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University of California, Berkeley: nuclear issue, nuclear Berkeley

 Michael Johnathan McDonald, notes...

Can a small space such as a building potentially change so many people’s lives? Space is a very important element in history. A space can mean many things: a symbolic meaning, a concrete meaning, an emotion meaning or a reasoned meaning. A space can be local, regional, national, or international, or progress in this fashion.  A space can have monetary value. It can be symbolic of space and time, an idea, a cause, and a history. A space can be public or private or symbolize both. Small spaces can become large spaces. A space as small as an atom in a space of small machine ins a small spaced building  can become a large symbolic, concrete, emotional and reasoned and life determining space affecting each public and private space across the whole the world.

 

The invention of the cyclotron in 1929 was the brain child of Ernest Orlando Lawrence (August 8, 1901 – August 27, 1958). After receiving his Ph. D at Yale, he continued working on the photoelectric effect which caught the eyes of the University of California faculty. He was hired becoming the youngest Professor of the University of California and quickly made notice. He continued thinking about how electromagnetic radiation ejects electrons and possibly forming or transmuting them into a substance. With some storage-shed type of materials he threw together a tiny circular device to spin particles quickly in what he called the cyclotron. This tiny device would deliver a change to the world. Ten years later he would receive the Nobel Prize, and would be followed by nine more Nobel laureates who would be associated to the Rad Lab, or Berkeley Lab as this new building was later nick-named. With his first successful test, a guarantee of interest initiated the founding in 1936 of the U.C. Berkeley Radiation Laboratory.

 

Within a year after receiving the prize and scientific recognition, the Berkeley Lab moved to a ridge on top of the Berkeley hills due to increasingly heavy equipment and increasingly dangerous experiments. The UC Regents thought it best to not have the radiation experiments on the main campus grounds. With the new construction of a new building, a new site, a new collaboration from interested scientist and new plans for a 60-inch cyclotron Berkeley Radiation Laboratory found its permanent home.

 

Within another year the future Chancellor and alumni, Dr. Glenn T. Seaborg, and Edwin McMillan a Redondo Beach, California native who had just discovered a transmutative element named Neptunium, in order after Uranium, and with two other scientists isolated Plutonium on February 23, 1941. This was kept secret due in part to its unknown properties and government intervention brought in by Berkeley’s Department of Physics leader Robert Oppenheimer.

 

The Rad Lab continued with its space affecting things. The funding in gifts to the university showed a remarkable increase from 1929 to 1940: “Endowments of the University have increased rapidly in the past few years, with donations since 1929 [year of the discovery], amounting to $11,000,000, or nearly half of what the university has received during the entire existence” of U.C. Berkeley (Roseville). The Correlative evidence has not definitively been established at this time; however the figures do show a significant increase taking place from the inception of the cyclotron of 1929 to the California Press. “The university endowment is now computed at $24,193,177, which brings an annual income of $877, 919”. (Roseville). What we deem as a small space began slowly to take on a private national and international interest space. This space also had beneficial affect on the university as a whole to go out and find the best faculty it could.

 

As private national interest and the government interest began Washington called in Lawrence to head up the Manhattan Project (With other Berkeley Faculty).  Symbolically the Lab space took on a national role. Berkeley contributed a large contingent of workers both from the university and from the local community.  Lawrence developed the Calutron, a machine to produce uranium quickly into mass quantities for a use in Weapons of Mass Destruction WMD. He used a concatenation of Cal U[ranium]’ tron in honor of the University. As the physical space of the Berkeley Radiation Laboratory became known only to a selected few due to secrecy it began to make its concrete presence in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, Richmond, Washington, and Santa Fé, New Mexico with the constructions of Calutrons and cycltrons.

