Mu (659-621 BC) was the first Qin ruler of Qin state to play a significant role in the regional politics during the Spring and Autumn periods.

  2. China’s eastern Pacific Ocean location: The earliest legends from China of people living on mushroom clouds, people could fly, called Pinchu.

  3. Easter Island, large statues are a mystery.

  4. Ancient symbol the swastika, represents the Constellation of Orion’s four appendages form the perspective from the belt stars.

 Universality

  1. Universality: Pyramid complexes all across the northern Hemisphere, the largest of the landmasses between the northern and southern land masses.

  2. Universality of mathematics and astronomical alignments

  3. Universality of legends of floods, global floods destroying ancient civilizations.

R., Schoke,  Yale, Ph.D., Geology, The Egyptian Sphinx’s lower portion has a weathering pattern from 5,000 B.C.E.

Legends: Humans are created out of mud, or the remnants of the climate of an ice age, where water and mud are plentiful. Came from space and other stars and seeded life on Earth. This mirrors The Book of the Apocalypse, where a New Earth and a New Heaven ( local skies) are our collective future.  This means human’s planet-jump after they destroy their host planets, and this is like cycles of life’s existence in the Universe.

This type of oral and cultural legends counter claims by one man, Charles Darwin , and his comrades that evolution was slow and linear and civilization begins about 5,000 B.C.E., making 2,001 as a seven thousand year period of the juggernaut advancement of humans from hunter-and-gathers to shooting rockets to comets, to survey the Solar System, and to plan on manned missions to Mars.

So Humans are stupid for 1,995,000 solar-years, academics claim; then for 5,000 years humans advance like never before.  10 th ruler of the 18 th dynasty, New Kingdom, Egypt, Akhenaton introduced Monotheism in place of multiculturalistic-pluralism ( i.e. political correctness, post-modernism), and his son Tutankhamen both have elongated heads, archeological finds have elucidated. Tutankhamen moves the Capital to a new location, called Armana, where Aten, a sun-disk becomes the sole deity over all humans. Open minded scholars speculate that Akhenaton was a star-child, a hybrid, and the deformity of his and his son’s skull(s),

Advanced Astronomical Knowledge:

What stars? Serius B, not able to be seen with the naked eye; known as a white Dwarf by 2003 Hubble Telescope. Known to the ancients, Egyptians and Dogons because of their beliefs of where these deities came from to impart knowledge; Osiris was believed to come from Sirius B ( Sirius A is only 8 light-years away, and the third brightest object in the current night sky).  Einstein: While holes, rather than black holes, eject matter rather than swallow up matter.  Ethnologists are still trying to grasp this knowledge of ancient beliefs of persons coming to earth from far beyond.

The large pyramid at Giza, a different but mathematically precise building in contrast to  all other pyramid or building structures on earth – believed by some not to be a part of Standard Academic Egyptian Chronology.

China: Space Origins:

3,000 B.C.E. Radiance from star Xie, the origins of the Han Chinese people, people are in poverty, but the people are suffering and the star-child decided to come down, Shi Huamdi came to earth in a flying (yellow) dragon, he had the power of flight. Rocket smoke is red or yellow.

Zuni: Culture, star –knowledge traditions ( inclusive culture).

Gallup New Mexico, U.S.A., Adobe city, old indigenous tribes of America, over 2,000 years. Protectors and creators are supernatural beings form the sky. The crab nebula ( Praesepe, M44).  Drawing 1,200 B.C.E., modern space vehicles and beings ( petrogliphs, up to interpretation). These beings are taught to their children as “the Sky People.” They call these people Cachinas, like most native American Indian tribes, and they use ‘portals’ or black or white holes described by Einstein.  Cachina (katchina) [Colenia ( bird) ]  figurines all have space-suits and masks that look like ancient astronauts. These are all oral histories with pre-historic rock-carving accompaniment. The Hopi Prophecy, said a return of the Blue Cachina, will heralded a massive change in human existence.

Michelangelo, one of the most celebrated artists in history,  who painted the Sistine Chapel, near the city of Rome, depicts Adam reaching out his finger to God, who appears to be riding in some type of vehicle, accompanied by a cherub angel. This only proves that these legends have been around for millennia, some type of universality.

Mesopotamia: ( modern day Iraq)

Annunaki ( those who from the heavens came), a  7 th century B.C.E. a Sumerian Text. ancient carvings have figurines with suits, necessary to survive in space.

Greek and Roman Gods:

Zeus, came down from the sky of Olympus, breed with humans which mirror stories in the Bible, of the giants who mated with human women.

Jewish Bible:

Bible: God Created Adam and Eve, first Adam and Lilith out of mud  ( Ice Age mud, found in later Zoharic traditions, a non-Biblical tradition) and found in the Bible, God created Eve out of Adam’s flesh, his rib – perhaps a soul-mate.  Some speculate a mistranslation in Genisis Chapter 1, The Gods Created Adam and Even in Our Own Image.

