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The Writing of History

By Michael Johnathan McDonald

The Writing of History: (some) Notes, RI, UC Berkeley, Spring 06

 

Final "partial" Preparation Notes: Lower Division History at The University of California, Berkeley.

Structure of the writing

Major divisions?

Time

1. Define the time.

2. What is the apparatus of time?

3.

 

Space

1. Define the physical boundaries: Geography, Climate

2. Define the mental boundaries:

3. (See below)

 

Issues

Causation

1. What is the apparatus of causation?

2.

3.

 

Challenge

1. Can things/limits be overcome?

2. What is the apparatus of challenge?

3. How do things change for     “    X   ”.

 

Is it Social Science or Humanities?

  1. SC is work that looks at morals, and ethics.

  2. Humanities are works of basic history and broad arguments.

 

Monographic credentials

  1. does the work translate into a  foreign language; is it assessable to foreigners? Is it for a wide audience or for a particular scholastic  crowd.

 

 

 

Herodotus: First to begin to define the historian’s role.

  1. Gather evidence.

  2. Interrogate that evidence

  3. Interpret that evidence.

  4. Reveal its meaning.

  5. Be the judge of the material

 

 

Personal Narratives:

Gossamer, and Augustine.

 

 

Prose: Your artistic style introduced to the writ.

Ssu-ma Ch’ien, and Herodotus. Homer wrote in poetry.

 

 

Augustine, Gossamer (Interior studies)

 

Augustine searching for telos.

 

Herodotus, can people change? The interior argument of Herodotus concerned the inner transformation of a society.

 

 

Ssu-ma Ch’ien, The cyclic history and the distance from the Buddha, The society awaits a new bodhisattva or a new Buddha.

 

 

Final Question: Comparisons between Augustine and Gossamer?

  1. Comparison in relationships: Augustine, Distance of the person to God.

  2. The universality: Augustine applies to everyone; Gossamer applies to noblewomen.

 

Gossamer: Specific time and place makes up the importance of the writing.

  1. Time: Chronological.

  2. Mental Space: Interior self.

  3. Teleos: change the inner self.

  4. Arguments: Vanity and ambition, boneheadness of leaders.

  5.  

 

 

 

 

Augustine: Non- Specific time and place makes up the importance of the theme of telos.

  1. Time: Teleological.

  2. Mental Space: Interior self.

  3. History as anti-history.

  4. Focus upon mundane.

  5. Focus on miserable self.

 

 

 

Truth claims:

 

Gossamer: The truths are the archives in these quotation marks. Gossamer wrote partly for archives and partly for the audience.

 

History as

  1. An examination of the state of mind.

  2. No history

  3. Anti-history (What is this good for?)

 

 

Analysis: How to write history.

 

  • Name the methodology?
    1. Name the way the author used his sources or come about his or her information.
    2. Using oral
    3. Texts
    4. Cause and effect
    5. Personal observance
    6. Comparisons
    7.  
  • Answer the question how and why?

1.     Why did the writer chose these ways?

2.     How did the writer do it?

 

Personal History

 

  • Problems with personal history are many. One needs to look at the documentation.

 

Guicciardini The History of Florence

 

Personal profile

  • He was wealthy, landed, literate and from a powerful political family. At the age 30 he became the Ambassador of Florence to Spain.
  • Wrote in Italian, and not in Latin breaking a long tradition of scholarship. This is a new direction for scholarship.
  • Break with humanistic and universal searching.
  • Believes Universal investigation is bunk. Actually he has contempt for universal virtue.
  • Private interests is all he is concerned with investigating about the human condition.
  • Leaves out classical references and uses less adverbs and adjectives. A more direct style of prose – strait to the point.

What he wrote

  1. How states come to war.
  2. The Medici’s power.
  3. Republican Italian constitutionalism
  4. Petty arguments and grudge matches
  5. Quarrels with Milan, the alliance of Milanese, Venations with France.
  6. Alliance of Medici, Naples with Spain and Florence.
  7. The land deals that started the Italian wars.
  8. Election processes in detail.
  9. He is enormously sympathetic to the Republic.
  10. Medici supporters voting tactics and rebellion – the conspiracy of the outs
  11. The ‘outs’ were all the citizens not on the side of Girolamo Savonarola.
  12. New novice elected officials with good intentions, but scared of dirty-hard politics made them weak rulers.
  13. Hates the mob that was connected with capitalistic tendencies. This does go against republican forms of economics. That is to say free market.
  14. Concludes that too much outside political pressure delayed  Italy from ever uniting as one single unit.
  15. Five major principalities war with each other, but the wars were slow and few casualties. Blames the land-deals of the son of the Pope which brought in Charles VIII’s armies to Italy.
  16. Consequences to his message: He likes republicanism, but eventually sides with a leader that was appointed for life, negating his own values. Note that in the end he believes ethics, values and morality are useless. This is a nihilistic conclusion.
  17. Future must be a united Italy, a pre-nationalistic stance, and the unity never happened.

 

How and why he wrote. His strategies.

  1. To show the problems of his time, but not to offer any solutions.
  2. Hope is the only summery of his thoughts.
  3. His narrative is used as his proof. His claims emerge though the story telling itself. He embeds the claim within the narrative, telling the histories to prove his points. Therefore the story itself is a set of truth claims.

 

Likes and dislikes

  1. Tortured feeling about Lorenzo
  2. Lorenzo made prosperity and peace, but was tyrannical in Guicciardini’s eyes.
  3. Dislikes Piero di Lorenzo.
  4. Loves Constitutional rule. Guicciardini obsessed with the contemporary form of Republicanism in Italy. Not a form like the US at all.
  5. Loves Girolamo Savonarola..
  6. Machiavelli and Guicciardini have similar outlooks.
  7. Dislikes grudge politics in response to insults.
  8. With Charles VIII came a flame and a plague, he implies.

 

Cynical messages.

  1. Be content with what you have.
  2. Don’t try to rock the political boat.
  3. Don’t be roused to action
  4. If you entertain action, be prepared to lose everything.
  5. Better to run away than stay if you rock the political boat.

 

His message is only of personal hope.

 

  1. Election process a positive development
  2. Structure to politics and form to politics matters
  3. Still he struggles to grip the reality that under Lorenzo peace and prosperity was achieved, but under the constitutional rule,when the Medicic was banned and his hero Savonarola  ruled as almost a dictator for four years in Florence, there was no peace or prosperity.
  4. Guicciardini could not see any bad in Savonarola. Sees him as a wise man and a savior.
  5. Follow constitution.

 

 

Guicciardini: Theme

    1. Ethics and morality are useless
    2. Everything is partisan, interests rule
    3. Base matters of interest is reality.
    4. Machiavelli and Guicciardini have similar outlooks.
    5. Things do not change.

 

 

 

Monograph Standards Rules

    1. Identify the major arguments & evidence.
    2. Evaluate argument.
    3. Is the evidence efficient and appropriate?
    4. A point of view.

 

Apparatus

5.     Identify Forms in the writing?

6.     Evidence & Identify

7.     Quantitative evidence

 

Evaluate the Argument

  1. Are there major terms

  2. Class Struggle?

  3. Are there laws, reforms and Bills?

  4.  

 

 

 

Karl Marx.

 

Time.

  1. Dialectical

  2. Dichotomy

  3. Teleological

Three time periods for Marx in Capitalist.

Dichotomist: The modern world verses pre-modern world.

Dialectical. One thing  creates the forces to destroy the next ( r the old system).

 

Teleological: History is moving forward to an end.

 

 

Space: Most concerned with Pre- modern Europe.

 

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/commandingheights/shared/minitext/ess_marxsanalysis.html

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dialectical_materialism

 

Apparatus of Structure

  1. Superstructure is no necessary: Art, entertainment, government, nobles

  2. Structure: Basic things to live: Economic, family.

 

Aristocracy / Bourgeoisie / Proletariat

Mission? Destroy the middle class.?

 

1. Utopia: Aristocracy /Proletariat.

2. Truth claim: The Bourgeoisie will be destroyed.

 

Form

  1. What drives the laws of historical change?

  2. Marx’s form concerns us in who owns the people.

 

Topic

  1. Materialism.

  2. First person to talk about labor laws.

 

 

 

 

Thomas C. Cochran

“ The Presidential Synthesis in American History,” The American historical Review, Vol 53, No 4( July 1948), 748-59.

 

 

Old History must be abolished.

    1. Periodization of presidents and watershed events must be replaced by economic individuals that create history, J.P. Morgan, Rockefellers.

    2.  
    3. Was anti-American.

 

1.     Why Cochren says US never cares about the little guy was that America never went through a period of feudalism and class warfare, the major problem was freedom for everyone issue. This bothered him immensely. He was a social Marxist, but bent on blame anyone who didn’t think as he does, which in history means you are incorrect. No one knows history, because history is always changing in regards to new information of the past of past information unavailable to a recording process, and to a lesser extent manipulation to personal viewpoints.

2.     Why? He said there was no major conflict in American history, and class struggle never took place. Some say he was kooky.

 

3.     No man can have a metaphor for a period in history, he argues.

 

4.     J.P. Morgan is more important in history than the 600.000 who died in the Civil War and the abolishment of slavery in America. What is important to history is business.

5.      

 

 

General History writing.

 

 

Consensus history

 

1.     Consensus history is big in the United States in the 1950s, and Cochran complains that everyone agrees with freedom and liberalism ( The European enlightenment form) and this is the big problem with America.

2.     everyone agrees ( in America)  and this is not good at all.

 

 

Fernand Braudel

The Mediterranean: and the Mediterranean World in the Age of Philip II

Finished work in the 50s, but translated into English in 1972, so his historical process doesn’t catch on till this period.

Mediterranean History

  1. Time: quadrilateral

 

  1. Three times.

    1. Structural geography, decades to centuries.

    2. Social, economic, months to years.

    3. Individual is the froth on the timeline, days to weeks to months.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Collaboration is his hope, but of course, him as the boss.