 

Internationally this space became a prime target for world scientists. In a byline under a Los Angeles Times photograph showed McMillan passing bogus nuclear secrets to three Japanese scientists in 1940 of whom “made [a] hurried trip to U.S. in 1940 in effort to obtain atomic research secrets.” (Los Angeles Times ,10 August 1945). This concrete meaning meant that the Japanese knew the importance to what this new science entailed. On August 7th, 1945 they found out and U.C Berkeley was thrust into the public international recognition. On August 8, in the Los Angeles Times,  “Dr. J. R. Oppenheimer, the head of the phase work, when asked for his views, said: “Based on all of our experimental work and the study on the results of the tests in New Mexico, there is every reason, to believe that there was no appreciable radio-activity on the ground at Hiroshima and what little there was decayed very rapidly”. (Los Angeles Times ( Los Angeles), August 8, 1945.).  The first atomic bomb shook the world and reek untold devastation on innocent civilians at Hiroshima. Two days later, Seaborg, and Edwin McMillan’s transmutative element found in the Berkeley Lab, created a significantly larger explosion. The “only reason plutonium is preferred is the smaller quantity, therefore less weight, of material to achieve the same results, and in Nagasaki’s case a more powerful explosion.” (The London Time ( London), 10 August 1945.). Suddenly the world became aware of the building on the U.C. campus. As Winston Churchill laid out the timelines in the The London Time, August 8th, 1945 of the creation of the bombs, all the dates correspond to the significant dates of the experiments from the Rad Lab onward.

 

With the large collaboration on the bomb, certain public speaking on atom-smashing and  the intense interests in cyclotrons and caltrons, these machines began to proliferate worldwide in the top scientific communities around the world,  each top program searching for its own WMD program.  The two main American Weapons Laboratories were greater endeavors that can be linked back to the Rad Lab. However, after WWII and the world exposure thread Lab eventually change its program. This was not the whole story of what this lab meant in regards to space. In the 1950s, the Lab, lessening in continuance on weapons research in secret it also embarked upon peaceful endeavors.

 

 

Records of the Atomic Energy Commission, San Francisco Operations Office, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley California Engineering Division decided in 1989 to make them available to the University of California Archives. These unclassified portions of the collection contain records related to the 300 Million Electron Volt Synchrotron period. Also these records include logs, designs, physics, financial statements, safety logs and reports,  notes on operational logs with details, general physics involving the cyclotron, bevatron, business contracts, memoranda to the head of the lab McMillan ( Director 1958-73) , synchrotron upkeep, various improvement designs and data and a general understanding of the intricacies of the daily life of operating the nuclear radiation laboratory of UC Berkeley. In documentation beginning in 1950s of the Rad Lab injury reports Roll does not seem to have been opened. Working at the Lab was a dangerous occupation.

 

Initial authorization for the construction of the 300 Million Electron Volt Synchrotron was issued on August 29, 1946 in a directive by the Manhattan Engineer District office. This shows direct government involvement and McMillan showed that the new machine was to be used for post-war developments in science (Edwin M. McMillan papers).

 

 

 

 

 

 

)

 

One of the early large synchrotrons, now retired, is the Bevatron, constructed in 1950 at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory wiki

 

 

http://www.lbl.gov/

 

The magnet

During 1942 the Laboratory rushed the design of ion sources, collecting cups and, above all, magnets, to multiply the separation. Many possibilities were tested with the help of the 184-inch magnet. Lawrence called the final product an "alpha calutron," the Greek letter

 

 

nuclear medicine as well as to nuclear physics and chemistry.

 

http://www.lbl.gov/Science-Articles/Research-Review/Magazine/1981/index.html

 

 

 

 

Work Cited:

 

 

Note: 11.44

 

 

California Press (Roseville), 5 March 1940.

 

Los Angeles Times (Los Angeles), 10 August 1945.

 

The London Times (London), 8 August 1945.

 

Los Angeles Times ( Los Angeles), August 8, 1945.

 

The London Time ( London), 10 August 1945.

 

 

(BANC FILM 2724:1-41).

 

Note:

Edwin M. McMillan , Edwin M. McMillan papers ( Berkeley: University of California, 1989), microfiche, 39.

 

 

((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((

 

Day April 21 & 22 newspapers

 

Work Cited:

 

The London Times ( London) , 8 August 1945.

 

Note: The London Times, The First Atomic Bomb, (Doe Library, Berkeley, The University of California, The London Times. 8 August 1945), text-microfilm, p. 4,

 

Bibl.The London Times. The First Atomic Bomb. Doe University Library, Berkeley; London: The London Times, 1945. text-microfilm.