Panspermia: A Greek mythology: all life in Universe have seeds of life and can contaminate planets.  Modern approach, Mars cooled first, having the necessary conditions for life, and humans planet jumped to Earth when Earth became livable. Asteroid: that is 3.6 billion years old,  found in Antarctica, contained fossilized life found in a meteorite. In 1953 at Cambridge, England,  two geneticists hypothesized that Panspermia where other planets sent DNA to other planets, knowing that DNA has all life in it and is abundant in our Universe. These are Exobiological Theories.  So we are colonists of another people from another place in Space.

Why miscommunication? Technology so advance was too complex for primitive humans to understand, so the space-aliens could not really communicate with the humanoids.

LIFE

  1. Life Exists all over the Universe. Our Solar System is young compared to others in our Universe.

  2. DNA: APPX. 25,000 genes from DNA:  The HARI == human gene sets us apart from other animals? ( Santa Cruz, U., California).   We use only 5% of all of our DNA, and 95% we do not know what it is yet.

  3. Life: Bi-Lateral Symmetry, from Space Aliens to animals.

  4. Cultures all over the world have legends of sky people coming down to interact with humans.

  5. Physics: All life is energy and all life competes for that energy.

EVOLUTION ACADEMIA.

5 Million BC

Australopithecine: Southern ape like man.
1) Origin Eastern Africa coasts.
2) Dragged knuckles
3) Only warm climates
2 Million BC

Homo Hablin: Man able
1) Walked upright
2) Adapted to their environment
3) Three feet
4) Only warm climate
1 Million BC

Homo Erectus: Upright man

1) Began to walk upright
2) Began to adapt to their environment
3) 3 feet tall
4) Only warm climate

5) Africa, perhaps, primitive arrows, spears, tools (200,000 BC).
100,000 – 30,000 BC

Homo-Sapiens: Human understanding (thinking man)
Neanderthal:
1) Lived up Northern regions of Europe-Norway ect.
2) First use of fire
3) Tools hand ax made out of stone with edges tapering off to a sharp point
4) 4 ½ feet tall
5) Wore skins
6) Ability to change environment (fire)
7) Buried their dead (first forms of religious practices)
8) Bones across their fore heads

9) Neanderthal may have been killed off by humans.

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12,900 B.C. North America Cont.: James Kennett , U.C. Santa Barbara, pub. 2007 A.D. comet whipped out wooly mamoths, etc...


Cro- Magnon:
1) First cases of art (France caves)
2) Humans descended from them
3) They wore clothes
4) Made spears
5) No bones across their foreheads
6) Their chins were prominent as Neanderthal had none
7) Lived in warm climates


Paleolithic: Old Stone Age
à 10,000

Neolithic: New Stone Age
10,000 à 5,000

The First Civilizations

1) Bows and arrows
2) Knives made out of stone
8,000 BC Neolithic Revolution
Agriculture develops

1) Women’s idea of farming
2) Change with the introduction of farming
3) Started to settle down from nomadic life style of always moving around, from hunting and gathering to settled life on small personal farms
4) Women were possibly dominate species
5) Settled down in personal farms
6) Domesticated animals to reproduce for supply
7) Ownership of possessions, and accumulated possessions as furniture, dishware, pottery-storage vessels for grain.
8) Weaving of cloth (textiles)
9) Storage process for writing down possessions was 1000 years from now.

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Bronze Age
5,000 BC

1) Earliest metals; copper mixed with tin to make bronze.
2) The wheel is invented specifically for the pottery wheel for faster production of clay jars and storage vessels.
3) Irrigation was developed that caused abundant crops; this results in a population explosion.
4) Along with irrigation is created the scratch plow and the men become the farmers and take over agriculture (food) production.
5) Specialized bronze workers causes a trade with food for metal.
6) With the wheel men take over professional pottery making business.

Sumerians
3100 BC – 2000 BC


1) The First Civilization.
2) Five urban centers have 10,000 or more members.
3) Kept records, had a system of writings.
4) Most are farmers and own land.
5) Protection is the main reason for gathering in cities.
6) GOVERNMENT: Independent city-states, each having kings or monarchy.
7) Kings said that the gods appointed them, so they could have more stay in power.
8) Priest said we have to be on the Kings side! (When Kings concord other tribes/races/people they gave allot of spoils to the priests, for their support.)
9) Buildings: mud-brick cities.
10) Writings: wrote in wet clay. The form was called CUNEIFORM (means wedge-shape). The writings were not like the alphabet, but meant things and idea’s, instead of words with vowels. Most writings were business records. Others prayers and spells/rituals | mythology as well.
11) Gilgamesh survived because it was a standard study material.
12) First to use mathematics. (Geometry); also calendar and astronomy.
13) First code of laws, used courts and judges.

Sumerian Creation Myth: Creation of the Gods

The battlefield waste makes all matter, after the main war. Gods said need man to worship me (us) [the gods]. The gods would be schizophrenic. They would do well for you and then does a 180 degree turn the next time they see you. Keyword of the gods: Selfish.
No worship of an afterlife or thought of it. But, they thought they had ‘souls.’ The souls would travel after death in the underground and be hung upon hooks [racks]. They called it “the place of no return.” Sumerians live life for the moment. They had gambling and games, and beer! Their motto: Live for here and now, for after death there is nothing.

