United States of America -- Colonization of North America -- Part 1

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by Michael Johnathan McDonald

Colonizing North America




Why exploration to begin with? Why not settle with inhabiting Europe itself?

Nomadic Asians and Turcoman expanding in east Asia (Turkey, The Ottomans) and begin problems of international trade become an issue; India blocked by the Ottomans as they seize control of vast portions of what is known as modern Turkey today. Portuguese, facilitated by Henry the Navigator, sends scouts along the west African coast to find passage to the Indies. Significance, Portugal becomes first European country to explore unknown regions to Europeans during the later stages of the middle ages, or dawning of the Renaissance.

1440 Portuguese slave trade begins in West Africa.


1485 Tudor Dynasty.

1488 Bartolomeu Dias reaches the Cape of Good Hope.

1492 Christian reconquest of Spain complete.

1492 1st Voyage of Christopher Columbus, lands at San Salvador.

1498 John Cabot an Italian sailing for England under Henry the VII. Nothing come of report.

1524 Giovanni da Verrassano (his brother and shipmates), commissioned by François I of France set sail in 1524 and in late winter to early spring surveyed the coasts between South Carolina and Newfoundland. New York Founded and named as Angoulèsme after the French King's birth district.

1532 Pissaro Leads Spanish conquest of Inca Empire (-1536)

1539 De Soto attempts conquest in southwestern United States (-1543).

1541 Jacques Cartier, led the French order to settle in North America. Attempts t colonize eastern Canada

1556 Santa Elena (Spanish)[upper Florida]

1558 Elizabeth become the head ruler of England and focused on the Atlantic World.

1562 Charlesfort, French Huguenots (Calvinists) established a base at South Carolina. Lost it quickly to the English.

1565  San Mateo (Spanish), European Settlements in Eastern North America.  (-1625).  Abandonment by 1625 from all European settlements founded before 1607, except for St. Augustine, Santa Fé and New Mexico. 

1565 St. Augustine (Spanish).

1565 Santa Lucia (Spanish)[Florida].

1567 Tequesta (Spanish)[Florida].

1567 Tocobaga (Spanish)[Florida].

1567 Calos (Spanish)[Florida].

1570 Jacán (Spanish).

1585 (-1590) 1587, Roanoke, Sir Walter Raleigh, wanted to establish a colony of diversity with Indians, English and Spanish living together. Disappears.

1598 Sable I (French).

1598 Oñate Founds New Mexico.

1600 Tadoussac (French).

1603 James I King of England.

1603-1625 Beginning of the English Colonization.

1604 Peace between the English and the French open up colonization and cooperation.

1604 Port Royal, Saint Croix (French).

1606 April 10th, James I granted charters to two separate joint-stock companies, one based in London for Plymouth from Maine to the Potomac River; the Virginian Company of London, a grant from Cape Fear north of the Hudson River.

1607-1608 French and English establish colonies.

1607 Sagadahoc (English), The Virginia Company sent 120 business settlers to the  mouth of the Kennebec River.

1607 Jamestown (oldest English colony) Named after King James. (The Virginia Company of London dispatched  105 people by James River near Chesapeake Bay) 500 people originally down to 60 before relief supplies.

1608 Quebec (French) St. Lawrence River claimed by Cardinal Richardlieu.

1611 King James Bible written in the Language relevant to Shakespeare. Used by the Puritans.

1614 John Ralfe saves Virginia with introduction of the cash-crop tobacco. James I detests the substance. Colonization was also about capital.

1614 Fort Nassau (Dutch), Hudson River.

1614 New England begins. (-1615).

1616 epidemic wipes out 90% of north - eastern coast indians, setting up smoother colonization by the Europeans coming by the Mayflower in 1620. (-1618)

1619 First representative government in North America. The Virginia Company ended rule and provided an elective assembly. African American show up in Virginia 1619.

1620 Plymouth (Pilgrims) Mayflower (102 people). 51 people die during the first winter; no one leaves in the Springtime when given the choice.

1620 Entire European population estimate is 2000.

1622 Second Anglo-Powhatan War (-1632).

1621 The First and only thanksgiving celebration including the Indian guests and the Pilgrims. The holiday did became an institution until after the American Civil War.

1625 New Amsterdam (Dutch).

1620 10,000 Europeans migrated by 1620, the total number of Spanish, Dutch, French and English counted 1,800, of whom two thirds lived in  Virginia.

1628 Puritan merchants obtain a charter to settle north of a separatist colony at Plymouth. Becomes Christian archetype of  'a city upon a hill.'

1629 Charters ( -1635). Beginning of the Great Migration (-1635).

1630 Nine-hundred Puritans arrive in Massachusetts on eleven ships, The Massachusetts Bay Company.

1632 English Civil War, Charles I ( Anglican) didn't get along with the Puritans.

1632 Maryland designated for Catholics, Pennsylvania for the Quakers.

1636 Harvard College founded to educate colonists and produce ministers of Puritan values.

1649 Interregnum ( Between rulers -1660)

1651 Dutch purchase Manhattan from the indians.

1660 Restoration of the Stuart Line. King ordered to marry a Portuguese Princess which begin an alliance with Portugal.

1690 African origins of North American slaves (-1807).

1699 Woolen Act. Forbade wool or wool products transported between English plantations in America or "to any other place whatsoever." (British Parliament measure). 

1702 Hat Act, no hats allowed exportation from colonies (British Parliament measure).

1715 60,000 Negros

1733, May. The Parliament introduces the Intolerable Acts.

1750 400,000 Negros

1750 Iron Act,  British Parliament restrict the American colonial iron industry

1763 England becomes the British Empire.

1763 Spain loses rule of Florida and the region becomes the 14th colony (1783). Spain helps America in the Revolution.

1763 Atlantic coast history (-1775).

1763 Proclamation of Separation between indians and the colonists, unless a licensed trader.

1769 The Sacred Commission begin missionary buildings in Baja California. Presidios, outposts for military.

1774, September. First Continental Congress.

1775 Beginning of the American Revolution.

1776 Thomas Pains' Common Sense, becomes a hit.

1790 first census, 4,000,000 total population.

1790 Philadelphia highest population,.

1790s Cotton industry facilitated by the Cotton Jin ( Cotton engine) separates seeds from cotton. New England main industrial region.

1790 the majority of non-native Americans lived east of the Appellation mountains and west of the Mississippi river.

1797 February 5 letter from Robert Fulton to President Washington referring to potential canal improvements, including a canal to Lake Erie.

1801 February 4, John Marshall became fourth Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States.

1807 Embargo Act, Controversial legislation by Thomas Jefferson. No American international trade but import suffered as a result of the actions of Jefferson. Economy hurt.

1807, John Marshall presided over the trial of former Vice President Aaron Burr for treason. President Jefferson condemned Burr but  Marshall acquitted him. Tension between Justice and Office of President begins.

1810 The Leiper Railroad in Pennsylvania was the first permanent railroad.

1811 The National Road or Cumberland Road, built by the Federal Government begins.

1811, after Louis and Clark, John Jacob Astor founded a fur-trading post at the mouth of the Columbian River in Oregon Country.

1812 War of, seemed like the 2nd revolution to many. British end ties and concerns with America. American Navy no match against the British Navy, so focus on Canada.

1812 war destroyed the Federalist, who committed political suicide at the Hartford Convention, and led Madison to call for a national bank and federal support for internal improvements and protective tariffs.

1812 Merchants opposed the war of 1812, because their ships were commandeered for U.S. warships.

1812 Summer, (-1814 ) Americans launched a series of unsuccessful attacks on Canada. William Hull led an American army from Detroit to Canada. 

1812 British and Mohawk's defeat the American forces at the Battle of Queenston, and plans to attack Montreal collapse when New York militia refused to advance into Canada.

1814 British and American commissioners meet in Belgium, in August at the treaty of Ghent, and signed on Christmas Eve, 1814.  Status quo ante bellum, ( Latin for "the state of affairs before the war.")

1815 (-1860) U.S. Looks inwardly. British focus on international trade and not American interests.

1815 New States (in order of admission).

1816 February 16,  De Witt Clinton drafts Erie canal proposal, and 1816 April 17, NY Legislature passes a canal law.

1815-1820: Tambora's Eruption ( year without a summer) is speculated for the emigration from New England to the west of populations seeking warmer climate -- this is during the period of the Iittle Ice Age.

1816 Beginning of the Bad Feeling Era. (-1823).

1817 July 4, Erie Canal construction began at Rome, NY. Finished in 1825.

1819 Panic, Thomas Jefferson leaves a lasting economic legacy. James Madison inherits the disaster.

1819 Spanish Treaty Line of 1819 at the 42° parallel. California and parts of Wyoming then south to Texas to Mexico.

1819 United States renounces its claims  of Texas to Spain west of the Sabine River (Other boundaries not defined).

1820 James Monroe ran against Adams acting as an independent and America saw the most lopsided electoral victory in history.

1820 Railroad construction projects begin.

1820 Christian's convert some Indians to farming and western ways, to give up the warrior life.

1820 Massachusetts adsorbs Maine. Part of the effort to stop the south's dominance in congressional vote numbers. British take Canada and Caribbean.

1820 The Missouri compromise. The first state to add into its constitution for the gradual emancipation of slavery -(1821). Expected slaves to grow cotton. North objected and the South became furious and scared of freedom trends.

1820 Five civilized tribes set an example for others and called civilized: Cherokee, Creek, Chicagoan, Choctaw and (Florida ) Seminole.

1820 and beyond New England textile mills expand and dominate the market.

1820 the so-called trial of tears, the removal of the Native Americans to the West (-1840). Included the 'Five Civilized Tribes', Cherokee, Creeks, Chickasaws, and Seminoles.

