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United States of America -- Colonization of North America - Part 2

By Michael Johnathan McDonald

History_11FESG

  1. Presidents who served two complete terms in office, 1796-1868?

George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, James Monroe, Andrew Jackson; ‘Not’ Abraham Lincoln.

  1. The purpose of the Indian Removal Act?

Removal of the Indians to the West, 1820-1840. Forced removal to reservations, mainly of the Five Civilized Tribes. Andrew Jackson believed the tribes must follow state’s laws and not have their own laws and a separate nation. Colonist’s viewed their lands with envy. Not being citizens indians could not vote or have political office. In the 1820s, White squatters inhabited the southern lands, and southern lawmakers hesitated to force the laws. Instead the called for the removal of the native Americans.  Therefore, many crimes against them went without due process.  To give the inidans a permanent place to live, tribal lands were swapped for reservations, and later obsolete by the psychology of  Manifest Destiny the changing of the American paradigm, the Indians will be displaced yet again.

In Illinois, Black Hawk, but up a defense, but failed by federal troops and state militia men. Between 1832-1837 the U.S. acquired 190 million acres of Indian land in the Northwest for $70 million dollars.

  1. The primary Author of the Declaration of Independence?

Thomas Jefferson, who composed about 90% of the document.

  1. The Jay treaty?

1793-1796, General Anthony Wayne led 3,000 regulars and militia men and defeated the Shawnees at the Battle of Fallen Timbers. The British had forts close to the battle and Washington became nervous of another war. Wayne got twelve Ohio Valley tribes to sign the Treaty of Greenville, which opened most of the Ohio Valley up to white settlers. He sent Chief Justice John Jay to Britain. He won some major diplomatic victory in London. The British promised to withdraw troops from American soil. Jay also gained American access to West Indies’ ports. ( See, 39).

(treaty of Paris?) After the Revolution this partial resolution included The British agreement to vacate the western forts, and to compensate American ship owners. In return, the Americans gave most favored nation trading status to the British. The British refused to give any more concessions, however, unless the United States provided compensation for the vast amounts of Loyalist property seized after the revolution. The British also refused to allow trade between the U.S. and the Caribbean. This treaty attempted to clear up some of the lingering problems of American separation from Great Britain. Britain will not leave America alone until after the war of 1812 when they turn attention to becoming just a trade nation and no longer a warning nation.  The objections remained shoring up policies from the war between Britain and France. The U.S. had a treaty of alliance with France dating back to 1778.

  1. Years of general economic collapse in the U.S. between 1799 and 1857?

1799 U.S. and France in an undeclared war in the West Indies a.k.a. “The

Quasi-War.” 

1819, economic panic, ushering in four-year depression by banks tightening

credit. Loose practices by state

banks play a major role.  

1837 a panic hits the U.S. ( Jackson takes money from the central banks and puts

them into “pet banks”, state banks that did him favors. Poorly managed the state

banks issue paper money without backing of gold. This created a problem after

Jackson leaves office. U.S. enters a depression that will last until 1843. The worst

in U.S. history at this time.

1854

1857

  1. Causes of the U.S. Mexican War?

Sidel offers the Mexican government money for Texas and parts of Mexico. After the Mexican Revolution to oust Spain many leader’s assumed control. No central authority lasted long enough any a major centralized decision. Mexico remained after their revolution in an unstable condition. No deals could be made that everyone could agree upon.

Spanish American’s differed from Mexican Americans. During Spain’s rule the U.S. and Spain agreed that Mexico was its own territory. Now that the Mexican’s took over the ruler ship, things became confusing to what were the boarders. It is safe to say that Spain and the U.S. understood the eastern boarders, but never defined the western boarders, which remained in contention with Mexico. American didn’t think of the western boarders because of the vast desert – like conditions was not preferred by the early settlers.

In the 1820s, Steven Austin and thrity or so settlers took to south eastern Texas. Tejano , Spanish speaking  Texans’ ruled. They wanted western technology and asked the colonist to come and settle in Texas by buying cheap land, but needing to work. For a few years this alliance worked.  Many came and soon the settlers outnumbered the Tejano, who became worried they would loose control of their culture. They began to restrict the settlers from migrating and even throwing them out. This became an immigration issue.

 

In eastern Texas, the living conditions attracted settlers. Humid, fertile and not arid and by the late 1820s, many Anglos settled. Mexicans became scared of the immigration data. Outnumbering the  Tejanos, ( Spanish Speaking Texans) Mexicans told them they do not want them there any longer. At the same time, coups were taking place in the Mexican government and no-one seemed to be in control. These circumstances led to conflict.

 

So in 1836 Santa Ana for the Mexican side and the U.S. went to war for the Independence of Texas. The Spanish and the Anglos fought the Mexicans and first battle was called the Alamo, in San Antonio. Santa Ana met success with

4, 000 troops. Two-hundred Rebels retreated to an abandoned mission, the Alamo. Mexico wanted no quarter.  On March 6, ― four days after Texas had claimed independence, Santa Ana army killed at the rebels including the wounded. A few days later Mexicans massacred 350 Texan prisoners at Goliad. Even before these battles Texas delegates met to proclaim Texas independent from Mexico and proclaimed San Huston, already and military leader, as their first president.

 

On April 12th, 1836 Huston’s army surprised Santa Ana and his men by shouting “remember the Alamo,” and decimating his army with advanced artillery. Huston’s army captured Santa Ana, and the Mexican government never ratified the Treaty Santa Ana signed. This battle is known as the battle of San Jacinto. At this battle, Texas secured de facto independence.

 

 

Background: In 1839, France made some excuse of some type of past debts (may not have been proven) and invaded Mexico.

 

Manifest Destiny outweighs many arguments; America offered money to Mexico in which they refused. Previous President Tyler used the annexation of Texas as a campaign slogan for his potential second term. James K. Polk vowed to bring Oregon and California under American control. Mexico banned and kicked out Texan settlers after inviting them in and selling them land. U.S. frowned upon this policy. Texas believed that its southern boundary represented the Rio Grande River. The Mexicans claimed that it was the Nueces River. This boundary’s confusion will never be solved. When Mexican forces attacked the Americans in the disputed region, Polk believed that Mexico "invaded our territory, and shed American blood upon the American soil." Mexico claimed the opposite. This time the American government took an opportunity to capitalize on the confusion. The last suspected cause was that southerners expected this region to become another slave territory. Many that moved into the territory brought their slaves. The north believed it need to conquest the state to bring it under national jurisdiction so that Congress could grapple with the slavery question.

  1. The XYZ affair?

Inflamed Anti-French opinion in the States.

 

1798, John Adams a good man could not stand up to a French bribe by three agents who demanded $250,000 initially then $12 million to get French to stop their seizure of Americans ( Appx. 300 U.S. Vessels in one year), even on British ships and then hanging them, by seeing the correct officials.

 

John Marshall declined Washington's offer of Attorney General of the United States, and in 1796 declined to serve as minister to France. In 1797 he accepted when President John Adams appointed him to a three-member commission to represent the United States in France. (The other members of this commission were Charles Pinckney and Elbridge Gerry.)

 

The French accused the U.S. of conspiring against the French and the French foreign minister, Charles de Talleyrand, refused to meet with Adam’s representative.

 

Hostility broke out as Marshall and Pinckney were excused from France John Marshall stayed on with the bunt of the Anti-American sentiment which made him popular back in the states.

 

American became outraged that Adam’s would consider praying bribe money to the French. The XYZ affair discredited the Republican foreign policy management in the American’s eyes. Napoleon’s threats created partly the reason the  Alien Acts came into existence. This act weeded out potential traitors and spies. The Sedition Acts that followed denounced libel in print which at this time became extremely nasty way to smear an opponent. U.S. at this time had no libel laws.  Napoleon loved to play games with the Americans but never really considered invading America after 1799. The logistics made for unpleasant fantasies.

  1. What prompted the dramatic building in the 1820s and 1830s?

The Great age of Canal Building begins in the 1820s.

The beginning of the displacement of the Indians, from the southeast and northwest, by Indian Removal Act, created open land to build upon and new regional regulation.

 

1815 the Golden Age of farming technology increases productivity. By the 1920s, its affects take notice. Some Indians become Christian Converts and join society giving up the warrior lifestyle. Jackson let the states do whatever they want. City populations grew enormously. River navigation and coastal navigation take on new importance. These changes in transportation mobilize the American citizens.  More people working meant more get accomplished. (John Deer invents a steel plow. McCormick invents the reaper).  The success of canals likethe Erie Canal (1815 b.), 1816 Philadelphia canal project, 1834 Pennsylvania canal project linking Pittsburg prove valuable to infrastructure building. Canal speeds factor into productivity with travel two-miles per hour, and an avrage distance of twenty-miles per day made a less costly trip then pack-mule trains.  Keelboats on the Mississippi and Ohio rivers and including tributaries increase reach of inter-continental trade.  New England textile mills expand and dominate the market. Baltimore & Ohio Railroad starts operating.

 

Natchez Trace, New Orleans road where keelboats become dismantled and sold for wood, after making a trip down the Mississippi with cargo. In 1800s, and estimated 1,000 boats make due west of the Appellations.

  1. Definition of “carpetbagger?

The pejorative term ‘Carpetbagger’ applied to Northerners who moved to the South after the Civil War, applying to those who joined state Republican parties formed in 1867 and who were elected as Republicans to public office. The Politicians that moved from the south to the north were called scalawags. Both terms became synonymous with dirty language.

  1. What was the Homestead Act, Ordinance of 1785 (640 acres), and Yazoo cases have in common?

Federal government granted lands for settlements, and had the jurisdiction to make the rules, but all of these had one thing in common – they ignored Indian land rights.  

  1. Consequences of the Whig party when John Taylor became president?

1840, William H. Harrison gives a two-hour inaugural address outside in the rain ( the longest address) without an umbrella, gets a cold and soon dies. Taylor became president. He was a democrat, but hated Jackson. Still, as a democrat, he now took position as the supreme leader of the country.

 

Taylor continued to favor Jackson’s policies and democratic politics of state’s rights.

 

Vetoed Whig policy, including a substantial and limited proposal for lowering the

severity of tariffs.  He also vetoed a new national bank initiative.

 

Taylor’s tariff restrictions, pleased the northerners, but infuriated southerners and

westerners. In the congressional election of 1842, the Whigs paid a heavy price,

and the Senate and the House became dominated by one party and the president

didn’t side with either of the Congress majorities.

 

He wanted to get a second term and domestic policy would not be the way so he

thought about annexing Texas and riding in on a foreign policy as Webster-

Ashburton treaty made his foreign policy a lucky thing.

 

  1. Leaders of the slave uprising in the South, with 1831 in particular.

In 1931 William Lloyd Garrison, launched a newspaper, the Liberator, to spread radical antislavery messages. His message cried immediate emancipation. Fredrick Douglas, an escaped slave spoke out at meetings.

 

The American Anti-Slavery Society, the largest group, founded in 1833 split over women’s roles in abolitionist movements.

 

Nate Turner revolt resulted in white deaths. Gabriel Prosser plotted an uprising and got betrayed by slaves and executed.  In 1822, Denmark Vesey planned to attack Charleston, South Carolina, and seized city’s arms and ammunition, but other slaves informed authorities. Many family ties made it hard for slaves to revolt. White owners would exact revenge on the family.

 

John Brown’s raid on Harper’s Ferry became national buzz when newpapers published the happenings everywhere.

 

  1. Results of the Louis & Clark expedition?

Congress met in a closed session and decided to send out an expedition to claim British land in the northwest. The success of the expedition enabled the United States to claim the Oregon region, which included what are now the states of Oregon, Washington, and Idaho. This claim produced the possibility for the great pioneer movement that settled the West in the mid-1800s.

  1. Powerful Supreme Court Chief Justice, 1801-1835?

John Marshall, an anti-Federalist, appointed by John Adams and the reputed

author of the Judiciary Act of 1801.The first time the court had overturned an act

by Congress.  Thomas Jefferson kept him in suspicion.

 

He presided over the trial of former Vice President Aaron Burr for treason.

1810s- 1820s, Marshall made a series of decisions involving the balance of

power between the federal government and the states.

 

The first important case of Marshall's career was Marbury v. Madison (1803), in which the Supreme Court invalidated a provision of the Judiciary Act of 1789 on the grounds that it violated the Constitution. Marbury was the first case in which the Supreme Court ruled an act of Congress unconstitutional; it firmly established the doctrine of judicial review.

He repeatedly affirmed federal supremacy. he established in McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) that states could not tax federal institutions and upheld congressional authority to create the Second Bank of the United States, even though the authority to do this was not expressly stated in the Constitution. Also, in Cohens v. Virginia (1821), he established that the Federal judiciary could hear appeals from decisions of state courts. Justices Bushrod Washington and Joseph Story proved to be his strongest allies in these cases.

  1. Supreme Court cases dealing with Native Americans, with Marshall as Chief Justice? In 1820s white squatters moved onto southern Indian lands. 1830 President Jackson refusing the Indians an ability to vote or participate in office tried to sell a persona that the inidans must be under state law. Then he made a state law to kick them out. The Democrat President signed into legislation the Indian Removal Act of 1830. This forced the Indians to give up 100 million acres of their land, and gave them 23 million acres of public land (Indian reservations, far to the west past Missouri).  Cherokee v. Georgia, 1831 Marshall recognized the Cherokee as a “domestic independent nation” with legitimate claims to their lands in Georgia. Next year (1832) Worecestor v. Georgia, Marshall declared them a distinct political community entitled to federal protection against Georgia’s claims. [179]
  2. Leaders of the Radical faction of the Republican Party?

Radical Republicans didn’t want Lincoln to get into office the second go-around. He wanted to restore occupied parts of the Confederacy to the Union and rallied around the secretary of Treasury Salmon P. Chase. 

The center of the radicals lay in New England with leaders such as Senators Charles Sumner and Henry Wilson from Massachusetts and Sen. John P. Hale from New Hampshire.

The Republican Party (Radicals) first established itself at Ripon, Wisconsin in 1854 by a group of former members of the Whig Party, the Free-Soil Party and the Democratic Party. Its original founders opposed slavery and called for the repeal of the Kansas-Nebraska and the Fugitive Slave Laws. Early members thought it important to place the national interest above sectional interest and the rights of individual States.

Some of President Lincoln's cabinet Radicals were Sen. Benjamin F. Wade and "radical among radicals" Sen. Zachariah Chandler.

  1. The significance of Harriet Beecher Stowe’s Uncle Tom’s Cabin?

Overwhelming success, the book created buzz, became translated into many languages, made rounds across the glob and brought sympathy for the abolitionist cause.

  1. What “impressment” involvement?

British sailors needed more people to fight Napoleon.

Avoiding War, 1793-1796, Washington closed the harbors to Genet’s buccaneers, the episode provoke an Anglo-American crisis. Britain decided that the only massive show of force would deter the American aggression. Thus on November 6, 1793, Britain’s Privy Council issued orders confiscating foreign ships trading with the French islands in the Caribbean. The orders were kept secret until most U.S. ships carrying water provisions to the Caribbean left port so that their captains would not know that they were sailing into a war zone. The Royal Navy seized more than twenty-five U.S. ships. Meanwhile the U.S. merchant marine suffered another galley indignity – drafting of its crewmen into the Royal Navy. Thousands of British sailors had fled to American shops looking for an easier life than the tough, poorly paying British system.  In late 1793 British naval officers began inspecting American crews for British subjects, whom they then impressed (Forcibly enlisted) as the king’s sailors. Overzealous commanders same times exceeded orders by taking U.S. citizens – and in any case Britain did not recognize its former subjects’ right to adopt American citizenship. Impressments struck a raw nerve in most Americans. [141-2]

The extremely important part of this was that British often mistake American for British officers and took them away.   This also came as an opportunity to bully the American merchant marines. Commercial ships only carry about roughly twelve persons to operate it. Therefore apprehending these commercial ships took littler effort by warships. Before the 1790s, British desertion from the navy carried a minor infraction, often meaning they were whipped; so many didn’t fear desertion to the American side. Ports had press gangs, and one time the British got them drunk and abducted them. Hamilton wanted a diplomatic resolution.