Sumerian Location: Mesopotamia

1) Means ‘land between the rivers. The rivers Tigress, and Euphrates demarcate the geographical zone.
2) Food in the springtime, they built high platforms and put temples on them, also because of the annual floods they needed place to escape too! The dreaded the annual floods. Also these high platforms gave rise to the tower of Babel [in the Bible] they were called Ziggurats.
3) The Sumerians had a unique language to any other. No language can be a derivative from them.
4) PROBLEMS: They fought between themselves, and then began boarder disputes (wars); each city boosted one-upmanship – this caused wars. They were also greedy; they practiced ‘to conquer the other city-state you could make them pay tribute (a tax)’.


Amorites

1) Less Sophisticated but more warlike, they did not add to the Sumerian Culture, but copied it. They were soft peaceful people (? Ask about this)
2) They copied the laws from their neighbors.


1500 BCE


1) Invasions and wars put civilization on hold for awhile


Egypt

1) 90% of the geography contains deserts. The Nile River gives life to it.
2) Spring floods are blessing, compared to Sumerians who cursed them. The Sumerians in Mesopotamia blamed the gods on the spring floods, because it was right about harvest time. And the Sumerians had floods on their minds all the time! This may be where the flood of the Earth epic came from [Biblical Flood Story] as the whole Earth.
3) Egypt Nile floods were as late as late June, and for three months as it travels down the Nile from the Ethiopian region; it brings rich soil that replenished the soil [ground]. When the floods waters receded there was no need to re-soil. This was seen as a blessing from the gods. One can see why Egyptians praised the floods and the Sumerians rebuked them toward the gods.

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4) Legends are about humans; Mythology is about gods.
5) The Biblical flood story happened because people tend to exaggerate things.

Egypt
1500 BC
1) Ethiopian floods replenished the Nile valleys croplands.
2) Mesopotamia is open land for attacks; the Desert protects Egypt, for a long time, and a long time large armies could not attack because of the harsh deserts.
3) Pharos, were believed sent from the gods, or they forced this on peoples heads.
4) Records say Pharos were sent from gods and the people believed [most likely written by the rich and powerful to keep control?] He happened to own all of Egypt, and he got 20 % of everybody’s yearly output/produced in this form of a tax.
5) Peasants in Egypt were better off than those of Mesopotamia. Why? Because better food- more abundant, less taxes, and less attacks from invasions.
6) Tremendous effort by the entire nation of Egypt to ensure ‘life after death with gods.’ (Believed that humans not only had flesh and bone in the after life, but had souls as well. Or a spiritual body.
7) GOVERNMENT: Theocracy
8) BELIEFS of AFTERLIFE: After life is the same as the life they lived, but better. (Preserved the body is one piece of evidence)
9) Mummification: Bodies administered, de-bowled—take out intestines, and stomach, liver, lungs and cut them out and stuff them and put in jars. The brain was removed and thrown away and filled with sand (because they did not know the importance of the brain—they had no clue). Body put in solution for a few weeks, and then aromatic oils are administered, and then rapped. Five types of jobs, due to family’s affordability. The cheapest was to tar the body and wrap it with the equivalent of newspapers and throw into a common burial chamber.
10) Why Pyramids were started? Hyenas and Jackals would eat the dead bodies by digging out the shallow graves, so Egyptians need a way to protect the dead relatives. Solution: build a mud-brick 6 feet thick by 10 feet called a Mastaba.

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11) In the old days, only the leaders were ‘said’ to have souls; after about 1000 years, riots erupted and everyone was granted a soul. (A form of Democratic Society/ a possible cry for the masses rights as equal in certain social matters of great importance)


2500 BC
Zoser

6 feet by 10 feet Mastaba
body


1) Zoser started to build Mastabas’ (He is credited with the invention).
2) The first to build it out of stone was Imanhotep (?Spelling). He built it out of stone instead of mud-brick; cut stones to standard sizes. He ordered the building of mastabas’ upon each other, which came to be the famous ‘Step Pyramids.’ At first, it was done as an experiment.

Pyramid Age
2500-2200

In dispute:
1) As the Step Pyramids kept off the creatures that would eat the bodies, they became an art form. Capstones would be placed on the Step Pyramids to smooth out the edges.
2) Pyramids were not built by slave labor, but by peasants who were paid.


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3) [ Egyptions were not obserssed with death, but life!] OLD-VIEW: AFTERLIFE & SOULS: To Egyptians, heaven was always toward the west. The souls would travel by boat, the souls goes along the riverbanks, hops on a boat that is on the Nile and floats with the current from South to North on the Nile. This was a mythological River Nile that eventually flowed through caverns underneath the desert; this is where the souls started to travel towards the west. It was deemed a dangerous trip, full of ghouls and demons. Priests got into the business marketing help to people alive for the journey of the underground Nile. These were maps stuck into the coffins, as sort of a tour guide. The Book was called ‘ The Book of the Dead.’ The book contained passwords, and spells. The journey there was ‘gates’, to get into heaven at the end of the journey if you did not crash your boat or be devoured by the demons. There were 48 judges at the gates. So the Priests marketed a ‘list of denials’ to the people. The final judgment was that of the ‘Scales.’ The gates would open if your soul was weighed against a down feather on the scales and you were lighter than the feather. If your soul was heavier than the feather, dogs to gobble you up and awaited your soul, you were considered dog food.
4) Elements of Ethics, social responsibility (See about this?)