1820s, United States only claimed land from Missouri to the east coast. U.S., Mexico, Britain, Germany and Russia saw the west of the continent as a shadowy frontier.

1821 Mexico wins its independence from Spain. The Rancho Period of California and Texas began.

1823, France invited Spain to restore the Bourbon to power, and there was talk of France and Spain warring upon the new republics with the backing of the Holy Alliance (Russia, Prussia and Austria).

1823 The Monroe Doctrine, European powers should no longer colonize the Americas or interfere with the affairs of sovereign nations located in the Americas. American policy, to stay neutral in international conflicts.

1824 Gibbons v. Ogden: Supreme Court ends monopoly on steamboat trade by ruling that Congress, not individual states,  control commerce as per the " Commerce clause" of the Constitution.

1824 Andrew Jackson only presidential candidate not liked the Monroe administration.

1824 Russia yielded its claims to Oregon south of Alaska (-1825).

1824 Mexico calls on U.S. setters to come to Texas, a way to bring in manufactured goods.

1825 October 26,  first passage through canal from Lake Erie to New York City.

1825 The House of Representatives elects John Quincy Adams president. Adams presents the first presidential message to  Congress, urging growth, reform, establishment of a national university system.

1826 Granite Railroad Railroad evolves through continuous operations into a common carrier.

1828 ‘Tariff of Abomination,’  Jackson made law. Many of his southern supporters reject him.

1828 Passage of Tariff of Abomination leads southern states to devise the Doctrine of Nullification, giving states the rights to override federal legislation in conflict with their own.

1828 Andrew Jackson elected as President. The election was a mudslinging affair.

1829 American Society for Encouraging Settlement in Oregon is established in Boston after Congress defeats a bill to set up a territorial government there.

1829 Mexico abolished slavery.

1830 The (Daniel) Webster- (Robert Y.) Hayne Debates discuss the notion of nullification and the meaning of “union.”

1830 President Jackson secured passage of the Indian Removal Act, exchange western territory for tribal lands. The real cost for removal prove costly.

1830 A second (Political) party system begins to develop.

1831 Liberator a anti-slavery publication begins.

1831 the first anti-Mason convention is held.

1832 Justice John Marshall clarifies his position regarding the Cherokee by stating that the Indian Nation is a distinct political community in which the " laws of the state of Georgia can have no force."

1833 the so-called compromise, gradual but significant lowering of the tariff duties from 1833 to 1842 , everyone hailed Henry Clay as the great compromiser.

1835 Seminole War erupts. Led by Osceola, the Seminoles will battle until 1842.

1835 Texas settlements of Americans.

1836, Samuel Morse finished his first working prototype of the telegraph.

1837 New York employs paid policemen.

1837 A potato famine begins in Ireland, leading to mass immigration ― 1.3. million by 1857.

1838 the Underground Railroad is established by abolitionists to provide slaves and escape route to the North.

1839 U.S. enters a depression that will last until 1843.

1840 British still in Oregon, Washington, Idaho and parts of Wyoming

1840 U.S. population 17,000,000; 1st New York, 300,000 people; 6th Cincinnati, a new city with 46,000 people.

1841 Russia out of parts of California. Own parts of Alaska. 54° 40’ parallel and above.

1842 Jones sails into Monte Ray harbor and claims Mexico is in a war with the U.S. A false alarm.

1842 Daniel Webster, concluded the Webster-Ashburton Treaty with Great Britain, settling dispute over Maine-Canadian boarder.

1840 William Henry Harrison (Whig Party) wins presidency.

1844 Democratic Platform: Polk’s inaugural address spoke of claiming Oregon territory.

1844 , spring, Tyler and Calhoun submitted to the Senate a treaty to annex Mexico.

1844, in a letter to the British Minister in Washington, Calhoun claims African Slavery benefits these new lands.

1844 Abolitionists link this letter to a conspiracy to the annexation of Texas as a new slavery state.

1846 (Overland trails)  The Donner party, following one such account, lost so much time that they were caught in snow in the High Sierras and survived by turning to cannibalism.

1848 The discovery of gold at Sutter's Mill (California) starts the great California " Gold Rush."

1848 An abortive revolution in Germany is the impetus for German immigration ― 1.1 million by 1857.

1849 the Clipper ship comes out of San Francisco.

1850s Cotton is King era

1850s the abetment of the little Ice Age begins, the climate begins to warm. Some climatologists speculate that industrialization may have contributed to it, while others believe it is a natural cycle. (10 such cycles of Oceanic Conveyer ( oscillates in the straits) have been identified, as little climate change ages)

Virginia Separates to West Virginia.

Revolution Population estimation at 2,500,000 people which is roughly 1/3 of England's population.

Commercial Revolution

John Calvin

John Calvin born at Noyon in Picardy, France, 10 July, 1509, and died at Geneva, 27 May, 1564. He speaks Swedish, French and Italian

Everyone born are destined to achieve salvation or damnation. Yet you must work at the four basic tenets he set up.

The four tenants:

1.      Pursue your God given talent.

2.      Practice good morals.

3.      Practice frugality (save money for a rainy day).

4.      Practice things in moderation.

If one practices this every-day; this would be a sign that possibly you will make it to heaven (saved).

Colonizing North America

Exploration and Established Settlements.

Christopher Columbus, set sail for the Indies and wound up reaching the Bahamas in 1492. 1st Voyage, Departed 6th of September, 1492 from the Canary Islands; 36 days travel; arrived October 12, 1492.

Jacques Cartier, led the French order to settle in North America in 1541. Ten ships sailed into the St. Lawrence Valley.

French Huguenots (Calvinists) made a journey in 1562 and established a base at today’s South Carolina. The second base came two years later in Florida. The Spanish quickly destroyed the base. France embroiled in wars on their own continent remained aloof at colonization.

Why Indians had low populations remains the practice of hunting and gathering lifestyle. Populations that acknowledge cultivation have stronger population growth.

After Commercialism in Europe begins Elizabeth changes to the Anglican Church. The Puritans upset with Elizabeth with her choice move on out. According to Elizabeth, everyone must convert to the Anglican Church. The Puritans didn't want government to appoint bishops, cardinals, or anyone for that matter in the clergy.  First the disaffected Pilgrims traveled to Holland where religious tolerance triumphed that of England. Then they went back to England then onto America. They wanted  a separation of Church and State; but once the sect founded Boston they became a theocracy. Some Calvinist names: English were the Puritans; Congregationalists were the Dutch Dutch Reform was from Holland, Huguenots were French.

Puritans believed that the truth was from God alone and no one, including government could over rule him. The Bible was their tool. The ten Commandment their laws. They were more interested in the Old Testament way of dong things. Simple and togetherness; God was the congregation bypassing and governmental figure or laws. The "Bible" equaled "truth" and "truth" equaled "God."

No government can be involved. Puritans didn't like the Catholic  stuff, so they gave up on the material things. ( Protestant acknowledged their religion was OK to be rich as long as you follow the "Four Tenants.") The Protestants wanted no Flashy gowns, No stained glass windows, no gold chalices, no hanging chandeliers, or decorated megalo-churches, no confessions, ( You do this in secret to yourself) basically no pomp-and-circumstance at all. This will create thousands of offshoots that we call sects: All basic sects interpret the Bible in their own opinion, in contrast to the Catholic Church who told you that the interpretation is all done for you and these are the standard rules. Most of the Puritans are believed as fundamentalists, this is not true, as fire and brimstone preachers believe in the same thing but our to hysterical when problems that arise in tack and diplomacy are involved , where the Puritans excelled.The Puritans wanted to purify the Church of England from its corruption as they saw it.

The Puritans bothered Elizabeth so she kicked them out. While the puritans moved away Elizabeth found out the hard way. The Puritans proved literate and gifted and most likely because of their hard work ethic. Remember in South America the Hidalgos, were the slave owning Hacienda rulers and everyone did everything for them, they had no talent because they didn't work hard. The work ethic of the Puritans made them literate, plus understanding the world around them. They saw the evils of the Anglican Church members who were the Nobles of Britain. - They wanted no part of it. Elizabeth made some concessions and asked them to come back. They were tricked and many persecuted and sometimes executed by other jealous Anglicans, but after their influence England becomes the most Literate of the world at the time.

Colonization cost considerably.  Advertisements by merchants promote gold and get rich schemes. At Jamestown, even aristocrats sent piles of dirt back to England thinking gold lays in the sifting of the dirt. Jamestown witnessed riots due to starvation and factors of plague. the first contingent to Jamestown consisted of small boats, a five moth journey headed by Captain Smith. John Smith fought the Turks and fought in Europe. He knew how to manage populations and survive. He forced the settlers to work with a  threat of non-inclusion to the community. He built a fort for community survival. He left to England after an accident and the people fell back to anarchy and many starved to death. The settlers decided to call it quits and while they were about to leave some relief ships showed up and they stayed.

Calvin talked to the Middle Class, the Burgesses. By Now the Puritans replace the Jews in saying they are the chosen of God. After much persecution they sail to America, and leave the intolerable British Anglicans.

1498 John Cabot an Italian sailing for England under Henry the VII. When he finds good places on American soil he tells the king, Henry VII, and Henry the VIII was too busy spending time battling his sins and others and his wives to be interested in America as Spain was pillaging the South Americas and France was sending their men North to Canada.