  2. Periodization, is determined by what you are writing about. You, the individual would name the period, and not rely on what others have concluded.

    1. Periodization should be recognized as arbitrary.

    2. Periodization is dependant on the central focus you pick to write upon.

 

  1. Space: Geography,  boundaries: Sahara desert and Atlantic Ocean. 

  2. Monograph: When a work’s title has a colon added on. A focus.

  3. Issues: Causation, challenges ( limitations).

  4. Quantitative forms.

  5. Evidence: Gather all the evidence one can get their hands on.

  6. Took much of this persons’ life.

  7. Distance: He is distant for this world but he loves the topic.

  8. This work began as an dissertation on Philip II’s Mediterranean Policy, 1923.

Time: quadrilateral

  1. Structure of time is what matters

  2. Time of individual doesn’t matter. But does contradict himself once in a while.

  3. Social, economic and political ( power) move in linear time as a ¼ % of the quadrilateral form.

 

Comparisons:

  1. Cochran, pay attention to social science; economic history brings people together.

  2. Braudel, pay attention to physical science

 

  1. Cochran, economic history brings people together.

  2. Marx, economic history brings people together.

  3. E. P. Thomson, cultural history brings people together.

 

E. P. Thomson

Karl Marx

Neo-Marxist

Just Karl, not a Marxist

 

social history – all aspects

religion,

politics,

tribal,

regional,

ethnicity,

daily rituals,

 

economic history- Only

 

Cultural Marxism

 

 

Thomson had influence on Levine.

1.     point one.

2.     Point two.

Final: Comparison Deep reality vs. Superficial

 

Braudel

 

 

Structure

Conjecture

 

Pattern,

Massive forces of history,

Deep reality, →

Chance followed by events

Individual time

Deep reality is a consequence of structure.

 

 

Conjecture is a function/reality of structure

 

What is the difference between structure of Marx and Braudel?

Material Structure

Material is geography

Material is economy

 

 

General Structure

Three levels of Time

Superstructure

Time is geographical structure

Structure

Production Structure

Mode of production, climate, geography

Geography can be include here in mode of production, if defined this way. ( The insane - GSI Bin Le)

Question?

What benefit comes from cause and effect?

Ans: We want to know the reality?

In writing an essay, each paragraph should have a new thing to relate to the subject ( Chinese, GSI Bin Lee).

Final Question?

What are the two functions of history?

Lawrence W. Levine, “The Meaning of Slave Tales: African American Folk Thought from Slavery to Freedom”

Lawrence W. Levine, Black Culture and Black Consciousness: Afro-American Folk Thought from Slavery to Freedom, (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997).

This is a Snapshot of history.

Topics: Slave Tales.

  1. Levine: Black’s totally devoid of cosmological myths and the attempts to render factual accounts of all nature and divine phenomena. The closet slaves came to myths were their creation legends.

  2. Typical creation myths have God begin his creation with the black man. One creation myth cited by Harden E. Traliaferro, recalled the teachings of Charles Gentry, a black slave preacher he had known in the rural North Carolina country which he grew up in the 1820s. This indicates a racial ethnocentrism as the black man, after killing Abel, is marked with a white birthmark and is subjected to the white man as punishment. The result is that blacks kept their distance form the white man and saw the white man as “degenerate from the black” (Levine 85).

  3. Stereotype accusation by Levine of Joel Chandler  Harris ( adventures of Brer Rabbit).

  4. Mary Kinsley, traveling to South Africa 1890s, interviewing children concludes “ the result of training direct on the African mind.” (Levine 85).

  5. Accusation by Levine of Joel Chandler Harris: He exaggerated the importance of ‘slave animal trickster tales’ over ‘folklore,’ of antebellum black culture.

  6. Richard F. Burton: Blacks “ were the recipients of the same European racial myth” (Levine 84).

  7. Richard Dorson: American negroes ( and Whites) Shared, family  history, personal experiences,  local traditions masked as folklore. He was referring to 1876 South Carolina  resident Henry W. Ravenel, who recorded his childhood recollections.

  8. “African-born slaves were associated with conjure and magical powers as exemplified in the frequently told stories of   Africans who put up with the treatment according to them by whites in America as long as they could and then simply rose up and flew back to Africa” ( Levine 87).

  9. Tales of stories of their condition and their reaction to it.

  10. Black tales of distain for G. Washington, and Andrew Jackson.

  11. Some black tales about the heroics of Abraham Lincoln plight to make the backs freemen as on equal with the whites.

  12. Good story telling led to oral inventiveness and legitimacy. “ there narratives were interlarded with chants, mimicry, rhymes, and songs” ( Levine 90).  

  13. Songs and  sermons used for remembering the past – a type of slave tale in song and preaching.

 

Slave tales on Morality and Survival. The didactic method. The trickster tale.

  1. Morality in the tales.

  2. Sacred world.

  3. Used for didactic purposes.  – only for morality, and not technicality. Slaves told explanatory tales. Much on the functionality of Animals and how these related to them, but only on the peripheral, and not central to the slave tales. “They do not teach how to make a thing, but how to act, how to live” ( Levine 91).

  4. Morality tales taught children proper manners.

  5. Importance of Parental love told in a metaphor tale of and old bull frog.

  6. Immorality of animal mating habits, including tales on morality of jealously, envy and ingratitude. Not faithful in marriage, murder for gain, murder for marital reasons.

  7. Animals turn themselves into Humans. Animism.

  8. Eternal power and justice oppose the temporal white master in these religious beliefs in the tales.

  9. Paul Radin, writing on Africa “ has argued: ‘ in the main, little romanticism is found in African myths and definitely no sentimentality. It is emphatically not a literature in which wish-fulfillment plays a great role, not one where we can assume that the hero will triumph at the end or that wrongs will always be righted’” ( Levine 99).

  10. Used for proper living and righteous living. Usually the tale is about a black who meets a talking animal, wants to show it to his master, when the master arrives the master warns the black not to lie, and the animal stays mute and the slave is beaten, but upon returning to the animal it returns to speaking mode.

  11. Why is it hard to know these secretive folk tales? Blacks to not offer them voluntarily to people outside of themselves and the fact that Black aphorism are too complicated to teach someone not raised in these teachings to be worth the bother. These tales were taught out of necessity for reticence and caution.

  12. The most important single mechanism produced by antebellum blacks to create frustration among the whites and enhance survival among themselves was their cycle of trickster tales” (Levine 101).

Section on American slaves and freeborn referring to their African roots.

Antebellum Blacks incorporate hope and faith as strategies for survival and maintenance ( against the slavemasters, and European people).

 

 “Some go up and Some go Down”: The Animal Trickster

  1. Most numerous slave tales are animal tricksters.

  2. There paradigmic natures are for a protest or physiological release. Most easily to relate with toward an outside group.

  3. Why do they do it? Repression is unhealthy. Laughing is good for an individual and a group.

  4. A paradigm here is contrasted to an anecdote.

  5. In African animals did not dominate the trickster position, it could also be of divine or human form.

  6.  Human tricksters played a big part in African-American slavery tales.

  7. The animals were weak, “but retained their power through native whit and guile, rather than power or authority” ( Levine 102).

  8. Animal transformation almost thoroughly humanized.

  9. Focus of the criticism of the tales upon the  ingrained and cultural sanctioned values.

  10. Flying African myths strategies played the only significant role propr to the emancipation. After tales of exaggeration began of the individual and his importance.

  11. In Africa tricksters remain the focus upon individuals with authority and power. In America, the whites were in power. 

  12. European , or white tales, did cross over into the African-Americans after the emancipation.

  13. The trickster tale consists of a confrontation in which the weak use their wits to evade the strong” (Levine 106).

  14. This is self-preservation strategy.

  15. The Brer Rabbit tale “makes it clear that what the Rabbit craves is not possession but power, and this he acquires not simply by obtaining food but by obtaining it through the manipulation and depravation of others. It is not often that he meets his match, and generally at the hands of an animal as weak as himself” ( Levine 109-110).

  16. “The Rabbit, like the slaves who wrote tales about him, was forced to make do with what he had” ( Levine 112).

  17. The whit is the limitation of the slave and this is why animal trickster tales are taught. These are lessons on strategy to overcome their circumstances.

  18. These tales run counter to the morality tales. These are tales on taught survival strategies.

  19. The tales relive guilt of living amoral.

  20. Motive force to improve the situation. Often rewards from his master if a black person becomes smart and loyal. Loyal in the sense of survival.

 

 

The Slave and the Trickster

1. “’Slaves have their code of honor, and their tricks of the trade,’ the Reverend John Dixon Long wrote in 1857” ( Levine 121).

Levine treats her sources carefully and presents them to the reader with long quotes or long passages backing up his analysis. This gives the reader a comfort level in reading from the first source him or herself while reading the analysis of Levine. In the   animal trickster section Levine illustrates his claims with many examples of dialogue from the tales letting the examples speak for themselves. One example is the Brer Rabbit structure of strategies and aims. He answers why these tales are important. They are for their human needs. This is in fact their self-preservation strategy. Then he makes a some comments upon them which conclude his analysis of why they are important. The whit is the limitation of the African –American slave and this is why animal trickster tales are taught. These are lessons on strategy to overcome their limitations, according to Levine’s analysis of the Animal trickster tales. They teach all the lessons of survival. These were not merely protest tales.

 

Fernand Braudel speaks upon the limitations created by the climate with the illustrations of the difficulty of sailing and warfare during the winter months of the Mediterranean ocean.

Agency: the ability, or active power, to make your own history.

Working with Prime Sources?

