Michael ReportBook of Life  Index Apocalypse Book of RevelationsInternetsJournal Directoryphoto galleryXLXXII  ARMAGEDONgamma index[Contact, Search]Welcome, Guest  World History - Yahoo! - HelpPrivacy  [Public]  

Crucifixion Eclipse The Large Gizāh  Pyramid : Nostradamus’ Birthdate at Central Axis of Giza Pyramid :

 : H O M E :  

United States of America -- Social Spaces & Laws and Rights

Arc Michael Social Spaces USA 1960s


The End of American Apartheid

           B. End of American Apartheid


          Perez v Sharp (1948)

          Loving v Virginia (1967)

          Immigration and Naturalization Act (1965)

Dilemmas of Race

         Racine The China Exclusion Act (1943)

         Caucasian Race—Equal Privilege (Resolution Texas, 1943, segregated Mexicans)

         Bracero Program, 1942-1962

         Zoot Suit Riots, 1943

Birth of the Modern Civil Rights Movement ( Postel, German racism)

         March on Washington, July 1st, 1941 (did not happen)

         A. Philip Randolph

         Ex. Order 8802, June 25th, 1941.

         Double “v” campaign


·         Federal Freeway construction

·         Federal Housing Administration & Veterans Administration Loans.

·         Betty Friedan, Feminine Mystique (1963),

Housing Apartheid.

·         Home Owners’ Loan Corporation ( not published information)

·         Residential Security Maps

·         Redlining

·         “Restrictive Covenants”

·         William Levitt

·         Gunnar Myrdal, An American Dilemma, 1944.

Why the Racial Divide?

·         Desegregation of  Armed services, 1948.

·         States’ Right Party, 1948.

·         Lyndon Johnson, “Great Soviet,” 1964

·         Racial Dimensions of New Deal

·         --Social security act

·         --labor

·         --GI Bill

Japanese Internment

         Presidential  Order 9066, February 1942 ( F.D.R., singed, all west cost, but not Hawaii, farmer plots in California the reason.

         No-No Boys ( Japanese who refused to sign up for war duty)

         Korematsu vs. United States ( principles still upheld today, $37,000,000 reparations)

2 – The atom bomb and racism.

           American war-making in the Pacific was influenced by the view that the Japanese people as a race were not fully human. But there is little evidence demonstrating that race was a specific factor in the decision to drop the bomb. There is also significant counter-evidence. For example, there is every reason to believe that the Americans would have dropped an atom bomb on Germany if the Germans had not surrendered before it was ready to go.

Mjm—while the world was enveloped in ideologies, the United States of America was enveloped in an attitude.

Three main structures (Postel call them strands)

Put these “strands” into each separate section:

1)       The Rise of the United States of America ( rise of global power)

2)       End of American Apartheid

3)       The Rise and Fall of the New Deal

Strand two: The End of American Apartheid

Qualified Democracy: the tentative name applied to the United States of America of its white person domination of all aspects of society. ‘Only the Chosen people or master race enjoys democracy.’

Confederate South:

The Confederate States of America (also called the Confederacy, the Confederate States, and CSA) was the name of the former government formed by eleven southern states of the United States of America between 1861[1] and 1865. Short lived, unrecognized by international governments, the CSA failed to emancipate from the Union. [2] The reaction to break away from the Union tended upon threats to slaveholders’ rights in the South. [3]Eventually, The Civil War, the result or argued as a “major’ cause of the Civil War, were defeated by the Unionists, reunified with the North but remained traditionally confrontative  to the notion of equality for all races, which meant in the Confederate stance, the African American slaves. The black slaves, as they were called, were mainly used to pay-off investment debt from international investors facilitating the industrialization of the United States of America.  In this manner, the United States of America owes much of its process of industrialization to the African American slaves who made it possible. The Confederate States Constitution, although mainly verbatim copied from the U.S. Constitution, stipulated changes to protect slave master rights in the South.