Raleigh substitutes 100 men to come to America. They land in hot and humid place, that is just a drag to live in. He leaves the settlers on this tiny island of "Roanoke" off the coast of N. Carolina which was full of insects, and bad water.  At first the Algonquinn indians help out the settlers. They brought them food and material to live. But after a while when they noticed that the settlers were not leaving to go home they got mad.    Raleigh could not return in 1588 because of the Spanish Armada, but in 1590 when he did come back to his settlers, no farming was done, no houses were built, no tools or evidence they were even their.  He found no one there, only a carved name of an indian tribe No one knows for sure what happened to them. But one could guess they wore out their welcome. On a tree was carved the word Cratian (Crotoan)." It is possibility that an indian tribe ate them? Two hundred years later as settlers passed the Appellation mountains they came upon an indian tribe called the Lummbe. These peoples bore similarities to English customs, and speaking styles. Maybe the settlers left the island and assimilated with the natives.   Raleigh named the eastern seaboard Virginia, after Queen Elizabeth's nick-name.

James I ruled England, because Elizabeth didn't bore children so the Stuart line of rulers take assembly. This was her cousins, and on her death bed it was even then hard for her to hand the power over to them - they had a long standing feud. There will be four kings, James the I, Charles the I, Charles II, and James II. They were the worst king to some scholars and they came from Scotland, meaning outside rule and the rife history felt between the warring sides over the centuries. They knew nothing of English ruling. Germanic roots of the Saxon and Anglos. An attempt to destroy the Magna Carta brought ill feelings.

James I creates companies to settle people into America. on the 35 degrees of Latitude up to 40th Parallel. The two main beginning corporations were the Plymouth Company and the London Company. Word gets out about the gold rush that the Spaniards made in South America and so the middle class thinks good fortune could fall their way, so they pool their money for expenses to travel to America to try their luck. Quickly this turns the tables to a way to get the poor and jailed out of the streets of prisons of Britain - off their backs. This would eventually hurt them. They also thought that the poor that would sent over would convert the indians to Protestantism.

Henry eventually took the Catholic Church and sold over 1/3 of all of British land that the Church owned, ( Now he posses the rights) this was called the “Enclosure rule.”  Which left allot of homeless without work, because it was easier to raise livestock and agriculture with these new lands. Also, walled boarders took any ranchers who made a living watching livestock so they wouldn't run away.

This causing of homelessness creates many into the town streets and causes a problem for England. A plan was devised to send the people over as "indentured servants."  These people contract was that for seven years they worked for a proprietor and after that they were free and helped to get their own life going. Once sent to America they worked and were free after seven years. They still had their rights as a British citizens, so no one could be a slave. This would come in later for the south as they devise cheaper workforce and more profits. The ruling body of England also told the indentured servants that why you are over their, why don't you convert the indians to protestant..

The first group comes in 1607. The English camp starts at Jamestown. It is undesirable, but they call for more reinforcements to protect themselves from the indians and survive. 124 people arrive and only 36 people survive after nine-months. Some ate snakes, ousters, nuts, acorns and some got malaria. One person ate his wife - they found her body in his abode all chopped up in mealpieces and they executed him right away. Captain John Smith was the overseer. The factors that played behind the scenes resulted from the majority of Gentlemen ( Aristocracy of England) who refused to work with their hands, and later could not survive on their own.

Powhatan was the indian leader, it wasn’t a tribe but a federation of indian tribes he presided over. His daughter was the famous Pocahontas; she was naked at that time running around enthralled with the new people from across the ocean. She help sneak food to the new settlers and informed them of what the indians were thinking and planning.

1614 John Ralfe, took seeds from the indians and planted tobacco, so this was the very first crop grown by the settlers. He planted them all over James town. Now the settlers had something to sell ( Give )England and show them they are prospering in England’s name. This excited England.

Pocahontas married John Ralfe and change her name to Lady Rebecca, she went to England to raise awareness’ of possible funding of an indian school, she died their of tuberculosis.

Powhatan died and his brother took over. He hated the settler with a passion. He knew by then they were there for good. In 1624, he invaded the Jamestown and killed over 2/3 of the colonists. This was first blood. (remember the others were wiped out)  So se3veral smaller wars ensured. The English were ready and supplies showed up and they wiped out the Powhatan tribe.

"Anyone that stays gets 100 acres," was the decrees that delighted some.  If you brought along another person, such as your wife, you doubled this amount, and so on. For example, one man brought 17 people and he got 17 times 50 acres. This was much land.

1632 Williamsburg settlement and political system starts. They start their own Parliament of Burgess ( Middle Class)  It is called the "House of Burgess."  So famous that many of the founding fathers went their. By 1936 its name was “Parliament of America."

1665-1625. Except for St. Augustine, Santa Fé and New Mexico all European settlements abandoned by 1625.

Some facts:

Bourgeoisie means middle class and come from the word Burghers ( merchants)

Puritans in England

The Tudor Dynasty 1485 - 1603 1503

Author, than Henry VIII


Dangerous Frontier

People had grim views on human existence. Today people are party animals and have skewed views on survival.

Anne Hutchinson doubted religious authenticity.

Law overviews.



No time for dissenters.


Puritan Laws

Law 1642

Literacy Laws. Forced Education.

People must understand the communal laws, pertaining to capital, religion, survival and delinquency. Law: Must read the Bible.

This law ties directly into literacy rate. All colonizers must read the book. This creates a dilemma for the Puritans because although it leads to the highest education and literacy rate of all the colonies, the common people can read contraband at their hidden discretion. This opposed the Latin Church’s regard to keep the population ignorant by not allowing the Bible to be translated from its Latin base to the local vernacular.

Law: 1645

Teenage soldiers. Young become soldiers protecting the environment. All 10-16 year-olds. Officers of the band or soldiers train children in Half-pikes, small guns and European style bows and arrows. Shortages of gunpowder limit the participation in firearms training. Bows and Arrows become useful for shortages. Slated monthly dates provide the days for the solider-child training.

Law: 1646

Cursive lingo banned of any child ten years-old and up. In addition smite laws applies as well. Penalty for severe disrespecting of parents sets up an execution of the child in question. The recorded numerical deaths remain zero during the law’s tenure. A child could also submit a complaint to a council of parental neglect.

Law: Sixteen Year-olds become adults. A child cannot show disobedience, disrespect to parents or governors. A corporal punishment upon conviction agrees with said violations. A whip, or other corporal instruments apply penalty.  Example, 10 strips from a whip.

Law 1947

Teaching Laws. One teacher per fifty-households. Parents must pay. Children learn to read and write. Grammar schools  fitted for scholarship with direction toward a career at Harvard.

Law: 1649

Hair law.

Women must don long hair and men wear it short. Biblical justification, as tied to symbolism of uncivilized, unmanly and corruption. Charles I had long hair and Puritans considered long hair a symbol of his hatred for them. Oliver Cromwell’s bands wore short hair. Their name called Cavaliers or Roundheads.


Plantation Slavery also named plantation economy.

Slaves outlawed in 1808. And estimate of 114,000 slaves brought to America.

Spain begins African Slave trade. Africa financially benefits.

Brazil and the Caribbean Sugar plantations become hard labor, and the life expectancy of a slave estimates a lifespan of seven years. So many slaves must be replaced. In America, slavery halts due to longer life span from easier working conditions of tobacco farms. Many slaves have children and importation becomes unnecessary for population and labor stability.

European Population from immigration reached 270,000 during the years 1770-1775 (According to one estimate, truly unknown).

Quakers have amicable relations with the Indians. They did not tip their hats to higher classes. Everyone treated as equal.

Self selected Slavery. This appears in the bible, notably Isaac and Abraham. The method appears like an insurance contract, where the servant agrees to work for a numbered period in exchange for a surety upon conclusion of the contract. In many cases, private land grants provide future opportunities. As many as 100,000 English persons sign up for voluntary slavery. “Head Rights System. Certain number of hectors granted as land. Thomas Jefferson called these self-sustaining freemen Yeoman Farmers, not tied to any aristocracy.

Indentured servants ended at the onset of the Civil War.

Insurance paid for their travel, a person over on the America soil repays the sender and the indentured servant pays by labor for a period reassessed.

52,000 Convicts/Prisoners. Many convicts recorded by famous authors like Charles Dickens.

English sent convicts to America, so in 1788 American sent convicts to Australia.

Human conditions

The young and the strong passed the ocean to America implying a strong human constitution.

150,000  people paid for their own tickets for the expensive trip.

Sweden introduces America to log cabins.

William Penn a Quaker, Charles gave debt, Latin word for forest used as name for Pennsylvania the 12th colony in 1682.

James Oglethorpe, concerned about financing and gambling determines a debtor’s prison which houses inmates in a half-way house.

George Frederick Handle drinks with George I of England. George the first stands up in the concert at the conclusive finally which becomes a tradition among the Handel’s masterpiece Messiahs’ section called the Hallelujah chorus.

Sea-to-sea grants (Charters) gave boundaries all the west to the Pacific ocean and many disputes erupted over previous landed communities and structures.

Indian Attacks

Indian attacks orchestrated by French and Spanish armies battled Puritans’ and colonists. Then England and French forced the Indians to fight the colonists.

Treaties replaced lands and the Indians forgot them.

Land claims begun by different individuals.

Daniel Boone, lost land over disputes. Captured then escaped from the Indians, who sometimes respected him.


Cholera = kill in a day, today equivalent to E-coli. attacks the kidneys.

Ague similar to influenza

Bad water so germs. 1880s Louis Pasture discovered germs.

Calomel, good intensive cleaner, purgative, a cathartic.


East Coast Beginnings

The North was about the Puritans, hard work, and self government, Theocracy (Boston)

Massachusetts (Self Governing)

Connecticut (Self Governing)

Rode Island (Self Governing)

New Hampshire (P)

Who settled the New England Colonies, and why:

New England Colonies: New Hampshire, Maine, Connecticut, Rhode Island, Massachusetts, Vermont. Separatist Puritans, called Pilgrims, settled in New England Colonies. Pilgrims voyaged in 1620 and landed at Plymouth. Their ship was called The Mayflower. Worship services to place at Plymouth Rock.