No. 50, 214 [Number] Late London Edition

Microfilm Editions

 

20,000 tons Hiroshima

 

Anglo-US War Secret of Four Years Research: Rain of Ruin, From the Air

 

[ Winston Churchill’s voice]

 

“By the summer of 1942 this expanded programme of research had confirmed with surer and broader foundations the broadening forecasts which had been made a year earlier, and the time had come when the decision must be made whether  or not to proceed with the construction of the large scale production plants” (p.4).

 

“ By the year 1939 it had become widely recognized among scientists of many nations – the release of energy by atomic fission was a possibility.”

 

“The whole burden of execution, including the setting up the plants [Berkeley faculty] and many technical processes connected therewith in the practical sphere, constitutes one of the great triumphs of America –or indeed human- genius of which there is record.” 

 

“The centers for production were at Oakridge (Tennessee), Richmond (Washington), and Santa Fé ( New Mexico).”

 

The bomb was tested for the first time at 5:30 am. on July 16th, [1945].

 

“The Atomic bomb, more surely than the rocket, carries the warning that another world war would mean the destruction of all regulative life. At San Francisco, and elsewhere, when nations have been gathered to build the new order of security, the leading statesmen declared the world was facing its last chance to end the scourge of war. The alternatives were an ordered peace or destruction. Some of those who spoke shared the knowledge that the atomic bomb was being perfected.”

 

[ It was at San Francisco one month before Hiroshima that the UC Berkeley buzz leaked out a last warning to the Japanese ( only the president picked up the communicative credit – the scientist knew the timeline)].

 

“ The Year Book” [ See Berkeley’s year book] of the United States Bureau of Mines, published in 1941 and covering the preceding year indicates the attention which was them being given to U-235.”

 

 

 

 

 

The London Time ( London), 10 August 1945.

 

Title: “ A bomb on Nagasaki”

 

[ this little boy, was the bomb which carried the first plutonium fizzle material in history – only reason plutonium is preferred is the smaller quantity, therefore less weight, of material to achieve the same results, and in Nagasaki’s case a more powerful explosion.]

 

 

 

 

Los Angeles Times

 

August 8, 1945,

 

“ Dr. J. R. Oppenheimer, the head of the phase work, when asked for his views, said” : Based on all of our experimental work and the study on the results of the tests in New Mexico, there is every reason, to believe that there was no appreciable radio-activity on the ground at Hiroshima and what little there was decayed very rapidly. (p.3) Thurd. 9 Aug. 1945.

 

 

 

 

Los Angeles Times ( Photo)

 

Title: Japs Seek Atomic Secrets

p. 6  10 Aug, 1945.

 

 

This is a byline under the photo graph that shows McMillan passing nuclear secrets to three Japanese scientists in 1940.

 

 

“ Accurate, but worthless, atomic information is given these Japanese scientists, for left, Drs. Iimori, Yasaki, and Wantanabe, by Prof. Edwin McMillan, one of the atomic-smasher Dr. E. O. Lawrence’s early aids in the cyclotron laboratory at Berkeley. Japs made [a] hurried trip to U.S. in 1940 in effort to obtain atomic research secrets.”

 

Photo made byDr. Donald Cooksey of  Dr. Lawrence’s staff.

 

 

Day 21, 2006 |   Robert Gordon Sproul Papers ( Cu-301 v. 4)

 

‘ Los Angeles examiner September 2, 1939

Sproul Warns Againt Entry in War Abroad

 

 

“Sproul warned 10,000 University of California students that America’s entry into foreign war would endanger American’s democracy.”

 

 Los Angeles Times 2 March 1946

 

Dr. Earnest O. Lawrence[…] shown receiving a medal and diploma from C. E. Wallerstedt, Swedish Consulate Berkeley.

 

Also present: Dr. Raymond Birge and Pres. Raymond Gordon Sproul [ mis-Identified by Times.

 

 

 

Note: 11.44

California Press (Roseville ), 5 March 1940.

 

 

Roseville, California Press 5 March 1940

 

University of California Has Large Endowment Fund says the President.

 

“The university endowment is now computed at $24,193,177, which brings as annual income of $877, 919.”