The Confederacy thrived as an agrarian economy exporting to the world cotton, and, to a lesser extent, tobacco and sugarcane. Local food production included grains, hogs, cattle, and gardens. In the North, conspicuously, the industrial revolution was thriving mainly in debt to the south’s economy to pay-off foreign loans -- to make the industrial complex then operational. Although, the South had more qualified and gifted military men (mainly these expertise Generals[4]), the failure of the industrial complex – that is to say the absence to produce ammunition, military hardware, and mainly guns ultimately decided the Civil War’s outcome.

Laws, customs, schools, work

Anti-miscegenation laws:  Miscegenation (Latin miscere “to mix” + genus “kind”) is the "mixing" of different "races", that is, marrying, cohabiting, having sexual relations and having children with a partner from outside of one's racially or ethnically defined group. In Spanish, Portuguese and French, the words used to describe the mixing of "races" are mestizaje, mestiçagem and métissage. These words, much older than the term miscegenation, are derived from the Late Latin mixticius for "mixed" and from the Spanish word mestizo. Portuguese also uses miscigenação, derived from the same Latin root as the English word.  Miscegenation comes from the Latin miscere, "to mix" and genus, "kind". The word was coined in the U.S. in 1863, and the etymology of the word is tied up with political conflicts during the American Civil War over the abolition of slavery and over the racial segregation of African-Americans. [5]

Perez v. Sharp 1948


1)       A law in California made it illegal for interracial marriage. “The constitutionality of anti-miscegenation laws only began to be widely called into question after the Second World War. In 1948, the California Supreme Court in Perez v. Sharp ruled that the Californian anti-miscegenation statute violated the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution and was therefore unconstitutional. This was the first time since Reconstruction that a state court had declared an anti-miscegenation law unconstitutional. California was the first state since Ohio in 1877 to repeal its anti-miscegenation law. In a number of states, state laws prohibiting interracial marriage and interracial sex were repealed after Perez v. Sharp.”[6]

2)       The Plaintiffs, Andrea Perez (a Mexican American woman regarded as white) and Sylvester Davis (an African American man) filed suit to compel the county clerk of Los Angeles county to issue a marriage license.[7] The clerk had refused to issue the license because they were a mixed couple. At the time, California's anti-miscegenation statute stated that ". . . no license may be issued authorizing the marriage of a white person with a Negro, mulatto, Mongolian or member of the Malay race". [8] California had banned interracial marriage since 1850, when it first enacted a statute prohibiting whites from marrying blacks or mulattoes. In 1948, in the case Perez v. Sharp , also known as Perez v. Lippold and Perez v. Moroney, the Supreme Court of California recognized that interracial bans on marriage violated the Fourteenth Amendment of the Federal Constitution. The plaintiffs won their case by a narrow margin; the vote was four to three. The landmark decision was written by Justice Roger J. Traynor.[9]

Loving vs. Virginia (1967)

3)       All bans on interracial marriage were lifted only after an interracial couple from Virginia, Richard and Mildred Loving, began a legal battle in 1963 for the repeal of the anti-miscegenation law which prevented them from living as a couple in their home state of Virginia. The Lovings were supported by the NAACP Legal Defense Fund, the Japanese American Citizens League and a coalition of Catholic bishops. In 1958, Richard and Mildred Loving had married in Washington, D.C. to evade Virginia's anti-miscegenation law (the Racial Integrity Act). Having returned to Virginia, they were arrested in their bedroom for living together as an interracial couple. The judge suspended their sentence on the condition that the Lovings would leave Virginia and not return for 25 years. In 1963, the Lovings, who had moved to Washington, D.C, decided to appeal this judgment. In 1965, Virginia trial court Judge Leon Bazile, who heard their original case, refused to reconsider his decision. Instead, he defended racial segregation, writing:[10]

Almighty God created the races white, black, yellow, and red, and he placed them on separate continents. And but for the interference with his arrangement there would be no cause for such marriages. The fact that he separated the races shows that he did not intend for the races to mix.[11]

See the complete legal document:

The Lovings then took their case to the Supreme Court of Virginia, which invalidated the original sentence but upheld the state's Racial Integrity Act. Finally, the Lovings turned to the U.S Supreme Court. The court, which had previously avoided taking miscegenation cases, agreed to hear an appeal. In 1967, 84 years after Pace v. Alabama in 1883, the Supreme Court ruled unanimously in Loving v. Virginia that:

Marriage is one of the 'basic civil rights of man,' fundamental to our very existence and survival.... To deny this fundamental freedom on so unsupportable a basis as the racial classifications embodied in these statutes, classifications so directly subversive of the principle of equality at the heart of the Fourteenth Amendment, is surely to deprive all the State's citizens of liberty without due process of law. The Fourteenth Amendment requires that the freedom of choice to marry not be restricted by invidious racial discriminations. Under our Constitution, the freedom to marry, or not to marry, a person of another race resides with the individual and cannot be infringed by the State. [12]

The Supreme Court condemned Virginia's anti-miscegenation law as "designed to maintain White supremacy".

In 1967, 17 Southern states (all the former slave states plus Oklahoma) still enforced laws prohibiting marriage between whites and non-whites. Maryland repealed its law in response to the start of the proceedings at the Supreme Court. After the ruling of the Supreme Court, the remaining laws were no longer in effect. Nonetheless, it took South Carolina until 1998 and Alabama until 2000 to officially remove defunct anti-miscegenation laws from their law books. In the respective referendums, 62% of voters in South Carolina and 59% of voters in Alabama voted to remove these laws.[13]

Meaning of the Holocaust

Meaning of the Holocaust ( up till here good)

Steamship St. Louis 1939

  • Steamship St. Louis 1939

F.D.R. fearing election support from dissatisfied southerners, who beloved that accepting the Jewish refugees from SM St. Loius, in 1939, would not support him for re election. This was also a propaganda act by the NAZis to appear that their final solution was benevolent – that is to say that forcible emigration to other parts of the world, was their only resolve to pushing the Jews from German territories. This type of propaganda was sufficient for the U.S.A., British and many world countries to believe no real harm would come from these exclusionist policies of the Socialist National Party (NAZI).


  • “The Jew Deal” ( See separate page for this!! 01302008 in this folder for class)


I do not know where to look for this?

The Atom Bomb and Racism

American war-making in the Pacific was influenced by the view that the Japanese people as a race were not fully human. But there is little evidence demonstrating that race was a specific factor in the decision to drop the bomb. There is also significant counter-evidence. For example, there is every reason to believe that the Americans would have dropped an atom bomb on Germany if the Germans had not surrendered before it was ready to go.”[14]

Dilemmas of Race

        Racine The China Exclusion Act ( 1943)

        Caucasian Race—Equal Privilege (Resolution texas, 1943, segregated Mexicans)

        Bracero Program, 1942-1962

        Zoot Suit Riots, 1943

Birth of the Modern Civil Rights Movement ( Postel, German racism)

        March on Washington, July 1st, 1941 ( did not happen)

        A. Philip Randolph

        Ex. Order 8802, June 25th, 1941.

        Double “v” campaign

        Port Chicago

Dilemmas of Race

Rescind The China Exclusion Act (1943) ( timeline)

        Under the quota system, only 105 Asian immigrants per year were allowed into the U.S.A.

F.D.R., 1943:  “It is with particular pride and pleasure that I have today signed the bill repealing the Chinese exclusion acts. . . . An unfortunate barrier between allies has been removed. The war effort in the Far East can now be carried on with a greater vigor and a larger understanding of our common purpose.”[15]


“The words are taken from President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s address to Congress made on December  17, 1943, on the occasion of his signing the bill that repealed the Chinese Exclusion Acts. They not only demonstrate Roosevelt’s eagerness to eliminate the “unfortunate barrier” between the United States and China, but also suggest that a transformation of America’s East Asian policy had taken place during World War II.”[16]


At this time, the United States of America was secretly battling Japan’s war against China (The Second Sino-Japanese War (July 7, 1937 to September 9, 1945)), and it sought to ally itself with Chinese nationals, in an attempt to foster liberalism or the U.S.A. form of free-market and American government in China – it was covert, secretly supported The Nationalist government of Chiang Kai-shek, utilized lend-lease methods, and sought to win the support of Chinese in America for this purpose. Therefore, President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s Congressional address, December 17, 1943, should be taken with valid restraint. Roosevelt was generally appalled at the Area-bombing campaigns of Japanese bombers on civilians in China.