Many settled and founded Boston in Massachusetts. Then a split came to less sympathetic religious autonomy of the Bostonian Puritans. They wanted to gain religious freedom for themselves. They settled in New England because they wanted to gain religious freedom, but the religious freedom they sought for was not given to others. New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Connecticut were founded later by other colonists.

Puritans outlawed liberals, atheists, Catholics and Jews.

Children produced by circumstances of cultivation grew exponentially.

Plymouth adsorbed by the Massachusetts Bay Company.

Industries in the New England Colonies:

Cultivation remain tough because of rocky terrain and thin soil. New Englanders still cultivated their own food. They made clothing, produced victuals and shipped lumber and fur as trade items. They bought supplies from England which comprised metal tools and things they could not produce. England at the time was in a scientific revolution. Fishing became a cash -trade eventually and slowly an industry. New Englanders over loaded with English merchandize traded traded and sold for money iron, pots, kettles, and tools in other colonies.

Lumber industry



Fishing became one of the primary cash industries exporting 300,000 pounds of dried cod to the colonies and other business ventures. Appx. people 10,000 working.

Whaling became the second largest sea industry, with appx. 4,000 people.

Farming mostly private, and indians showed the settlers how to plant herrings into each hole for each stock of corn. The land's soil remained rocky. This factored in with slavery. There became no need for slaves due to the harshness of the soil.

built 1/3 of British war ships used in the Revolution.

About the New England People:

Superstitions over ran the metal state of the colonists. If something was not right, it was a sign of God's punishment. These typifying theocratic themes replenish the arguments against theocracy. Adherence to Bible and Christian ways made the political system intolerable for people that questioned Christian validity. Many people in New England believed in devils, witches, and evil forces. They believed that these things were everywhere. Devils and witches caused thunderstorms, strangling infants in their cradles, making people sick, sinking ships, and ruining crops. People believed that devils won people over and made them witches.

Male attitude as recorded by one Puritan:" I like my women like Ox's [Oxen], big, strong and ready to work" ( see Video Colonial America).

England tried to discourage shipbuilding.

1621 The First and only thanksgiving celebration including the Indian guests and the Pilgrims. The holiday did became an institution until after the American Civil War.

transportation: canoe, boats, and later indian roads and turnpikes.


The Middle was about the cosmopolitans. Shipping, building ships, timber trade.

Pennsylvania (P)    New York (Royal)    New Jersey (Royal)   Delaware (P)

The First Settlers

The Middle Colonies begin with New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Delaware. The first European settlers settled in what is now New York, in 1624. They came to the Middle Colonies because they wanted to make money and to farm. The Dutch bought the island  Manhattan from the Indians for almost nothing. The Dutch called it New Amsterdam. The Dutch also called the Colony New Netherlands. The English came and took the land away from the Dutch. The English called it New York. Pennsylvania was settled by Quakers looking for religious freedom.

Dutch Settlements

1614 Fort Nassau

1625 New Amsterdam


The fertile land and water from the rivers helped the settlers of the Middle Colonies. The crops they grew were vegetable, fruit, and grain. Farmers used the Delaware and the Hudson rivers to move their cash crops to markets in Philadelphia and New York City. The main cash crops were corn and wheat. Pennsylvania grew wheat. New York grew corn. Mills were built to grind the grain into flour. The tradesmen in port cities prepared goods to be shipped overseas. They ate jam, picked fruits, vegetable, They sold vegetables ,fruit, and grain to the traders.

Different from Other Colonies

At first the colonists lived on good terms with the native people. Because of treaties signed by William Penn , the settlers in Pennsylvania had 70 years of peace with the Native Americans. This was much better than the Southern Colonies or the New England Colonies.

About the People

The people in the Middle Colonies came from many different countries. This meant that there was a lot of diversity in the kinds of people that lived there. They lived in separate areas, and didn't learn to trust each other.


South Mostly Anglican, after kicking out the Catholics in the beginning.

North Carolina (Royal)                                                                                                  South Carolina (Royal)                                                                                             Georgia (Royal)                                                                                                       Maryland (P)                                                                                                   Virginia (Royal)

King Charles gives the Carolinas, and the South was more intone with British customs of left-wing control over peoples lives focusing on money instead of goodness and morals.

English came to Virginia. They founded Jamestown in 1607. Their purpose in coming continues as an economic search for wealth.

South started at Jamestown which becomes Williamsburg, which in turn becomes Virginia ( Royal) The south was mostly  about money and elegant way of life ( Note: off the backs of slavery and indentured servants. All in the effort to make the southerners rich, the British ruled the tobacco plantations and controlled by the King himself. Maryland was a proprietary, meaning that the king appoints his friend to rule in his place, yet loyal to the crown. He is a type of governor, who makes the local rules in the kings place. The king sent persecuted Catholics here as a retreat and they paid what they call quick rent. Maryland is named after the Kings wife.

The Settlers of Virginia:

The first people who came to Virginia were the English. They founded Jamestown in 1607. Their purpose in coming was that they wanted to find gold and get rich by trading with the Indians. They thought they would get rich quick, and return to England. However, they were not successful. Times were very bad, because many of the first settlers were English Gentlemen, and were not used to working for a living. Finally, John Smith took control, and said that unless someone worked, they couldn't eat. Because the location of Jamestown was poor many settlers died. Much of the land was swampy and helped spread diseases. In 1619, the Virginia company formed a law-making body. It was called the House of Burgesses. This was the first law example of representative government in America.


It was John Rolfe who finally found a way for the colonists to be successful. They planted tobacco which made some of the settlers very rich. They also planted rice and had rice plantations in the Southern Colonies. These plantations needed lots of workers. At first many people worked as indentured servants. After a while, there were not enough indentured servants, so they used slaves instead. Some Africans knew how to grow rice, and that was very useful to the Southern Colonists.

Southern Colonies' Difference from Others:

The Southern Colonies were different from others because they didn't care about religious freedom, but came here to get rich instead. Their economy depended on large plantations where a few rich people owned most of the land, and depended on slaves to get the work done.

The Thirteen Colonies
(Dates refer to the first permanent white settlements.)

If you know your ancestor's birth date you can sometimes use this information to help you decide where to start looking in various state records or the migration of the family or individuals.

Virginia (1607) - Established by the London Company. John Ralfe  saves economy by introducing tobacco cultivation and becomes a cash-crop.

New Jersey (1618) - Originally settled by the Dutch, but seized by the English in 1664. The Dutch were only trading with the Indians, yet for a present for his brother Charles II, gave this land (New Amsterdam) to James his brother. The Dutch did not put up a fight ( No shots were fired – they refused to fight)  and just left. So the famous place name now well all know becomes New York ( See: New York).

Massachusetts (1620) - Founded as two colonies: Plymouth Colony (1620), settled by the Pilgrims; and Massachusetts Bay Colony (1630), settled by the Puritans. They were united in 1691, and annexed Maine, which had been colonized by the New England Council in the 1620's.

New Hampshire (1622) - Originally part of Maine, then a colony from 1629 until annexed by Massachusetts, 1641-1643. This Became a separate colony again in 1679.

Pennsylvania (1623) - Originally settled by Dutch and Swedes. Came under English control in the 1664 and was granted to William Penn by Charles II in 1681. Charles owed Penn enormous amount of money and the only way he realized to settle it with less difficulties was to give Penn this vast expanse of land. The is a Proprietary ruled. Penn founded the capital Philadelphia, the “city of brotherly love.” It was a total Quaker colony, that is to say, they were even more radical than the puritans. Quaker German Protestants dominate handy-crafts. They make Beer, Cloth & weaving materials, the best carriages, oven smiths, practice rotation of crops, practice patients, and forge a wheat industry. eventually 20,000 people make up the population.

New York (1624) - Founded as New Netherlands by the Dutch West India Company. Seized by the English in 1664 and renamed. ( See: New Jersey). The Duke of New York had proprietor friends (English noblemen)  friends of  his. They  wanted some land so he divides up New York into New Jersey, then a divide yet again to two Quakers, splitting it again calling it Delaware.

Maryland (1634) - Granted to Lord Baltimore.

Connecticut (1635) - Founded by Thomas Hooker and his settlers from Massachusetts and other colonies who didn’t approve of Puritan discipline, so he formed Connecticut.. Later: New Haven Colony, founded by settlers from Massachusetts in 1638, annexed to Connecticut in 1662, when the older colony was granted a royal charter.

Rhode Island (1636) – Founded by Roger Williams. Settled by two groups from Massachusetts and united in 1644. Chartered by King Charles II in 1663.

Delaware (1638) - Settled by Swedes; seized by the Dutch in 1655 and by the English in 1664. Granted to William Penn in 1682.

North Carolina (1653) - Settled by pioneers from other colonies. Carolina was separated from Virginia and granted to a private company in 1663; divided into two colonies in 1711. Made a royal providence in 1729.

South Carolina (1670) - Originally part of Carolina Colony. Was separated from North Carolina in 1711, and became a royal providence in 1729.

Georgia (1733) - Granted to a private company by George II in 1732 and settled a year later in Savannah.








London Company (John Ralfe /tobacco)








Lord Baltimore



(1536?)c. 1635

Thomas Hooker


Rhode Island


Roger Williams (Funds)




Peter Minuit and New Sweden Company


New Hampshire


John Wheelwright (Investment colony)


North Carolina




South Carolina


Eight Nobles with a Royal Charter from Charles II


New Jersey


Lord Berkeley and Sir George Carteret


New York


Duke of York




William Penn




James Edward Oglethorpe


Calvert, Lord Baltimore.

Henrietta Maria (Maryland).

New England ruled by Dutch for 40 years then England captures the rule. New York name under the Dutch, New Netherlands, changed to New York.