  1. The explorations of Zebulon Pike?

Sent on a scouting expedition of 22 men to find and map the southwest boundary line of the Louisiana Purchase and the headwaters of the Arkansas and Red

Rivers.  Pike explored the Spanish Southwest in 1806, sighting 14,110- ft. mountain he saw as a Blue Mountain, in Colorado. In 1811, in the wake of Louis and Clark, the New York merchant John Jacobs founded a fur-trading post at the mouth at the mouth of the Columbia River.

  1. Where the densest population of Native Peoples lived in the Western Hemisphere in 1492?

Clustered in  Mexico, central America, the Caribbean Islands, and Peru.

  1. A state that didn’t attend the Constitutional Convention?

Rhode Island.

  1. The most important factor leading to Lincoln’s 1864 reelection victory?

The Fall of Atlanta boosted his chances at reelection. Lincoln requests a Republican Party platform abolishing slavery nationwide for upcoming election. Congressed passed the abolishment of slavery in 1865. The Thirteen Amendment would be ratified by the end of the year. [315]

  1. Reason the national (Cumberland) road was built?

Opens Ohio River Valley. The National Road or Cumberland Road, built by the Federal Government, consisted of a gap routs and sturdy stone bridges from east to west.  A name change to U.S. 40 and not interstate 40 became the premier highway of the United States of America.

Construction began in 1811 at Cumberland, Maryland on the Potomac River, and the road reached Wheeling, West Virginia on the Ohio River in 1818. Construction began in 1811 at Cumberland, Maryland on the Potomac River, and the road reached Wheeling, West Virginia on the Ohio River in 1818. The reason to build it was long distance turnpikes proved expensive. This meant long distant freighting cost too much.

  1. Transportation of peoples and goods after 1815?

Steamboat Age 1815-1860.

De Witt Clinton pressed the issue of the Erie Canal; fifteen years later the canal craze begins; keelboats, flatboats accentuated the tributaries, main rivers and canals. Then Steamboats, Robert Fulton (November 14, 1765 – February 24, 1815) was a U.S. engineer and inventor, who became credited with developing the first steam-powered ship. Robert Oxnard perfected the steam engine boat. Fulton like to experiment with the idea of submarines. He even proposed the idea to Napoleon who almost wanted to create them, but backed down. The Mississippi River, second-longest river in the United States; the longest is the Missouri River, with its tributary the Ohio River. 19th Century Railroads surfaced in America and by 1825 workmen begun building projects. The Leiper Railroad in Pennsylvania was the first permanent railroad, opened in 1810, and the Granite Railroad in 1826 may have been the first to evolve through continuous operations into a common carrier. Fulton who never named his first steamboat, became known as the Clermont. The New York legislature granted Fulton the privilege to be the sole provider of all steamboat traffic for thirty years. Competition was forbidden by law. Later over turned by complaints. Steamboats replaced the keelboats by the onset of the civil war.

They required less water to float in meaning they could travel places heavier boats could not travel. They could go upstream in case of the Mississippi, and Keelboats took a very long time compared to a steamboat. They were also relatively inexpensive to build, and consisted of light-wood construction.

Railroads in the 1820s began planning and by 1825 some were up and running.

  1. The first European settlement on future U.S. soil?

Roanoke, 1585 (-1590) 1587, Roanoke, Sir Walter Raleigh, wanted to establish a colony of diversity with Indians, English and Spanish living together. The colony disappears when he returns with supplies.  A message indicates an Indian tribe took them, however, it never has been solved by unanimous consensus among historians.

Next English main attempt: 1607 Jamestown (oldest English colony) Named after King James. (The Virginia Company of London dispatched 105 people by James River near Chesapeake Bay) 500 people originally down to 60 before relief supplies.

  1. Why President Jefferson called for action against the Barbary Pirates?

Arabs (Islamic) caught mariners, sailors and passengers from ships seized on the Mediterranean and bribed countries or sold the captured into slavery.

British before the Revolution, then France, protected American trading vessels in the Mediterranean ocean against Islamic Pirate ships from the North African states of Tripoli, Tunis, Morocco, and Algiers (the Barbary Coast). These regions had been conquered by Suleiman II of the Ottoman Empire in the16th Century then later governed and ruled by Beys. Europe and the Catholics church called them the scourge of the Mediterranean. Taking ships, hostages and bribes the pirates enacted heavy customs and ransom money. To deal with this, Europe paid them yearly bribe money. In 1786 Jefferson sent Thomas Barclay to hammer out a deal. He came back with the most favored nation status at a bribe of $30,000 per year along with gold and trinkets. Jefferson doubted they would hold up to the deal, which they didn’t. Jefferson saw that paying them annually too amounted to more expense than sending the Navy ( Marines) and putting a stop to it. But , Congress followed the tradition of the European shipping powers and appropriated $80,000 as tribute to the Barbary states. In July 1785, Algerians captured two American ships. The Bey (Governor-like) of Algiers held their crews of twenty-one people for a ransom of nearly $60,000.

Jefferson tried to get a coalition to put an end to these Islamic pirates. Europe was still scared, at least until they saw the American come in and put a stop to it. After Europeans bruised egos, they finally finished the job by extreme military tactics that many objected too. However, theses tactics ended the tradition.

  1. The villain as charged in the Declaration of Independence?

King George III, but it was actually the Parliament which Jefferson left out that

made most of the damning decisions against the colonists.

  1. The significance of the election of 1828?

Dirty election, and people voting because of where they lived.

The 1828 “ Tariff of Abomination, ” laid the foundations for the Calhoun, Jackson’s vice president to split. Calhoun writes anonymously South Carolina Expedition and Protest.

Jackson had a war with the Banks, and he opposed federal aid for internal improvements ( to the nation).

Adam’s supporters charged Jackson as an illiterate backwoodsman, in which he was but Jackson supporters didn’t mind because he was just life them. Also charged was aimed at hi dealings with the tsar when he hooked him up with a prostitute.

Jackson camp charges Adams as an aristocrat and a scholar. Two extremely negative things to be in those days if one supported the Democratic common man agenda. Learning could be dangerous and therefore scholars were frowned upon by the liberals. Worse of all the heinous of all charges became commonplace: Adams could write but not fight. However, Adams himself never mudslinger kept his cool and lost handedly.

Jackson wins two terms and placed the direction of America into a greedy racist path and this election demonstrated the northerner scholars, religious and the intellects were separating ideologically from the racist, illiterate and business greedy South. New England doubled its vote for Adams and the South doubled its votes for Jackson.

Jackson changed how government offices worked. He fired all the party opposition and put in his men. This period there was no merit system. It was kindly called the “rotation system” by his supporters and the” Spoils Systems” by his opponents. Of course, the spoil system has long been acquainted with new monarchy policies. However, in this new democracy, this new political policy began and never changed. In the early days, the administrations remained mixed so each side could disagree with each other and compromise. Now the President had all his chums and a winner take all mentality moved in to American politics.

John C. Calhoun supported the tariff of 1816, initially he was a warhawk, but gradually became a states’ right sectionalist. He didn’t support the 1828 ‘Tariff of Abomination’ that Jackson made law.

Andrew Jackson: ‘The Tariff of Abomination.’ Many of his southern supporters reject him. He then takes federal money from the national bank and gives it to the state banks, in what is called his “pet banks.” Jackson was liked and elected because he led a victory at New Orleans over the British, opening up the Mississippi River system that made him a national hero. The election also showed how a commoner could reach the highest office in the land.

Van Buren exemplified a new type of politician. A travenkeeper’s son, he had worked his way up through New York Politics and created a powerful state machine. [195] 1824 Andrew Jackson the only presidential candidate not liked the Monroe administration. 1828, Andrew Jackson relied on his friends in what is called the ‘Kitchen Cabinet’.

Jackson tariff laws became so hard on America that in 1833 he finally had to soften them, and slowly get rid of them. Clay and Jackson feared civil war.  One historians called it the” The olive branch and the sword.” This was a gradual but significant lowering of the tariff duties from 1833 to 1842. This was called the so-called compromise of 1833.

Henry Clay supported high tariffs, and proposed to lower the tariffs to keep some tariffs on the books, instead of giving into Jackson’s southern supporters who called for nullification. Everyone hailed Clay as the great compromiser.

The 1828 “ Tariff of Abomination, ” laid the foundations for the Calhoun, Jackson’s vice president to split. Jackson destroyed Calhoun politically because Calhoun’s wife (Florida, of Peggy Eaton) would not let Jackson’s common wife into her house, because she had no proper training of etiquette, and Jackson didn’t like Calhoun’s earlier complaint of Andrew Jackson’s illegal Indian raid into Florida when in 1818 Calhoun was Secretary of War and Jackson  was a military officer.

  1. Road construction of the 19th century?

Always attached the internal improvements, the national government fostered the Cumberland national road, but rich states could fund their own projects their own way.  

  1. The country with the greatest number of people emigrating to North America in the 17th century?

English migration, 1610 ― 1660; approximately  25,000 to New England, 50,000 to Chesapeake Bay, but 110,000 migrated to the West Indies.

  1. Belief in Shakers?
    1. Name: Shakers (The United Society of Believers)
    2. Founder: Ann Lee
    3. Date of Birth: February 29, 1736
    4. Birth Place: Manchester, England
    5. Year Founded: 1772
    6. History:

The Shakers are one of the few success stories resulting from the proliferation of communitarian and millenarian groups in eighteenth and nineteeenth century Europe and America. They splintered from a Quaker community in Manchester, England (Gidley and Bowles 1990). James Wardley, its preacher, had absorbed the teachings of the millenial French Prophets and his community began to evolve around 1746 (Melton 1992). The members were known as the Shaking Quakers and were viewed as radical for their communion with the spirits of the dead and impassioned shaking that would occur at their services (Horgan, 1982; Robinson 1975). As radicals, all the members were harrassed, including a young married woman named Ann Lee. Fervent from a young age, Ann had a revelation during a long imprisonment that she was the Second Coming of Christ, the vital female component of God the Father-Mother (Bainbridge 1997; Gidley and Bowles 1990; Horgan 1982; Robinson 1975).

The vision had a great impact on the congregation and "Mother" Ann became the official leader of the group in 1772. With a distinctly new version of the Second Coming and other beliefs contradictory to mainstream Christian ideology, it was at this juncture that the Shaking Quakers became known as the Shakers (Gidley and Bowles 1990). These radical views increased the Shakers' persecution and a small group composed of her brother, niece, husband and five others followed Mother Ann's vision of a holy sanctuary in the New World to New York in May,1774 (Bainbridge 1997; Horgan 1982; Robinson 1975). They struggled for five years to survive, gaining few converts, on a communal farm in Watervliet, NY (Bainbridge 1997; Robinson 1975). During this period they faced great persecution for being both English and pacifistic in the middle of the Revolutionary War (Horgan 1982).

The turning point was a wave of religious revivalism called the New Light Stir that swept across New England between 1776 and 1783 (Gidley and Bowles 1990), bringing in new converts from other millenial groups and allowing the Shakers to safely proselytize. In 1779 Joseph Meacham and his followers joined the Shakers, becoming their first converts (Gidley and Bowles 1990). The Shaker mission in New England ended in 1784 -- the same year as Mother Ann's death (Gidley and Bowles 1990; Horgan 1982; Humez 1993) -- though they later missioned in Kentucky and Ohio during the Kentucky Revival of 1797-1805. Most of this expansion happened under Joseph Meacham's leadership, which began with Father John Whittaker's death in 1787. Meacham organized the communities and made New Lebanon, NY the Parent Ministry from which came both spiritual and commercial leadership (Horgan 1982; Melton 1992). These industries would become both the sustaining income for the Shakers and a form of recruiting and publicity as their simple, functional furniture designs, music and dancing, and self-published books became popular in secular culture (Andrews 1972; Morse 1987). By the mid-1800's they reached their peak membership and peak popularity, becoming a sort of tourist attraction that outsiders (known as The World's People) could observe in their communities on Saturday evenings (Morse 1987; Gifford 1989).

The Civil War ended the American fascination with the many millenarian, communitarian and utopian social experiments of the early nineteenth century and replaced it with an emphasis on class struggle in an increasingly industrial and urban society (Horgan 1982). Industrialization made Shaker crafts obsolete and depleted even further the attraction of a way of life already made less tasteful by the emphasis on celibacy and severe simplicity (Gidley and Bowles 1990; Horgan 1982; Robinson 1975). Between this decline in attraction and the society's inability to create a new generation of believers, the communities steadily declined and disbanded.

  1. The Missouri Compromise of 1820?

A compromise of Missouri as a slave state for the creation of Maine ( breaking up New England, Massachusetts)  a free state offsetting senatorial dominance.

The Missouri Compromise prohibits slavery in Louisiana Territory of states north of Missouri’s southern boundary.  Also called the Compromise of 1820, this law prohibited slavery for all new states north of the 36° 30' line, or the border of the Arkansas territory (excluding Missouri, but later admitted as a slave state). The Compromise debate had been complicated by the admission in December of Alabama, a slave state (the number of slave and free states now becoming equal), and by the passage through the House (January 3, 1820) of a bill to admit Maine as a free state. Then the bill coupled the new states and the borderline into a single bill. Jesse B. Thomas wanted to make the line not strait in parts of Missouri, but the House of Representatives refused to allow this and formed a committee to look at this. Eventually this bill becomes an issue of the Constitution and in the Supreme Courts because it is not even close to Constatutional.

From this point on each of the new proposed states met with contention for the number of Congressional representative power they would hold. It became a number’s game until the crisis of the Civil War decided the fate of slavery ― which was always the issue in the first place.

  1. What the religious revival movement of the early 19th Century was called?

The Second Great Awakening: Charles Grandison Finney, a lawyer-turned-Presbyterian minister. His greatest “harvest” came in the thriving canal city of Rochester in 1830-1831. Finney’s innovation at the Rochester revival justified his reputation as the “ father of modern revivalism.” First he pioneered in generating cooperation among Protestants, and all denominations participated in his revivals. In addition, he introduced such novelties as the “anxious seat,” a bench where those ready for conversion could be made objects of special prayer, and the “protracted meeting,” which ran nightly for a week or more. Finally, although a Presbyterian , Finney rejected the Calvinist doctrine of depravity, humankind’s irresistible inclination to sin. Instead he claimed sin was voluntary act. Finney’s ideas came to dominate “evangelical” Protestantism, which focused on the need for emotional religious conversion.

  1. U.S. Presidents that came from Virginia?

Virginia known as the "Mother of Presidents," bore eight U.S. presidents:  George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, James Monroe, John Tyler, William Henry Harrison, Zachary Taylor. Four of the first five presidents were from Virginia, and seven of the first twelve. The most recent Virginian president was Woodrow Wilson, the 28th president.

  1. Initial Purpose of founding Harvard in 1636?

To train ministers for the Puritan values in the new colonial settlements.

  1. What prompted the states of the Upper South to join the Confederacy?

South Carolina’s firing on Fort Sumter aroused the North for war and alarmed the upper states of the south. They initially declined to secede, and only decided to join the Confederacy after Lincoln announced he was going to launch an invasion. They initially wanted to come to a workable agreement and not war. Lincoln and other really thought the war would take less time than it did. Lincoln failed to court the moderates in the Upper South and guaranteed a major conflict. Lincoln's call for 75,000 volunteers pushed the Upper South over the edge. Lincoln’s call to put down the rebellion caused four upper southern states to join the Confederacy. The states waited for a compromise but the attack on Fort Sumter, South Carolina started the Civil War.

  1. Reason for the massive immigration of Irish to the U.S. in the 1840s?

The Great Potato famine.