(The United States was generally isolationist prior to the attack on Pearl Harbor and did not wish to directly provoke Japan, while it aided China with its volunteer airmen and oil/steel embargoes. wiki)

[1882 Aug 3, US Congress passed the 1st Immigration Act. The amended act banned Chinese immigration for ten years. The Chinese Exclusion Act barred laborers from China and halted a massive immigration of Cantonese peasants. [see 1882-1943]    Chinese Exclusion Act- 1882 barred Chinese immigration.   (HN, 8/3/98)(SFEC, 9/20/98, Z1 p.4)(http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h739.html)]

        Caucasian Race—Equal Privilege (Resolution Texas, 1943, segregated Mexicans) (USC Texas and Racism) ( Zoot )

        Bracero Program, 1942-1962: “The word bracero when translated means "hired hand" or "laborer" and was used to describe Mexican farm laborers brought into the United States under Public Law 45 of 1942 and 78 of 1951. The bracero program was brought about by a call from large farms because of a labor shortage. Many young men had either enlisted in the armed forces or were drafted, and the farms suffered the loss of able bodied men. The bracero program ended on December 31, 1964, with the realization that the program had adverse effects on domestic workers. As early as 1962, the program had begun to lose its appeal to farmers when federal laws were passed to protect domestic workers.  Minimum wages were set for braceros and they could not to be used as strikebreakers in states where farm workers were unionized. Hiring a bracero became just as costly as hiring a domestic worker. “[17]

        Zoot Suit Riots, 1943 ( racism against Chicanos, The Zoot Suit Riots were a series of riots that erupted in Los Angeles, California during World War II, between sailors and soldiers stationed in the city and Hispanic youths, who were recognizable by the zoot suits they favored. "zoot suiters" Chicano identification because of their appeal) “First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt characterized the riots, which the local press had largely attributed to criminal actions by the Mexican American community, as in fact being "race riots" rooted in long-term discrimination against Mexican-Americans. This led to an outraged response by the Los Angeles Times, which in an editorial the following day accused Mrs. Roosevelt of stirring "race discord."[18] (May 31, 1943 ( A week later [ after the riots of May 1943], LA TIMES countered Eleanor response, calling the Latins "miscreants" and "hoodlums."[19] )

Birth of the Modern Civil Rights Movement ( Postel, German racism)

        March on Washington, July 1st, 1941 ( did not happen)

The March on Washington Movement of 1941 [and later]

“A. Philip Randolph promised FDR 100,000 blacks would "march on Washington" on 1 July 1941 if not guaranteed equal employment in defense industries. FDR replied with Executive Order 8802 on 25 June 1941, which also forbade discrimination in Government employment, and established the FEPC.”[20]

        A. Philip Randolph

“Asa Philip Randolph (April 15, 1889 – May 16, 1979) was a prominent twentieth century African-American civil rights leader and founder of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, which was a huge victory for labor and especially for African-American labor organizing. Randolph had some experience in labor organization, having organized a union of elevator operators in New York City in 1917. In 1925, Randolph organized the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters. This was the first serious effort to form a labor union for the employees of the Pullman Company, which was a major employer of African-Americans. With amendments to the Railway Labor Act in 1934, porters were granted rights under federal law, and membership in the Brotherhood jumped to more than 7,000. After years of bitter struggle, the Pullman Company finally began to negotiate with the Brotherhood in 1935, and agreed to a contract with them in 1937, winning $2,000,000 in pay increases for employees, a shorter workweek, and overtime pay.  The Brotherhood was associated with the American Federation of Labor. Randolph emerged as one of the most visible spokespersons for African-American civil rights. In 1941, he, Bayard Rustin, and A. J. Muste proposed a march on Washington to protest racial discrimination in war industries. I had 8 kids also it was great! Some militants felt betrayed by the cancellation because Roosevelt's pronouncement only pertained to defense industries and not the armed forces themselves. In 1947, Randolph formed the Committee Against Jim Crow in Military Service, later renamed the League for Non-Violent Civil Disobedience. President Harry S. Truman abolished racial segregation in the armed forces through Executive Order 9981 on July 26, 1948.”