Dealing with evidence

 

Three main things to look for in sources:

1.    A speaker is speaking to whom?

2.    Language choice.

3.    Justification and the framing of these words.

  1. Always want to know why this evidence exists? Who kept it and why?
  2. Does this form have correction or hand written inclusions?
  3. Who is the author and who is the addressee?
  4. What are the vocabulary choices?
  5. Context and Justification – is there a moral justification – does the author have values and to what appeal if the document or prime source does in deed have values?

How to read laws

  1. Look at the Origins and Consequences.
  2. Laws tell one what is going on in a society.
  3. Read them carefully.
  4. Laws are complicated sources and they tell you something.

How laws are arranged.

  1. Session Laws ( Ordered by passage of the law), these are all laws passed by legislation, in published books, and ordered by passage.
  2. Code (Ordered by subject), all laws that are currently enforced at any particular moment in time.

How is one what in which history changes?

  1. New archives are discovered making possible a brand new source.
  2. Changing times leads historians to ask brand new questions- out interest as historians change over time.

 

Japanese Constitutions.

1886:

 

Emperors authority, and establishment of a bicameral parliament, the national Diet.

1946

  1. Americans write their constitution in a very short period. Section II, article 9 calls for the end of their military.
  2. Emperor is weakened and we the people is a theme mirroring the U.S.A. constitution. The formation of a Supreme Court.

Space

Space is a very important element in history.

Small spaces can symbolize large movements and have a big significance.

  1. A symbolic meaning,
  2. A concrete meaning,
  3. A base meaning for a boundary,
  4. An emotional boundary connected to a physical reality,
  5. A stature can be symbolic of space and time, an idea, a cause, a history,
  6. A space can have monetary value,
  7. A space can have a distant meaning and not connected to local physiology,
  8. A space can have more than one meaning,
  9. A space can have a conflict of ownership, of interest, of normality,
  10. A space can be public or private,
  11. A space can have different demographic symbolism,
  12. A space can be international, regional, or national,
  13. A space and usually did when found by someone could be claimed and thus became important where if the place was never found it otherwise was left unknown and therefore, had little significance.

Possible question  asked for a historian about a building? Why is a building there and how did it survive?

Social Science and Humanities

There is a difference in the titles of Social Science and Humanities departments (or fields). History is usually a traditional humanities field and I believe classified as such at UCB. Correct me if I’m wrong. But lets say, History as a Social Science department, is operating in the US schools. For example, Chicago University’s history department is classified in L&S to be a department of Social Science.  Therefore, the goal is to write history with the intension of activism, focusing on morality and ethics. This little fact was related to us from a UBC professor that attended the school in the history department. The concern for a UCB Classification of history being in the department of humanities is significant, because writing history implies just telling the facts without your opinions, bias, or concern for ethics and morality.

 

Census: A Quantitative Study on the American Population.

 

Power  & Money

 

The Politics of Accountability was all for Appointment

 

 

Called Enumeration in the Constitution , act,1, 2, cl, 3 (“ three – fifth clause”).

 

Amended after the Civil war, in the 14th  Amend. Sec. 2. , to get rid of 3/5 law on blacks.

 

 

Census data is collected, created and categorized.

 

 

Census main points:

  1. Race
  2. Appointment
  3. Distribution on wealth (Feds, grant money: Revenue Sharing, Grants in Aid).

 

Why do we have a census?

  • Appointments
  • Other social & economic distribution.

 

Issues:

Undercount

Mis reporting

Differentials in race, Discrimination

 

 

 

Almanacs get their information from the Census, not the other way around.

They are a primary source, at least the manuscripts. The Manuscripts are the lists.

Polls are like little census data’s.

1790, Census Begun.

 

Household date, only White, Black ( Slave) and Indian are asked for. Reason , growth and change.

 

Questions: Sex, Age and Freeborn ( Only family name is used as the household head).

 

Household count is the major theme, and not individual yet.

 

1800

 

1810

 

1812 Redistricting, reapportionment in a Massachusetts district looking like a dragon or a snake begins something that was not illegal, but was against the working in the Constitution.

 

1820

 

1830

 

1840 Same type of census that was begun in 1790, but more questions. This one asked how many households had idiots or insane people and mis-reporting, confusion skewed the results. A serious effort was to find out the discrepancies as northern African American reports on this question recorded a number of 1/162 people were idiots or insane. This was huge number compared to the southern African American which recorded 1/1558. While over all 1/971 of white recorded they were idiots, this really was a disaster. The southerners claimed that the reason Blacks were dis-portionally insane and idiots in the north was because freedom made them that way. This census was confusing and had too many questions. After the in-depth study, the reporting was deemed mostly inaccurate, as many old white women called themselves idiots anyway, and many whites filled in the spaces for idiots in the black spaces. This was found out by tedious investigation into the households themselves to see if actual a black person lived there in which case of the northern census figures were false.

 

1850

1860

1870 Civil war, and census programs for funds begun.

1880

1890

1900

1910

 

1920 First to announce a majority in urban residence over rural, defined as anything greater then 2500 persons.

 

Also Cap is placed on Representatives as a restriction and created the zero-sum game. ( I think this was terribley wrong). It takes the 1/30,000 ratio of representation out of the Constitution.

 

1930 Redistricting:  a structural deal is initiated, and old language of the Constitution is dropped for for new redistricting initiative. ( I also think this was a bad idea). It takes two key words out of the details. Compact and continuous are deleted. Originally, the terms set for districts were defined as Compact, continuous, and have pretty must the same population. Now districts are un-uniform and variable populations. This means some representatives get more people and therefore, more power. For example, in 1960 the urban population isseven times that of the amount of the rural population.

 

 

1940

 

1950

 

1960 First time census is primarily conducted by mail. People must now make their won decisions when filling it out. Civil rights created a drive for anti-discrimination laws because the census was deemed the only serious data for important studies.

 

 

 

1962 Gerrymandering - Redistricting: Court case called Bakker vs. Carr, about a Shelby County, Memphis, Tennessee population and representation issue, to state legislation for a intervention for a reapportionment. Shelby had increased ten-fold in population.  First Supreme Court acceptance and ruling for a redistricting, now common. Now courts are used for appointments. ( This is not democracy; judges have more power now).

 

Redistricting are maps drawn now so that legislators stay in office by catering to their constituency. In the Constitution wording actually stopped this but man changed this implying Democracy is not the problem and does work it is man that wreaks it.

 

1970

 

 

1980

 

 

1990

 

 

2000

 

 

Newspapers

 

18th Printer

19th Editor

20th Publisher

 

 

Government contracts to Newspapers

 

US 19th century – winning party gets contract. Usually free paper but ask for donations – party-line and official record keeping ( Good source)

 

 

 

Print Culture

 

Movement from manuscript to circulation

From hand coping to printing presses

The rise of mass produced printed material

 

  • Opposed to hand written and expensive material

 

 

1)     Primary sources

2)     Topics: Definitions, variations and enabling conditions.

 

 

 

 

 

 

enabling conditions: affordable, and widly avaible

variations: many tracts, pocketbooks, religious homilies.

 

 

 

 

Index beginnings

LA Times 1873

Chicago 1872

Lexus Nexus

 1980

New York Times

1851

 

Qualification for PC.

 

Enabling conditions

Publicness ( Begins with the over through of peasant title (serf) serfdom in the middle ages and its name comes from the period of the French Revolution.

 

  1. sphere of enquire
  2. access to information
  3. aspects of consumption

 

What people think

 

Interference

  1. Law
  2. Ownership/ interest
  3. Financing/ planning finances
  4. Influences- the leaking the investigators
  5. Editorial organization
  6. Authorial voice of the individual writers

 

Topics of balance

 

 

Attitude

Opinion

 

Japan woodblook type print culture begins in 1600s

Guttenberg Press in Europe begins around 1590s

Many people used the Hew York Time to get general information on dates that related to the country’s mood, social shits and other important data for strategies to correlate dates for historical research. New York Times had the oldest index at 1851.

Newspapers beginnings.

Japan 1600s – woodblock
Gutenberg press – 1455, European press. ( 16th Century the first press in Palestine for the ottoman empire. Later a Gift from England to the Diwan at Istanbul ( Queen Elizabeth) , a printing press as a gift to the Sultan.

Crucial primary sources why?



1. Appear regularly
2. Many topics
3. Big metropolitan papers to local papers.

Article limitations

1. Preserved or not
2. Presented to us in libraries or archives

 

  • Japan woodblook type print culture begins in 1600s

  • Guttenberg Press in Europe begins around 1590s




    18th Printer
    19th Editor
    20th Publisher

 

 

Ephemeral ( Not meant to last)

Economic interests
Advertising
Primers to educate public to better levels of literacy
Needs a free market to operate.
 

 

Many people used the Hew York Time to get general information on dates that related to the country’s mood, social shits and other important data for strategies to correlate dates for historical research. New York Times had the oldest index at 1851.

Newspapers beginnings.

Japan 1600s – woodblock
Gutenberg press – 1455, European press. ( 16th Century the first press in Palestine for the ottoman empire. Later a Gift from England to the Diwan at Istanbul ( Queen Elizabeth) , a printing press as a gift to the Sultan.

Crucial primary sources why?