Transportation to America

1620 Because of religious differences, 101 Englishmen and Migrant Europeans left their country to come to North America. After crossing the Atlantic Ocean on the Mayflower, they founded a colony at Plymouth, thus beginning the occupation and colonization of New England.

After America becomes places of small landing towns, the poor and homeless are shipped off. They are known as indentured servants.

Indentured Servants were mostly orphans, poor people roaming the streets of England. Many displaced by the Nobles who take control of one-third of the land in England that Henry VIII sold/gave to them, which used to be the place for much work for the poor.

The poor were rounded up and placed on vessels to carry them to the new continent called America. Working for seven years for a proprietor (masters) projects than they were given their freedom and helped to get their own live started and kept their British citizenship.

On the ships that came over the indentured servants were lodged below the water line, served bad food, slept on planks the size of coffins and were allowed on the deck for exercise once and while. They were not shackled as the slaves who lodged with them.

When they got off the ships they were auctioned off and slaves were too. The largest population to come to America was the indentures servants. If an indentured servant got pregnant or got sick they were thrown off the ship (out the port holes to their death) because they were no money at the auction. If they ran away in which many did, then the time they were away was added on to their sentence.

By 1619 were the arrivals of the slaves. The Indentured Servants were now scarce being all moved. One thing that came into play by the masters was that as an indentured servant one day the worker had to be freed and a slave was for life. So more focus from the English opportunists there to make a fortune made the switch to slaves only for there work force. At first there were Dutch slaves and little indentured servants.

How slaves differentiated by the regions of the colonies.

The North was dominated by the Puritans so blacks were free. Remember that the Calvin (Protestant) decrees were the four tenants and the first one was “You were to pursuer your god gift talent. And this applied to the blacks as well. Most of the blacks were also literate. The Royal South which opposed religion and didn’t care about freedom of religion made no bones about absolute slavery lasting forever. Mostly leftists made up this secular region.

In the North the Blacks could sue, take pay for equal work, and could read and write.

In the South (leftist) Black and Slaves were forced not to read, not to marry, sold separately (no family) and made to live together.

Puritan Town

Today six states make up Old New England.

Every town in New England had a main street, with identical small houses( for families)  with one simple white Church and school. 50 families or more had to provide for the school. For example, the paid the instructors costs and supplies and upkeep. This was the first example of what we call to day as a public school. (Now run more by regional government than local communities as of today (circa. 1960 – 2003 cont…)

Everyone had to conform to the Puritan laws. Notice how some call them conformists. To many leftist at the time could not live under this type of lifestyle, so they run off to the slave states to feel more comfortable with denial of human rights.

Under these laws there were no courts. What there was is a Town Hall meeting held once a week where the entire community gathers and grievances and celebrates success and god news of the week. Here if you had any grievance at all of any private problem – none of them were ever held back. Everyone had a say in problem solving and the problems would be worked out on the spot and everyone joins in and feel the pain and enjoyment of each of life’s experiences. They knew that they were sinners, so outrageous problems that arose did not phase them at all. In fact, if a wife of a townsman was denied sex for two weeks she could bring it up. He probably was punished and told to follow her instructions or else. This is a form of democracy at a local level that was championed even by the largest democratic critics of history (Aristotle). Aristotle believes that democracy works really well on a small scale, such as small region of land. For most part this model was an astounding success. Small towns following the Aristotle truth was the reason that democracy was born in America ( note: reborn).

Punishment after verdicts from the weekly Town Hall.

 We all heard of the scarlet letter from English composition class in grade school. A is a letter worn by the culprit for the rest of their life on their garments. “Confess to the whole town in front of them at the Town Hall meeting meant that everyone knew your sin, but a great understanding was of the human spirit and weakness. Something that I think the left has a hard time facing. Pillory was one of the punishments used as a verdict. This meant that for the whole day you were locked with your head and hands to a board as you are bent over. No very comfortable position to stay for the whole day. Some times you were tied to a cart and walking behind it was whipped by some people (usually two men) as they paraded you through town. Women who talked allot were hung out over a pool of water and submerged in the pool (pond), three times until they stopped talking. Some times there were portable pillories as you were paraded around the town on a cart for everyone to see. The humiliation was part of the healing process as well as an incentive not to sin again. Significance was that all Puritans knew you were going to sin and all you had to do was confess at the town hall meeting.


Early homes were made out of small rooms with one fireplace and everyone slept in one room. This included the parents and the couple who were courting. If a man’s eye were caught by a young lady at the town hall or out in town he would asked her to come over to her house or sometimes she would ask him to come over where they would sleep over the night (usually a few nights). A twin bed was there where a plank would be put between then even though they wore no clothes. They talked all night, usually about compatibilities. Compatibilities were the main theme of the Puritans. If you were going spend you entire life with this person you better be compatible to them or the marriage was not going to work. Pre-marital sex was a given, so that side of the life would also be compatible. This process was called “bundling,” or “tarrying the night.” They would talk about marriage and they were young as the expected life span was around forty-years-old – So they would marry young. If they agreed to get marry they publish a “ premarital Sex” notice at the Town Hall and go at it. For this they were given an extra room for themselves. All sex was free with no attachments. This was necessary for the men so the wife doesn’t complain at the Town Hall. The majority of Puritans were pregnant as they got married (Walked down the isle). Significance: This was utmost important because they were living in small towns.

These statues and customs were deemed the esteemed “Model of Christian Charity.” This was the moral example to the world. The preverbal “E pluribus Unum” which means ‘out of one many.’ Once a person sinned everyone felt the pain. The “I’m sorry” is the staple achievement of Christianity. For example, the Jews is Morals, Puritans were Freedom. Christianity was forgiveness. In 1787 the United States Constitution was born out of this “Model of Christian Charity.”

Family Feud of Succession and Rulership, Imperial Politics dragged the colonies into conflict. Most of the world during this time rules in Kingship. Some have parliaments and representative governments like Italy but remain intermediate aberrations in governance.



Spain Monarchy


Spain Charles II ( Last of the Hapsburgs dies in 1700)


Philip V ( First Bourbon in Spain)


Charles III ( Rules 1759-1788)



French Monarchy


France’s Louis XIV ( Rules 1643-1715)

France’s Louis XV ( Rules 1715-1774)

France’s Louis XVI ( Rules 1774 -1792)

[ Napoleon usurps throne,1799-1815]



British Monarchy


Charles II ( Rules 1660-1685, many mistresses but no heirs)


James I ( Jamestown named after him 1607)

→ George I ( Grandson of James I, rules 1715-1727)

→ George II ( Rules 1727-1760)

→ George III ( Rules 1760 -1820)




James II ( Rules 1685-1688) Is a closet Catholic, wants to reform the Church to Catholicism.


Offspring: Mary, Anne and James (The Pretender)


  • Mary marries William of Orange (Rules with William III)


·       William III (After Glorious Revolution of 1688, rules 1689-1702)


·       Anne (Rules 1702-1715)


·       James (The Old Pretender) has son named Charles “ Bonnie Prince Charlie”)




Four Wars

England vs. France



1. England’s name: 9 Years’ War

2. Colonist’s name: King Williams’ War



1. England’s name: War of the Spanish Succession

2. Colonist’s name: Queen Anne’s War



1. England’s name: War of The Austrian Succession

2. Colonist’s name: King George’s War



1. England’s name: 7 Years’ War, 1756-1763

2. Colonist’s name: French and Indian War, 1754-1761


Last of the Mohicans takes place in the French and Indian War.


 Irish Scots

 1689 A.D. Colonial town court records demonstrate that Irish Scots were not welcome by the general Latin Arab and Middle Eastern Arab and Hebrews and Germans and main land Europeans. The American Revolution was fought against the Whites vs. the shaded skin town colonists and adventures. Irish scots begin migrations in 1820s, due to the famine and do not gain respect until the first battle of the Civil War.


Four Wars

England vs. France


War #1 (1689-1697)

1. England’s name: 9 Years’ War

2. Colonist’s name: King Williams’ War


  • Fought in Europe and North America


o        Attacks in New England.

o        All Enthusiasm and no brains.

o        Went by chop to St. Lawrence Rive up in New England and the Puritan’s take Port Royal.


English ally with the powerful Iroquois Confederacy

French Ally with the Hurons


o        Samuel Champlain gets a request by the Huron for firesticks, otherwise known to Europe as firearms.

o        Guns beat the Iroquois, so,

o        Significance: English take Port Royal, and give it back at the end of the war.

o        The English said ‘why bother taking it in the first place’?

o        Other name of war, the third name, issued by a (War of) League of Augsburg.



War #2 (1702-1713)


Louis XIV had a half Spanish and had French grandson and told Spain he wanted him throned. Spain said ‘We will not give France control over policies of the New World. So, this was called The War of Spanish Concession.


  • Louisiana, New England and Canada see fighting of concession on American soil.



o        Again the English take the strategic position of Port Royal. The French get it back at the end

o        This war also sees Deerfield slaughter, and the colonist become unhappy.

o        Significance: The English take the Rock of Gibraltar and keep it unto this day.






Queen Anne, last of the Stuart Line makes a problem. The English look back to descendants to gather information to who could be their next leader. So a German Speaking man gets a call to be King, ‘ How would you like to be king.’


The great grandson of James I get the call and he is a Protestant, and the line Georges’ begin.