“Randolph was also notable in his support for restrictions on immigration.”


“In 1950, along with Roy Wilkins, Executive Secretary of the NAACP, and Arnold Aronson, a leader of the National Jewish Community Relations Advisory Council, Randolph founded the Leadership Conference on Civil Rights (LCCR). LCCR has since become the nation's premier civil rights coalition, and has coordinated the national legislative campaign on behalf of every major civil rights law since 1957.”


“Randolph also helped Rustin and Martin Luther King Jr. to organize the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom on August 28, 1963. As the U.S. civil rights movement gained momentum in the early 1960s and came to the forefront of the nation's consciousness, his rich baritone voice was often heard on television news programs addressing the nation on behalf of African-Americans engaged in the struggle for voting rights and an end to discrimination in public accommodations.”[21]

8802 Executive Order: June 25, 1941

“Reaffirming Policy Of Full Participation In the Defense Program By All Persons, Regardless of Race, Creed, Color, Or National Origin. And Directing Certain Action In Furtherance of Said Policy”


America fought for democracy abroad in the World War I (1914-1918), yet “such a democracy was not universally present at home.”[22]”African Americans have long suffered workplace discrimination. Well into the twentieth century they were denied the best jobs and were the last hired and first fired. During the war some African Americans, including educator and writer W.E.B. DuBois, suggested unified support of the war. After the war many African-American soldiers returned with a fresh outlook, in part because of soldiers fighting with the French had been treated fairly. Equality was not forthcoming, though. Prejudice persisted throughout the 1920s and discriminatory groups like the Ku Klux Klan enjoyed a revival. Roosevelt’s New Deal programs during the Great Depression of the 1930s segregated, and often excluded, African Americans. For instance, the first Agricultural Adjustment Act paid benefits mostly to white farmers who owned large amounts of land. In the south this led to sharecroppers, many of whom were African American, being thrown off the land. ” [23]


“A marked instance of racism occurred when nine young African-American men in Alabama were falsely accused of rape and quickly convicted in the 1930s. Eight of them were sentenced to death. Although the Supreme Court overturned their convictions, Alabama tried them again and the trails dragged on throughout the 1930s. The last “Scottsboro Boy” did not leave prison until 1950. All the publicity in this case, and the prejudice it demonstrated, drew attention to the plight of African Americans in the South.” [24]


“For this reason, among others, African Americans determined to fight both civilian and military racism as U.S. involvement in World War II (1939-1945) grew more likely. A. Philip Randolph, head of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, and important African- American union, called the integration of defense contractors. When his demands met little response he threatened to march on Washington. (a march that did not take place!, 1941) Roosevelt responded with Executive Order 8802 and the promise of a Fair Employment Practices Commission (FEPC) to oversee the order.” [25]


Significance: The FEPC was under funded and not wholly successful. Through Executives Order 8802 antidiscrimination clauses were written into war contracts but were not always enforced. Facilities in the South were still segregated, and with many African Americans under the command of Southern officers on the theory that Southern whites knew “how to deal with” African Americans. Outside the military, racial tensions flared several times during World War II, including riots in Detroit and New York, largely between African Americans and whites who lived in overly close conditions. African Americans were fighting for victory both abroad against the U.S. enemies and at home against racism; the FEPC assisted this “Double V,” or double victory, campaign.” [26]


Executive Order 8002 and the FEPC also led, in some ways, to the Equal Employment Commission (EEOC) that exists today. However, the EEOC was not launched until the 1960s, under the Civil Rights Act of 1964, because the southern conservatives [Democrats] opposed any agency promoting equality throughout the 1940s. Although Executive Order 8802 publicized racism, validated the struggle of African Americans, and lent some amount of support to cries for increased equality in the 1940s, most of the impetus for the Civil Rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s cam from individuals, rather than the government.” [27]


         Ex. Order 8802, June 25th, 1941.