 

 

US Printing begun in small shops

 

 

 

18th Printer Era

 

 

 

 

 

United States Newspapers

 

  1. US Printing begun in small shops.
  2. 1674 The London Gazette
  3. Quite Dull, Says Professor, Robin Einhorn.
  4. clipping becomes a crucial step in early newspapers.
  5. Smaller towns take news from larger ones, sometimes weeks later.
  6. Main patronage in the early days.
  7. Colonial times, Publications will say Published by Authority. This means the state of that country, or sometimes in England’s case to the colonists, broadcasts their authority that this is legitimate text from legitimate source, usually the king’s publishers’ and his own authority.
  8. by authority meant paid by the ruler.
  9. What did they control? Most official documents, various older documents, copies (clippings) from other sources they deem of importance – usually European news.
  10. The Printer is filling and not writing or has a staff – this is generalized statement.
  11. Pamphlets, and letters published back and forth and many writers use pseudonyms for safety.
  12. first papers consisted of two pages folded into two sections to make up four pages of text. Page 1, and 4 were older material and made up the front and back. This means that pages 2, and 3 made up the more recent headlines as this page was printed last.
  13. Printers were for serving the elite at first.
  14. This is called partisan papers and was the first form of papers as printing and staff, and supplies was a huge investment and needed serious funding from somewhere, and usually the king’s government awarded contracts and supplied the means for publishing. This was the very early times. There are many exceptions, such as Italy’s private presses that owned printing machines and were  entrepreneurs, but they usually printed Latin Index books and other text-books.
  15. 1755 Rivinngton’s opposed the revolution. This meant now no authority labeling on the paper. This ruined his carrer ( a tory paper).
  16. Pseudonyms: Tomas Paine was common sense. And the most famous.
  17. Paper’s political reach can be illustrated with the publishing of the Declaration of Independence.  ( later Watergate with the Plymouth of the penny paper).
  18. This meant broad audience.
  19. The revolution era was basically political discourse, in a broader sense than the prior colonial authority papers.
  20. The pseudonymous’ Federalist Papers, needed to be analyzed to reveal their authors, Alex Hamilton and James Madison and two others. It took a computer analysis to identify all the calligraphy styles of the gentlemen and who was Hamilton and who was Madison.
  21. These were essays to a public newspaper.
  22. 1790s: Filled with gossip, partisanship and hit pieces.
  23. There were no libel laws as there was in England to stop flagrant lies. One was George Washington was a spy and operative for the British Government.  
  24. The Pennsylvania Aurora was a Jefferson pro-editor paper that attacked Washington.
  25. Attacks eventually made the Seditious Acts, in which people went to jail.

 

 

 

 

 Printing Contracts

  1. Awarded to the winning party after the election.
  2. These were free publications, but asked for a donation.
  3. Now the role of the editor becomes significant.
  4. One Jefferson Newspaper was called the Massachusetts Spy.
  5. This had front page advertisement, meaning that it was not a private paper.
  6. Private papers went only now to the party and these were still  called partisan papers. They were open to all parties but the winning party controlled the contract.
  7. Papers at this time had no headlines as of yet. Otherwise the  datelines were called sections to show the audience where the newspaper received their news from.
  8. Main these was there was no differentiation at all.
  9. These are excellent sources for partisan politics.
  10. We can make assumptions to patterns, and to selling habits of the people at this time.

 

 

19th Editor Era

 

The Editor Era

Partisan papers will meet the Penny Papers

Penny papers were public funded papers and had no direct government or party oversight.

These were called the penny presses.

There funding was from advertisement, and the people’s subscriptions.

The Partisan papers remained free at this time.

 

 

 Printing Contracts

  1. Awarded to the winning party after the election.
  2. These were free publications, but asked for a donation.
  3. Now the role of the editor becomes significant.
  4. One Jefferson Newspaper was called the Massachusetts Spy.
  5. This had front page advertisement, meaning that it was not a private paper.
  6. Private papers went only now to the party and these were still  called partisan papers. They were open to all parties but the winning party controlled the contract.
  7. Papers at this time had no headlines as of yet. Otherwise the  datelines were called sections to show the audience where the newspaper received their news from.
  8. Main these was there was no differentiation at all.
  9. These are excellent sources for partisan politics.
  10. We can make assumptions to patterns, and to selling habits of the people at this time.

 

 

The Editor Era

Partisan papers will meet the Penny Papers

Penny papers were public funded papers and had no direct government or party oversight.

These were called the penny presses.

There funding was from advertisement, and the people’s subscriptions.

The Partisan papers remained free at this time.

 

 

Penny Paper Age

 

  1. Funding is public and by advertising

  2. This produces a widely different type of newspaper

  3. Phenomenon of the big cities

  4. Over the long term will become the most influential

  5. 1834 The New York Sun

  6. Not particularly political. Political neutrality

  7. People shared these papers

  8. Mission to decentralize and make local news an influence in paper

  9. Filled with gossip, murder, rape and sex stories/reporting.

  10. These sold papers and this was vital for the freemarket in the beginning

  11. [ so gossip over political has a dire affect on the people understanding how to run and be involved in democracy]

 

Murder stories could be broadcast to other newspapers enveloping towns and multiple cities. This is the first notion of the national local story that has become so commonplace in our society. For example, New York to Chicago will run a story that is like a soap opera – with many episodes.

 

 

Baltimore Sun began to charge one cent in 1837.

  1. This paper sold differently then the rest. It now had a headline and hawked things and had a new body look to the paper. People bought one copy at a time. Included was salacious material and this meant a circulation meant money. Next they attacked advertising and more people bought it looking for deals and just information of what was being sold locally.
  2. US still did not have strong libel laws.
  3. Covered bordellos, scandals and seven column out of twenty columns involved these types of salacious and gossip columns.
  4. When this paper took off people asked how many really were buying the paper, and thus the advertisement (1869)  industry was born. They sent out people to observe the local news boy, also a penny paper phenomenon to see how many people bought the paper.

 

 

1890 A yellow kid in a cartoon ( Pulitzer) became the term for Yellow Journalism.

Now headlines are on all the penny newspapers and remain today.

This meant a Big Picture and differentiation. One item is given more weight than the next. This was the world of Pulitzer and is the same today.

 

Apocrypha papers of there time. The movement of product was staggering, 1,250,000 moved per day. Death and sex and salacious material sold.

 

Partisan Papers: The Political Papers

 

  1. They are the first papers

  2. They are owned and controlled

  3. They did not have advertisement as part of the national fund paid for their upkeep and delivery( and costs).

  4. Funded by political parties.

  5. Printers were replaced by editors who hired staff and/or actually wrote themselves and not coping clippings. However, there still was clippings going on from stories all over the world.

  6. What were they about. About covering rallies and politics.

  7. The two main parties the Whigs and the Democrats reported contrary things and views to events and data.

  8. Big subsidies form the post office who delivered the newspaper for almost nothing compared to the regular mail. Charged large transmission for letters, but a little charge for newspapers and newspapers were 90% of the mail. Only raised about 1/9 of the Postal revenue.

  9. They moved many copies.

  10. Political communication [Necessary for a democracy].

  11. Political parties pay for the  processes of putting the entire news operation together. The Printing contract worked at all levels, country, state and federal.

  12. The awarded might donate the entire page to the party stuff.

  13. Always the first thing after a party wins an election they decided who will get the Printing Contract.

  14. Still at this time the paper is only four/ double-sided pages.

  15. International paper dates not recognizes ( Stealing or plagiarism going on – not law yet).

  16. Editor gets left-side of page two argue partyline.

  17. 1831 First year of The Liberator. Garrison, anti-nationalist shows horse-market with slaves to be sold.

  18. Abolitionist papers sprouted up after the Civil War. The North Star’s motto, “Truth is of no color.”

  19. Now getting classes of newspapers, showing differentiation.

  20. The Whigs and Democrat papers start showing differentiation.

  21. Penny papers were not famous at first.

 

 

 

20th Publisher Era

 

 

Publisher

 

Sift in Financing – Commerce & Industry

Shift – Rise of the Publisher.

 

 

Publisher Era: "Effective in what is a newspaper", Einhorn says.

‘I do not want to alienate politicians’ publishers say to themselves.

But they get a superior tone to the politicians, Einhorn says. I totally agree.

 

  1. The Should We[s]

 

  1. The Papers begin to ask stuff and the publics and politicians follow. Should we abolish banks? For a short time some states did in fact.

 

 

  1. Telegraph creates a big deal leading into a big collaborative business. This means the Associated Press AP, were paper companies that gathered together to finance the costs of the telegraph reports which were expensive. Now current news of less than a week was possible.

 

  1. 1848 – Cartel of the Newspapers shared costs of wire reports, and the AP was born.

 

 

  1. Wood and pulp paper replaced rags for the medium to scribble on. 
  2. 1880s, Linotype was now a serious printing technique and cost a lot of money. This meant that the big publishers could only afford it. There were entrepreneurs with large amounts of cash and business sense.
  3. Picture reproduction after WWI became advanced in technology and the advertisement agencies found out more pictures ( although expensive to reproduce) moved more copies. Therefore, the Sunday extravaganza paper was born, the really big picture filled print-copy.
  4. Money came in and in bundles, and Times Square was established by the publishers in 1904, and other big conglomerates. The penny-paper media was powerful.
  5. Now News was professionalized. Journalists were paid, hired, and expensive machines purchased which made the little ol’ printer obsolete at least in wide influence. This will change with the internet as long as it remains free.

 

Bigger print and bigger headlines.

Papers have big power. Although the partisan press printing the declaration of independence was a really powerful statement for newspapers, the 1970s saw the penny-paper reach its Plymouth with its involvement with Watergate. This was called the final triumph of the press ( Do not know who?), and they actually sometimes think they are divine of a god.

 

Today we have big papers and the small papers now run these sexshoppes, local adds and local business news, [and the big papers are the new Partisan Papers. The Penny paper has evolved or morphed into the power player].


 

Identifications, RI, U.C. Berkeley Final Exam, 25%.

Michael Johnathan McDonald

 

These ID as presented to relating to the history of writing.