Egypt
Old Kingdom

3100-2200 BC

1) Constructive period.
2) Basic forms of art, religion, peaceful, pyramids of cut stone, writing system appeared suddenly, not over a long period of time, probably introduced by the Sumerians, and were the different in that the Egyptians used pictures and not letters/wedges, what is called hieroglyphs –means sacred writing.

Intermediate Kingdom
2200-2050 BC

1) Government disintegration. Riots emerged, blood baths, death, robbing and collapse of government due to exhaustion from all the building.

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Middle Kingdom
2050-1785 BC

1) Prosperous time.
2) Expanded agriculture base, dug canals, which meant more abundant crop, allot more writings, books on instructions, table etiquette, medical practices, travel, poetry.
3) Loosing interest in pyramids, clearly on the way out, now building temples.

Hyksos
1785-1550 BC

1) Foreign invaders take Egypt by surprise, take it over and suppress the rulers.
2) Hyksos –[Sheppard kings], they were aggressive, they came across the north Sinai…
3) REASON: Luxury and wealth made the people complacent, but most of all the rulers soft; most likely leaders became corrupted and wanted to be in their harems, and party and play instead of attending to military watches on their boarders.

1550 BC
National Revolt

1) A national revolt started down the Nile (by Ethiopia), the Egyptians expelled the
Hyksos.
2) The lessons learned: there were big powerful nations with big armies beyond the desert. They also became aware of imperialistic actions of themselves. They built up their own armies and marched to triumph over other nations.

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New Kingdom
1550-1090 BC

1) Most powerful time in Egyptian history, and most wealthy.
2) Period which saw a brief monotheistic movement.
3) They became aggressive at this time and subjugated the Mediterranean coast, along with the northern Africa coast where Sudan resided and where they discovered rapids for transpiration opportunities, and of rivers and goldmines. They went on to conquer the eastern Mediterranean (today’s Israel and Lebanon); looting the countryside and taking captives slaves back to Egypt -- Conquering all the way up to the northern area, and Mesopotamia northern area.
4) They demanded tribute, which resulted in huge amounts of wealth, with large amounts of wealth given the priests so the priests would build temples to them to keep the leaders in power, and the priests built the largest temples in the world at that time, done all by slave labor. So elaborate that the walls were covered in sheets of gold at the temples.
5) Again the good life makes the people and leaders soft. The leaders want to play all night and day with their money and women in harems and the society fall into the period of decline.

Period of Decline
1090-525 BC

1) All the wealth causes some bickering among the people; they become complacent in defense, because of it. Each one wants a piece of the pie. (As seen today in America today, in general historical pattern/ when states get rich…) The society is weakening from with in by pursuit of money. Immigrations are also a factor as in America today; people from the outside see job opportunities and free services. Different languages collapsed continuity between the different groups of people which affected the infrastructure’s stability. Some leaders got so paranoid as to hire entire foreign people as body guards, and they paid the price as the foreigners turned and killed them and took everything they owned leaving nothing for the family. Lesson is, never hire [foreign] mercenaries to guard you. After this the foreigners take over the ruler ships of the cities and eventually all of Egypt.
2) Thus, Libyans -- ruled; Ethiopians -- ruled; Assyrians -- ruled.

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Naked Rule
Foreign Dominations
525 – 331 BC
Persians Rule Egypt

1) Persians: conquer Egypt and big parts of known world.

331-31 BC
Alexander - Greeks
2) Greeks: Alexander the Great conquers entire middle east.

31 BC - 640 AD
Romans

1) Romans: take over Egypt.
2) Egyptians came to an end.

Arabs
640 AD – Present

Notes: No evidence to Moses in Egypt. Big Nations were Sumerians and Egyptians.

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Canaanites/Phoenicians
1200 BC (?)

1) Canaanites: Semitic people.
2) Government: City-states, city-kings.
3) People basically living by the coast were called Phoenicians.
4) Farming people were the Canaanites.
5) Boating people were the Phoenicians. They built coastal cities, and excelled in manufacturing of boats that did not fall apart. They were experienced boaters. They were the first at massive merchandizing, in the world.
6) Trade with Egypt influenced their culture. They shipped Cedar wood for jewelry, and other products to Egypt and beyond. They imported textiles of white linen cloth from Egypt, and then they stained them with snail juice from the local sea, that turned the linen a purplish color and types of red color; the rulers, especially the women in Egyptian royalty, desired the colored linen. The smell creatred by the staining with snail juice created a need for the marketing of perfume to get rid of the snail/ocean smell.
7) Phoenicians—means purple people.
8) Phoenicians became the first international traders, everyone ended up influencing each other.
9) They barrowed Sumerian writing. Somewhere around 2000 BC, the Phoenicians thought the Cuneiform to complex and formed the Alphabet of 22 letters. This new alphabet spread over to other people, like Israelites and Greeks. The Greeks changed the symbols of the alphabet letters, and the Romans will change them even more again. The Phoenician alphabet is remote all over the world; Asia, Arabia; Europe.
10) GODS: Baal-Lord and Master.
11) God and goddesses were always sexy and chased women, and were always known as “Virgins,” or “Virgin goddesses.” The people worship these goddesses at temples of prostitution. The theme was to ‘worship sexiness.’
12) One god named Anat had a proclamation which was given to all the towns and cities. A great date was set for a grand festival in her honor, with a huge sacrifice. The People gathered into her temple till it was full, then some spilled out onto the lawn and the outsides. Anat would sneak out from the temple walls and lock the gates, and then she would travel around to a place inside the walls where she would jump over and perform a surprise slaughter of all her worshipers. Sexiness was not all that was worshipped by the gods. Also, the lust for bloodshed demonstrated a primal need in their culture. Human sacrifices were something the gods wanted, but demanded. Anat, she loved blood. There is evidence found of human babies in burial jars that were partly burned. These children found were called to be sacrificed by these blood lusting gods.
13) Though the Canaanites and the Phoenicians were progressive peoples, in their own right, they also had less desirable traits. (Religion).