 

“ Endowments of the University have increased rapidly in the past few years, with donations since 1929 [ year of the discovery], amounting to $11,000,000, or nearly half of  what the university has received during the entire existence.”

 

[ What a great piece of information  This is well significant to understanding the colorations’ of financing to the scientific work proceeding at the university]

 

  Boston Massachusetts, The Christian Science Monitor, 7 March 1940.

 

Element Discoverer Receives Reward

 

 

The London Times (London), 8 August 1945.

 

Note: The London Times, The First Atomic Bomb, (Doe Library, Berkeley, The University of California, The London Times. 8 August 1945), text-microfilm, p. 4,

 

Bibl.The London Times. The First Atomic Bomb. Doe University Library, Berkeley; London: The London Times, 1945. text-microfilm.

“the First Atomic Bomb”

No. 50, 214 [Number] Late London Edition

 

Microfilm Editions

 

 

 

 

 

 

April 25 Working day notes.

Title

Robert Gordon Sproul personal papers as president and president emeritus of the University of California, 1929-1975.

Small Book – This pamphlet sized book was published for the occasion of the Swedish Presentation of the Nobel Prize.

 

 

 

Small Book, Published by the University. Parts appear to be paraphrased on page 22,  by Winston Churchill in the London Times on page 4 of the late edition ( heading The first Atomic Bomb),  8 August 1945.

 

By the year 1939 it had become widely recognized among scientists of many nations – the release of energy by atomic fission was a possibility. – Winston Churchill, London Times on page 4.

 

 

Title: The 1939 Nobel Prize Award in Physics to Earnest Orlando Lawrence ( at Sweden: 29 February 1940). Publisher University of California, Berkeley, California.

 

Page 20: the Chinese government.

 

..With the magnet as the basis, the first really large cyclotron was biuolt during that eventful  year 1932.

 

Diameter of the pole 37 inches

Only  13 inches used in the portion of the vacuum chamber.

 

 

“Much higher energies needed, a search for a large magnet seemed difficult. Luck played a role as Lawrence pleaded to Professor L. F. Fuller, who was also Vice-President of the Federal Telegraph Company a gigantic magnet built for a radio transmitter ordered by the Chinese government, but obsolete in type before delivery was possible. What was a ‘White Elephant” to Dr. Fuller became a godsend to Dr. Lawrence”. – p. 20.

 

With that magnet, the37 inch cyclotron is now installed in the old Radiation Laboratory. It weighs some 75 tons – p. 21.

 

It is doubtful if any scientific instrument invented by man has found more varied and more important applications” – p.22.

 

“ Lawrence will take mercury and turn it into gold”-p. 22.

“ But the process is far more costly than the value of gold produced”-p. 22.

 

“In fact, the one great possibility of the cyclotron, as a money making instrument, lies not in making gold,  or platinum, or any other so-called precious substance, but in releasing nuclear energy”.

 

“We now know that nearly all energy of the universe is locked inside the nuclei of atoms.” –p.22

 

 

“ there are about 335 artificially produced radioactive substances, or which 223 have been discovered by means of the cyclotron.” –p.23

 

 

Words of Lawrence’s acceptance Speech

 

Professor Birge has alluded to the great importance of this project (p.35)| Building a gigantic cyclotron, perhaps weighing more than 4000 tons – twenty times larger than the New medical cyclotron of the Crocker Laboratory, We have been working on the designs…p.35

 

This has been possible only through general assistance for several quarters notably the Research Corporation, the Chemical foundation, the Rockefeller Foundation, and from the late William H. Crocker, Regents of the University. These benefactors share the honor on this occasion because without their help the work for our laboratory could not have been brought to its present fruition. 

 

I have suggested that science progress requires a favoriable envioroment. The University of California rightfully takes the prize in the Nobel Award because the University as a whole has contributed immesuralby in diverse ways to the work of the Radiation Laboratory. –p. 34

 

FIN

 

 

Personal letter to Lawrence. 4 March 1936

Manuscript: Typed, not signed, Initials RGS:L

 

It is budget approval by Sproul for a raise in salary to keep Lawrence from other institutions [ Note see Raymond T. Birge’s thank you large letter to Sproul for his decades of service in keeping Lawrence – period about 1958 his death – Sproul received heat over the years from ( many people and including)  Harvard, Northwestern, and The University of Texas that all made sweet deals to get Lawrence  to their programs.]