 

  1. Historiography, The writing of history based on a critical analysis, evaluation, and selection of authentic source materials and composition of these materials into a narrative subject to scholarly methods of criticism. Historiographies represent the bulk of literature coming off university presses. Most historiography today uses archival records making it a monographic work.
  2. Monograph, is the basic form of history writing today; a specific time and period from a larger general scope of the time and era. Monographs usually have colons in the title. Particular evidence limits monographs to a scope (Narrow vision of something – not looking at the whole). Usually arguments containing some theme’s relationship within a larger scope. The enabling conditions for monographs consist of an archival record.  Both use extensive archival records to document their work. Also, a Monograph exists as a  modern form of writing because it is linked or related to the modern state that generates an archival storehouse. These can be historical associations, libraries or government archives. Marx uses the state to write his searing indictments. Karl Mark’s Capital: A Critique on Political Economy is a monograph, as is W.J. Rorabaugh, Berkeley at War: The 1960s. So what does this say about an institution keeping an archive? A Monograph’s standard rule will ask what the relative evidence entails. As the reader first should identify and evaluate the argument (Your own), then observe one’s own judgment to the validity of the argument. Is the Monograph extensively sourced? Do these sources come from verifiable documentation?  What are its major themes? Is the argument clear and is it used correctly? Can the sources support views that are totally different? What is at stake? Why was it written? What is the causation? Is the monograph aiming toward a categorization of a social science or humanity audience?
  3. Citation, a quoting of an authoritative source for substantiation. Usually in writing a second source or primary source.
  4. Trade press small independant pressers that cater to public needs.
  5. woodblock printing, Japanese traditional printing, begun in the 15th century. Employed many people, was preferred to the new more complexes machines for a long time because of the economic interconnection to communities and Japan’s economic infrastructure as a means of employing more people. Japan woodblook type print culture begins in 1600s.
  6. Narrative history tells a story, or more specifically how someone tells the story in an historical context. Narratives can be personal like Gossamer, and Augustine. Narratives can tell other personal stories as in The Histories by Herodotus. A narrative does not necessarily proceed from any particular timeline. A narrative can be a chronicle or cyclical. Ssu-ma Ch’ien's The Records of the Historian contains a narrative that moves chronology but describes a cyclic circumstance for Chinese history.  The Histories by Herodotus, moves back and forth between time. Narratives can be interior or exterior studies. Augustine and Gossamer describe interior studies. Herodotus and Ssu-ma Ch’ien describe exterior studies. In general, narratives tell a story in a standard communicative way.
  7. Fortuna, The Roman mythic goddess of fortune. Linked to Francesco Guicciardini in his 1508 work  Storie Florentine (The History of Florence). Fortuna is often linked to chance and demonstrate things outside of our personal control, such as the nature and other person’s motives.
  8. Title VI, was introduced in 1958 as a part of the National Defense Education Act (NDEA). This was for international education strengthening and is lined to the National Security Act of 1947.  National defense education Act, U.S. government, National Defense Education Act of 1958, through Title VI of the National Defense Education Act, established foreign language to be taught in schools with experts of sufficient quality and quantity to meet U.S. national security needs. This enabled Professor Berry to receive scholarships for school, and she leant Japanese. These also meant schools received money for setting up foreign language programs.   “These changes were instituted in the National Security Act of 1947 (Public Law 253, 80th Congress), signed by President Truman on July 26th of that same year. The act was subsequently amended in 1949, 1953, and 1958 and will again be amended when the present Congress acts, if it does, on the post Watergate issue of the role and structure of what is now referred to as the intelligence community” ( Source).