  • The War of Jekin’s Ear


    • 1715, James the old Pretender allies with Louis XV and gets him to invade England. The lost for France and James goes quickly.
    • 1739 Concession trade with Spain for England’s participation in a small port of  Panama. English quickly gain the upper hand in business. However, there seems an abundant opportunity for all parties.
    • Jenkins had his ear cut off and presented it to Parliament. Controversy came when the fashionable wigs of the day cover up the injury and people doubt the story, but it concerns etiquette not to ask a ranking person to lift their wig for proof. He supposedly addressed Parliament with his ear in a jar and some said it looked like a mushroom.
    • Panama becomes a slave port.
    • Creation of Spain’s Coast Guard
    • Pirates of the Caribbean. 




War #3 (1744-1748)



Maria Teresa, the Mother of Marie Antoinette will become the leader of Austria, but the Prussian male rulers refuse to accept her. What do women do? They cry for help and the England who allows women rulers objects. Things escalate and war number three becomes a war over female rulership.

War of Austrian Succession, 1744.


James’ pretender son “ Bonnie” Goes to the French king and they invade England. The army scares the British, and on the way to London advisors tells Bonnie not to attack yet because the supply lines appear too long. For the first time he listens to advise which gives the English time to regroup which is fateful for the French and they lose.




War #4 (1754 [56 E]-1761 [63 E])


This war begins on colonial soil. George Washington get the credit. Washington at twenty-one years of age kicked the French out of English territory.


Trade in the Caribbean over Sugar becomes a huge economic factor. Europe now demands increased amounts of the product and a lucrative business brings pirates and a “ No Peace Beyond Line is Erased.”


1751 colonies

1761 Stopped

Starts later in Europe



  • 1763 Treaty of Paris


o        France gets out of Canada

o        Spain lost Cuba

o        Spain gives up Florida to get Cuba back

o        French Louisiana singed over to Spain for 40 years.


Video “American Experience Series”


Produced by David Sutherland.

Washington was at Cambridge and at war with Britain for eight-years and he never let up.


Washington began as a chief swindler in his youth.

Washington wanted to become a British Officer

Secretly afraid of Competition

First American to appear in stone.

Youth Job to acquire land was a surveyor.

Next he became a General

1000 years no one turned down a position as a king.

He overcame ambitions.

At age eleven years-old he came to Mnt. Vernon.

The Virginia farms dazzled him at a young age.

Trained to become a gentleman

Position of surveyor held respect and equal with a preacher’s position.





Copyright © By: Michael Johnathan McDonald , MichaelReport.com


In the “American Experience Series,” produced by David Sutherland, the video on George Washington, America’s Revolutionary hero and first president of the United States asked the question of who was this man. The video uses pictorial imagery and live historic footage of famous places to tell famous anecdotes of his life and to press the significance that he turned down an opportunity to become king of America. The video tried to paint a noble picture of a courageous, ambitious and unique young man who changed his ambitious ways and set aside absolute power to fight for the common man, many poor and hopeless compared to him, so that he could just help out his countrymen battle a suppressive governance by depicted as the English.


The key anecdote took place at the end of the video where Washington addressed his angry soldiers in a scene in a chapel and the group demanded payment of service from a delinquent Congress or a decisive decision form their leader to take over the country as a de facto ruler. This video portrayed as a documentary illustrated Washington as cunning and tactful leader who’d at the moment of chaos whipped-out a set of spectacles and subdued an angry Continental Army setting aside tides of history to set up the first democratic experiment in ages. The powerful scene emphasizes sympathy by the men for their leader as he read one last promissory note from the Congress for payment. The episode gained Washington accolades by King George as well as a respectful commentary from Napoleon after Washington’s death. However, I believe the video follows a dogmatic historiography and the reality may closer fit a weariness of possibilities to maintain and control such an endeavor.


Washington as depicted in the video and in real life became a cunning man as well as an observant man. It would have been hard to believe that he could have garnered support for a kingship at that juncture of time with the beginning intellectual or enlightenment attitudes festering in the minds of his countrymen and the intellectual of Europe. The fear of kingship of any kind or absolute authority would not sit well with the majority of the colonial population and would defeat the purpose of the Revolution. Also, Washington had many enemies in high positions in the colonies and the British possibly would have seen a prime opportunity to restart the war with an renewed effort to battle a possibly legitimate repressive military dictatorship at many people’s behest.



One thing considered remains the unpaid army - how to pay the soldiers and alleviate this dilemma of repressive rule by autocracy? Would the army plunder the Congressional treasury, or some town’s resources just to survive? This would surely play on Washington’s cunning mind as well as colnists viewing a new suppressive form of governance which would not bode well for the long run of an observant gentleman’s mind.  Another factor remains of Washington fabulous wealth where he was reaching an age where duty and retirement formed conflicts in his mind. If he became king he would be endlessly fighting the enlightenment intellectuals and his enemies to stay in power and would have no peace of mind or rest to enjoy his money.


To add to the last thought and to finalize conditions other than what the video portrayed as fact, Washington fancied retirement and his own time-off and wanted to retreat back to Mnt. Vernon. In the video section when he lived at Mnt. Vernon living as a gentleman he proclaimed this was the happiest time of his life. The video does a fine job to make Washington look like an unselfish hero, but many factors not questioned surely may have played a vital part in his actions of placing the spectacles upon his face to garner sympathy and a correct response he was looking for from his dismayed soldiery.






Questions on the American (Colonial) Histories


Questions on the American (Colonial) Histories


  1. Where in North America did the farming of food-bearing plants begin? (400 BC, large agricultures societies emerge in the southwest with the two most influential native populations called Hohokam and the Anasazi. Maize estimated as grown widely in the southwest, 2500 B.C.E.  
  2. Evidence of the sophistication of Hopewell culture (Ohio and Illinois’ river valleys, the Adena culture evolved into a more developed and widespread culture known as Hopewell ceremonial centers first-century B.C.E.).
  3. The reason for the decline of Anasazi culture (Devastating drought in the 12-13th centuries scattered the Anasazi to abandoned major cultural centers (Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico and Utah).
  4. The first European nation to explore the unknown world in the 15th century? Portugal (African western and coast) then Spain (Americas).
  5. The other important discovery Columbus made when he got to the western Hemisphere? Indians, sugar, and other vegetables. Sugar became huge in Europe and demanded an industry. Sugar harvesting results in a tough and hard procedure which enacts an unhealthy lifestyle which was why slaves died early of exhaustion. Spain and France ended up regulating this industry, although Portuguese had initially began the program. Sugarcane’s major locations were the Caribbean and Brazil. Tobacco never took on back breaking labor as Sugarcane work. This began a plantation economy and a reason for slave traders and the slave worker. 
  6. The main reason why the Pilgrims migrated to New England? Not welcomed in England anymore, and didn’t like Holland of which they tried out first. Initially going to Virginia, the boat was a blown adrift to Plymouth; establish their own comminutes based upon a theocracy of puritan values. Practice self representative government.  
  7. Colonial Protestants?  Puritans and Pilgrims (separatists).
  8. Samuel de Champlain’s inadvertent error in dealing with Indians? He tried to suppress the competition instead of recognize the need for reciprocity in dealing with the natives. Sent by the French in 1603-5 to explore Canada.  Alliance with the Montagnais and Algonquins of the St. Lawrence and the Hurons of the lower Grate Lakes to battle the Mohawks, leading to a trading dispute, a slaughter in July 1609. More than fifty Mohawks are killed at the battle of Lake Champlain and many more injured. This begins a deadly era of trade, diplomacy and war.  French gained the fur trade, thick beaver pelts of the interior exchange of European goods and protection against the Mohawks and other Iroquois. 
  9. How far back slavery in North America can be traced? African American’s show up in Virginia 1619.
  10. What the Great Migration of 1629-1635 referred too? An English civil (1632)  war and Charters. 1625 Charles I becomes King of England and hates Protestants; many flee to America after trying out Holland first. 1629 Charters begin beginning the Great Migration (-1635), 20,000 crossed the Atlantic and begin Boston.
  11. Leading religious dissenters in the Massachusetts Bay Colony? 1634-37 Anne Maybury Hutchinson; scalped with family and only one son survived & Roger Williams; begins Rhode Island, a region of diversity.
  12. Cause of Bacon’s Rebellion? In 1660 Chesapeake tobacco prices plummeted causing a depression affecting farmers. Creditors want their money. Virginia landowners become locked into a losing battle of poverty. In June 1675 a dispute between Doeg Indians and a Virginia farmers escalates, and Virginia and Maryland militias pursuing the Doegs kill fourteen friendly Susquehannocks and later executed five of their chiefs.  Violence got out of control. 1676 Nathanial Bacon rouses farmers to exterminate the Indians. To exacerbate things, the Third Anglo-Powhaten war erupts over land disputes and inidans not staying on their reservations – land prescribed to them by the English. White settlements encroached upon their reservations angering the indians. Parliament steps in and declares indians need to stay on their reservations or forfeit them. This means no attacking. Berkeley eventually forbids Bacon to attack any indians.  Bacon’s 1,300 recalled call on Berkeley’s servants to go free and his slaves. Governor William Berkeley declares him ‘In rebellion.’ Bacon marches on Jamestown and burns the capital to the ground. The rebellion collapses. This became a social disturbance and only ended when Bacon dies of dysentery.
  13. What the Glorious Revolution of 1688 was all about? James II deposed in a bloodless Revolution, William and Mary gain the English throne. James II flees to France and conspires with Lois XIV to regain the throne to no avail.
  14. 1689-1697 War

1. England’s name: 9 Years’ War

2. Colonist’s name: King Williams’ War

  1. The effect of the Pontiac’s Rebellion? The Proclamation of 1763. British declare a strict, temporary, boundary for colonial settlements.


Pontiac’s Rebellion. French/ Ottawa alliance over because the French bailed out of Canada and the French treated the Indians well. French had a habit of giving the Indians gifts including weapons. Pontiac tries to unify the Indians around the Great Lakes and Ohio River valley to play off the English, colonists and the French for economic advantages. Early 1763 The Delaware Indian religious prophet Neolin called for Indians to repudiate all European culture.  The English, done with the war now turn on the colonist and issue a Proclamation of 1763 to assert control of land by royal decree to control transactions, settlements and trade of non-indian holdings west of the Appalachians.