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Israel
2000 BC

1) Abraham, the Patriarch of Israel, came from Sumer (mesopotam) during a period of change when the Amorites controlled the Sumerians about 2000 BC.
2) The father and mother of Abraham worshipped multi-gods as everyone else.
3) Abraham was the first to worship only one-main god. (Monotheism).
4) He travels to the land of the Canaanites, and takes up a nomadic lifestyle after leaving urban life of Sumer. God tells Abraham that the land will be his one-day, and he calls it the “Promise land.”
5) Israel called Jacob, progenitor of the Twelve-tribes, gets his name after a challenging fight.
6) MOSES Period: Hyksos are kicked out of Egypt and become aggressive and enslave many tribes. The Egyptians kill-off male born slaves and leave only girls, so the races can assimilate to their own groups. This, they do to Israel. As the story goes, one boy was saved (Moses).

EXODUS
1250 BC

1) Ten plagues of Egypt.
2) Moses crossed the ‘Sea of Reeds’, not the Red Sea.
3) The sea Moses crossed was possibly a lagoon with reeds only a foot deep in water.
4) The Red Sea was too salty and no reeds grow there.
5) They go to Mount Sinai. This is where they receive their Laws (Constitution)
6) Oath: If they obeyed Gods commandments then they were blessed, if not they would be cursed. This is a form of a treaty with God.
7) The Covenant with God became the first covenant. Jesus’ covenant would be the second covenant with God, and change many laws of Moses’ period.
8) Forty-years in the desert the Israelites finally settled in promise land promised to Abraham, the land of the Canaanites. They had to conquer surrounding tribes. The Israelites became a military force. The conquest of small tribes occurred about 1200 BC. They attacked and chased out various groups but didn’t kill-off the groups or tribes. Some conquered groups, they made subjects to them.

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Conquest of Canaanites
1200 BC

1) First 200 years were precarious, decentralized and unorganized.
2) The tribes start having wars between themselves; Some Canaanites revived themselves returned to dominate some groups of the Israelites.

1000 BC Israel
King Saul
King David


1. Israel becomes a Monarchy, the nation becomes cohesive because of enemies around them caused them and unify.
2. Tribal convention: Decide to elect a leader/king. Election of king Saul, the first king, and military leader, unites the tribes and begins to win battles.
3. They pick Saul. From the smallest of the tribes, he was tall and handsome, but extremely shy. He lived on his farm. Throughout his rule, he would gather warriors when needed to chase the enemies away. He did not organize an established state with army. The Israelites catch the attention of powerful enemies as they began to take lands and rule over them. The Israelites began to use the small sword, begin to train in small and light infantry, an advantage to heavy infantry, when battling in geographical regions containing hills and mountains.
4. He was said to have an evil spirit (Probably mental illness), in the biblical narration.
5. He deteriorated and committed suicide on the battlefield, instead of being taken prisoner and possibly facing torture.
6. David becomes King and creates the Israel state. David changes policies of group subjugation, he kills-off most of the population of the tribes he conquered, according the Bible.
7. He captures Jerusalem from the Canaanites and establishes a capital there. He appoints everything that a king of later times would have done, and this creates organization upon which to determine defined boarders.
8. He includes a national tax for government income, and centralizes the alter -- and brings all religious artifacts, including the Ark of the Covenant, to Jerusalem. This was the political center of the Israelites.
9. After this, he starts wars with the Philistines, a people of unknown origin who brandish the first iron weapons. He defeats the southern and northern territories. (Nations).
10. Every adult male killed off, and then Syria talks of joining him peacefully. He conquers all the way up to the boarders of Mesopotamia and forms a little Israelite Empire.

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Solomon
972-932


1. As David is on his deathbed, he makes a list to have all his enemies eliminated. (Hit List)
2. Gives list to Solomon. David says, that he was “Gods own Heart.” A man who lived after
3. Bible describes David as a man after God’s own heart, but David makes a hit list of his enemies to consolidate power.
4. Solomon had a peaceful reign. He reigned 40 years.
5. He builds temples to God, then his own palaces to himself that is ten times as expensive as Gods temple ( where the Ark of the Covenant resided). Then his numerous wife’s demand they all get their own palaces. So he spends the rest of his life building elaborate palaces. Trade policies mark this era.
6. All the work is under the auspices of Public works and the Israelite groups creates jobs, but Solomon works the people vary hard, to the point that labor union workers complain and bring charges against Solomon. They tell him to ease off. He responds with imprisoning them. When he dies he dies peacefully.
7. Said to have many wives and concubines, but probably exaggerated in the historical records.