42 U.S.C §§ 2000d - 2000d-7

TITLE 42 - The Public Health and Welfare

SUBCHAPTER V - FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS

  1. TITLE VI OF THE 1964 CIVIL RIGHTS ACT, Sec. 2000d. Prohibition against exclusion from participation in, denial of benefits of, and discrimination under federally assisted programs on ground of race, color, or national origin ( U.S. Gov). No person in the United States shall, on the ground of race, color, or national origin, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance.
  2. Title IX, Education Amendments of 1972 (Title 20 U.S.C. Sections 1681-1688) Title IX, of the Education Amendments of 1972, which prohibits discrimination on the basis of sex ,1972, women, sex, non-discrimination, big impact, gender quotas, fellowship money to distribution, women now allowed to be represented in sports. Late 70s percentages rise in women employment, doctorates for women in history. Berry the 4th women (Person of this affect) appointed to faculty teaching  of U.C. Berkeley, big impact. Creates recordkeeping so state and federal agencies can check for progress of law. This creates accountability. this section shall not apply to any educational institution which is controlled by a religious organization if the application of this subsection would not be consistent with the religious tenents of such organization.(Gov)
  3. Print culture, Movement from manuscript to circulation, Began with mass printing, Japan 1660s, Gutenberg, Gutenberg press – 1455, European press.
  4.  “publicness,” Enabling conditions, begins with the overthrow of peasant title (serf) serfdom in the middle ages and its name comes from the period of the French Revolution. Of, concerning, or affecting the community or the people: the public good, Maintained for or used by the people or community, Open to the knowledge or judgment of all, Connected with or acting on behalf of the people, community, or government: public office. Connected to contemporary trade presses that worked on behalf of the public.  to facilitate public enquiry.
  5. Agency, Make your own history. Ability to make your own history.
  6. Consensus history, everyone agrees, usually a political top-down history. Was the norm for the first half of the 20th Century in the United States (Change 1950s onward).
  7. New social history,” History of the local people, history from the bottom up by looking at the community. 1791 First State Historical Society, Boston Massachusetts, formed by literal (elites) types, donated their own books, a colonial history of Massachusetts. 1804 New York Historical Society, dynamic, a call to the public, “give us everything – we want them.” More local societies, 1820 Rhode Island, New Jersey, Maine (1820), Pennsylvania…etc..1849 Minnesota (1857, became a state), they have a historical society even before they became a state, this helped them to become one by establishing a record. Fileopietizm, paying homage to patriarchal figures or more specifically to American history the adoration of the founding fathers.  This is often associated with top down history. 1876 Centennial of Independence, later more local these historical societies emerged in towns, cities and counties, establishing museums. Son of Patriots 1889, Daughters of Patriots 1890. Historical centers were for the public to use for learning. Catalogues emerged for referencing and organization. First subscription histories or 'mug books' for areas emerge in which people wrote their own histories and biographies. Bancroft who lived in Ohio used to sell books before he came to the bay area and began a library. He collected 50,000 volumes mostly from donations from his campaigning, which are now at the University of California Bancroft Library. Most of these books constitute the western-half of the Northwest America. Social history also came out of the census, because this was a prime source for social information. Stephan Thernstrom, The Other Bostonians: Poverty and Progress in the American Metropolis, 1880-1970, is a perfect example. Census begun in 1790. Federal Group Depository, manuscript census schedules show migrations of family. The History Department at Berkeley is a social science. Humanity just points out the events.
  8. Oral history, Handed down stories form generation to generation, given to authors who do not have access or cannot access manuscripts or any type of written material of recorded past. Deemed suspect today, mush history of earth’s past come to us through oratory. This includes interviews which many historians find suspect because of the intent of the questioner?  Trusted source for interviews can be substantiated by a major academic institution or a trusted source.
  9. Trickster tales, pub. 1977, Lawrence W. Levine, Black Culture and Black Conciousness: African American Folk Thought from Slavery to Freedom.
  10. Annales school, The Annales School is a school of historical writing named after the French scholarly journal Annales d'histoire économique et sociale (later called Annales. Economies, sociétés, civilisations, then renamed in 1994 as Annales. Histoire, Sciences Sociales) where it was first expounded. Annales school history is best known for incorporating social scientific methods into history. The Annales was founded and edited by Marc Bloch and Lucien Febvre in 1929, while they were teaching at the University of Strasbourg. These authors quickly became associated with the distinctive Annales approach, which combined geography, history, and the sociological approaches of the Annee Sociologique (many members of which were their colleagues at Strasbourg) to produce an approach which rejected the predominant emphasis on politics, diplomacy and war of many 19th century historians. Instead, they pioneered an approach to a study of long-term historical structures (la longue durée) over events. Geography, material culture, and what later Annalistes called mentalities or the psychology of the epoch are also characteristic areas of study. An eminent member of this school, Georges Duby, wrote in the forward of his book "Le dimanche de Bouvines" that the history he is teaching "rejected on the sidelines the sensational, was reluctant to the simple accounting of events, strived on the contrary to pose and solve problems and, neglecting the surface trepidations, wanted to observe on the long and medium term the evolution of economy, society and civilization."
  11. Subaltern history, the term subaltern is used in postcolonial theory to refer to marginalized groups and the lower classes; this sense of the word was coined by Antonio Gramsci. In current philosophical and critical usage, the term specifically describes a person rendered without agency by her or his social status, a sense that owes its influence to Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak's 1988 essay "Can the Subaltern Speak?" In his 1996 essay "Unsatisfied: Notes on Vernacular Cosmopolitanism" Homi Bhabha emphasizes the importance of social power relations in his working definition of 'subaltern' groups as oppressed, minority groups whose presence was crucial to the self-definition of the majority group: subaltern social groups were also in a position to subvert the authority of those who had hegemonic power. ,Introduction: In the early 1980s, there emerged in India a 'school' of history that goes by the name of 'Subaltern Studies'; this 'school' has now gained a world-wide reputation, and 'Subaltern Studies' is beginning to make its influence felt in Latin American Studies, African Studies, 'cultural studies', and other arenas. Where previously the history of modern India, and particularly of the nationalist movement, was etched as a history of Indian 'elites', now this history is being construed primarily as a history of 'subaltern groups'. How are we to think about subalterns?
  12. Papyrus, Papyrus is an early form of paper made from the pith of the papyrus plant, Cyperus papyrus, a wetland sedge that grows to 5 meters (15 ft) in height and was once abundant in the Nile Delta of Egypt. Papyrus is first known to have been used in ancient Egypt (at least as far back as the First dynasty), but it was also widely used throughout the Mediterranean region, as well as inland parts of Europe and south-west Asia.
  13. Penny Press, is a standard commercial newspaper like the Los Angeles Times, New York Times or the Chicago Sun Times. The Penney Press first came to be defined in the 1800s by its break with official licensing of an American political institution and supplying its own funding commercially. The 1837 Baltimore Sun began advertisement to help pay its bills. This lead to anonymity. Before Papers were published by Authority ―funding by the winning partly who awarded a contract to the partisan press, as they were called, to disseminate official information.  The penny press distribution means began with paperboys selling papers on street corners. People often shared the paper. The popularity soon spurned more penny presses. Editors now had more freedom over their content. As the papers grew in popularity, groups sent out people to take account of distribution quotas by watching the paperboy all day to see just how many customers bought papers. This led to ad agencies. Penny papers are linked to ephemera because they are meant to be short lived communication mediums. (short lived thing). However, for social history, many large papers began to archive their editions. In 1851 the New York Times began its index following in 1872 with the Chicago Time and in 1873 the LA Times.
  14. Bamboo slips, (See Ssu-Ma Ch’ien), The practice of writing on slips began probably during the Shang Dynasty (c.l7th-11th century B.C.) and lasted till the Eastern Han (A.D. 25-220), extending over a period of 1,600-1,700 years. The Historical Records, the first monumental general history written by the great historian Sima Qian (c.145 B.C.-?), consisting of 520,000 characters in 130 chapters and covering a period of 3,000 years from the legendary Yellow Emperor to Emperor Wudi of the Han, was written on slips. So were other well-known works of ancient China, including the Book of Songs (the earliest Chinese anthology of poems and songs from 11th century to about 600 B. C.) and Jiuzhang Suanshu (Mathematics in Nine Chapters completed in the 1 st century A.D., the earliest book on mathematics in the country). (Source)
  15. Vernacular, The standard native language of a country or locality, how was the book written, to whom is the audience intended.
  16. Conjecture, Inference or judgment based on inconclusive or incomplete evidence; guesswork.
  17. Paraphrase, restatement of a text or passage in another form or other words, often to clarify meaning
  18. Paper, Paper is a thin, flat material produced by the compression of fibers (or fibres). The fibers used are usually natural and composed of cellulose. The most common source of these kinds of fibers is wood pulp from pulpwood trees, (largely softwoods) such as spruce. However, other vegetable fiber materials including cotton, hemp, linen, and rice may be used. Japan woodblook type print culture begins in 1600s.
  19. American Historical Review, The American Historical Association publishes the American Historical Review, the major historical journal in the United States. It includes scholarly articles and critical reviews of current publications in all fields of history. Founded in 1884 and chartered by Congress in 1889, its mission is to engage the interests of the entire discipline of history. Accordingly, the journal is always seeking individual manuscripts that have an appeal beyond a particular specialty and an array of articles that address the spatial, temporal, and thematic dimensions of the field. It commissions reviews of books and films determined to be of greatest relevance to professional historians.
  20. Manuscript census, Census enumerators collected data on slaves and slaveowners in the manuscript schedule of the Census of Slave Inhabitants. This census schedule, however, is more accurately called the slaveowner census because while it offers only general information on slaves, it provides specific data on slaveowners. Most significantly, census takers only recorded the names of the slaveowners and not their slaves. Each page of the manuscript slaveowner census lists the name of a slaveowner and then provides data on each slave owned. All of the slaves owned by one person or family are assigned a number and then listed sequentially; that is, numbers have been substituted for names of slaves in the census. The manuscript census contains nine fields of data, six of which focus directly on the slaves: assigned number, age, sex, color (black or mulatto), whether the slave is a fugitive, and whether the slave is "deaf, dumb, blind, insane, or idiotic." Three of the fields provide information on the slaveowners: name, number of slaves manumitted, and number of slave houses owned. The manuscript census also notes the subdistrict or county (if not Augusta, in this case) in which the slaveowner resides and provides the name and place of residence of the slave's employer, if different from the slaveowner. Users will find searching the manuscript slaveowner census helpful in locating specific information about individual slaveowners and in discerning trends and patterns in slaveowning in the county ( Source)
  21. Sampling, A portion, piece, or segment that is representative of a whole. In the census, the long form is considered a sampling of the entire population.
  22. Marked” subject, a verb itself marked with a neuter person-number-gender marker.
  23. gender history, Gender & History is now established as the major international journal for research and writing on the history of femininity and masculinity and of gender relations. Spanning epochs and continents, Gender & History examines changing conceptions of gender, and maps the dialogue between femininities, masculinities and their historical contexts. The journal publishes rigorous and readable articles both on particular episodes in gender history and on broader methodological questions which have ramifications for the discipline as a whole. (Source).
  24. secondary source, Secondary sources are texts written by someone who was not present at an event. For example, a book written by a historian long after an event is regarded as a secondary source. Good secondary sources are based on primary and the best secondary sources, and involve generalization, analysis, synthesis, interpretation, or evaluation. Popular writing does not pretend to be authoritative and is usually based on a reading of secondary sources or encyclopedias.
  25. dating system, Dionysius Exiguus (his Latin name, usually translated as Dennis the Little) was the 6th century monk who devised the dating system dividing events of history before the birth of Jesus Christ and after. Today his A.D. (anno Domini, that is, in the Year of Our Lord) time frame still functions worldwide. But before the turn of the new 3rd millennium, Dionysius was a name barely recognized.
  26. printer/editor/publishers, (  see chronology in history of writing section).
  27. partisan press, Colonial times, Publications will say Published by Authority indicating the sponsored source was the government in charge or the political party in charged. This means the state of that country, or sometimes in England’s case to the colonists, broadcasts their authority that this is legitimate text from legitimate source, usually the king’s publishers’ and by his own authority. This was further called partisan papers and was the first form of newspapers as printing and staff, and supplies were some huge investment and needed serious funding from somewhere, and usually the king’s government awarded contracts and supplied the means for publishing. This was the very early times of publishing in the colonial days of United States. There are many exceptions, such as Italy’s private presses that private individuals owned their own printing machines and were entrepreneurs; many printed Latin Index books and other text-books.
  28. plagiarism,  two of more words, or an unique word, copied or used, without accreditation to the author.
  29. Rotogravure, Gravure is noted for its remarkable density range (light to shadow) and hence is a process of choice for fine art and photography reproduction The vast majority of gravure presses print on reels of paper, rather than sheets of paper. (Sheetfed gravure is a small, specialty market.) Rotary gravure presses are the fastest and widest presses in operation, printing everything from narrow labels to 12-feet-wide rolls of vinyl flooring. Additional operations may be in-line with a gravure press, such as saddle stitching facilities for magazine/brochure work.
  30. ephemera, ephemera Printed matter of passing interest. Penny Press, Paperbacks, printing pamphlets or other materials like newspapers not meant to last.
  31. Author, The writer of a book, article, or other text. One who practices writing as a profession. One who writes or constructs an electronic document or system, such as a website. An originator or creator, as of a theory or plan. Authors that made a breakthrough. Herodotus, begins to define the historian’s role, to gather information, interrogate the evidence, interpret the evidence and reveal its meaning, he was not out to judge (Professor Berry)[disputed].
  32. Linear time, Chronology, or chronicle.
  33. Geographic time is quadrilateral time for Braudel. Geographical time consists of slowly moving cyclical climate, environment, land and earth changes. The material fora, structure is what matters to Braudel, this is the bulk of the geographical time-gragh.
  34. Social time, For Braudel, economic, political power patterns, and moves in a linear semi-brisk movement across history.
  35. Individual time, Leaders, in repetitious cyclic patterns, i.e. great leaders, the curve rises, bad leaders, the curve falls, and lazy kings the curve further falls on a graph chart. For Augustine, individual time was predestination as teleological ending was meeting and living with the Savior Jesus Christ. For Braudel, the individual time of his graph is at the top, depicted as the froth on the water that wiggles slowly but does nothing ― individual do not change.
  36. Cyclical time, Ssu’ma Chien, repeated similar periods of events in time. A traditional Chinese methodology of Dynastic writing. Ssu-ma Ch’ien, The cyclic history and the distance from the Buddha, The society awaits a new bodhisattva or a new Buddha. Business cycles of booms and busts. Ssu-ma Ch’ien is episodic, recurrent, interested in patterns of repetition, so some think there is no such thing as progress, they cannot understand, so no direction ( P. Berry).
  37. Teleology, Ultimate end, a Greek word, Moving toward an end, not Gucciardini nor Herodotus, but Marx and Augustine. A Teleos chooses a certain form. In Marx’s Communist Manifesto, the Teleological has required stages it must go through, Feudalism, Capitalism, Socialism then ending at communism. Dialectical time is the mechanism that makes the teleological work for Marx.
  38. Subject position, Rhetorically, in conducting research and presenting findings, a researcher must take a subject position. At its grossest level, taking a subject position, in this context, means either taking on an assumed objectivity or foregrounding the subjective "I" who is doing the research and writing/presenting. Taking a seemingly objective, "there is no 'I' doing the research," stance is most commonly associated with empirical approaches to research questions. This has, however, also been a tenet of humanities work of even the most basic sort for decades. Only recently has ethnography revitalized a generally respectable "I" within research and academic writing.
  39. Seminar, A small group of advanced students in a college or graduate school engaged in original research or intensive study under the guidance of a professor who meets regularly with them to discuss their reports and findings. A course of study so pursued. A scheduled meeting of such a group. A meeting for an exchange of ideas; a conference
  40. Dialectic, The art or practice of arriving at the truth by the exchange of logical arguments. The Marxian process of change through the conflict of opposing forces, whereby a given contradiction is characterized by a primary and a secondary aspect, the secondary succumbing to the primary, which is then transformed into an aspect of a new contradiction. Often used in the plural with a singular or plural verb. The Marxian critique of this process.  (Different for Marx definition), Dialectical time is the mechanism that makes the teleological work.
  41. Bourgeoisie, Factory owners, they overtook the ruling position of the Aristocracy, or significantly reduced their role and now rule in their place. These are the capitalist pigs referred to by Karl Marx. The Bourgeoisie creates modernity in the Communist Manifesto (a political Program) . Dichotomist, in Capital, the modern world verses the pre-modern world, time period for modernity. Marx’s teleological is communism. Dialectical, one thing creates a force to destroy the next. For Marx, it is one system creates the forces to destroy the old system. The bourgeoisies created its own conditions for its own criticism.
  42. Proletariat, The working classes of 19th Century Europe, often used as the general knick-name for the poor or lower-classes, especially the working population, as opposed to factory owners, and businessmen.
  43. Base/superstructure, Marx’s society structure; base, eating, sleeping, procreating, basic necessities to get by in life; superstructure, materialism, culture, heretical apparatuses, Aristocracy, law institutions, art, philosophy, entertainment, parties, fads, religion, government. Marx wants to do away with all superstructure apparatus in life. He believed the superstructure had no cause, and all cause was came from below from the base-structure. He also places economics at the base. He believes all change come only from the base, or bottom up power.
  44. Capital, Money, capitalism the economic system employed by capitalists. Age Wealth in the form of money or property, used or accumulated in a business by a person, partnership, or corporation. Material wealth used or available for use in the production of more wealth.
  45. University press, is the modern academic communication medium associated with universities or other institutions of higher learning. Usually there consists an apparatus of peer reviews, peer suggestions, and general academic disciplines considered in scholarly research. As a general rule, only scholarly research with these academic safeguards is allowed to be published due to reputation and rigorous critique. However, in order to make money for institution sometimes notable institutions like Cambridge, Oxford, Yale and Harvard publish semi- scholarly work to subsidize some of their expensive university budgets. One can say that W.J. Rorabaugh, Berkeley at War: The 1960 is a semi-scholarly work. This book was published by the Oxford trade press. Although this work is heavily documented treating a qualification for a scholarly endeavor, the peer review and critical analysis lacks substantiation. This book consists of a wide set of generalizations as it compacts a large general overview of history, groups, associations, and movements into four small forty-page chapters. These four chapters contain the subjects, of political history, cultural history, and two social histories. Rorabaugh tries to compact a little more than a decade of Berkeley history within 189 pages. On the academic side scholars still recommend this book and point to the reader to the heavily noted prime sources contained within it. [mostly academic, but Harvard, Cambridge and Oxford have gone somewhat commercial with semi-scholarly works].
  46. Personal history is an autobiography, personal narratives, Gossamer, and Augustine. Augustine, Autobiography, a personal claim on confessional qualities. Comprised of contextual details. Augustine is written as a monologue addressing God. Problems of personal history, Freud and Grant. History as examining the state of mind, History as anti-history (Gossomer), and history as no history. History as anti-history means not useful in anyway – except for the aristocracy (Professor Berry). Personal histories answer, how did he do it, or the methodological? Herodotus, interior transformation of the society. Augustine’s truth claim is based upon the definition of his audience, (Professor Robin Einhorn).
  47. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission Act 1972, Federal Laws Prohibiting Job Discrimination. This is a Federal Agency that oversees the implementation of many Titles and Laws. Outlaws discrimination in employment in any business on the basis of race, color, religion, sex or national origin. The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, or EEOC, is a United States federal agency tasked with ending Equal Opportunity Employment Discrimination in the United States. Signed into law by President John F. Kennedy by Executive Order 10925, it can bring suit on behalf of alleged victims of discrimination against private employers. It also serves as an adjudicatory for claims of discrimination brought against federal agencies. That this Act may be cited as the"Civil Rights Act of 1964". The EEOC's mandate is specified under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Equal Pay Act, the Age Discrimination in Employment Act, and the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA).