“After asserting that national unity was being impaired by discrimination, the executive order declared it to be the "duty of employers and of labor organizations to provide for the full and equitable participation of all workers in defense industries, without discrimination because of race, creed, color, or national origin." All federal agencies concerned with defense production were ordered to administer such programs without discrimination, and all defense contracts were to include a provision "obligating the contractor not to discriminate against any worker because of race, creed, color, or national origin." Executive Order 8802 also established the Committee on Fair Employment Practice (FEPC).”


“The Records of the Committee on Fair Employment Practice (RG 228) document its activities from June 25, 1941, to June 28, 1946. The committee formulated and interpreted policies to combat racial and religious discrimination in employment; received, investigated, and adjusted complaints of such discrimination; and assisted government agencies, employers, and labor unions with the problems of discrimination. The committee handled fourteen thousand complaints of discrimination from all regions of the country, 80 percent of which were filed by African Americans.”[28]


        Double “V” campaign ( in-depth study)

“Shortly after America’s entrance in to World War II, the Pittsburgh Courier launched "The Double V Campaign". Under the theme of "Democracy: Victory at Home, Victory Abroad" [for Black agency], the Courier remained patriotic, yet pushed for civil rights for blacks. It was very important that the campaign show loyalty towards the war effort, since the black press had been criticized for pushing their own agenda ahead of the national agenda.” ( wiki , Double “v” campaign)

        Port Chicago

“The Port Chicago disaster was a deadly explosion that took place on July 17, 1944 at the Port Chicago Naval Magazine in Port Chicago, California, in the United States. Ammunition being loaded aboard cargo vessels bound for the war in the Pacific exploded, killing 320 sailors and civilians, and injuring more than 400 others. Most of the dead and injured were African American recruits, and the continuing unsafe conditions even after the disaster resulted in a number of servicemen refusing to work, known as the Port Chicago Mutiny, a month later.) (wiki)

What was the Jew deal?

Antisemitism in America reached its peak during the interwar period. The pioneer automobile manufacturer Henry Ford propagated antisemitic ideas in his newspaper The Dearborn Independent. ( website needs citation)


I do not know where to look for this?

Japanese Internment and the Law

Executive Order 9066 (February 19, 1942, Franklin D. Roosevelt)

President, Executive Order 9066, “Authorizing the Secretary of State of War to Prescribe Military Areas,” Federal Register 7, no. 38, 1407, February 19, 1942.

Long since considered as part of an ongoing anti-Asian prejudice in the  United States of America, Japanese from the west coast of the mainland of United States of America were roughly rounded up and shipped to concentration camps, called “internment camps” for the duration of World War II. Conspicuously, Japanese Americans in Hawaii did not suffer similar consequences. The United States government feared Japanese insurrection from the west coast, but some historians have speculated that the government took the opportunity to free-up California farms from Asian presence – a presence which had seen honest working Asians cultivating and performing vital agriculture on the west coast of the U.S.A. at the distain of European ( white, U.S.A. citizens) businesses.  Furthermore, stemming from Anti-Asian laws, explicably, the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882, “which blamed Chinese immigration for ten years and prevented Chinese already in the United States of America form becoming citizens.”[29] The Official story is that after the Japanese Air Force bombed Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, “many began agitating for the removal of Japanese Americans form the West Coast.” Vote-hungry politicians [politicians that catered to populist (white Americans) sentiment or interest groups] responded to baseless racial fears to support these demands. Business that competed with Japanese Americans saw the opportunity to eliminate their rivals and supported the demands as well. In response, President Roosevelt issued Executive Order 9066, which Congress later ratified with legislation. Approximately two-thirds of the Japanese Americans removed and detained under the order were citizens.”[30]