 

The raise is for 8000 above.

 

Note his incoming was 4500 to beat Northwestern’s offer and he became the highest paid young professor of the University of California in history. – 10 June  1958. See Raymond T. Birge’s letter  to Sproul, year Laurence died.

 

 

The Laurence Case: Unknown what exactly. But Sproul tells Deutsch to take care of it. Both are involved with setting up the University of California Los Angeles ( UCLA) and Sproul and Deutsch spend some time on its campus building the curriculum and school.

 

Confidential: Letter from Deutsch, hand signed to Sproul, called memorandum to the president.

 

Sproul’s handwritten note to himself is that Deutsch take care of this issue.

 

25 September 1930

 

 

1 October , 1940

 

Crocker, Mr, W.W. “ reaffirmed verbally what he had wriiten in a letter:…

 

“ Does not feel  able to contribute $250,000 [ the is the ¼ needed to match Rockefellers 3/4s for $1,000,000 for ten years of the new RAD LAB] or any portion thereof toward the new cyclotron.

 

Initials SP ~ maybe Sproul

 

[ note Sproul does stump for the cyclotron finances, see New York]

 

 

___________________________________________________________

 

Deutsch hand written 25 September 1941

 

. Brown Mr Arthur, dated 9 October 1940

 

[ Lawrence]. “showed me plans for the cyclotron building.”

 

with Dr. Larences’s approval and was reasonably out of sight of the campus and most of Berkeley [ perched on a hill – later called ‘ The hill’]

 

 

Not signed

 

 

 

Underhill, Mr. R. M.  Los Angeles 10 August 1942

 

Dispute with the Regents| war department[ funding] related topurchasin the cyclotron ( parts)

 

“All the Army will do is allow 6% on our investment. M. Underhill stated unequivocally that the Regents would not go ahead on this basis.

 

[ Note the Regents spent $250,000 on this cyclotron, and Rockefeller $750,000 meaning that 6% was a partial and low cost adventure.]

 

___________________________________________________________

 

Galloway, John D.  7 October 1940, Berkeley

 

Reported to me that he was been acting as a sort of informal advisor of Dr. Lawrence and Mr. Hall, engineer for Arthur Brown, in connection with the foundation for the new cyclotron. He thinks that the site offers about the worst foundation material he has ever seen. It consists of disintegrated pleistocenematerial intermixed with blue clay, Fortunately it is now dry but it heavy rains came, it will be almost impossible to build upon it”

 

{This site needs protection} “Comptroller stands in the way” … “ Nothing but red tape..” Comptroller forbade it any exploration  of the site”

 

 

_________________________________________________________

 

Letter typed to P. Lawrence.

 

9 March1940

 

Not- signed, but initials in typeset. RGP:KW

 

Regents discussed telegram from Weaver of the Rockefeller foundation.

 

Maintenance budget if Rockefeller Foundation puts up $750,000, the extent of the Regents commitment should be limited to the same sum ( i.e., $ 250,000 for capital expenditure and $500,000 for maintenance over a period of ten years.

 

 

 

Hand signed; ‘send to press’ & ‘ 400 Radiation’ hand written To Dr. E. O. Lawrence c/o Thorn-Loomis Co

14 Wall Street, New York, New York.

 

Sproul is in New York, this appears to be possibly a fundraising event. …for the cyclotron. May even be meeting with the Rockefellers?]

 

“ Nothing was accomplished at conference today but interest was aroused and groundwork laid. The task is not going to be easy but while there’s life there’s hope. Congratulations on what you have been doing and much gratitude to Loomis.”

 

___________________________________________________

 

 

Following remarks of Preofessor Clark Kere, prepared for the memorial service of Lawrence, to be issued to the press after the giving of the remarks.        30 August 1958, at the First Congressional Church of Berkeley

 

 

This is a great Bio for Lawrence, deals with his Norwegian family.