 

Discrimination Type,

Disability

Equal Pay

National Origin

Pregnancy

Race

Religion

Retaliation

Sex

Sexual Harassment

 

 

ID Links to authors, extended,

Stephan Thernstrom, The Other Bostonians: Poverty and Progress in the American Metropolis, 1880-1970, This is a demographic quantitative historiography. 


Historiography is the study of the way history is and has been written. In a broad sense, historiography refers to the methodology and practices of writing history. In a more specific sense, it can refer to how we write our history, rather than of history. As a meta-level analysis of descriptions of the past, this latter conception can relate to the former in that the analysis usually focuses on the narrative, interpretations, worldview, use of evidence, or method of presentation of other historians.

A treaties offers a solution.

Books to memorize for Final essay questions.

Herodotus, The Histories, 430 BCE

Published between 430 BC and 424 BC, The Histories were divided by later editors into nine books, named after the Muses. The first six books deal with the growth of the Persian Empire. They begin with an account of the first Asian monarch to conquer Greek city-states and exact tribute, Croesus of Lydia. Croesus lost his kingdom to Cyrus, the founder of the Persian Empire. The first six books end with the defeat of the Persians in 490 BC at the Battle of Marathon, which was the first setback to their imperial progress. The last three books of The Histories describe the attempt of the Persian king Xerxes ten years later to avenge the Persian defeat at Marathon and absorb Greece into the Persian Empire. The Histories end with the year 479 BC, when the Persian invaders were wiped out at the Battle of Plataea and the frontier of the Persian Empire receded to the Aegean coastline of Asia Minor. As for Herodotus' life, we know that he was exiled from Halicarnassus after his involvement in an unsuccessful putsch against the ruling dynasty, and he withdrew to the island of Samos.

 

430 BC

 

Ssu’ma Ch’ien, Records of the Historian: Chapters from the Shih chi of Ssu’ma Ch’ien, trans. Burton Watson, 4th ed., (New York: Columbia University Press, 1969).

Records of the Historian was completed around 91 BCE in 130 volumes, divided into 5 categories: of which the Twelve Annals records, and the Ten Tables dynastic succession entries are the most important.

 

91 BCE

Ssu’ma Ch’ien, Sima Qian Shih chi 107: The Money Makers. trans. Burton Watson, 4th ed., (New York: Columbia University Press, 1969).

Aurelius Augustinus, Saint Augustine Confessions, trans. Henry Chadwick, 3nd ed., (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998).

Confessions, 397-398

While Augustine's doctrine of divine predestination. Augustine took the view that the Biblical text should not be interpreted literally if it contradicts what we know from science and our God-given reason. In "The City of God", Augustine also defended what would be called today as Young Earth creationism. In the specific passage, Augustine rejected both the immortality of the human race proposed by pagans, and contemporary ideas of ages (such as those of certain Greeks and Egyptians) that differed from the Church's sacred writings:

397-398 ADE

The Gossamer Years: The Diary of a Noblewoman of Heian Japan, trans. Edward Seidensticker, 2nd ed.,  (Boston: Tuttle Publishing, 2001).

It is the record of her unhappy marriage to her kinsman, Fujiwara Kaneie, beginning in 954 with his first love letters, and ending in 974 with their very nearly complete estrangement

            Francesco Guicciardini, The History of Florence and History of Italy, trans. Cecil Grayson, ed. John R. Hale (New York: Washington Square Press, 1964).

Storie fiorentine (1508-1510).


Karl Marx, The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Napoleon [book on-line]

(Marxist Internet Archive, 1999,   accessed 15 March 2006); available from

http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1852/18th-brumaire/index.htm;

Internet.

Karl Marx & Frederick Engels, The Communist Manifesto, ( London, Verso, 1998).

first published on February 21, 1848

Karl Marx, Capital: A Critique of Political Economy, vol. 1,  trans. Ben Fowkes, 2nd ed. (London: Penguin Books, 2000).

1867 that Marx was able to publish the first results of his work in volume 1 of Capital, a work which analyzed the capitalist process of production. In Capital, Marx elaborated his version of the labor theory value and his conception of surplus value and exploitation which would ultimately lead to a falling rate of profit in the collapse of industrial capitalism. Volumes II and III were finished during the 1860s but Marx worked on the manuscripts for the rest of his life and they were published posthumously by Engels.

Fernand Braudel, The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean World in the Age of Philip II, vol. 1, trans. Siân Reynolds (Berkeley: University California Press, 1995).

Originally appeared in 1949; revised several times
Fernand Braudel observed in the preface to the first edition of his monumental work on The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean World in the Age of Philip II, there is surely no region as well-documented and studied as the Mediterranean and the lands 'illumined by its glow'

1949

Stephan Thernstrom, The Other Bostonians: Poverty and Progress in the American Metropolis, 1880-1970, 2nd ed. (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1976).

1973


            Lawrence W. Levine, Black Culture & Black Consciousness: African American Folk Thought from Slavery to Freedom (New York: Oxford University Press, 1977).

1977

John Wallach Scott, Gender and Politics of History (New York: Columbia University Press, 1988).

1988

W.J. Rorabaugh, Berkeley at War : The 1960s (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989).

1989

Greil Marcus, The Dustbin of History (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1995).

Herodotus, The Histories, trans. Aubrey de Sélincourt, 4th ed., (London:Penguin Books Ltd, 2003).

1995

Greil Marcus (born 1945) is an American author, music journalist and cultural critic. He is notable for producing scholarly and literary essays that place rock music in a much broader framework of culture and politics than is customary in pop music journalism.

 

Marcus was born in San Francisco. He earned an undergraduate degree in American Studies from the University of California at Berkeley, where he also did graduate work in political science. He has been a rock critic and columnist for Rolling Stone (where he was the first reviews editor, at $30 a week) and other publications, including Creem, the Village Voice and Artforum.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Aurelius Augustinus

 

 

By Michael Johnathan McDonald

 

Augustine of Hippo (354 430) during the late periods of his life wrote his memoirs entitled “ Confessions”, c. 397, in which he establishes a narrative of his struggles from his childhood upbringing to his manhood in search of truth and the correct path. In his conclusion to truth, Augustine mistakenly misjudges three key attributes: social control, human morality and goodwill character.