  1. Significance of the invention of the mechanical reaper?

Cyris McCormick, a pro-slavery Democrat, would help the Union win the civil war. Northern agriculture took advantage of his reaper and copies of it raised agriculture production (Less labor, about 59 less hands needed for same result). The south reliant on slave-labor, had little reason to mechanize. The reaper would keep Northern agriculture production high freeing the mobilization of hundreds of thousands of northern men for war duty. [215]

  1. Decisive battle against Ohio River tribes in August 1794?

Battle of the Fallen Timbers (Ohio), Led by General “Mad” Anthony Wayne and delegates from Miami  ( Indian) Confederacy gives U.S. right to settle the Ohio Territory. This battle ends threats to settlers in the Ohio-Kentucky region, George Washington hoping to halt adrift toward war launched a desperate diplomatic intuitive. He sent Chief Justice John Jay to Great Britain and Thomas Pinckney to Spain. The president also authorized General Anthony Wayne to negotiate a treaty with the Indians of Ohio (treaty of Greenville). The Indians scoffed at Washington’s peace offer until “Mad Anthony” Wayne led 3,000 regulars and militiamen deep into their homeland, ravaging every village in reach. On August 20, 1794, Wayne’s troops routed 400 Shawnees at the Battle of Fallen Timbers, two miles from Britain’s fort Miami. Wayne’s army staged a provocative victory march past the British Garrison and then built Fort Defiance to challenge the British authority in the Northwest. Indian moral plummeted. In August 1795 Wayne compelled twelve Ohio Valley tribes to sign the Treaty of Greensville, which opened most of the Ohio to white settlement and temporarily ended Indian hostilities. [143] In August 1795 Wayne compelled twelve Ohio Valley tribes to sign the treaty of Greensville.

Wayne’s success allowed John Jay a major diplomatic victory in London: A British promise to withdraw troops form American soil. Jay also gained American access to West Indian markets, but only to bargain away U.S. rights to load cargoes of sugar, molasses and coffee from the Carabbean. On other points the British remained unyielding. Few Americans would interpret Jay’s treaty as preserving peace. Jay’s treaty left Britain free not only to violate American neutrality but also to restrict U.S. trade in French ports. Moreover Jay did not succeed in ending impressments. He also failed to gain compensation for slaves taken by the British during the Revolution, an outcome especially galling to southerners. In 1795 the Federalist-dominated Senate ratified the Jay Treaty with Britian by just one vote.

Jay’s Treaty probably represented the most that a weak, politically divided United States could extract from Britain. A major achievement for the Washington Administration, Jay’s Treaty also stimulated American trade as British governors in the West Indies used the treaty’s ratification as an excuse to open their harbors to U.S. ships. Other British officials permitted Americans to develop a thriving commerce with India. Within a few years of 1795, American exports to the British Empire had shot up 300 percent.

On the heels of Jay’s Treaty came an unqualified diplomat triumph engineered by Thomas Pinckney. Ratified in 1796, the Treaty of San Lorenzo ( also called Pinckney’s Treaty) with Spain gave westerners unrestricted, duty-free access to world markets via the Mississippi River.

Washington’s success can only be tempered by American distaste for his foreign policy of the Jay Treaty which left Americans more divided in 1796 then in 1789.  [144]

  1. Status of wives in colonial New England? Regulated as inferior position to the husbands, helpmates. Women worked, did not keep their money, and if a widow only could claim 30% of the property. They held the moral and childbearing responsibilities.
  2. The provisions of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo?

America dictates the terms February 2, 1848:

End war with Mexico.

Recognize Texas as U.S. territory.

Mexico seceded (gives up) California, (what would be Arizona, New Mexico Nevada, Utah and parts of Wyoming).

$15 Million in conscious money

$3        U.S. takes up Mexican debts to Americans.

What about Mexico’s 100,000 living in these lands? America gives one year for Mexicans to become U.S. citizens or remain as resident workers.

  1. Definition of Manifest Destiny?

In American meaning, the Continent under the U.S. Flag, as “God intended.” Also, suggested:  All states are equal to the original ones.

What did it do? Growth of sectionalism.

  1. Contributions of the railroad to economic growth?

Initially employed many people and introduced many companies and industries. Eventually it would tie large distances between the continents. Depending on politics a railway would be added as a tributary to a mainline or travel directly through one’s town or city. During the Civil war period, the Homestead Act (the policy continued until the1930s) linked by the building on a transcontinental railway from Alabama to Sacramento. The government gave the rights for 640 acre interlocking segments to be sold at whatever price they could get by the Pacific Railway Company (Pacific Railroad Act) which made people rich. At the cost of $16,000 per mile for flatland, and $48,000 per mile for hills.  The Railway was finished on April 18, 1869, long over due.  The Free land, was situated far from the rails and this meant increased amount of money to ship supplies to the  railroad area, giving the free land less an allure.

  1. Indian leader who tried to rally Ohio Valley tribes against the U.S. in the 1780s?

After the Peace of Paris concluded the war, America would claim Mississippi River as its western boundary. Frontier fighting erupted. Colonel George Rogers Clark established control of the Ohio River Valley from Pittsburg to the Mississippi after defeating both the British and Native Americans.

Gifted Mohawk leader Joseph Brant, west of the Applications and along New York and Pennsylvania’s western boarders devastated the frontiers in 1778. General John Sullivan led a Continental force, with Tuscarora and Oneida allies, against the Iroquois. Sullivan, victorious at what is now Elmira, New York, in 1779, burned and destroyed villages of the Iroquois leading them away to flee to Canada. Brant in 1780 made one last attempt but the Iroquois never recovered. [124, 114]

Earlier: 1763- 1766 Indian uprising in Ohio Valley and Great Lakes. Pontiac tried to rally Ohio Valley tribes against the U.S colonization. British upon hearing the colonist eventually triumphed issued the Proclamation Line of 1763, which was a line that the colonists couldn’t settle past, to prevent further conflicts.

  1. The officer who inadvertently started the French and Indian War?

George Washington. British and French forces emerged from King George’s War is a stalemate. There was no clear winner. The Ohio Valley became the tinderbox for conflict. France began to build a chain of forts to regain control of Virginia and Pennsylvania. Virginia sent a twenty-one-year-old surveyor, George Washington to demand that the French abandon their forts. It is said George fired the first shot. France and England remained peaceful until 1756, but this initial conflict led to the war.

In 1754 French troops drove Washington and his militia men back to their homes. In mid-1754 seven colonies sent delegates to Albany, New York, to plan their mutual defense. The plan collapsed but provided precedent for a future American unity. [82]

  1. The section of the U.S. that most strongly opposed the Embargo Act?

New England that called the President “ Mad Tom” Jefferson.

Most controversial legislation of Thomas Jefferson’s term. Jefferson defended the embargo as a “peaceful coercion.” He wanted Britain to respect American neutrality (Didn’t want to join in battle against Napoleon) This act prohibited vessels from leaving American ports and harboring them in foreign ports. Therefore, British just opened up new ports in South America and were never affected at all economically. 1807, Thomas Jefferson issued a law that no American vessels could leave U.S. ports to trade with foreigners. Technically it stopped exports but it stopped imports as well. Few foreign ships would off-load goods and sail back home empty. British then focused trade on South America. Napoleon treated the Act as a joke, and seized U.S. ships and sent a message to America he was only helping to enforce the embargo act. Also, a loophole claiming if winds blows on off course to a foreign land the captain would not be punished. Therefore a fast epidemic of these off-course journeys persisted.

The Embargo Act affected the Americans the most.

Farmers could not sell their agriculture to states at a fair price, merchants lost their jobs, and debtors swelled the jail population. Creditors and swindlers took advantage of bankrupt persons offering only pittance to their belongings and homes.

New England suffered the most; Massachusetts, which accounted for a third of foreign trade, the embargo was a calamity. [164]

  1. The battle in which William Henry Harrison defeated the Shawnee?

Battle of Tippecanoe (a.k.a. Prophet Town).

1800s Tecumseh;  A major purchase of land, Indiana, Michigan and Illinois will create more representation in the House of Representatives and Congress will get two representative increasing the total numbers in votes. William Henry Harrison in connection with the war of 1812 sees the Indians side with the British. The Shawnee tribe has one leader named Tecumesh and one person who tried to foster prophecy as a vehicle for destiny for the Indians who match up with the British. Tecumesh will try to unify the Indians to make a more powerful confederation of warriors. Harrison exposes the Prophet as a fraud by demanding that he make the sun stand still. The prophet had a British agent who used a ephemeris to gauge an eclipse for June 16, 1806. The prophet makes an event for this and Harrison knew what he had planned. Harrison challenges the chiefs to change their life of a nomadic and goes for the chief’s land. He gets them drunk and lies to them and gets a treaty of about 75,000 miles of land which then becomes disputed. So Harrison plans for an assassination against Tecumseh and the prophet. They attack the Shawnee prophet center.  61 Americans died and this tallied about 20% of the casualties. The Indians took off and the prophet town’s name was discarded and the river became known as the battle of Tippecanoe (a.k.a. Prophet Town). It was in fashion to have nicknames in these days and so people called Harrison by this river’s title from then on which will make his career and help in a slogan he used successfully to become president of the United States. One month later America and England go to war.

  1. Who was Sylvester Graham?

Graham wrote Lectures on the Science of Human Life. Phrenology was a belief that each person was master of his or her own destiny underlay not only evangelical religion and health movements but the most popular of the antebellum scientific fads. This idea was created by Viennese physician, Franz J. Gall and phrenology rested on the idea that the human brain contained thirty-seven distinct faculties, or “ organs,” each localized in a different part of the brain. Phrenologist believed the degree of each organ’s development determined skull shape so that they could accurately analyze an individual’s characters by examining the bumps and depressions of the skull.  In the United States two brothers, Orson and Lorenzo Fowler, became the chief promoters of phrenology in the 1840s. Orson Fowler opened a publishing house ( Fowler and Wells) that marketed phrenology books everywhere. The Fowlers met criticism that phrenology was godless by pointing out a huge organ called “ Veneration” to prove that people were naturally religious, and they answered charges that phrenology was pessimistic by claiming that exercise could improve every desirable mental organ. Lorenzo Fowler reported that several of his own skull bumps had grown. Phrenology appealed to Americans as a “practical” science. In a mobile, individualist society, it promised a quick assessment of others. Merchants sometimes used chronological charts to hire clerks, and some young women even induced their fiancés to undergo a chronological analysis before marriage.

Phrenology had close ties to popular health movements. Fowler and Wells published the Water-Cure Journal and Sylvester Graham’s Lectures on the Science of Human Life.  Orson Fowler filled his books with tips on the evils of coffee, tea, meat, spices, and sex that could have been plucked from Graham’s writings. Easily understood and practiced, and filled with the promise of universal betterment, phrenology was ideal for antebellum America. Just as Americans had invented machines to better their lives, they could invent “science” that promised human betterment.  [220-1]

  1. The Nullification crisis of 1832-1833?

Calhoun and Jackson break relationship over the tariff issue.

The Nullification Crisis was a sectional crisis during the presidency of Andrew Jackson centered on the question of whether a state can refuse to recognize or to enforce a federal law passed by the United States Congress. It was precipitated by protective tariffs, specifically the Tariff of 1828 (also called the "Tariff of Abominations"). The issue incited a debate over states' rights that ultimately threatened the primacy of the federal government under the Supremacy Clause, and the unity of the nation itself.

The protective tariff, passed by Congress and signed into law by Jackson in 1832, was milder than that of 1828, but it further embittered many in the state. In response, a number of South Carolina citizens endorsed the states' rights principle of "nullification," which was enunciated anonymously by John C. Calhoun, Jackson's Vice President until 1833, in his South Carolina Exposition and Protest (1828). South Carolina dealt with the tariff by adopting the Ordinance of Nullification, which declared both the tariffs of 1828 and 1832 null and void within state borders. The legislature also passed laws to enforce the ordinance, including authorization for raising a military force and appropriations for arms.

Nullification was only the most recent in a series of state challenges to the authority of the federal government. There had been a continuing contest between the states and the federal government over the power of the latter, and over the loyalty of the citizenry (primarily to the United States or to their State) since the founding of the republic. The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions of 1798, for example, had defied the Alien and Sedition Acts, and at the Hartford Convention, New England had voiced its opposition to President Madison and the War of 1812, and had discussed secession from the Union (edit whole thing).

  1. The tem that describes removing officeholders and replacing them with your own party members?

The spoils system;  Linked to Jackson’s policy when he became president. “ To

the winner goes the spoils.”

  1. How technological changes affected the American society, 1840-1860?

The rise in the middle class. The democratization of the people.

  1. The 14th Amendment?

The right to due process of law and equal protection of the law now applied to both the Federal and state governments. Following the Civil War, Congress submitted to the states three amendments. These states needed to comply or remain under occupation as part of its Reconstruction program. This amendment’s purpose guarantees equal civil and legal rights to black citizens. 14th amendment grants citizenship to “All persons born or naturalized in the United States,” thereby granting citizenship to former slaves. An additional provision stated “nor shall any state deprive any person of live, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.” On July 28, 1868, the 14th amendment was declared, in a certificate of the Secretary of State, ratified by the necessary 28 of the 37 States, and became part of the supreme law of the land.

  1. The term “Pet banks?” Jackson’s banks in states he put federal money into, in which they squandered it leading to one of the worst depressions in American history, culminating after he left office.
  2. The battle at which Texans won their independence from Mexico?

San Jacinto.

Outright U.S. Ownership: In May, Scott pushed on to Puebla, at the time the second largest city in Mexico. Because of the citizens' hostility to Santa Anna, the city capitulated without resistance on May 15. Mexico City was laid open in the Battle of Chapultepec and subsequently occupied.

The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, signed on February 2, 1848, ended the war and gave the U.S undisputed control of Texas as well as California, Nevada, Utah, and parts of Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico, and Wyoming. In return, Mexico received $18,250,000, the equivalent of $627,500,000 in mid-2000s dollars. Article X was struck from the treaty when it was ratified by the U.S. Senate. These articles promised that the United States would recognize Mexican and Spanish land grants and that Mexicans living in the conquered lands would be afforded the same rights as American citizens. (editwholey)

  1. The Person in Washington’s Cabinet who led in establishing domestic priorities?

Hamilton, the Secretary of the Treasury.

  1. James Buchanan’s position on slavery?

He didn’t care one way or the other but moved with the political tide to stay in

office.

Buchanan was a supporter of popular sovereignty, but Kansas was a mess politically and caused him to lose some credibility in judgment. Only 10% of the voters drew up the constitution, because many anti-slavery voters boycotted the constitutional convention because of beliefs that proslavery forces would rig the election. Kansas had a history of fraudulent elections.

Therefore, Buchanan endorsed the Lecompton constitution, which protected the rights of slaveholders already residing in Kansas and provided for a referendum to decide whether to allow more slaves into the territory.  Why he endorsed this constitution? The south provided him with needed votes to win the 1856 election. Stephen A. Douglas and other northern Democrats broke with Buchanan. To them, the Lecompton constitution, in allowing voters to decide only whether more slaves could enter Kansas violated the spirit of popular sovereignty.  [285] by his decisions, Buchanan alienated his northern party constituents. Douglas emerged as a hero for the northern democrats, but saw his cherished formula of popular sovereignty become a prescription for strife rather than harmony. [286]

  1. The doctrine of ‘separate spheres’?

1830s, women could not vote and if married could not own property or keep their 
won wages. Reform movements gave women unprecedented opportunities to 
public activity within their own “sphere.” The doctrine of ‘separate spheres’ was a 
traditional view of women as subordinates, but men were all-equal doctrine 
separated the sexes. 
 
Advice books called for the women to withdraw love if their child needed 
disciplining, rather than corporal punishment. A whipped child might obey but
would remain sullen and bitter. Books created to give a picture of a women’s role 
as moralist and homemaker entailed the gist of this term.
 