Divided Monarchy Period
New King
932 –

1) The new King hears complaints about the exhaustion of the working people, all the time to build Israel into a powerhouse. He tells the leaders who come to him asking him to ease off of the building commands, a little.
He replies. “ If you thought the other king was hard, I will be tougher.” This causes a split in the tribes.
2) Israel nation splits into Two sub-nations--the Northern Ten Tribes of Israel and the Southern Judah tribes. Jerusalem remains the capital of the Israelite state.
3) This period in history is called the divided monarchy period.
4) This time is said the Israelites began to use illegal and immoral means to enhance their wealth. They steal neighbor’s cattle; they would pick on people least able to protect themselves. They picked on widows and orphans, as they did not have family to stick up for themselves. (Note: this is the case in every immoral society)
5) Crime a disturbing trend catches the eyes of the concerned fathers of ethics.
6) These concerned people are known as the reform prophets.

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Reform Prophets
Amos
750 BC

1) Reform Prophets spoke out against crimes of the Israelite leaders and strongmen who were said to have treated the common Israelite people poorly.
2) Some crimes concerned the selling of the people who owed money to other people into debt-slavery; some severe cases included a person sold into slavery for a debt of a pair of shoes.
3) The Reform Prophets had stones thrown at them, were jailed, some died in jail, and were beaten up for criticizing the rich- and politically connected.
4) Reform Prophets promised punishment from God if the crimes did not stop.
5) Their messages survived, as recorded in the Bible; they were the first to call for reforms in history, in a written Israelite record, and the west ethical heritage is attributed to them.
6) All in all, the Reform Prophets did not get a good response, even the king abused the people and no reforms came. They were active for about 150 years. The message was written down; first in the history of recorded reform.

Assyria
Northern Mesopotamia, Arose

1. Northern Mesopotamia arose. Changes and aggressive leaders start to attack-west –
2. North - east. They start at upper Israel. Judah is on friendly terms with the Assyrians.
3. 721 BC: Massive attack on Ten Tribes of upper Israel. They conqure village by village. Looting occurs.
4. Burned villages occure. People are taken and deported and disappear from history. They settle in and brought other people in Israel.
5. Judah somewhat an ally of Assyria. 608 BC Assyria collapses.


Babylon

1. Babylon -- closely related to Assyrians. They become warlike and establish Babylonian
2. Empire. They attack Judah in 587 -
3. 587 BC, Nebuchadnezzar loots and burns Judah; carrying off slaves to Babylon and resettles them there.




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1. Judah maintains their identity; they will be able to return to Judah one day.

2. Israelite Overview: They did not invent a political system or achieve any scientific system. The, however, adopted and organized a vast and intricate Monotheist society and sound Social ethics -- you should not cheat or suppress people. The message of the Reform Prophets empowered later western thinkers into adopting these ethical ideas into western civilization. In this way, the Israelites became a vital force in future world politics.

Groups before the Greeks
Europe Early History



1) Agriculture – 18 % capable of growing in region, the region is not agriculturally friendly.
2) Influences come from Mesopotamia - to - Greek civilization. The people living there were not Greeks at the time.



Crete
Minoan’s
2500 – 1450 BC


1) This was the first civilization in Europe.
2) We know nothing of their origins.
3) The people living there were not Greeks at the time.
4) In the 1900’s archeologists discovered the city called Knossos.
5) Wealthy society.
6) Possibly a matriarchal society.
7) Great art productions, and builders (colored walls paintings)
8) Big buildings of their time excised of size of 6 ½ Acers—(Palaces)
9) Clearly influenced by Egypt. But imbued own style to the palaces.
10) Sanitation –clay piping; fresh water pipe into bathrooms with full size bathtubs; fresh running water and toilets that flushed. Compared to Egyptians who had to take sponge baths administered by servants. Nothing is built ingenuity like this until the Romans 2000 years later.
11) Writings were pictographs called Liner A.
12) Paintings on the wall, elaborate dresses, lots of thought and time went into making them.
13) Lots of gold an valuables, beautiful pottery made.
14) RELIGION: Strange practices.
15) Religious pictures of women shown as heads of the family and cities and society. There are pictured vary prominent, leftover of the Neolithic ages.
16) Pictures of Bulls dominated their scenes (Note: Feminine sign in Astrology)


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17) Acrobatic depictions on the walls show a type of religious game where the person would do somersaults over the bull’s horns.
18) No protected walls around the cities or palaces, which means no fighting among them. It also meant no protection in case of invasion. Also, no walls indicated the an isolated, comfort zone.
19) No pictures of glory in wars- no scenes of warfare. Dominated trade, supposedly.
20) Earthquakes damage on walls, but also signs of repairs, so earthquake region.
21) 4150 BC Major catastrophe happens: 17 miles north, a volcano erupts causing earthquakes, and then suddenly it blew up. Ash was piled up 20 feet with people and palaces buried and preserved for later archeologists to study in-depth of the civilization. Conclusion of the end: Everything destroyed when a huge title wave washes ashore. Damaged beyond repair and recovery. The Main Greek Island fares OK! Descendants.
22) Someone came in and looted the island and ended the civilization
23) The Minoans passed on their knowledge to the Greeks and that was their legacy.