 

In the ‘Confessions’ Augustine blames a secular establishment, a society traditional with its ways and customs, to bring up their children into functioning responsible adults by a doctrine of strict discipline. Augustine tells us that “free curiosity had greater power to stimulate learning than rigorous coercion.” 1. He later notes during his sixteenth year that “There was no strict discipline to keep me in check, which lead to an unbridled dissoluteness in many different directions” 2. I have said that “thrift and hard work are without a doubt the proper way to gain a livelihood.” 3.  Finally late in his life within his conversion period of his memoirs he changes his mind and relates that without this rigid discipline as a young man he and others would be lost with no societal control.

 

In regards to human morality and goodwill character, he contributes this change of mind to this new found realization of not the hard work and discipleship of his forbearers’ traditions but to a god to whom he credits everything that is positive. Generally, he cites his rambunctious past to everything that appears negative to human desires and society’s normalizations. He negates human morality and goodwill’s character and does not sympathize with  fellow humans’ self-betterment - efforts, whereas, I have shown my society thrives with goodwill character and human morality in such a capacity that we have no need to justify an outside force (i.e. a god) with our positive human reinforcement. Our goodness lies within our human selves and we are responsible for our actions. Augustine finishes up his main truth argument that humankind is inherently evil and that only through a god figure and his savior can good and positive attributes be found leading to a teleological outcome.

Endnotes:

 

1 Aurelius Augustinus, Saint Augustine Confessions, trans. Henry Chadwick, 3nd ed., (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998),17.

2.Ibid. 28.

3Burton Watson. Sima Qian Shih chi 107: The Money Makers. 4th ed., (New York: Columbia University Press, 1969), 63.

 

 

Ssu-ma Ch’ien

Sima Qian’s Letter to Ren An

By Michael Johnathan McDonald
February 1, 2006.
 

 

Ssu-ma Ch’ien finished a worked titled “The Records of the Historian” begun by his father during the Han dynasty. He is often compared to Herodotus. Both unprecedented world historians worked from two separate worlds unbeknownst to one another. Like Herodotus, Ssu-ma Ch’ien links time to the past. However, Europe during the period of Herodotus did not have a clear calendar of time or a rich historical writing past. The beginnings of writing (Dragon Bones) on animal bones begun under the Shang dynasty (1750- 1100 BCE) and continuing under the Chou (Zhou) where Lao Tze, according to Ssu-ma Ch’ien was an archivist in the Imperial Library.   Confucius  composed (or edited)  “Spring and Autumn Annals”, chronicles of feudal states of Yü, a treaties on the virtues of leaders. Then much later, during the warring period, writing expanded to numerous chronicles and works of history already compiled by the feudal states and the various schools of philosophy exsisted.  These records help us to determine how Ssu-ma Ch’ien was able to write in a chronological order.

Often, Ssu-ma Ch’ien records the months when speaking of time. This indicates a lunar calendar which was in use, but would be unfamiliar to Herodotus who would not understand the changing days and sometime months of the new years. Ssu-ma T’an , Ssu-ma Ch’ien’s father, reverted to “ affairs of astronomy and the calendar” already in use, Ssu-ma Ch’ien writes in a letter to Ban Gu, a personal friend, who recorded it in his book “Han Shu” ( ADE 32-92).1  Both cultural and political time was a big issue for both. However, Herodotus wrote more on a liner time scale aided by oral tradition.  To record history like Ssu-ma Ch’ien, Herodotus would have to concern himself with non-linear time of repeated-cyclical repetition represented in graph-time of  Ssu-ma Ch’ien’s method:  “I wished to examine […] to penetrate the changes of the past and the present […]” and “I have examined […] success and failure, their rise and decay, in 130 chapters, ” Ssu-ma Ch’ien wrote. 2 This could only be achieved by concern for detecting the principles of change of social and political lengths of time in which Ssu-ma Ch’ien covers the generations of the Chinese people from the Yellow Emperor to the time of the historians.

1,  Sima Qian’s Letter to Ren An. Appendix 2., ( Hong Kong: University of Hong Kong , 1993), 66-71.

 

2.  Ibid.

 

 

 

 

 

Aurelius Augustinus, Saint Augustine Confessions, trans. Henry Chadwick, 3nd ed., (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998).

 

Burton Watson. Sima Qian Shih chi 107: The Money Makers. 4th ed., (New York: Columbia University Press, 1969).

 

            Francesco Guicciardini, “The History of Florence and History of Italy”, in The University of California, Berkeley Reader, History RI, Spring 2006, trans. Cecil Grayson, ed. John R. Hale, (New York: Washington Square Press, 1964).

 

Guicciardini, The History of Florence and History of Italy,  trans. Cecil Grayson, ed. John R. Hale, (New York: Washington Square Press, 1964).



Karl Marx, The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Napoleon [book on-line]

(Marxist Internet Archive, 1999,   accessed 15 March 2006); available from

http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1852/18th-brumaire/index.htm;

Internet.

 

Karl Marx & Frederick Engels, The Communist Maefesto, ( London, Verso, 1998).

 

 

Karl Marx, Capital: A Critique of Political Economy, vol. 1,  trans. Ben Fowkes, 2nd ed., (London: Penguin Books, 2000).

 
            Karl Marx, “
Capital: A Critique of Political Economy”, in The University of California, Berkeley Reader, History RI, Spring 2006, trans. Ben Fowkes, 2nd ed., (London: Penguin Books, 2000).

            Lawrence W. Levine, “The Meaning of Slave Tales: African American Folk Thought from Slavery to Freedom”, in The University of California, Berkeley Reader, History RI, Spring 2006, (New York: Oxford University Press, 1977).

 

W.J. Rorabaugh, Berkeley at War : The 1960s, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989)

 

 

 

 

RI History of Writing, U.C. Berkeley, California

Spring 2006.

Mary Elizabeth Berry & Robin Einhorn (Ph.D.  Chicago University).

Notes interpreted from class lecture & added observational information.

 

 

DATES.

 

 

3000-2500 c. BCE, Papyrus, a writing medium.

17th―11th century B.C: Bamboo Slips appear as Chinese writing medium.

91 BCE Ssu’ma Ch’ien, Records of the Historian, 130 volumes, divided into 5 categories: of which the Twelve Annals records, and the Ten Tables dynastic succession.

430 c. BCE Herodotus, The Histories.

Anno Domini, Dating System.

397 Augustine, Confessions, 397-398

954 The Gossamer Years: The Diary of a Noblewoman of Heian Japan, trans. Edward Seidensticker, ending (974)

1455 Gutenberg press, begins European Print culture, from Manuscript to circulation.

1508 Francesco Guicciardini, The History of Florence and History of Italy Storie fiorentine (1508-1510)

1660 c. Japan woodblook type print culture begins.

1674 The London Gazette.

1700 Printer era. Small one-to-three man printer shops, four page papers, two-sheets doubles sided.

1755 Rivinngton’s opposed the revolution.

1790 c. Newspapers filled with gossip, partisanship and hit pieces, more than colonial times.

1790 U.S. Census begun.

1791 First State Historical Society, (New Social history era) Boston Massachusetts, formed by literal (elites) types, donated their own books, a colonial history of Massachusetts.

1800 Editor era. Partisan papers will meet the Penny Papers.

1804 New York Historical Society, dynamic, a call to the public, “give us everything – we want them.”

1812 Redistricting, reapportionment in a Massachusetts district looking like a dragon or a snake begins something that was not illegal, but was against the working in the Constitution.

1820 Rhode Island, New Jersey, Maine (Historical societies ―New Social history era).

1834 The New York Sun.

1837 Baltimore Sun, and Advertisement begun.

1848 Karl Marx & Frederick Engels, The Communist Manifesto, first published on February 21, 1848.

1848 Cartel of the Newspapers shared costs of wire reports, and the AP was born.

1849 Pennsylvania Historical Society.

1851 New York Times ― Index beginnings.

1857 Minnesota Historical Society (1857, became a state), they have a historical society even before they became a state.

1960 First time census is primarily conducted by mail.

1867, Das Capital, First Vol. I., Karl Marx.

1870 Civil war, and census programs for funds begun.

1872 Chicago Times― Index beginnings.

1873 LA Times ― Index beginnings.

1876 U.S. Historical centers were for the public to use for learning. People encourage donate their history.

1880 c.  Linotype was now a serious printing technique and cost a lot of money.

1884 American Historical Review, its mission is to engage the interests of the entire discipline of history. Founded in 1884 and chartered by Congress in 1889, its mission is to engage the interests of the entire discipline of history.

1889 Son of Patriots.

1890 Daughters of Patriots.

1900 Publisher era,  conglomerates and commerce.

1904 Times Square was established by the publishers.

1920 First (Census) to announce a majority in urban residence over rural, defined, greater then 2500 persons.

1929 Marc Bloch and Lucien Febvre, editing and founding of Annuals, University of Strasbourg.

1930 Redistricting,  a structural deal is initiated, and old language of the Constitution is dropped for new redistricting initiative.

1840 Idiots’ census.

1949 Fernand Braudel, The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean World in the Age of Philip II, vol. 1.

1958 National Defense Education Act, established foreign language and area studies programs at American universities such as Harvard, Columbia and Berkeley.

1962 Gerrymandering, redistricting: Court case called Baker vs. Carr, about a Shelby County, Memphis, Tennessee population and representation issue

1972 Title IX of the Education Amendments, which prohibits discrimination on the basis of sex. 1972 Equal Employment Opportunity Commission.

1973 Stephan Thernstrom, The Other Bostonians: Poverty and Progress in the American Metropolis 1880-1970, Used Census to write social history.

1977 Lawrence W. Levine, The Meaning of Slave Tales: African American Folk Thought from Slavery to Freedom.

1988 John Wallach Scott, Gender and Politics of History.

1989 W.J. Rorabaugh, Berkeley at War : The 1960s.

1995 Greil Marcus, American Studies Degree University of California at Berkeley, Dustbin’s of History.

April 2006.
 

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