Margret Fuller, wrote Women in the Nineteenth Century (1845) and cast aside the 
doctrine of “separate spheres,” and contended that no women could achieve 
personal fulfillment without developing her intellectual abilities and overcoming 
her fear of being called masculine. 
  1. Keelboats and flatboats on the Mississippi and its tributaries?

Civil war, Steamboats replaced Keel Boats.

River Pirates,

  1. Significance of the development of the cotton gin?

Samuel Slater. 1790s Cotton industry facilitated by the Cotton Jin ( Cotton engine) separates seeds from cotton. Cotton replaced tobaccos dominance as the cash-crop.

Samuel Slater, sneaks out of England with plans of Cotton Mill technology.

After the apprenticeship, when Slater was 21, he decided to travel to the United States of America, carrying his technical knowledge with him, despite the fact that Britain outlawed the emigration of any engineers. Britain did not want their trade secrets to leave the country, which would hurt the British economy. In November, 1789, Slater arrived in New York. -wiki

New England begins to export cotton to England.

Positive results in the embargo Act could get imports from after nations.

New England raising sheep to survive as industry takes over farming and agriculture production can be shipped into the region.

 

When cotton was king during the 1850s, Mississippi plantation owners—especially those of the Delta and Black Belt regions—became increasingly wealthy due to the high fertility of the soil and the high price of cotton on the international market. The severe wealth imbalances and the necessity of large-scale slave populations to sustain such income played a heavy role in both state politics and in the support for secession.

 

 

  1. Definition of the term “ antebellum?”

‘before the war,’ in general. In America colloquialism, meaning before the Civil War.

  1. Southern black education during reconstruction?

Freedman’s Bureau, Northerner school teachers make a campaign to educate schoolchildren of former slaves. Andrew Johnson didn’t favor helping out the blacks, and vetoed bills of civil rights and the Freedman’s Bureau.

  1. The American system of manufacturing (Henry Clay)?

The American System of national banks and high tariffs seemed the formula for American in Clay’s eyes. Internal improvements, and Whig manufacturing programs, and high tariffs, created a moral and solid country. National funding of education, and public programs seemed what pubicness would eventually become.  Andrew Jackson despised only national funding for the public good. During  Polk’s term of the American system seemed so irrelevant. Polk in 1848 wanted a independent treasury and low tariffs.

  1. The Keelboat age?

1790s – 1860.

Keelboat age ended at the time of the civil war. Keelboats replace ancient molded flat boats, but still both used polls to push the device through the water. Keelboats took months to travel upstream on the Mississippi River, and sometimes the boats were dismantled and sold for wood in New Orleans.

  1. Who started Mormon Religion?

The term Mormon [1] was first used in modern times in the 1830s as a pejorative to describe those who believed that Joseph Smith Jr. (founder),  had been called as a prophet of God, and who accepted The Book of Mormon as scripture. After Smith's death, the main body of Latter-day Saints followed church president Brigham Young in an exodus to the Wasatch Front.

  1. What the Ostend Manifesto was all about?

Ideas of expansion.

During the Manifest destiny period, the Nebraska-Kansas debacle, and the Gadsden Purchase, Franklin Peirce wanted to acquire Cuba and former Mississippi governor John A, Quitman, planned a filibuster (an unofficial military expedition) to seize Cuba from Spain. Franklin Peirce may have supported Quitman initially, but pressure from leeks in the media made him back down. In 1854 the American ambassadors to Great Britain, France and Spain, two of them southerners, met in Belgium and issued the unofficial Ostend Manifesto, calling on the United States to acquire Cuba by any means, including force.

 

Franklin Peirce disallowed the operation but ideas of expansion into the Caribbean continued. Louisiana Sugar plantation owners didn’t like the idea of taking over Cuba with its Sugar operations because of the competition. This remained the long debate on slavery and how it would expand into new acquired territories for economic reasons. Politicians’ had to play their hands carfully or get burned by the press.

 

Also during this period the New Republican Party is born as the Whigs disintegrate, 1854-1855. The Nebraska-Kansas Act was the culprit.

  1. The meaning of “secede” and “succession?”

A state breaks away from the Union and becomes its own nation, meaning self

governing body.

  1. The Gadsden Purchase?

Mexico tried to sell parts of Baja California, but the Americans only needed a place to run a train south of the mountains of western United States. Because the U.S. didn’t buy the wholse section, the Colorado River remained part of international waters leaving Mexico with a voice for its management. Mexico wanted $50 million, but America paid $10 Million for the boot like section [280]. James Gadsden negotiated a strip of land south of the Gila River ( Now southern Arizona and part of southern New Mexico) The southern railroad to the Pacific scared the free soiler’s that this was again new slave territory. This was in the time of the Nebraska plan.  The Senate then slashed 9,000 miles off the original purchase plan.

  1. The promoter of the Erie Canal?

1816 February 16, Memorial of the Citizens of New York, in Favour of a Canal Navigation between the Great Western Lakes and the Tide-waters of the Hudson. Drafted by De Witt Clinton and signed by many citizens, it made a deep impression on the Legislature. 16.            1816 April 17, NY Legislature passes a canal law. 17. 1817 July 4, Erie Canal construction began at Rome, NY. Finished in 1825.

  1. Why the slave population in the South, 1800-1850, greatly increased?

Cotton

  1. 13th Amendment of the Constitution?

Neither slavery or involuntary servitude, except for punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist in the United States.

  1. The first southern state to secede from the Union?

1860, South Carolina.

  1. The Kansas-Nebraska Act, and who sponsored it?

Stephen A. Douglas proposed in 1854 to organize the vast Nebraska area with no restrictions on slavery.  The Whig party had expanded with many people’s viewpoints. The Whigs had supported him, but the northern Whigs didn’t give him one vote in the House of Representatives. However, the Senate pass the bill easily.  The Douglas had to change the plan and reorganize it into two sections. One for slavery and one for free persons; The Democrat Free soilers, didn’t want any blacks at all and hated Douglas for equally supporting the Whigs. The Democratic free soilers saw this as a conspiracy of Douglas to expand slavery into the deep west. They thought is as a domino effect which would eventually reach the west coast. The Whigs eventually disintegrated because of this.  The North and South disagreed on where a railroad was positioned.  Also, there existed a desire of uncontroversial farmers to organize a large territory of Iowa and Missouri.

Repeals the slavery limitations set by the Missouri Compromise, allowing Kansas and Nebraska territories to be slave owning if they so choose. In the appeal of the Independence Democrats, six congressmen call this “a gross violation of a sacred pledge.”

  1. Why the Erie Canal was an immediate success?

Cheaper movement of commodities than the roads, often at 10% of the cost. Also,

the  canal made a large amount of money.

  1. Who favored nominating James K. Polk for president?

The Democratic Party. The people who wanted to annex Texas, and the fearing that the British would get it instead. The Democrats were slit on annexation, but later Polk got the Northern Whigs to support annexation by the British conquest fear tactics.

  1. Manifest Destiny and the geography of North America?

Rivers from the Continental Divide aim laterally to the east and west and these were the rivers the settlers moved along on their journey to settle. The Southwest has many regions of desert but the Northwest is fertile.

  1. Results of John Brown’s raid on Harper’s Ferry?

Abolitionist John Brown hoped to start a slave rebellion by using free blacks who chose not to get involved. Brown hated slavery and made it his goal to abolish it. He viewed himself as a Moses type figure. He was funded by a wealthy unknown figures called the “ secret six,” who wanted to end slavery. Four of the six included Gerrit Smith, a wealthy landowner from New York, clergyman Thomas Higginson, a physician, Samuel Gridley Howe, known for his work with the deaf and blind, and Franklin B. Sanborn, an educator. His ability to fundraise lay in his oratory skills.  He came about a grand idea to form a militia of free black men. Harper’s Ferry was in Virginia, (Now modern West Virginia) and on October 16, 1859 he captured arsenal in order to arm his militia group. He planned to form a chain of militia outposts in the mountains with raids on southern plantations. During the raid he captured about 40 hostages and took them to a firehouse he used as his prison.  Harper’s Ferry was the first step in the plan to achieve over 1000 firearms.  It turned out that only five men in Brown's army were African Americans. It was a flop as most free backs (or escaped slaves then free) didn’t want to get caught up in the dangerous proposal. Robert E. Lee, and Marines showed up and corned him and his men in the firehouse. After the battle 17 men were killed including two of Brown’s sons. The secret six hired him a lawyer and told him to claim insanity, in which he didn’t. He was tried and convicted and hung. At the sentencing after the guilty verdict was read, he gave a speech which made national headlines. When he was hung he gave a note to a guard which ended up in the newspaper bringing notoriety to his story. Another amazing piece of information about the ordeal was a militia man named John Wilkes Booth.

  1. The section of the country most likely to oppose high tariffs?

New England (North). They produced the finished goods, and therefore their

products aimed at leaving America for trade ports around the world.

  1. Why steamboats were immediately of economic importance?
  2. Black soldiers in the Union Army during the Civil War?

54th Regiment of Massachusetts, the first black volunteer army. 1863 Black

soldiers are allowed into the Union Army. The Indians call them “Buffalo

Soldiers,” for their dark skin, tenacity in battle and by their fierce fighting

abilities.

  1. The Sumner-Brooks encounter?

1856, Senator Charles Sumner of Massachusetts denounces the “crime against Kansas,” and is brutally beaten on the Senate floor by Representative Preston Brooks of South Carolina. Brooks beat him with a cane, and as a result his supporters sent him canes. Sumner, after he healed, limped back into Congress with two body guards holding him up. Some say he did this for show.

  1. What was the “corrupt bargain” of 1824?

Adams and Clay agreements for political alliance leading to an office appointment by Clay’s vocal support  to put Adams into office. When Clay threw his support to Adams, Adams then appointed Clay to the office of secretary of state when he became the president.

 

Other issues not connected: 1824, James Monore proposes removing of all Indians to lands west of the Mississippi, an “ honorable” move to assure indian’s right to dwell in peace.

  1. Comparison of resources of North and South in the Civil War?

Northern states have population of over 22 million. The Confederacy has 10 million, of which one third are slaves.

North had factories to make weapons, the mechanical reaper to free up men to fight by an assured supply of food, and control of the national government to issue the ‘ property law,’ The Emancipation Proclamation. Union advantages in general included geography, manpower, industry (steel), finance, political organization and transportation * railroads and canals). The control over the national ports for supply lines and movement were crucial. The Union Navy captured New Orleans in 1862, and armies under Ulysses Grant seized control of the Mississippi River by capturing Vicksburg in July 1863, thus splitting the Confederacy.

  1. Results of the presidential elections of 1824?

The era of Good feelings is over as five candidates shatter the harmony of a Republican solidity and the “corrupt bargain”, becomes a clarion of the South – leading them four-years later to improve to a new system of political support called the “Spoils system,” and/or “rotation system.”

1824 coalition of candidates 4 candidates sees a Democratic-Republican Party meld into one national political entity. Calhoun withdrew from the nomination to hopefully become vice president.

 

 

John Quincy Adam’s emerged as the New England favorite. J.C. Calhoun and William Crawford fought to represent the south. Henry Clay of Kentucky promoted the American System. Tennessean Andrew Jackson was a war hero and he surprised everyone as becoming the favorite of the frontier people, because he exterminated indians.  J.C. Calhoun stepped down as candidate with the promise to become the next vice president.

 

John Quincy Adams wanted to be president like his father. Henry Clay called for an American System and high tariffs and internal improvement.

Andrew Jackson already was a military hero with victories over the Indians and he championed the common man ( working class).

 

Andrew Jackson received the majority of the popular vote and but did not have enough electoral votes to allow him a sure victory. He won the electoral vote but not the amount needed to become president. So in this case in American law, the House of Representatives vote on who becomes the next president.

 

John Quincy Adams’ friend was the speaker of the house, and this meant incredible influence. This was Henry Clay and he told members of the house to vote for Adams. Adams was elected and the new President gave Clay the  key position in his administration. People who were for Jackson cried corruption and a called the election a rigged action. Henry Clay becomes appointed as the Secretary of State, as Jackson supporters scream ‘stolen election.’ This begins a period of bad feelings about the democratic electoral process altogether. Adams’ administration will be plague the entire term with coercion of political factions trying to sabotage the administration even too the detriment of American safety. 

 

Now in the planning stages the Jackson supporters work to elect him the next election cycle, 1828.

 

Democrats break off from Republicans (Whig Party) and push to secure the common man’s vote and a changing of political clout. This period is called the Jackson Democracy.  During the late 1820s to the 1830s discussion broke out by politician’s eager to capture the office of the presidency by allowing working class to enter to into the national voting process. Still segments of the population could not vote. No slave could vote, but not longer was it required to own land to be able to vote. This changed America and the one party broke off into two separate parties.

 

Meanwhile Jackson for the next four years made Adam’s life a living hell. Adams was a good president working for the common good of the working class and Indian rights. The Democratic candidate Jackson did not care about the indian’s rights at all. It is hard to imagine how the Democratic Party justifies his actions and sentiments today as part of the Democratic parity’s principles to help all the common people.

 

So, now Adams and Clay break-off into the national republicans. By the late 1820s the Democrats drop the name Republican to just democrat. Substantial increase in the number of registered voters made up of common working class people in the Democratic Party that care less about indian rights and vote Jackson their man into office. He wins by popular vote and electoral vote over Adams. The Indians now will suffer. The Democrats claim they helped the suppressed people all at the same time.

 

1824 Presidential Election.

Candidate                    Party                           Electoral                     Popular

Andrew Jackson

John Quincy Adams

Henry Clay

William H. Crawford

Democratic-Republican

Democratic-Republican

Democratic-Republican

Democratic-Republican

99

84

37

41

153,544

108,740

47,136

46,618

 

  1. Reasons for General George McClellan’s weakness as a military commander?

Hesitated, always waiting for supplies, didn’t attack when the time was right, and Lincoln removed him from his duties after the Battle of Antietam. He was a pro-democrat sympathizer and didn’t like his men getting in harms way.

  1. Author of Letters from a Farmer in e Pennsylvania?

Voices of dissent over Parliament’s growing authority upon the colonies in America heard colonial voices issued as letters claiming actual acts of independence. John Dickinson a statesmen and a farmer wrote his Letters in opposition to the Townshend Acts.  In 1767 British Parliament proposed to reorganize colonial customs by levying "external" duties to raise revenue in the colonies. These dissent writs became second in revolutionary literature other than pamphleteer Thomas Paine’s Common Sense.

  1. Professions open to free blacks in the Antebellum South?

Lowly jobs.

  1. The assassination of President Lincoln?
  2. Andrew Jackson’s view of the presidency?

The commoner could be king psychology,

  1. How effective was the Union blockage of the Confederate Forts?

Operation Conda (anaconda, implying restriction as the snake is a constrictor species of snake). Stopped supplies from reaching the Confederacy and any foreign power helping them out if one chose.

  1. The first major challenge to the authority of the New U.S. federal government in 1790s?

1794, Hamilton’s problems helped unite the Whisky Rebellion, severely testing federal authority. The was a tax on Whisky to help finance the national debt and lower alcohol consumption which many saw as moral.

The Whisky Rebellion.

 

Other laws: Fugitive slave law (1793), American found it easy to forget the Constitution allowing free backs the same property rights as whites. This law denied free blacks legal protection guaranteed under the Bill of Rights. This was a step backwards from the sentiment of rights of all free persons a decade earlier.

Judiciary Act of 1789 allowed Congress to extend its power and the Act of 1801 reduced the size of the Supreme Court. Maybury V. Madison, Marshall had ruled the Congress had exceeded its constitutional authority in writing the Act of 1798.