First Greeks
Mycenaean’s
1650 – 1150

1) Ancestors of the Greeks came down from the northeast. Settled down and contacted the Minoans, and the culture rub-off on them.
2) Became civilized by 1650. Copied Minoan art and building, and language
3) Their writing system is called Liner B. This has been deciphered, but not Liner A.
4) The big difference was that these people were warlike.
5) In there art, there are scenes of battles and, hunting and war, pictures of weapons. Military shields, necklaces around the women’s necks.
6) Massive walls indicated a warlike atmosphere.
7) Chiefs fought against each other continuously.
8) Mycenaean’s looted the Minoans.
9) By 1150 they collapsed.
10) One big war called the Trojan War. Told around campfires after the collapse of the Mycenaean’s. It was recorded. Fought about 1200-1190. Narrow passage to the Black Sea made it important geo-political city.
11) By the time of collapse, all palaces showed damaged by war.
12) The profound collapse reduced the size of the population to about 10%. This caused a dark age; all writing ceased and well as art and poetry.


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Greek Dark ages
1150 – 800/750

1) Writing had been forgotten.
2) No more building, people are living in mud huts.
3) Returned to civilized way of life, gradually.
4) Possible immigration caused a collapse in social coherency and created warring of the Mycenaean groups.



Age of expansion and Colonization
Greece 750 – 650 BCE


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1. Independent city-states emerge called Polis & over 120 of them in the Greek world. Each
2. Ruled by a king. All have own systems of governance/government. The Polis was the center and as well the surrounding countryside all made up the city-state. They were sovereign
3. unto themselves.
4. They identified themselves not as Greeks but by the names of their Polis’s that they lived in. A sort of nationalism.
5. Each state was particular from one to another. Much competition between them.
6. Only thing in common was same language; same culture and same gods.
7. 18% of the land could be cultivated. This brought up a crisis in that it could not feed the whole population when they expanded in numbers. So a decision had to be made. To “get more land and get rid of excess population. It was decided upon to send people out to the Aegean regions mostly coastlines and colonize only areas that were not inhabited by others. They decided by lottery, and some by decree of the chief leaders of the separate poleis; some counselors would decide who would go and tell you, and you, and you must go. Some were volunteers. They looked for land beside the sea! Socrates said, “Greeks settle by the sea shore as frogs gather around a pond.” Greeks started to make settlement around the Aegean Sea, also Asia Minor and the Mediterranean. Most colonization was out towards the west. 1000’s of Greeks did this. Even Naples, Italy was a Greek Name from the first Greeks who settled in the area. (m. Like the Pilgrims did in America-as Rome became the next Super Civilization)
8. This revealed that the colonies had so much food production from good land that they started to trade with the main Greek Polis’s and resulted in them over taking Phoenicians big trade market in the world. Greeks became the great traders. Out of these pilgrimages, they encountered strange religions and people and different gods.. ( m. Like the American pilgrims who encountered the American Indians.) Used the barter system-semi-precious stones and gold.



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Inventions they did not have any, but the improved on existing ones. They copied, art, language, building, ECT… At the beginning they were still illiterate and they had to rediscover the Phoenician alphabet and writings. There were no writings at the time.
750 BC Lydian’s invents Money. A gold rush in the river banks brought people all around the Lydian’s to get gold. The king saw that weighing out gold was a nuisance, so he thought up the idea of melting down the gold into coins of gold and stamped them with a bull’s head. The Greeks came and saw this and improved on the idea after trading and seeing the Lydian’s melt gold coins. They made their own design - a leaders face and some writing on them to distinguish the Greek coins.
Greeks see Egyptian pyramids. Greeks still lived in mud huts. They saw 10 inch dolls and
Some decided to go to a rock-pile and start pounding away and made life-size sculptures mostly in the beginning of coping and replicating Egyptian pharos. Then they improved upon them. They also improved the writing, building in the age of expansion and colonization. The Greeks adsorb lots and lots of information and idea’s.


Archaic Age
650 BC – 480 BC

1) Greeks now work on internal changes at this time. As well as corner the pottery market
and improve on better forms of art.
2) Social and political advances are in change.
3) The new forms of waging war were what changed it. The people of the polis have started to fight in a new formation called the Phalanx. Their faces peered over their shields, which were covering half their body and half their partners that formed line impenetrable and holding spears. This revelation in battle technique created less armor to be worn and easier maneuvering of the body. They also got less tired as well. Less expensive. The lone warrior was put out of business. This meant no more kings would be needed to lead their armies into battle as the citizens all fought together in cooperation. After the battles they also lived in cooperation. This ended the kings of the Polis as they were displaced or demoted to that of a cabinet level on equal footing with the citizens of the polis. Everybody was equal on the battlefield. So equality rose in the poleis in the political systems. King was reduced in importance.
4) As the end of the Archaic age citizens get rid of all kings and put them at lesser positions.