The British spent £400,000 annually on a series of frontier posts to administer their control and believed the colonist must help with the expenses.


Major battle around June 1763 involves a radical disguise thought up by the Indians to appear they are playing Lacrosse and their females hide the weapons under smocks even though it was a warm summer day. This draws out a spectator crowd from the fort Michilmactinac, of whom then are surprised and routed.


Pontiac’s scheme, “Lets foment rebellion and fight around the Great Lakes.”


Jeffery Amherst called a conference to give gifts to the Indians consisting of blankets filled with smallpox spores in order to stop the rebellion.


  1. The purpose of the Proclamation of 1763? To control transactions, settlements and trade of non-indian holdings west of the Appalachians. Licensed trade only.   Pontiac, and other Ottawa indians along with other indian tribes form an anti-British coalition; so England asserts a proclamation to assert royal control of land transactions, settlements, and trade.



  1. Why the Proclamation of 1763 and Quebec Act of 1774 angered colonists?


    • The Proclamation of 1763 in effect “apologizes” to Indians for encroachment and declares a strict, temporary, boundary for colonial settlement. One cannot trade without a license, and settlers were already in the illegal zone complicating matters. This Proclamation separates the Indians from the colonists.


    • The Quebec 1774 act coincided with the coercion Acts which came out of the Boston Tea Party episode, and intended to cement French Canadian Catholics and establish a Roman Catholic Laws in Quebec as the official religion.
  1. Agriculture products grown in the South during the colonial period?  Rice, tobacco and wheat.
  2. Why Parliament repealed the Stamp Act and the Townshend duties? Stamp Act, 1765 imposes heavy taxes on the colonies and the Townshend Act, 1767, imposed larger taxes on the colonies. 1770 Acts are repealed and only tax upon tea remains.


The Stamp Act made every document a pricey commodity. One needed to buy British stamps and place them on all documents and/or all mail. The Act didn’t benefit the colonist who saw it more as kingship control and heavy-handedness. Obviously the colonist resisted. Britain’s king forced their people to pay 26 shillings compared to the colonists 1 shilling per person’s tax rate.  This caused inter-continental resentment.


Townshend duties were external taxes and eventually hurt English middle class but not the wealthy. Fights in England helped repeal the laws later on. The Colonist just went on smuggling and defying import taxes on British goods championed by King Charles III. These import taxes affect all products and of course all life. Townshend duties secretly had its  roots in an alternative to mercantilism. The process remained to make an English profit off of the colonies by regulating commerce.


  1. What happened to most of the British soldiers on trial for the Boston Massacre? 1770, Most of the British red coat officers were acquitted, some got their thumbs branded.
  2. Battle the Americans won in the American Revolution? Saratoga (north of New York), Trenton, Princeton (New Jersey), Yorktown. However, a French produced video called “Battle of Yorktown: 1781,” claimed, the Patriot’s recorded 3 wins, 9 loses, and 1 tie. One needs to remember in war that only the last battle counts and the Patriots won.
  3. What the Whiskey Rebellion demonstrated? The young republics’ first serious uprising against the federal authority, testing federal authority; The Whiskey Rebellion against higher taxes leads Washington to send troops to Pennsylvania to avoid repeat of the Shays Rebellion; Hamilton’s rescue of his new program creates new taxes upon domestically traded products, this time Whiskey; this is attacked the Federal Reserve and the line of credit of the national government.
  4. Medicine as used by colonists in the 18th Century? Calomel, a good intestine cleaner, a purgative and cathartic which cleans out one’s system [ during the period a lack of sanitation and poor medical knowledge created opportunities for germs, not known by name until 1880s discovery by Louis Pasture; Ague, similar to influenza, Cholera, intestine disease, can kill within a day, similar to the modern version of E-coli; bad water force more drinking of Alcohol which some say decreases the chances of disease; also Quacks who sold remedies not proven to work).
  5. Captivity narratives? Indians capture Puritans & Colonists in raids and the captured lived with the Indians and wrote down their experiences, some positive some negative. Some taken didn’t want to return, as told by their narratives. The Spanish and British often used the Indians as warriors to invade colonists, and they did nothing about the capture of hostages who became slaves and lived with the Indians. The mixed narratives give us two different looks into colonial life as a Puritan hostage. All captivities mentioned here take place throughout the four wars mentioned here on this page. The significance sometimes showed a different climate of the Indian, and some people’s attitudes changed while others did not. Left-wing (supposedly tolerant and politically correct) Hollywood often portrays native Americans in a negative light, even up till today.
  6. A major factor in Britain defeating France in the colonial wars? The alliance with the colonials.
  7. A description of the Continental Army in the first years of the Revolutionary War? (rag tag)
  8. The people Jefferson believed were the most vigilant and virtuous? Yeoman farmers, he set up an entire scenario of what the model American citizen should aspire too).
  9. Who led in Spanish colonization of the borderland areas?  Daniel Boone, aspiring young lawyer, who accepted Spanish gold, in a series of Spanish agent conspiracies west of the Appellations. Captured by Indians, he was treated well. Acquitted in courts, although he was court-martialed. All the land disputes taken to court.
  10. How American history remembers Daniel Boone? (mixed conspirator) Tolerant of Indians, like the outdoors, lost land over disputes, born into a Quaker family and conspired with Spain over illegally obtaining Indian lands as official treaties. Indians had short memories of treaties and it was difficult according to their custom to make land treaties as a large majority of them must ratify a treaty for a safe passing of acceptance. Just having one chief, or a representative sign a treaty was never binding in Indian customs, as a general rule.
  11. Alien & sedition acts of 1798? ( four laws designed by Federalists to prevent dissent and the growth of Republican Party, are passed; The Federalists insisted a possibility for war with France risked a national security, and President Adams did not support the measure. Deportation or jail of alien enemies – to prevent war time espionage and sabotage, determining hostile citizens, the law not used until the War of 1812).
  12. mercantilism restricted market - state to colony regulated economy. Raw materials from the colonies to England, who make the products and resold products to the colonies. The colonists make a sparse living, so smuggling becomes a big industry.
  13. Government powers the Article of Federation did not have?( Central government)
  14. Group that wished to cleanse the Church of England of Catholic influence? The Puritans, for of purification of the Latin Church.
  15. Why the Plymouth colony in Massachusetts merits notice today? To live without a king, monarch or autocrat. As Winthrop proclaims to make the community “The city on the Hill” so that the world could see other ways of living. At this time in history, most of the world lived in Monarchies. History: 1628 Puritan merchants obtain a charter to settle north of a separatist colony at Plymouth. This becomes a Christian archetype of  'a city upon a hill.'
  16. A major distinction between slaves and indentured servants? Slaves, life-long service to an owner and after emancipation a second class citizens; indentured servants had rights and legal contracts, and became free after a contract ended. 100,000 sign up for the indentured servant program 1700-1775. This type of slavery appears as a temporary insurance or term insurance. About 52,000 were criminals. In 1778 Americans sent convicts to Australia. Most famous convict was celebrated by Charles Dickinson, a convict who adventured to wealth in Austria. Who were the indentured servants? People who came across were young and strong men. The ‘ head rights system’ guaranteed after an insurance term the now free person received a number of agreed acreage and became a Yeoman.
  17. The primary object of the Spanish explorers in the New World? First gold and silver. Later, trade of Molasses and Sugar and creating economic plantations)
  18. The agriculture crop that helped Jamestown on a firm economic basis? Tobacco. John Ralfe saves Virginia with introduction of the cash-crop tobacco. James I detests the substance.
  19. The English monarch who hated tobacco? King James I.
  20. Objections of Antifederalists to the proposed Constitution? No central government or federal taxes imposed.
  21. What place was described as a ‘city upon a hill’? Plymouth then New England in general because of the focusing on puritan values.
  22. Why the Proclamation of 1763 and Quebec Act of 1774 angered colonists? The Proclamation of 1763 in effect “apologizes” to Indians for encroachment and declares a strict, temporary, boundary for colonial settlement.


Pontiac’s Rebellion. He tries to unify the Indians around the Great Lakes and Ohio River valley to play off the English, colonists and the French for economic advantages. Early 1763 The Delaware Indian religious prophet Neolin called for Indians to repudiate all European culture.  The English, done with the war now turn on the colonist and issue a Proclamation of 1763 to assert control of land by royal decree to control transactions, settlements and trade of non-indian holdings west of the Appalachians.

The British spent £400,000 annually on a series of frontier posts to administer their control and believed the colonist must help with the expenses.


  1. Colonials taking sides in the American Revolution? 1775, Loyalists (Tories), who supported the British vs. Patriots, who supported a break away from the mother country.
  2. The main author of the Declaration of Independence? (1776, Thomas Jefferson, 90%, his suggestions of abolition of slave trade taken out by the second Continental Congress  and his slaves called him hypocrite after hearing about his feelings on slavery.
  3. The land ordinances passed by the Articles of Confederation? Proposed in 1777, the articles signed by all 13 states in March 1781 become law.
    • The League of sovereign states.
    • Each state gets one vote in the say of legislation for the Confederation.


                                                    i.     The Ordinance of 1785, established uniform procedures for surveying the American frontier, states surrender claims of 160 million acres north of the Ohio river, and the law stated a basic unit a township consisted of reserved six-square miles, subdivided into thirty-six sections of 640 acres each, with one section reserved as a source of income for public schools. ( sea-to-sea grants???).