  1. Provisions of the Emancipation Proclamation?

McClellan met Lee at the Battle of Antietam (Sharpsburg) on September 17, 1862. North and South together suffered 24,000 casualties in the bloodiest day of the war. Tactically, the battle was a draw, but strategically it constituted a major Union victory because it forced Lee to withdraw south of the Potomac. Most important, Antietam provided Lincoln with the occasion to issue the Emancipation Proclamation. [303]

1862, The proclamation was written by a lawyer making common reading difficult. What is said in simple language: To free slaves in rebel held territories only. This provision used the term “property” as its vice because the southerners referred to their slaves as property and the Constitution gave the national government the power to regulate property.

  1. Stephen Douglas’s Policy regarding possible extension of slavery into new territory?

1854 Proposal to establish no-restrictions on slavery in the vast Nebraska territory fired up the Whig party. He signed a bill in May 1854 called the Kansas-Nebraska Act that shattered an already weaken second party and triggered a renewed sectional strife. Nebraska lay north of the Missouri Compromise line in the Louisiana Purchase. [ 279]  The Missouri Compromise prohibits slavery in Louisiana Territory states north of Missouri’s southern boundary.

  1. Term given to describe the forced removal of Cherokee and other tribes west of Mississippi River?

1831, “Trail of Tears” begins when the Choctaw ( Miss. & Ala.) tribe is forced to

lands west of the Mississippi.

  1. The 15th Amendment of the Constitution?

The rights for citizens to vote regardless of race, color, or previous condition of servitude, and the Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

  1. Why President Jackson vetoed the Maysville Road Bill?

He thought that funding for national improvement was simply a lavish-giveaway. He was a state’s right advocate who believed the national government should stay out of appropriating money for national causes. National causes, he thought, only benefit special interest groups In1930 Jackson vetoed a bill that would have built a federal supported road in Kentucky between Maysville and Lexington. The South championed the move which also saw the simultaneous bill called the Indian Removal Act singed by him. 

  1. The religious group supposed to benefit from founding of Pennsylvania?

The Quakers. Pennsylvania quickly turned into a hodge-podge of religious groups.

  1. Why General Sherman pursued a policy of mass destruction in the South?

Lincoln had ask him to help end the war as quickly as possible. No one thought the civil war would last as long as it did.

Destroy with scorch earth tactics, cut a line thought the Confederacy states in order to divide them. Inflict all the damage one can on the enemy, created a belief to weaken the enemy in order for a quicker mercy ending. 

  1. Achievements of John Quincy Adams as secretary of state?

He proposed internal improvements and strict Jeffersonian Democrats’ claimed that this was unconstitutional. He wanted to stay away from partisan politics, which got him heat from all sides.  He lost support. He alienated his supporters by appointing his opponents to office. This was an idealistic view but guaranteed him only one term as president.

Supported the Embargo, Adams-Onis Treaty, the purchase of Florida from Spain; Pacific coast a legitimate claim. He angered southerners when he proposed to send delegates to South America looking for trade deals, especially products the South produced – but more it would recognize Black Haiti and the slave revolutionaries.

  1. The Compromise of 1850?

Devised by Senator Henry ( “the great pontificator”) Clay and Stephan A. ( “the little giant”) Douglas, admits California as a free state, givers New Mexico and Utah territories power to legislate “ all rightful subjects…consistent with the constitution” (i.e. slavery [property]) and promises stronger fugitive laws and suppression of slave trade in the District of Columbia.

 

Douglas made two concessions. First he made the Missouri Compromise void, superseded by the Compromise of 1850 and its doctrine of popular sovereignty. Second, he agreed to divide up the territory of Nebraska and Kansas. [279]. Two people proposed to make Nebraska slave free and Kansas open to slavery.

100. The Wilmot Proviso?

August 1846, David Wilmot, a young Democrat from Pennsylvania,  introduced an amendment to a appropriations’ bill that stipulated slavery be prohibited in any territory acquired  to the negotiations. New states could negotiate slavery procedures if desired by the state. Wilmot had resented Democrats who supported expanding slavery west, especially Texas, in these new states. Polk and Southern democrats opposed any restrictions on a states choice to have slavery. Democrats in general argued that slavers were property and therefore could travel wherever on the continent with their masters and still be in bondage. Polk and the Democrats believed that allowing western states to own slaves would reduce the congestion of the southern eastern state slave-population.

 

The proviso raised the unsettling Constitutional questions. Calhoun and other southerners contended that because slaves were property, the Constitution protected slaveholders’ rights to carry their slaves wherever they chose. The position led to the conclusion that the Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional. On the other side, many northerners cited the Northwestern Ordinance of 1787, the Missouri Compromise, and the Constitution itself, which gave the Congress the power “ to make all needed rules and regulations respecting the territory or other property belonging to the United States,” as justification for congressional legislation over slavery in the territories.

 

The proviso gave the Whigs a political windfall; originating the democratic party, it allowed the Whigs to portray themselves as the South’s only dependable friends.[269]

 

Whiskey replaced Rum as the main hard alcohol for the colonials because the British stopped trading molasses, a key ingredient, with the colonialists. The last year of George Washington's life, at Mnt. Vernon where he had built a whiskey distillery, he produced11,000 gallons of wry whiskey. Wheat and wry, ingredients of types of whiskeys grew abundantly in North America.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Last year of George Washington's life, his personal Whiskey distillery, at Mnt. Vernon, churned out 11,000 gallons of wry Whiskey.

-----

 

Boucon, French for smokehouse, for making jerkey; ( Buccaneer is derived from this word) because the food on pirate ships was tough meat preserved with heavy salt.

 

Grog ( adding Rum, or other alcohol, to water to make safer). Water on ships got old in barrels.

 

Pirate Ships utilized pure democracy as its government. A war council could vote out a captain whenever it wants too. Some ships when through 14 captains in two years. Only the captain rules during battles. All decisions require a democratic vote before operation.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

American_Writings_1816-1830s //Michael Johnathan McDonald

 

Good Feeling Era Began after the America won its wars for independence and founding members become heroes. Only until they began to die off a transitional period erupts into an era of bad feelings – 1816-1830s.

 

History))

Continental divide:

 

Rocky Mountains, the great continental divide, where rivers are divided by the water flowing either east or west in direction.

 

1815-1860 U.S. Looks inwardly

Focus on movement west, settlements

Expansion farming

Industrial revolution

Obsession of Supreme Court

Congressional Fights

Food wheat in North and Cotton in the south. Cotton becomes the cash – crop taking over tobacco.

 

Golden Age of Farming

Farmers learned new methods

Better yields, more diversification

Started growing hey, veggies

Wine, grapes grown in California.

Dairy farming

Improvements in distribution of milk; pure milk movement

New York, from agriculture to city.

Distillation of Whiskey, all sorts of grains, New York. Big business

When finished used mash to feed cattle that produced blue milk.

 

Sickle replaced by the scythe, still hard labor

Industrialization after John Deer invents steel plow. More people to the city

City over crowdedness.

Plows made of iron and wood often broke.

Replaces about 49 farmlands, and McCormick’s machine described as the mechanical reaper.

Quality of livestock better, making profit.

Quantity and better seeds; example shanghais Chickens produced more eggs.

People kept journals on everything to compare and improve.

Record keeping; soil surveys

Bird excrement, a big industry. Anyone who finds and island full of bird excrement, can get approval to harvest and make money.

1862 Tariff policies.

1862 Department of Agriculture.

1862 Free land, but must stay on plot for five years. 168 acres for free.

Americans move increasingly away from English culture.

Language differentiation. Take out the ‘u’ in many common words like coulor = color.

1820s Noah Webster dictionaries standardized the English vernacular. Tried words like Wimmer=women, groop= group, fether=feather, but some do not take a hold of culture.

 

Davy Crocket, died on the Alamo

 

 

 

 

1850-1840s tragic period for Native Americans

Overtime, Congress says move them west of the Mississippi river; land less fertile than its eastern section. Americans

1812 , Summer, (-1814 ) Americans launched a series of unsuccessful attacks on Canada. Sixty-year-old general William Hull led an American army from Detroit to Canada.  Indian unity, but none after Tecumesh died.

1812 British and Mohawk's defeat the American forces at the Battle of Queenston, and plans to attack Montreal collapse when New York militia refused to advance into Canada.

1814 British and American commissioners meet in Belgium, in August at the treaty of Ghent, and signed on Christmas Eve, 1814.  Status quo ante bellum, ( Latin for "the state of affairs before the war.")

 

1820 Christian convert some Indians to farming and western ways, to give up the warrior life.

Five civilized tribes set an example for others and called civilized: Cherokee, Creek, Chicagoan, Choctaw and (Florida ) Seminole.

Cherokee create their own alphabet and begin teaching the young, literature.

Cherokee owned slaves, mostly black.

Some ran tribal representative governments which were successful.

 

Jackson lets the state do whatever it wants, but the Federal government got the job to remove the Indians form west of the Mississippi.

It took 15 years to accomplish this feat.

Indians who moved lost their political clout, and could not vote.

 

How to get things done in the colonial period.

River

Coastal navigation

Packhorses and mule trains

Taverns and inns were information centers

Ate venison, mutton and Johnny cake, which were high in cholesterol.

Fond of liquor, as it was not as dangerous as drinking water and thought to cure sicknesss and disease that came from tainted water from various natural and man induced bacteria.

 

Stage coaches, usually took one month from Pennsylvania to North Carolina. Roads were bare.

 

18th century changes in transportation.

 

Population:

 

1790 first census, 4,000,000 total population.

Maryland and Delaware were centers of population

Philadelphia, appx. 4,400 had the most population density

Second was New York, with appx. 3,300.

 

1840 U.S. population 17,000,000

1st New York, 300,000 people

6th Cincinnati, a new city with 46,000 people.

 

Roads Shank’s Mare method. Riders walk and ride and switch horses form post ( Usually trees)  to post. Switching off was an accepted practice.

Seat behind riders were called Pillion.

Business, Pack-horses

Business guides ( Oregon trial)

river crossing on horse or foot

Ferries are being pulled by rope.

Sings only came during the automobile period. There were only a few signposts.

AAA club began the first mass effort to post signs for directions.

New England banned travel on Sundays.

 

1815 New States (in order of admission)

 

Places of production ( On test) were close to the place of distribution

Liquor more valuable and less bulky to carry made people decide to go into this profit making business. Rhys, wheat and other grains not as profitable to carry distances, so less bulky and higher profit commodities favored.

Local manufacturing.

Every town had a ‘smith,’ metal worker. Whitesmith, Blacksmith etc…

 

Transportation Revolution

 

  1. Keelboats replace ancient molded flat boats, but still both used polls to push the device through the water.
  2. Cumberland, Tennessee rivers tributaries of the Ohio River with many other tributaries create opportunities for producers of whatever to Keel boat their products through the navigational waters. The Ohio as its own tributary connects to the Mississippi River, the main water rout to New Orleans the major port for international trade. Keel boat travel to New Orleans was down stream, but getting them back up was a long journey. Many just sold their boats to be stripped for lumber when in New Orleans.
  3. Navigational guides printed.
  4. Community life called River communities prop up all over the banks of the Mississippi river.
  5. Mike Fink, most famous Keel boat adventurer, a rough life and met a violent death.
  6. Indians take shots at boats.
  7. River pirates, Harper brothers; ambushes, Samuel Mason.
  8. New Orleans road, Natchez Trace.
  9. Jefferson’s embargo Act shut down the ship building business.
  10. 1880s appx. 1000 boats west of the Mississippi and this employed many people. No job shortages.
  11. 1820s, Lincoln took at least two trips on Keel Boats.

 

 

 

  1. Great Age of Canal Building
  2. Whiskey Rebellion took aim at transportation needs.
  3. Dewitt Clinton, a wealthy person decided to build a canal others previously had envisioned, and people thought he was crazy, even congress and called it  ”Clinton’s big ditch” during periods of construction. He wanted to capture the revenue of such an endeavor.
  4. 1816 February 16, Memorial of the Citizens of New York, in Favour of a Canal Navigation between the Great Western Lakes and the Tide-waters of the Hudson. Drafted by De Witt Clinton and signed by many citizens, it made a deep impression on the Legislature.
  5. 1816 April 17, NY Legislature passes a canal law.
  6. 1817 July 4, Erie Canal construction began at Rome, NY. Finished in 1825.
  7. October 26, 1825 first passage through canal from Lake Erie to New York City.
    1. 363 miles in length, 40 feet wide, 4 feet deep, max displacement 75 tons
    2. 77 locks, 90 feet by 15 feet
    3. Total lockage 655 feet
  8. (http://www.history.rochester.edu/canal/)
  9. Clinton proposed to the New York legislator to let him do it.
  10. Robert Fulton had previous proposed the idea of the canal to Washington.
  11. The previous longest canal in New Hampshire consisted of 28 miles.
  12. Initial investments concerned people because of a lot at stake. Stockholders’ worried because of an elevation problem of 650 feet. What to do? Hills also blocked the pathway from Lake Erie to the Hudson river.
  13. 1797 February 5 letter from Robert Fulton to President Washington referring to potential canal improvements, including a canal to Lake Erie.
  14. July 4, 1817 the project begun.
  15. 1819 23 October, middle section of canal opened from Utica to Rome, 96 miles.
  16. Built it in sections s people could begin to use it right away.
  17. They paid a toll and it proved faster. Longest section was about 75 miles.
  18. 364 [363] total miles and largest in the world. 2,700 foot high inclination it took 84 [77] locks to get the boats over the mountain.
  19. Purpose to connect Buffalo and other remote places, and also to connect farmers   to get produce to the people from upstate New York.  
  20. 1st Year the canal generated $500,000 and the 2nd year the canal generated $750,000.
  21. Only 40’ wide and 4’ deep and later expanded for heavier shipping of 70’ wide and 8’ deep. $125,000,000 1816-1840 estimated time .Many Poor Irish worked to build it.
  22. Two miles per hour, 20 miles per day, but faster than mule or pact-trains.
  23. This set off a canal craze in Maine, Virginia, New Jersey and Illinois.
  24. 1790 Philadelphia was number one in population and later merchants advocated for a canal.
  25. 1826 A year after the Erie Canal project completed the Philadelphia can begun.
  26. 1834 Pennsylvania to Pittsburg. Congested and never a competitor to the Erie Canal and with 90 more locks it worked.
  27. General problems. Flood and rain. Speculations bonds of the 1819 and 1839 panics.
  28. Eastern U.S. so many canals before the Civil War. Steamboats take over transportation job.

 

Steam Boat Age

Riverboats and the Workhouse the Steam Engine

Freight & Passenger

 

 

Vehicle: the new technology of the steam engine.

Medium: The Mississippi River, second-longest river in the United States; the longest is the Missouri River, which flows into the Mississippi. Taken together, they form the largest river system in North America. At the end of the The Mississippi River waited the great port of New Orleans ready for international trading business.

Problems were sandbars, up kept ( Who, finally the national government), two way traffic, obstacles (Floating logs). 

Significance: Tremendous economic impact.

Internal improvement.

 

Robert Fulton (November 14, 1765 – February 24, 1815) was a U.S. engineer and inventor, who became credited with developing the first steam-powered ship.

Robert Oxnard Perfected the steam engine boat.

Fulton likes to think of submarine boats.

No one interested in Fulton’s submarine ideas he decided to contact Napoleon who showed initial interest but turned him down.

Fulton who never named his first steamboat, became known as the Clermont.

The New York legislature granted Fulton the privilege to be the sole provider of all steamboat traffic for thirty years. Competition was forbidden by law. Later over turned by complaints.

Advantages

Shallow hulls with draft support helps to travel.

Steamboats were inexpensive

Light-wood construction

Needed only 30’ of water, and one that could tow 40 tons, only had 22 inches used water.

 

Disadvantages

Racing and putting down the throttle would heat the engine up and explosions caused disaster and sometimes death.

Interstate river snags from logs, sandbars and someone had to clean them up.

Collision dangers

Some places compromise and got federal aid for maintenance purposes.