 

“ there son traveled from Canton [ South Dakota] and the family home to Berkeley where he built the cyclotron – to Stockholm to deliver the Nobel Prize Lecture, to Geneva to help set the world on a path to peace, and back to Berkeley again.”

 

 

 

Laurence Hall of Science,  March 1962, pamphlet and dedication to Lawrence. Letter head date 18 January 1963.

 

Fundraising up to this date is $586,000.

 

Largest foundation is from ( 1963) the U.S.  Department of Health, Education and Welfare , at $273, 914.

 

This was an attachment to financial papers of 1963 for the Laurence Hall.

 

Sproul Papers

 

_________________________________________________________

 

Raymond T. Birge letter to Sproul type written and official,

 

Prfessor of Physics, Emeritus

 

 

10 June 1958 [ date that Laurence died]

 

Sproul approved a larger salary than Northwestern and this helped make Laurence’s decision to chose to teach at Berkeley and became the youngest of the faculty in history to become a paid full-time professor. His salary began at $4500 annually. He soon would get a raise as other schools offered him money and prestigious positions. This letter details the struggles Sproul went to keep him and the heat he received for his troubles.  Lawrence was offered the Deanship of Harvard, and they struggled to get him because they thought of themselves as superior to a Californian public institution.

 

 

Called him a “wonderful president”

 

Renyolds W. B. Discussed new construction of the 184 inch cyclotron on January 9 1943.

 

 

Telegram 11 Janurary 1943

 

Typed out letter but it is a copy.

 

 

“ All costs are to be born from other than University funds.”

 

Why would this be kept?

 

 

End of Sproul box 39 working day/ April 25, 2006. MJM.

 

 

 

Los Angeles Times Microfilm Service. Obtained at Doe Library

 

 

<LA Times reports the Atom Bomb>, August 8th, 1945

 

 

Other Research into the final essay included.

Other sources I looked into over spring break consisted of 10 hours of looking at these prime sources of Berkeley’s history of Physics in regards to transmutation of nuclear elements in the ‘40s-‘80s.

 

This is for a backup if my first proposal is not accepted as a topic for the final.

Topic: Million Electron Volt Synchrotron on the UCB Campus.

 

Author: Laurence Radiation Laboratory

Call: Bancroft F870E3C305

Title: Nuclear Research at University of California Berkeley.

 

 

1. Primary sources:

John P. Holdren, The University of California and the weapons laboratories : synopsis of remarks by John P. Holdren at the 20 November 1984 forum sponsored by the Policy Committee of the Berkeley Division of the UC Academic Senate, (Berkeley: UC Academic Senate, 1984), 1-12.

 

2. Primary sources:

National Archives- Pacific Sierra region Microfilm project, 1-32, 1991.

Call: banc Film 2724.

Record Group 326, Records of the Atomic Energy Commission, San Francisco Operations Office, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley California Engineering Division.

 

Note: Material transferred to the National Archives (San Bruno), 1989. Microfilm of the unclassified portions of the collection available as: Records related to the 300 Million Electron Volt Synchrotron (BANC FILM 2724:1-41).

 

 

Edwin M. McMillan , Edwin M. McMillan papers ( Berkeley: University Microfilms, 1989), microfiche, 39.

 

Edwin M. McMillan , Edwin M. McMillan papers ( Berkeley: University Microfilms, 1989), microfiche, 1.

 

Edwin M. McMillan , Edwin M. McMillan papers ( Berkeley: University Microfilms, 1989), microfiche, 3.

 

Edwin M. McMillan , Edwin M. McMillan papers ( Berkeley: University Microfilms, 1989), microfiche, 7.

 

Description of these microfiche: These consist of logs, designs, physics, financial statements, safety logs and reports,  notes on operational logs with details, general physics involving the cyclotron, bevatron, synchrotron upkeep and invention and a general understanding of the intricacies of the daily life of operating the nuclear radiation laboratory of UC Berkeley that helped break Uranium into new periodical elements used in today’s societies such as medical radiation laboratories, nuclear weapons and many other applications.

 

 

Roll I Injury reports.

 

 

 

More injury reports ( 1953)

 

Direct corrections and technical inquiries to
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