                                                  ii.     The Ordinance of 1787 detained land north of the Ohio River as state worthy and slave free. Settling objective of any 5,000 adult males can right a provisional constitution and elect a legislator and finally when the population of the settlers reached 60,000 a permanent state constitution becomes legal and the Congress grants statehood.


  1. primary, secondary and tertiary sources (how history discerns a written source)
  2. Battle lost that compelled Britain to begin peace negotiations with Americans? 1781, General Cornwallis surrenders at Yorktown.
  4. Results of the treaty of Paris? American independence recognized. Ambiguous boundaries result in future British and American disputes and wars.

Indians joined the British forces and became accused by the colonists of treason (Land disputes with the Indians and states). Native Americans were left out of the treaty. Slaves didn’t benefit even though the British complained. Confiscation of Tory property, over 100,000 loyalists flee to Canada or England.


  1. Terms of the Peace of Paris? 1783, Gives Americans unconditional independence and establishes American boundaries, while ignoring territorial clams of Native Americans. Separate treaties, England transfers East and West Florida back to Spain. Compensate loyalists for property damage. Several states would refuse to comply.


  1. Relationship between national and state governments? This idea properly is called Federalism. Many mistake and misuse the term including contemporary elected officials to imply only a national governmental body. This accounts for their mis-education and/or secret desire to think and practice a national superiority.


  1. Political views of Hamilton and Jefferson on interpreting the Constitution? (Jefferson, strict interpretation (Strict Constructionist), implying one cannot add or delete meanings in the Constitution; Hamilton, if the Constitution doesn’t say you cannot do it, you can use a loose interpretation to do anything. Elastic clause: Interpretation or living document. Making central government very powerful, Jefferson believed against this type of reasoning, and Hamilton believed central government provides the way to good over all governance.


  1. Plan submitted at Constitutional Convention calling for a single-chamber Congress? William Patterson’s (NJ)  single unit chamber proposed each state had one vote. Next a Virginia representative asked for a bi-cameral legislator (cameral, Latin for chamber); Virginia plan of a bi-cameral legislation did not offer the correct solution as well. The art of politics of compromise demonstrated an American resolve in settling on a variation of bi-cameral legislation as each state gets two Congressional votes and the House of Representative settler on population distribution representation. This Connecticut representative officered a solution of no rush to judgment scenario which we deem as a system of patience and balances. Issues of immediate concerns remained the time an elected official could serve in office before being forced out of the position.


  1. The four wars in the colonial period when England fought France?

Four Wars

England vs. France


1. England’s name: 9 Years’ War

2. Colonist’s name: King Williams’ War


1. England’s name: War of the Spanish Succession

2. Colonist’s name: Queen Anne’s War


1. England’s name: War of The Austrian Succession

2. Colonist’s name: King George’s War

1. England’s name: 7 Years’ War, 1756-1763

2. Colonist’s name: French and Indian War, 1754-1761 ( First time American colonists begun a war, this time Washington as a young man).

Boston, the intellectual capital of the colonies.

State-to-State Monetary Exchange Problems

  • There are no rules of exchange between the states
  • $3 & $35 bills circulate with no regulation.

1786-1787 Shay’s Rebellion (Inadequacies of currency),  focuses on ways to pay-off the War’s debt which a proposal for tax hikes angered people. New England suffered after the loss of the West Indies markets and remained mired in depression. Gold and silver became scarce and the bankers, merchants and tax collectors demanded payments nonetheless. The mid-Atlantic and the South saw prosperity angering further New England who saw that the South could easily pay-off the war debt. At this period a minority, merchants and business people saw a benefit in a centralized government which ties directly to an easily fluid exchange.  Someone had to pay for the river cleanup and disputes over which side sandbars lay on and who owned the logs floating down the river became an issue. Who would maintain the financial costs of cleaning the rivers for boat travel connected to commerce?

This also became the first time that the home grown local government created further problems. Some people stated that the Massachusetts legislator had some bad policies. Late in 1786 Danial Shays, a Revolutionary War officer and struggling farmer led 2,000 angry men in an attempt tpo shut down the courts and stop the foreclosures and tax auctions. This forced the people to rethink the publics feeling of a non-central governing body. Legislators had met in Annapolis, Maryland, intending to discuss ways to promote interstate commerce, but thought this was not the solution, but the changing of the Articles of Confederation needed looking at once again. Therefore, Congress asked the states to send delegations to meet in Philadelphia.

Alexander Hamilton, a proponent of central government called for a general convention to work on a new system of laws.

This lead to the Philadelphia Convention 1787

Michael J. McDonald



The Public Broadcasting Company’s video called Amish & US gives us a look into Lancaster County, Pennsylvania of a community of American citizens practicing their right to live spiritually the way they want. The documentary focuses particularly on life in the Amish community and how many of them deal with the changing times. Also, besides contrasting traditional scenes of the Amish, the video touches upon changing attitudes of younger generations to the times and evolving technology. Conversations of remaining traditional a hoarse & buggy lifestyle is contrasted with non-traditional Amish who have cars, modern stoves and ovens and other modern accoutrements.

However, the more modern Amish still remain committed to Lancaster County.   Highlighted scenes takes one look into discussions of older generations concern for the changing demographics when they see scenes of new expensive construction building taking place where once fertile land existed. The Community is contrasted between the old world and the new and many talked about futures generations as an uncertainty to the survival of the traditions.  The 1.4 Million tourists who come every year have a fascination with people who decided to live out their dream of a simple life. Often, however, a struggle exists to remain within the family tradition as the video focuses upon.


Symbolism, depicted in the cinematography, of the news towns and communities with the modern expensive homes with large lawns contrasts the basic farming lifestyles of the Amish shows a dichotomy of presentation. This way, the producers could show the disparity between the competing lifestyles in Lancaster county. This effect helps bring the message home that evening living in freedom one needs to struggle to keep their traditions. This is part of the Amish mystique.

 Not all the Amish want to live without electricity or modern comforts and traditional conflicts within the community itself plays a large role often bringing heated disagreements between generations. Some of the new generations want to be included in family heritage, but do not want to live back in the days before the industrial revolution. American principles often elude too compromise. Can there be a happy medium? Yes -  The family with the modern stove and range, the telephone at the end of the yard, the Amish home shopping channel. These scenes in the video show that even some of traditionalist’s compromise.   

This video also champions diversity of lifestyle an American trait. A favorable argument the Amish pose in the video becomes a contrast between the stress of the outside modern world which is complex and a stress free simple life. The tourist comes to get a sample of the dream of living a different stress free life. The Constitution allows the Freedoms of living how one wants which makes the Amish unique. Living outside the norm, especially religiously, as the Amish do is not tolerated in many Countries, such as China. That is one reason this country is great.

Essay #


The Video Oregon Trail tells of a story of the western migration of American settlers during the period called ‘Manifest Destiny.’ Settlers looking for land and a better life often journeyed to the West facing difficult circumstances. The video illustrates the challenges to changing climates, difficult land and water travel and all within a short travel season including crowded conditions. The video brings home the message that the trip consisted of a dangerous proposition.

That dangerous proposition was the unknown and this migration began with many leaving their homes by only hearing stories Louis and Clark’s passage and they took a chance at a better life. International treaties and various circumstances factored into reasons many took to the road. Crowded cities, and government offering free land and other’s took too promotions included advertisements for more healthy living.

The video explains the best modes of travel, the mule or the Oxon. Also, the dangers inherent of leaving too early or too late on the long journey and take the viewer though a scenic depiction of the American landscape. Families from Wisconsin, Indiana, Missouri and other places sometimes died. One in ten people died on the trip, but most didn’t complain. In Europe people couldn’t own land and in the West there was no malaria or slave issues. The video is not all grim. With the help of tour guides and later travel guides, over 100,000 settlers following the initial First Wagon Train in 1843, called the period of the Great Migration signified the American spirit of adventure.


The video fails to concentrate on the intricacies for the reason for the migration. It only gives a brief summery then begins to explain how one traveled. Two initial migrations began between 1845 and 1847 and part of the reason, other than whishing for a new life, was immigration. Ireland and Germany both had serious tragedies creating a flood of immigrants to America. The cities and towns became pact with new immigrants and space became in an issue. In addition Indians moved to west of the Mississippi by decree further complicating land issues.

 American initially remembered the sea-to-sea grants and believed that all of territory west to them was theirs for the taking. American provoked war claiming California and New Mexico. The British agreed to pass on land of Texas and territory of Oregon to America. The Democratic Party, citing a lot of these circumstances, promoted the migration because they believed they could prove the dream of Thomas Jefferson with the Yeoman vision.

Another argument why the settlers left relative safety, although cramped conditions, was economic in nature. Some were awarded free land but under a contract  only if they resided on that land for certain number of years, This guaranteed town building for the national government which fitted their purpose to build a large nation.

For the settlers after they fulfilled their obligations, then could leave their land to their own benefactor.  Europe where most of their families had come from contained little opportunity for upward mobility. The American frontier represented just that and it made the risk a little easier to handle. This allure of upward mobility created such a s strong impression that between 1845 and 1849 during the James K. Polk administration the United States expanded by 50%.1 This represents people that desire for wealth and new life opportunities lay at the heart of every pioneer during this era.

1The Enduring Vision: A History of the American People, vol. I, 5th ed. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), 252.

 update June 2015

Colonization can also be soft imperialism: Exmp: 1943 A.D. ( 65,000,000 Americans - 2,000,000 lost to war) 2014 A.D. 319.785,000 Americans which happened in a decline of White Babys and massive Latin/Arab immigration Most of the United States Archives are false datas. In 1970s, there are 200,000 residents in my district of San Fernando Valley. In 2014 A.D. there are over 1,500,000 residents in the San Fernando Valley, the developers began to build, UP!

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