Regular explosions for mishandling created national regulations called the Steamboat Act.

Civil war, Steamboats replaced Keel Boats.

Spider web of steamboats, rail tracks and canals became major modes of transportation.

People used them for everything, moving belongings, moving families, restarting life and travel and basic necessities of moving commodities and anything one could think of.

 

 

Railroads go with Riverboats

 

  1. 19th Century Railroads surfaced in America and by 1825 workmen begun building projects.
  2. The Leiper Railroad in Pennsylvania was the first permanent railroad, opened in 1810, and the Granite Railroad in 1826 may have been the first to evolve through continuous operations into a common carrier.
  3. Rail tracks due to competition were not uniform. The three most sizes used at first were the 3’, the 2’6” and the 4’ widths of the tracks. This ensured small companies could get into the railgame. However, this also meant boarding and unlboarding every so often which meant railways, as some American companies call themselves, was not a fluid process.
  4. Prior to 1880, companies connected different size track to one  line. This also cost the rail rider lost time and money. By 1860 there were at least 11 different gauged tracks. In 1960 laws standardized the gauge and this took only one week to fix, according to the professor. 
  5. State charters, blackmail  often accompanied rail practices. A company would demand an expensive fee for a main line to go through your city, and if the town or city didn’t pay this meant that the train line became a tributary which meant less traffic and less commerce.
  6. For example, in California , South Pacific company in 1870 blackmailed the Los Angeles population for each person to pay up 6000 a piece, paid by the city of course, and the price tag was $600,000 – big money in those days. This was just the practice.

 

  1. 1860
  2. Railways were dirty and people had extra clothing for thr ride as soot damaged their outfits.
  3. Ambers burnt people
  4. Fear tactics used by enemies of the railways s[read rumors like ‘Speeds only 15 miles per hour will collapse one’s lungs.’
  5. ‘If one remains in a tunnel more than 60 yards suffocation commences.
  6. Personal doctors needed to attend patients on trips
  7. Neurological experts, examining the new fangled stress of railroads claimed suicidal tendencies and orgy desires from women.
  8. Called zooming, smoking serpents.

 

Land Roads

 

1800s broad paths through the forest consisted of dust and thickets.

After the revolution, road journeys were often long.

Ohio tree stump law called for stumps no longer than a foot out of the ground. This was a bumpy experience, as navigation the wagons sought difficulty. This height was considered acceptable. Then in swampy places, cordiorod roads consisted of timber lined up together, and later plank roads resolved the bumpiness of  the timber.

 
Private turnpike and plank road companies organized in states issued by charters created roads and income. Famous names, the New Jersey turnpike and the Pennsylvania turnpike. 
 
Reasons: Access to the Appellation Mountains. 
Military roads financed by Federal agreements.
Not everyone was in favor of every plan. Monroe vetoed a road bill and Andrew Jackson did too. 
Cumberland Road,
The National Road or Cumberland Road, built by the Federal Government, consisted of a gap routs, sturdy stone bridges.  A name change to U.S. 40 and not interstate 40 became the premier highway of the United States of America. 
Construction began in 1811 at Cumberland, Maryland on the Potomac River, and the road reached Wheeling, West Virginia on the Ohio River in 1818. Construction began in 1811 at Cumberland, Maryland on the Potomac River, and the road reached Wheeling, West Virginia on the Ohio River in 1818.
Cars could eventually travel on these stone bridges.
Wealthy states could build their own road systems.
Long distance turnpikes proved expensive.
This meant long distant freighting cost too much.
1830 Turnpike craze was over and the railway supremely remained the premier way to travel until the automobile. 

 

Shipping

 

1812 Merchants opposed the war of 1812, because their ships were commandeered for U.S. warships.

After the war new trade ship were built.

 

Sailing New England, China and California.

1849, the Clipper ship comes out of San Francisco.

 

Sailing from Massachusetts to Cape Horn, to California with Hide & Leather, talif tallion from cows.

 

War of 1812

 

Seemed like the 2nd revolution to many.

British end ties and concerns to America

Britain focused on a trade nationality.

Ear of good feeling

Political parties diminished.

Federalist Party dies out, except for Jackson on the supreme court.

One political party emerges at this time.

1820 James Monroe ran against Adams acting as an independent and America saw the most lopsided electoral victory in history.

1824 coalition of candidates 4 candidates)

Democratic-republican party melds into one.

 

Cotton

1790s Cotton industry facilitated by the Cotton Jin ( Cotton engine) separates seeds from cotton. Cotton replaced cash-crop from  tobaccos dominance.

Samuel Slater, sneaks out of England with plans of Cotton Mill technology.

After the apprenticeship, when Slater was 21, he decided to travel to the United States of America, carrying his technical knowledge with him, despite the fact that Britain outlawed the emigration of any engineers. Britain did not want their trade secrets to leave the country, which would hurt the British economy. In November, 1789, Slater arrived in New York. -wiki

New England begins to export cotton to England.

Positive results in the embargo Act could get imports from after nations.

New England raising sheep to survive as industry takes over farming and agriculture production can be shipped into the region.

 Chickasaw and Choctaw. Other tribes who inhabited the territory of Mississippi.

Slaves and the American legislator’s argument

 

When cotton was king during the 1850s, Mississippi plantation owners—especially those of the Delta and Black Belt regions—became increasingly wealthy due to the high fertility of the soil and the high price of cotton on the international market. The severe wealth imbalances and the necessity of large-scale slave populations to sustain such income played a heavy role in both state politics and in the support for secession.

 

1815-1860

 

Communication

 

Samuel Finley Breese Morse (April 27, 1791 – April 2, 1872) was an American inventor and painter of portraits and historic scenes.

Samuel Morse ( Morris code) invents the telegraph. No periods, so the word ‘stop’ remained free of charge.

In 1836, Morse finished his first working prototype of the telegraph.

 

John Marshall (September 24, 1755–July 6, 1835) was an American statesman and jurist who more than anyone shaped American constitutional law and made the Supreme Court a center of power. He was a federalist even after the party disbanded.

Marshall dominated the Court for over three decades. Marshall was the fourth Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, serving from February 4, 1801 until his death. He served in the United States House of Representatives from March 4, 1799 to June 7, 1800, and under President John Adams was Secretary of State from June 6, 1800 to March 4, 1801. Marshall was a native of the state of Virginia and a leader of the Federalist Party.

 

 

1819, Dartmouth College v. Woodward, and McCullough v. Maryland became significant Supreme Court decisions affecting powers between the state and national government. For Dartmouth, Marshall decided that once a state charters a college or business, that state no longer has rights to tell that institution what to do.  That institution reserves the rights of the beneficiary and not the state. This issue focused on New Hampshire’s attempt to transform a private corporation.  For Maryland did the state have the power to tax  a national corporation, specifically the Baltimore Branch of the second Bank of the United States? What power does Congress hold to regulate a national bank? Marshall argued that the national power could trump the state power. Since the bank was inside the boarders of Maryland, the state believed it could tax them or use the bank for their benefit. This became a loose interpretation of the Constitution, because states should hold its own powers, but Marshall changed this to put further power into the central hands of government. Marshall used the term ‘enumerated powers.’ McCullough v. Maryland angered many  Republicans. The Bank had triggered the 1819 Panic. Madison and Monroe had support the bank in this.  Marshall said the whole people must be supported and not just the state. Jefferson, a Republican, believed the state had more power than the national government and should not get involved in state issues. Jefferson saw the states guarantee liberties to the country whereas, more power in the national government’s hands went in the wrong direction.

 

1811, after Louis and Clark, John Jacob Astor founded a fur-trading post at the mouth of the Columbian River in Oregon Country. The Louisiana Perchance brought the Mississippi River under American control. Adams –Onís Treaty wiped out Spanish control east of the Mississippi.

 

A major purchase of land, Indiana, Michigan and Illinois will create more representation in the House of Representatives and Congress will get two representative increasing the total numbers in votes. William Henry Harrison in connection with the war of 1812 sees the Indians side with the British. The Shawnee tribe has one leader named Tecumesh and one person who tried to foster prophecy as a vehicle for destiny for the Indians who match up with the British. Tecumesh will try to unify the Indians to make a more powerful confederation of warriors. Harrison exposes the Prophet as a fraud by demanding that he make the sun stand still. The prophet had a British agent who used a ephemeris to gauge an eclipse for June 16, 1806. The prophet makes an event for this and Harrison knew what he had planned. Harrison challenges the chiefs to change their life of a nomadic and goes for the chief’s land. He gets them drunk and lies to them and gets a treaty of about 75,000 miles of land which then becomes disputed. So Harrison plans for an assassination against Tecumseh and the prophet. They attack the Shawnee prophet center.  61 Americans died and this tallied about 20% of the casualties. The Indians took off and the prophet town’s name was discarded and the river became known as the battle of Tippecanoe. It was in fashion to have nicknames in these days and so people called Harrison by this river’s title from then on which will make his career and help in a slogan he used successfully to become president of the United States.

 

One month later America and England go to war.

 

1812 War of,

 

  1. Federalist oppose the war
  2. The United States was in the Red financially because of Thomas Jefferson’s policies.
  3. No longer do war bonds work.
  4. Navy defeated by Jefferson’s policies.
  5. Britain sends four Army regiments to Canada.
  6. British ally with the indians.
  7. U.S. three pronged war into Canada failed.
  8. Letter of mark and appraisal to answer private ships will become pirate ships. The U.S. will outfit trade ships and turn them into these pirate ships and try to sink enemy ships or capture them. They do not have money to build war ships.
  9. Battle of Lake Erie.
  10. Tecumseh tried to unite all Indian tribes in his region ( last Indian unity until the 20th Century).
  11. Canadian soil, Tecumseh killed in battle with British against Americans.
  12. Harrison received a gold medal.
  13. Fire set to president’s house. Dolly Madison scrambles to save valuables of house.
  14. The president’s house painted white after the fire and remains as the color today.
  15. Fort McKinney, outside of Baltimore, where Francis Scott Key on a British Ship negotiating stands and watches a battle ensues and wrote the Star Spangled Banner, which was a poem at first. And in 1931, became adopted as the national anthem.
  16. Treaty of Ghent, only said ‘ end of hostilities.’
  17. Monroe Doctrine a solution for the future.

 

 

Causes of the war of 1812

 

Thomas Jefferson was a pacifist who hated war. He was the founding principles for the modern Democratic Party. He advocated state rights (Which the modern Democratic party rarely defends anymore) and idealized the yeoman farmer as a prototype of what an American aspired too. 

 

Jefferson while president made the American Navy incompetent by making it not seaworthy. He cut funding to all the programs, and only left gun boats that remained close to the coast. America could not win a major battle at sea at this time if somehow a war would erupt. Jefferson passed the Embargo Act, which infuriated many American seeing it as a isolationist policy, a dangerous policy that had produced many weak nations who were abused by outside forces, such as China’ wars with imperialist Britain proved. Trading ships remained empty at the ports and looked like ghost ships. Workers suffered. Jefferson wanted to foster the yeoman, but his vision of the farmer could not stop foreign power form destroying the yeoman settlements. Many understood this and waited for his term to end.

 

Three days before Jefferson left office he replaced the Embargo Act called the non-Intercourse Act. This was all about attempts to write his wrongs. All trade would reopen except to Britain and France. However, this was non-forcible, because Thomas Jefferson could not tell Britain and France what to do. Remember he is a pacifist and decimated the navy so the countries laughed in his face.

 

Macon’s Bill #2 replaced the Non-Intercourse Act and reopened trade to France and England. In February 1811, the reeducation of the Non-Intercourse Act created a scene where Britain blockaded the New York port. What could America do. Jefferson destroyed the American Navy. In Spring 1812, a big argument ensured in the Parliament to focus upon America again for war, in a yea or nea vote. Napoleon turned his attention to Russia. They voted to repeal the blockade. However, slow communication resulted in weeks for news of a vote to reach America and the Americans acted before the decision could reach them. This meant the war of 1812 didn’t need to happen. Americans declare war on the British at the same time England cancels any type of aggression and repeals the blockade. A reason no longer to go to war now seems in history as a mistake war instead of a serious intended war. This is the war that Francis Scott Key stood on a British ship outside of Baltimore that shot rockets into the harbor at the American forces and he later penned the National Poem which turned into the National Anthem in 1931. He saw the flags still waving through the night lit up by the glare of red-fired rockets.

 

Treaty of Ghent, only said ‘ end of hostilities.’

 

 

1823 The Monroe Doctrine, a new world doctrine

Elections and the American single Party

The Federalist Party falls to the wayside and one American party emerges.

 

John Quincy Adams (Democratic-Republican) long believed God and nature ordained the United States to take over the continent. While purchasing Florida he told Spain that what he couldn’t purchase he would approve for any measure to take it over for the U.S. The Holy Alliance fell through and Spain could not manufacture the gold and silver they took form south American because they had kicked out many of the talented artisans and intellectual, the Jews from Spain leaving a void in money management expertise. The Gold was instead of invested reworked for commerce placed in churches or sold off for less money than when fashioned in commodities, therefore, Spain suffered financially and needed money. The had not means in which to battle America for territory and south and middle America took up the rest of their limited finances in which to operate. They soon will fall out of world power status. This provided an excellent opportunity for Americans to take over lands of the Indians and disputed European land. The Monroe doctrine created the safeguards for English intervention and therefore no obstacles laid in the way of what some could tell of as conquest. So what to do?

 

The Holy Alliance stood as an institution to quash revolutions in the name of Christian principles. 1823, France invited Spain to go to war on America as long as the agreement was approved with Russia, Prussia and Austria (Holy Alliance). Britain did not join the alliance and the empire now established as the preeminent power in the Atlantic joined America to agree not to join in annexing any of Spain’s holdings in South America. However, Texas or Cuba remained a secret foreign policy to possibly annex for America. This was the main background on the Monroe doctrine [p173].

 

Common understandings of the Monroe Doctrine include that U.S. policy avoids European wars at all costs and only if American interests become threatened will the U.S. respond. In addition, the U.S. will respond to any European attempt at colonization as an “unfriendly act.” The most pressing of the statutes became known in priority as hands off the American continent. America at this time felt bold to defend itself from outside influence. Now the nation looked inside to internal problems. The Indians also lost in this doctrine because they could not count on French or English or another country’s intervention on their behalf.

 

When people speak upon disputed elections like Al Gore v. George Bush Jr. or the nasty campaigns between John Kerry and George Bush Jr. on only needs to look how nasty the elections of 1824-1832 became and wonder if civility remained a key attitude in the George Bush elections compared to these elections.

 

Federalist Party (which supported a strong national government and commercial interests became defunct when the 1812 war destroyed the Federalist, who committed political suicide at the Hartford Convention, and led Madison to call for a national bank and federal support for internal improvements and protective tariffs.

 

Period after the War of 1812

 

The bad feeling era 1816-1823

 

No outside competition in the political party as the federalist Party becomes defunct.

 

1816 John C. Calhoun of South Carolina, is included into Monroe’s cabinet as secretary of State, a most important position, even unto today. He was a nationalist who moved over to promote state’s rights. He volunteers to move out of the cabinet position and gets a promise for the position as the next candidate for vice president. William Henry Crawford a favorite of the people becomes chosen and Calhoun is forgotten. He becomes a paralytic and still received votes.

 

Californian Cow Business

 

  1. 1819 United States renounces its claims of Texas to Spain west of the Sabine River (Other boundaries not defined).
  2. 1821 Mexico wins its independence from Spain. The Rancho Period of California and Texas began. Now they control the territory.
  3. No one knows what the boundaries are and never will.
  4. Trade, Cowhide and cow fat for poor man’s candles. Large trade in Calfornia with ships from the eastern side of America – travel up from the Cape Horn to coastal trading stops in California.
  5. On the Atlantic coast, Candle lights a big industry. Whale oil is the major product. Kerosene is the most clean and expensive.