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Athens
508 BC
Democracy


1) First democracy in Athens is established. All citizens have equal responsibilities in the communities, right to vote, hold office.
2) Every thing improves- art, etc… This was because of more freedom and less restrictions. This now would be called a Classical Age of Greece. More talented than ever before. The columns of the buildings were expanded and improved upon in respect to the Egyptians.
3) More talented then before.
4) Victory in the Persian war. In the Archaic age Greeks remake themselves. Now they are more talented than ever.
5) In Persia- multi national culture . Iran main place. Arabian tribes start to unify. Started establishing Empires. Egypt gets concerned. From the north sections of Greece the Persians pushed close into islands where there was Greek states.
6) This cause great alarm. A shattering event to the Greeks, after getting rid of their own kings , now Persian kings are out to conquer them - under foreign rule.
7) Secret groups formed to get out of Persian rule. Sending weapons, organizing to attack the Arab-Persians.
8) This caused alarm to Persian rulers saying that Athens meddling in their rule was none of their business- Persian affaires. The sent a warning with a military to Athens.


Emperor Daruis
490 BC
1) Says to take Athens and burn it to the ground. [not this time]
2) Arabs landed at Marathon to try to destroy Athens with 15-16,000 men in number. They set up a base camp there.
3) Athena’s sent scouts to monitor them. The Athens scared of attack asks other Greek states to help with aiding their defenses of the city. Other states say NO! Only the G ? state decided to help. The Athens army said better to attack now before they attack us???
4) Result: 5000 Persians dead and only 193 Athena have fallen.
5) After this they sent their best runner to Athens about 26 miles to the center of the Market place. “ We have won!” H collapses on the spot and died. In memory of him, we call the Super running race – Marathon.
6) To the Athena’s this was a culture clash more than just military, but to the Persians it was just a boarder incident. To Athens it was life or death!
7) Reasons for their victory: Gymnastics were taught to every young man as was good.
8) On the battlefield: If a general died, he was replaced on the spot. No one would be left not knowing what to do next, or waiting for orders.


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9) They perfected fighting. Greeks had longer spears than the Persians.
10) After it was all over they were happy. But knew the Persians would be back.
11) Darius said, “ Got to do it again.”


10 Years Later
Xerxes 480 BC

1) 200 ships. Xerxes says, “ Make sure you do it right.”
2) He arms 100,000 men. That’s a big army back then!
3) They march, Athens evacuated their city- they could not handle this.
4) Persians invade Athens. People are gone. Xerxes throws a fit says, “ burn it to the round.”
5) Persians loot and burn Athens because Athenians abandon city.
6) Athenian Navy was being built up in the ten years between Darius and Xerxes.
7) They attack while the troops are in Athens. Vary smart indeed. They catch Persians of guard in the Battle of Salamis. They lured them into coves and then started to ram their ships into theirs. Athenians new the waterways better than the Persian vessels commanders.
8) The result: Another Athenian victory! After this more Greeks get involve and kick out the remaining soldiers out of Greece. They kicked out the Arabs.
9) The creed: “The gods gave us this overwhelming victory!?
10) They rebuild Athens a bigger and better Athens. They are vary happy.


The Classical Age
480-338 BC

1) Protagorus: “ Man is the measure of all things.”
2) Only man has the capacity to judge.
3) Man is the standard.
4) They become aware of how important the human being is. “Only man can have civilization.” They become aware of the possibilities.
5) Note: What man is able to achieve in art is called humanism.
6) What did they ask? The importance of man.
7) What way do they see man as important? Human endeavors. Their own decisions set up from earlier forms of government.
8) Democracy is a humanistic form of government.
9) We the People make the laws, instead of Moses, Hannurabi ? getting their laws from gods.
10) Legislation- peoples make laws.
11) Before laws murder was dealt with by revenge.


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12) Example of Murder: Agamenon sacrificed his daughter to the gods. (He murdered her as to say) He is accused of murder. Then Agamenon comes back from the war, his wife (Need Name) stabs him. Then their son Orester kills his mother for killing his father who killed his sister. [We see the need for laws as this can get out of hand-note: Jesus wanted the buck to stop somewhere and not let it go on and on.]
Daughter-Father-Mother-Son.
13) Greeks establish trials: A system of trials and courts.
14) 1st. The Judges, not a jury yet. A series of judges then a neutral body carries out the judgment of the crime called jury.
15) Court trails: It’s the people that make the decisions, soon after the trial comes the decision. Soon after trials there comes a jury.
16) Medical practitioner. Hypocrates. He observes that things are caused not by gods, but, by natural causes. He says, “ Need to investigate into the cause.”
17) This is the beginning of true medicine. Fascinated with the human body, and fascinated by it. Specifications of the body.
18) Men look like athletes- [especially the statues that came along] Old men looked fit with athletic bodies.
19) Looked like the athletic bodies in the prime of there lives. The Greeks cheated on art, only showing the best.

 

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fall 2001



 

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