 

Rancho Grants

 

  1. Free land or cheap land offered by Mexico to settlers in exchange for helping build communities.
  2. Mexico sends governors to California, and the settlers do not get along with them. These were provincial governments. Petty rivalries exist. No Californian governors exist. Culture clash.
  3. Sutter’s Fort,(by Sacramento) a large 1000 acres cow farms. Big business.
  4. After the Donner party about 250 settlers show up each year.
  5. World trade to California, and also New England trade to California. Cowhides and cow fat processed and traded for manufacturing goods.
  6. Hides were called California bank notes, because they were sold for one dollar each.
  7. New England made grease from the cow fat. The process called for heating the fat to a liquid then placing a stick in the grease and letting it cool. Then it could be carried on the ship.
  8. 1829 Mexico abolished slavery.

 

1820s A period of Democratic Greed and Republican sorrows.

 

Colonialist and the moral ways died out and a new transitional era began to emerge with the fight of the intellectual against the working class mentality. The working class in the south supported anyone willing to keep slaves, get rid or kill Indians and promote their slave plantation trade dominance over the manufacturing north. The Democrats, the party of Indian haters, slave keepers and champion of the under representative people ( Haha, that is what they claim) become strong when the east allows non-land holding persons to take part in the American political process.  The founding fathers, although wrong in most accounts about slavery, thought that only land holding people, meaning ones that had some type of an education (It takes some education to know how to manage land) , could vote.

 

The change in voting tactics for all but free blacks in the north, slaves in the south and women changed politics forever. This meant people who could not read a government or state bill could take part and direct the future. First the Democrats understood that preaching to grass roots people who a population of non-educated followers had relied on feel good policies and appeasement of whatever demands the mass crowds wanted. In the south the masses of uneducated wanted Indians out of the south west because they couldn’t read a book that said these people our humans like you and me. They are animals and must be exterminated. Then the wealthy landowners who many were stupid as well said, hey look lets agree with the masses and vote in our Democratic Leader Andrew Jackson who kills Indians and men that do not agree with killing Indians. Democracy was a first rate institution of genius for the Democrat. A Democrat didn’t need to learn to read or write because this would harm himself on the psychological side – because then he would see in the mirror his own humanness.

 

Anyway, John Quincy Adams was not violent man like Jackson, and didn’t think killing the slaves was a solution. The stupid people then voted him out of office, now that anyone citizen, male person over 12 years of age in America could do. Jackson didn’t like the central bank and took money from it and gave money to state banks. This was a great new political style. First go with what the populous stupid people say and then try to fund them, like buying friendships, and the recipe for election is almost certain. The Democrats learned early that religion meant moral convictions, but in these political games morality could bring in guilt and destroy you spiritually, psychologically and emotionally.

 

In 1824, Andrew Jackson and John Quincy Adams were both members of Thomas Jefferson’s party. Ten-years later Jackson was a Democrat, and Adams was a Whig ( Republican). By this time the intellectuals were beginning to understand the hypocrisy of the slavery and the ill treatment of the Indians. The non-educated people, which now became a huge issue in America calling for education reform, demonstrated that inviting the illiterate to vote fostered racism. Uneducated people didn’t understand that blacks and Indians were humans as well. History books will tell you that the tensions rose because of industrialization, the Cotton South and westward expansion. These are the nice words for racism. Kick the Indians out of the east, maintain slavery policies in the south and move Indians further west to expand. When the non-land policies for voting came in both the Democrats and the Whigs had to contend to these new uneducated populations.

 

Also, customary voting policies of voting aloud no longer existed as ballots and anonymity replaced transparency. When people voted out loud, other could hear and condemn if they wanted too. The selection of members of the electoral moved away from the legislator to the voters.

 

Parties often courted voters by holding barbeques handing out free food and drink.

 

Election of 1824

 

1824 coalition of candidates 4 candidates sees a Democratic-Republican Party meld into one national political entity.

 

John Quincy Adam’s emerged as the New England favorite. J.C. Calhoun and William Crawford fought to represent the south. Henry Clay of Kentucky promoted the American System. Tennessean Andrew Jackson was a war hero and he surprised everyone as becoming the favorite of the frontier people, because he exterminated indians. 

 

J.C. Calhoun stepped down as candidate with the promise to become the next vice president.

 

John Quincy Adams wanted to be president like his father. Henry Clay called for an American Sysatem and high tariffs and internal improvement.

Andrew Jackson already was a military hero with victories over the Indians and he championed the common man ( working class).

 

 

Andrew Jackson received the majority of the popular vote and but did not have enough electoral votes to allow him a sure victory. He won the electoral vote but not the amount needed to become president. So in this case in American law, the House of Representatives vote on who becomes the next president.

 

John Quincy Adams’ friend was the speaker of the house, and this meant incredible influence. This was Henry Clay and he told members of the house to vote for Adams. Adams was elected and the new President gave Clay the  key position in his administration. People who were for Jackson cried corruption and a called the election a rigged action. Henry Clay becomes appointed as the Secretary of State, as Jackson supporters scream ‘stolen election.’ This begins a period of bad feelings about the democratic electoral process altogether. Adams’ administration will be plague the entire term with coercion of political factions trying to sabotage the administration even too the detriment of American safety. 

 

Now in the planning stages the Jackson supporters work to elect him the next election cycle, 1828.

 

Democrats break off from Republicans (Whig Party) and push to secure the common man’s vote and a changing of political clout. This period is called the Jackson Democracy.  During the late 1820s to the 1830s discussion broke out by politician’s eager to capture the office of the presidency by allowing working class to enter to into the national voting process. Still segments of the population could not vote.

No slave could vote, but not longer was it required to own land to be able to vote. This changed America and the one party broke off into two separate parties.

 

Meanwhile Jackson for the next four years made Adam’s life a living hell. Adams was a good president working for the common good of the working class and Indian rights. The Democratic candidate Jackson did not care about the indian’s rights at all. It is hard to imagine how the Democratic Party justifies his actions and sentiments today as part of the Democratic parity’s principles to help all the common people.

 

So, now Adams and Clay break-off into the national republicans. By the late 1820s the Democrats drop the name Republican to just democrat. Substantial increase in the number of registered voters made up of common working class people in the Democratic Party that care less about indian rights and vote Jackson their man into office. He wins by popular vote and electoral vote over Adams. The Indians now will suffer. The Democrats claim they helped the suppressed people all at the same time.

 

 

Andrew Jackson

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1824 Presidential Election.

Candidate                    Party                           Electoral                     Popular

Andrew Jackson

John Quincy Adams

Henry Clay

William H. Crawford

Democratic-Republican

Democratic-Republican

Democratic-Republican

Democratic-Republican

99

84

37

41

153,544

108,740

47,136

46,618

 

Election of 1828

Adam’s supporters charged Jackson as an illiterate backwoodsman, in which he was but Jackson supporters didn’t mind because he was just life them. Also charged was aimed at hi dealings with the tsar when he hooked him up with a prostitute.

Jackson camp charges Adams as an aristocrat and a scholar. Two extremely negative things to be in those days if one supported the Democratic common man agenda. Learning could be dangerous and therefore scholars were frowned upon by the liberals. Worse of all the heinous of all charges became commonplace: Adams could write but not fight. However, Adams himself never mudslinger kept his cool and lost handedly.

Jackson wins two terms and placed the direction of America into a greedy racist path and this election demonstrated the northerner scholars, religious and the intellects were separating ideologically from the racist, illiterate and business greedy South. New England doubled its vote for Adams and the South doubled its votes for Jackson.

Jackson changed how government offices worked. He fired all the party opposition and put in his men. This period there was no merit system. It was kindly called the “rotation system” by his supporters and the” Spoils Systems” by his opponents. Of course, the spoil system has long been acquainted with new monarchy policies. However, in this new democracy, this new political policy began and never changed. In the early days, the administrations remained mixed so each side could disagree with each other and compromise. Now the President had all his chums and a winner take all mentality moved in to American politics.

John C. Calhoun supported the tariff of 1816, initially he was a warhawk, but gradually became a states’ right sectionalist. He didn’t support the 1828 ‘ Tariff of Abomination’ that Jackson made law.

Andrew Jackson: ‘The Tariff of Abomination.’ Many of his southern supporters reject him. He then takes federal money from the national bank and gives it to the state banks.

Jackson had a victory at New Orleans over the British that made him a national hero.

Jackson destroyed Calhoun politically because Calhoun’s wife (Florida, of Peggy Eaton) would not let Jackson’s common wife into her house, because she had no proper training of etiquette.

Van Buren exemplified a new type of politician. A travenkeeper’s son, he had worked his way up through New York Politics and created a powerful state machine. [195]

1824 Andrew Jackson only presidential candidate not liked the Monroe administration.

Andrew Jackson relied on his friends in what is called the ‘Kitchen Cabinet’.

Jackson tariff laws became so hard on America that in 1833 he finally had to soften them, and slowly get rid of them. Clay and Jackson feared civil war.  One historians called it the” The olive branch and the sword.” This was a gradual but significant lowering of the tariff duties from 1833 to 1842. This was called the so-called compromise of 1833.

Henry Clay supported high tariffs, and proposed to lower the tariffs to keep some tariffs on the books, instead of giving into Jackson’s southern supporters who called for nullification. Everyone hailed Clay as the great compromiser.

 

The Bank Issue and the Jackson stealing. Election of 1832

  1. Jackson recognized the gap between rich and poor most historians proclaim. In other words, his majority of poor illiterates could not get a high-paying job so he just stole money from the central bank and put them into state banks that help out the poor in those states. Easy solution, not genius required for a feat life that.
  1. 1838 the Underground Railroad is established by abolitionists to provide slaves and escape route to the North.
  2. 1839 U.S. enters a depression that will last until 1843.
  3. 1840 British still in Oregon, Washington, Idaho and parts of Wyoming.
  4. Expeditions to stake claims of the roots of the Columbian River.
  5. 1840 William Henry Harrison (Whig Party) wins presidency.
  6. 1841 Russia out of parts of California.
  7. He dies in a few months, and the Whigs who allowed a former Democrat person to run on their ticket now led John Tyler, a Virginian aristocrat, for his southern appeal, meaning he understood slavery as a good thing, was a big mistake. 
  8. Tyler played havoc with the Whigs, messing with tariff policy by vetoing on e bill to lower tariffs and rejecting another. Whigs were understandably furious at this betrayal.
  9. The tariffs policies of Tyler cut across all party lines and the Whigs suffered a major defeat in the 1842 elections. The Whigs lost control of the House to Democrats. The beginning the control of capital hill will by the democrats will become bad news for the Mexicans and indians. 
  10. Whigs disown Tyler.
  11. Tyler desires to be elected in the next presidential election. He favors annexation of Texas as a platform. But a dark horse comes in and takes it away.
  12. 1842, Tyler’s Secretary of State,  Daniel Webster, concluded the Webster-Ashburton Treaty with Great Britain, settling dispute over Maine-Canadian boarder.
  13. 1842 Jones sails into Monte Ray harbor and claims Mexico is in a war with the U.S. and later apologizes. First he runs up an American flag, and people sneak a look at newspapers kept to see if political talk of this had been going on – which it hadn’t.
  14. Arcadia Bardini, wore Mexico’s green, red and white to give Sutter a message at a dance this was Mexico’s territory.
  15. Commoner Jones was interested in San Francisco Bay.
  16. 1846 ( Overland trails)  The Donner party, following one such account, lost so much time that they were caught in snow in the High Sierras and survived by turning to cannibalism.

 

Election of 1844

 

 

Territory as of,

23 States, The Republic of Texas ( Mexican land), Mexican possessions ( South west to Oregon territory borders), Oregon territory, controlled by the British, Indian territory the vast northern middle America, Iowa territory and Wisconsin territory.

 

Democrats control electoral, and popular vote.

Polk’s margin in the popular vote was only 38,000 out of 2.6 million votes cast.

Many who favored annexation of Texas believed Mexico was a brutal backward culture who had tyrannical governmental beliefs. Therefore, the Democratic parties aggression and conquest was justified.

 

 

James K Polk, first dark horse nominee of American politics.

James K Polk convinced enough northerners of annexation of Texas, he gets into office.

James K. Polk had a subtle plan to annex Oregon from British control. He wanted to avoid war. The issues were the greatest ports. That of San Francisco and Puget Sound ( Washington State).

Organization of the 49° parallel.

Spanish Treaty Line of 1819 at the 42° parallel.

1844 Democratic Platform: Polk’s inaugural address spoke of claiming Oregon territory. He claimed the boundaries of 54°, 40’ parallel, in Alaska all the way to Oregon territory.

1844, spring, Tyler and Calhoun submitted to the Senate a treaty to annex Mexico.

1844, in a letter to the British Minister in Washington, Calhoun claims African Slavery benefits these new lands. Abolitionists link this letter to a conspiracy to the annexation of Texas as a new slavery state.

 

Continental Nation

  1. War with Mexico, 1846-1848.
  2. James K. Polk, Democratic President organized it by political cunning.
  3. Mexico lost its lands north of the Rio Grand to California.
  4.  
  5. Many Northerners were scared the South’s rejoicing over this Mexico conquest policy would lead to more lands that instituted slavery.
  6. Most Northerners, and Whigs knew this policy was wrong and would end up as an issue later on, as it has in this century.
  7. Politics of Democrat Party Greed
  8. Scheming by Jacksonian President James K. Polk.
  9. Contact to Mexico by sea. Eastern states and other countries send ships around Cape Horn to dock in places like
  10. Texas owned by Mexico kick out American immigrants after inviting them in because they say their culture was getting diluted. Same argument in the beginning of the American 21st Century, but in reverse.
  11. General Winfield Scott, ordered by Polk, had an amphibious attack on Vera Cruz and proceeded on to Mexico City.
  12. Taylor’s nick-name, ‘rough and ready’.
  13. 1846, Taylor routed Mexicans in Texas, of whom fought courageously, but unsuccessfully. 
  14. 1846 Polk’s Democrat supporters spread the word that “ American blood has been shed on American soil”. This fallacy angered the Whigs.
  15. Polk wanted a war with Mexico to please his constituency of whom ever wanted to conquest Mexico and proclaim it as American territory.
  16. Mexican feared the Democratic Party in Congress and Polk’s administration and constituency.
  17. 1847 Taylor defeated a large Mexican army Battle of Buena Vista, on February 22-23, 1847.
  18. American Mexican war advantages:  had howitzer guns, and light mobile high-powered cannons.
  19. Mexican Army made up of many peasants, and not trained soldiers.
  20. Complete dispute over Mexico’s boundaries of Texas until this day. Both have different stories. We will never know the truth.
  21.  

 

1848 Western half of North America became a Continental Nation. This included everything further west of the Missouri and Mississippi rivers.

 

Platte river is the 200 miles the settlers followed before they crossed it in their covered wagons which were top-heavy and often difficult to get across. There were current issues.

 

Natural boundaries like these rivers and now deserts of the south-west became disputed by the Democrat Party looking for votes by their constituency that wanted free land west of the states.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pledge of allegiance

Written in commemoration of the discovery of America be Christopher Columbus.

Francis Bellamy editor and first published in Youth’s Companion Magazine, intended for school children in 1892 composed it.

The original way of giving the pledge of Allegiance was changed because it closely resembled the original salute of the NAZI party with the hand held at 45 degree angle strait out in front of the person. In the 1950s President Eisenhower approved amending the Pledge be adding the word(s): under God.

 

U.S.A. History

 

 

1795 The Jay Treaty resolved issues of Anglo- American affairs, averting war.

1795 First railroad in America, a wooden railed tramway running the slope of Beacon Hill, is built in Boston.

1796 The first contested presidential election is held. John Adams (Federalist Party) is elected. Thomas Jefferson ( Republican) is vice president.

1797 The ship of the United States Navy, called appropriately, the United States, is launched.

1798 The “XYZ Affair” shows France treating America with distain and leads to wave of anti-French sentiment.

1798 Congress establishes the Marine Hospital Service, later to become the U.S. Public Health Service.

 

 

The office of president and the vice president were elected by results of the position of one and two in the general election. This meant that two parties could have one of their persons in the position of president or vice president.

 

Supreme Court

Supreme Court was never as a powerful influence as today ( Most of the time they did nothing).

John Marshall 35 years on the Supreme Court.

Midnight Judges: Adam signs in new judges the night before inaugural of Thomas Jefferson’s presidency. Jefferson therefore, did give them any work.

Hamilton wants to go to war.

 Ineligible to be president

 

 

Alien and Sedition Act.

5 years original

14 years changed

Back 5 years

1) Cannot vote in elections

Democratic lefty views

 Why money was going to the Jeffersonian

Newspaper treason, taking print

 

 

Hamilton like Jefferson’s views, so tried to get him into office

Hamilton’s duel with Raymond Burr.

 

 

 

Thomas Jefferson:

 

  1. Designed a lap top portable writing apparatus.
  2. Precocious
  3. New thermometer
  4. First to shake people’s hands in political context as an American.
  5. Super aristocratic, very rich.
  6. Perfected the indoor toilet.
  7. Loved ice cream, pasta and wine.
  8. Advocated eating more vegetables and less meat.
  9. Nota soldier, or soldier material
  10. State most identified with, Virginia, home, writings.
  11. He wrote French, Italian and Spanish and could read Greek and Latin.
  12. Secretary of state in Washington’s first administration.
  13. Jefferson owned slaves his whole life.
  14. He denounced slave trade but not ownership.
  15. Wrote 90% of the Declaration of Independence. In the document he advocated to end the slave trade, but the second Continental Congress took it out. His own slaves called him a hypocrite for not freeing them.
  16. Advocated free or for a small fee small-pox inoculations.
  17. Dies on 4 of July, 1826, John Adams dies the same day. People notice. Monroe later died on July the fourth.
  18. Author in a letter, not the constitution, of opinion of freedom of religion. In all fairness, only an autocracy would have stopped the wave of diversity of religion in the colonies.

 

Louisiana Purchase

Jefferson deals with King Charles IV of Spain and Napoleon.

Napoleon needed money, (decided not to go to war in America; probably too far-off - a supply line) because the Haitian islands France occupied witnessed a slave revolt.

 

When French needed to subdue the slaves, they needed climate and inoculation so the soldiers would not get a disease. ( Get used to the environment before war andtakeback the island).

 

Deals spoken to Charles IV in Spain from Napoleon to give him Louisiana for territory in Italy

 

Pay-off Spaniards

Pinky treaty Free navigation.

 

THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

Media Presentations,

Video #1

Summary

 

The Public Broadcasting Company’s video called Amish & US gives us a look into Lancaster County, Pennsylvania of a community of American citizens practicing their right to live spiritually the way they want. The documentary focuses particularly on life in the Amish community and how many of them deal with the changing times. Also, besides contrasting traditional scenes of the Amish, the video touches upon changing attitudes of younger generations to the times and evolving technology. Conversations of remaining traditional hoarse & buggy lifestyle contrasts with non-traditional Amish who own cars, modern stoves and ovens and other modern accoutrements.

However, the more modern Amish still remain committed to Lancaster County.   Highlighted scenes look into discussions of older generations concern for the changing demographics.  When concerned Amish see new expensive construction building, aimed at the general public taking place,  where once fertile land existed, they object to incursion of the outside world. The Community is contrasted between the old world and the new and many talked about futures generations with uncertainty to the survival of the traditions.  The 1.4 Million tourists who come every year have a fascination with people who decided to live out their dream of a simple life. This fascination is seen by the Amish negatively as this creates a struggle for Amish families concerned with contamination to the outside world by these prying tourists. However, to other Amish families, these tourists become a main source of their economy.

Comment

Symbolism, depicted in the cinematography, of the news towns and communities with the modern expensive homes with large lawns contrasts the basic farming lifestyles of the Amish and shows a dichotomy of presentation. This way, the producers could show the disparity between the competing lifestyles in Lancaster county. This effect helps bring the message home that living in freedom one needs to struggle to keep their traditions. This is part of the Amish mystique.

 Not all the Amish want to live without electricity or modern comforts and traditional conflicts within the community itself plays a large role often bringing heated disagreements between generations. Some of the new generations want to be included in family heritage, but do not want to live back in the days before the industrial revolution. American principles often elude too compromise. Can there be a happy medium? Yes - The family shown with the modern stove and range, the telephone at the end of the yard, or the Amish home shopping channel represent compromise. These scenes in the video show that even some of traditionalist’s compromise.   

This video also champions diversity of lifestyle in the American system. A favorable argument the Amish pose in the video becomes a contrast between the stress of the outside modern world which is complex and a stress free simple life. The tourist comes to get a sample of a dream of living a stress free life. There appears a fascination by the amount of traffic that enters Lancaster County every year. The Constitution allows for the freedoms of living how one wants which makes the Amish unique, but more importantly America unique.

 

 

Video #2

Summary

 

The Video Oregon Trail tells of a story of the western migration of American settlers during the era known as ‘Manifest Destiny.’ Settlers looking for land and a better life often journeyed to the West facing difficult circumstances. The video illustrates the challenges to changing climates, difficult land and water travel and all within a short travel season including crowded conditions. The video brings home the message that the trip consisted of a dangerous proposition.

That dangerous proposition was the unknown and this migration began with many leaving their homes by only hearing stories Louis and Clark’s passage and they took a chance at a better life. International treaties and various circumstances factored into reasons many took to the road. Crowded cities, and government offering free land and other’s took too promotions included advertisements for more healthy living.

The video explains the best modes of travel, the mule or the Oxon. Also, the dangers inherent of leaving too early or too late on the long journey and take the viewer though a scenic depiction of the American landscape. Families from Wisconsin, Indiana, Missouri and other places sometimes died. One in ten people died on the trip, but most didn’t complain. In Europe people couldn’t own land and in the West vast frontiers seemed like paradise. The video is not all grim. With the help of tour guides and later travel guides, over 100,000 settlers following the initial First Wagon Train in 1843, began the period of the Great Migration which signified the American spirit of adventure and a new era.

Comment

The video limits its concentration on the background reason for the migration. It only gives a brief summery then begins to explain how one traveled. Two initial migrations began between 1845 and 1847 and part of the reason, other than whishing for a new life, was immigration. Ireland and Germany both had serious tragedies creating a flood of immigrants to America. The cities and towns became pact with new immigrants and space became in an issue. In addition Indians moved to west of the Mississippi by decree further complicating land issues.

 American initially remembered the sea-to-sea grants and believed that all of territory west to them was theirs for the taking. The British agreed to pass on land of Oregon to America. Polk’s inaugural address spoke of claiming Oregon territory. The Democratic Party, citing a lot of these circumstances, promoted the migration because they believed they could prove the dream of Thomas Jefferson with the Yeoman vision.

Europe where most of their families had come from contained little opportunity for upward mobility. The American frontier represented just that and it made the risk a little easier to handle. This allure of upward mobility created such a s strong impression that between 1845 and 1849 during the James K. Polk administration the United States expanded by 50%.1 This represented people had desire for wealth and some new life opportunities which lay at the heart of every pioneer during this era.

1The Enduring Vision: A History of the American People, vol. I, 5th ed. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), 252.

 

 

Video #3

Summary

 

In The American Experience series Roots of Resistance: A story of the Underground Railroad this video offers a viewer a relationship with the inadequacies of a democratic doctrine of equality and showing the plight of the suppressed antebellum slave. Slaves worked to death spoken by scholars, while interviews of people connected to families of slaveholders offered different views. On man’s interview told of how “They looked after the slaves.”

The video shows the dichotomy of remembrance to the period, as the video provides both sides of the story, but one side appears more convincing. Somerset, a famous estate in the south where many slaves toiled resulted from a violent rebellion killing women and children which became felt throughout the nation. Slaves worked six days a week, received whippings and often ran away to be caught and sold into a worse slavery on sugar plantations in the West Indies where life expectancy resulted in a quicker death.

Slaves could not be educated as the slavery institution became a ridged form of bondage. The video does speak upon various free people who went out of their way to help free the slaves. They helped with the black vigilance committees to run the underground mechanisms. In one chilling segment, the video makes a dramatic impact of a recent run away slave that hangs himself by the owner’s collar affixed to his neck. This helped bring the message to a strong point in the video of inhuman treatment by other human beings. The video ends up demonstrating that the slaves were stronger than the Constitution.

Comment

Slave narratives, and trickster tales remained out of main theme of the video. The pig-English the slaves employed offered a language they could speak in front of the Europeans with relative safety of translation. Of paratactic employment included non-gender specific usage confused anyone not schooled in antebellum slave language. This was just one of the survival tactics the salves used to make them feel they had agency. Other methods proved physiological. Slaves survived by telling stories. Good story telling led to oral inventiveness and legitimacy. Although, the video did show songs and sermons used for remembering the past – a type of slave tale in song and preaching.

As far as the Constitution proclaims all men are born equal, the proponents of freedom, the white Europeans, did not follow in their sisters’ footsteps, the English, who had outlawed slavery. The troubling understanding still remains a mystery to me and others as continuously many scholars still write books today trying to understand the reasons for the antebellum slavery in America. How could people like the founding fathers that were placed upon a pedestal in regards to wise and just attributes remain so in the dark about human suffrage? The video alluded to this, but just like the modern scholars of today, we are still trying to figure it out.

 

Video #4

Summary

 

 The video View of Vanishing Frontier tells the story of the Maximillian- Bodmer Expedition in the 19th Century. Prince Maximillian Alexander Philippe of Weid was a German Aristocrat, naturalist, ethnologist and explorer who found and funded Carl Bodmer, a young landscape artist of whom both went on expeditions into the interior of North American continent. Maximillian recorded daily life, rituals and languages of the native Americans in a diary he kept with him; one time braving minus thirty-two degrees weather at a vicious winter north of the Yellow river, so that he could further his own life experience.

Carl Bodmer painted daily all things pertaining to nature and life of the interior which eventually became archived in the Joslyn Art Museum in North America. The video portrays a native America who discovers his roots by using both Maximillians record keeping and Bodmer’s paintings. The narrative in the video accompanies Bodmer’s work as it takes one through the Missouri River Valley, from Saint Louis to Montana, showing all the landscape and people that they encountered along the way.

To demonstrate the veracity of this time capsule, the producers found the landscapes Bodmer painted and overlaid photographs matching the scenery. This gave legitimacy to his brilliance and credibility to his accuracy.  In addition, Maximillian and Bodmer both met Louis and Clark and went on a trade mission with the American Fur Company preserving records of these historical events.

Comment

The video portrayed as a time capsule illustrated how it was possible for the ancestors of these Native American tribes to discover their heritage. The video explains that the ancestor came into contact with these records while at a college and therefore was able to track down the information to study his heritage.

These historical societies and colleges are one of America’s great innovations. For example, in 1791 the First State Historical Society, Boston Massachusetts, formed by literal (elites) types, donated their own books, a colonial history of Massachusetts. These types of institutions permeated each state after an induction into the Union. This allowed the Indian ancestor and others including settlers to find his family past. In 1804 New York Historical Society popped up and by the 1820s Rhode Island, New Jersey, and Maine historical societies began a new social history era by archiving American history.

When Maximillian went home to Germany, he had enough materials sent back to make a large book for prosperity and education. This book found its way back to America and the knowledge of this expedition has become a great source for American frontier history. This is also seen as fortunate, because a small pox epidemic wiped out many tribes before any other record keepers had a chance to record the Native Americans in these regions. 

 

Video #5

Summary

 

The video the U.S. Mexican War produced by the Public Broadcasting System provided a balance outlook on the two sides of the territorial matter often employing analysis from both sides of the argument. The video detailed the events prior to the outbreak of war and continued well after with the significance of the battle timeframe of 1846-1848, in this first of a four-part series, and established a responsible addressing of the complex issues involved.

The video showed war reenactments of battles and skirmishes and other frontier and war related scenes, but one can see this as a limited budget film. To offset financial shortcomings of live reenactment footage, the telling of the story proved superb and was often overlaid with contemporary drawings and paintings accentuating the narrative. In addition, experts from both sides, the Mexican scholarly view and the American scholarly view,  helped to create a clear picture that this war was a complex and confusing mess ― a lack of communication and knowledge persisted throughout the conflicts.  

The video covered the illegal American immigration of Texas, The Alamo which incited Americans and propaganda, all the major wars and themes, and even the pain and suffering from disease, battle and conditions of the soldiers on both sides. One thing that sparked my attention was how well Mexico appeared architectural developed by the time of the war. These depictions were paintings and/or drawings of towns and cities in Mexico shown when the narrator was illustrating the political arguments of the Mexico views.  Another thing I came away with which credits the presentation of the video was a new respect for the Mexican Army and courage.

Comment

The U.S tried to purchase parts of Mexico’s territorial holdings but sentiment and understanding of the ramifications for future significance made them refuse the U.S offer. Mexico had come off a victory against Spain and believed they could defeat the Americans. They also showed pride.  However, the Mexican army consisted of mainly peasants. Also the professional army was hampered by the old European tactics of barrette fighting. They were no match for the Americans.  In the video, one comment describes the surprise to the Mexican Army of the American artillery power as howitzers mowed them down in large numbers.

In 1845, U.S. President James Polk told Congress that the principle of the Monroe Doctrine made the case for the United States to aggressively expand into the West. Many Northern Americans seemed overwhelmed by the South’s support to do anything they pleased. A paradigm shift and a new direction commonly known as Manifest Destiny changed attitudes. This thinking outweighed the older belief of more perfect Union, as described in the Constitution. The Monroe doctrine’s ‘American interest’ phraseology seems a murky principle when we look back at this time. To the Mexican point of view these war decisions were purely conquest in nature. To Americans it was their rightful destiny.

 

Population at Civil War Home

Population of the United States (1860)

New England
State Free Population Slave Population
Connecticut 460, 147 ---
Maine 628,279 ---
Massachusetts 1,231,066 ---
New Hampshire 326,073 ---
Rhode Island 174,620 ---
Vermont 315,098 ---
Middle States
State Free Population Slave Population
New Jersey       672,017 ---
New York 3,880,735 ---
Pennsylvania     2,906,215 ---

Note:  In New Jersey there remained, in addition to the 672,017 free, 18 colored apprentices for life by the act to abolish slavery, passed April 18, 1846.

Middle West
State Free Population Slave Population
Dakota            4,837 ---
Illinois 1,711,951 ---
Indiana 1,350,428 ---
Iowa 674,913 ---
Kansas 107,204 2
Michigan 749,113 ---
Minnesota 172,023 ---
Nebraska 28,826 15
Ohio 2,339,511 ---
Wisconsin 775,881 ---
Far West
States Free Population Slave Population
California 379,994 ---
Colorado 34,277 ---
New Mexico  95,516 ---
Nevada 6,857 ---
Oregon 52,465 ---
Utah 40,244 29
Washington 11,594 ---
Border States
State Free Population Slave Population
Delaware 110,418 1,798
Dist. Columbia 71,895 3,185
Kentucky 930,201 225,483
Maryland 599,860 87,189
Missouri 1,067,081 114,931
Upper South
State Free Population Slave Population
Arkansas 324,335 111,115
North Carolina 661,563 331,099
Tennessee 834,082 275,719
Virginia 1,105,453 490,865
Lower South
State Free Population Slave Population
Alabama 519,121 435,080
Florida 78,679 61,745
Georgia 505,088 462,198
Louisiana 376,276 331,726
Mississippi 354,674 436,631
South Carolina 301,302 402,406
Texas 421,649 182,566
Total 1860 Population
Total Free Population 27,489,561
Total Slave Population 3,953,760
Grand Total 31,443,321

 

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