“During World War II German Americans and Italian Americans who were not citizens were generally not relocated but only kept under curfew for a short time. In contrast, about 110,000 to 127,000 Japanese Americans who live on the mainland were relocated, mostly from the West Coast. Those in Hawaii were generally left alone, probably because they made up such a large percentage of the population that their removal would have disrupted the local economy. This order was more damaging than anything done in the xenophobia, or fear of people of foreign origin, or World War I (1914-1918).” [31]

Significance: “Japanese Americans fought well in World War II in spite of, or perhaps because of, the intense racial prejudice they faced. The 442nd Regiment Combat Team in Europe, made up entirely of Japanese Americans, had the highest rate of commendations and won over 18,000 medals. Japanese Americans were not allowed to fight in the Pacific, though Hirabayashi and Korematsu set dangerous precedent as they allowed the government to do anything which it saw fit in wartime.” [32]

         No-No Boys ( Japanese who refused to sign up for war duty)

         Korematsu vs. United States ( principles still upheld today, $37,000,000 reparations)

Korematsu vs. United States ( December 18, 1944)

Fred Korematsu sued to “challenge the relocation of Japanese Americans surrounding San Leandro, California, area. He had volunteered for the army but was refused and had begun working for a defense plant before his arrest for violating the order. Korematsu initially claimed he was a Mexican American to prevent being excluded and relocated. Then he insisted on his loyalty to America and protested the unconstitutionality of the government’s relocation of people for racial reasons. Unlike the Hirabayashi case, the Supreme Court considered the relocation order itself in Korematsu.” [33]

“It was not until 1976 that Executive Order 9066 was repealed. Moreover, the Korematsu and Hirabayashi decisions have never been formally overturned. Hirabayashi only had his conviction vacated, or pronounced invalid, in the 1980s and even then the government still defended Executive Order 9066 in the courts. Roughly ten years passed before Japanese Americans received a formal apology and it was not until the late 1980s that internees received some small compensation for their economic losses. The relocation ruined the lives of numerous Japanese Americans and cost them businesses, homes, and property. At a very basic level it demonstrated an ugly side of the United States [of America] and showed the depths to which the country might sink during the war.” [34]

Desegregation of  Armed services, 1948.

White Covenants

Shelly V. Kraemer  May 3, 1948

“Restricted covenants inserted into home deeds forbade the sale of land to anyone failing to meet certain criteria, such as being white, Anglo-Saxon, and Protestant. These clauses obviously aimed to keep an area all white.”[35] “ Until the Shelley case, states and municipalities could not prohibit African Americans from moving into areas but private individuals could. When the Shelley family moved into a home with a restrictive covenant designed to exclude African-American families from the neighborhood, a neighbor attempted to enforce the covenant. The family received a lukewarm support from the National Association from the Advancement of Colored People (NNACP), which greatly feared losing a restrictive covenant case and wanted to wait for a stronger case to take before the Supreme Court. However a  St. Louis attorney intended to pursue the issue to the Supreme Court with or without the NAACP sanction, so the group eventually agreed to back the case. The Truman Administration then stepped in on behalf of the NAACP, and important gesture of federal support. On May 3, 1948, the Supreme Court ruled in favor on the Shelley family, outlawing restrictive covenants.” [36]  Significance: The Shelley case outlawed restrictive covenants nationwide, but “the Federal Housing Authority and the Veterans Administration, still discriminated. In the 1950s these two agencies would not give loans to African Americans. Thus the African Americans were largely excluded from the great suburbanization movement of the 1950s, making it difficult for the African-American community to build upon the victory of Shelley. The Government did not force the Federal Housing Authority and Veterans Administration to stop engaging in discrimination until the 1960s when Title VIII of the Civil Rights Act of 1968 (Fair Housing Act) forbade racial discrimination in bank loans for home rental and sale and empowered the federal government to act to remedy discrimination.” [37]

Robert F. Williams

Robert F. Williams: ( d. 1966, Rosa Parks attended his funeral)

Solid South: African American equal freedom within the United States of America

Backdrop: At the end of The Civil War, the U.S.A.  drafted the 14th amendment, promising equal services  to minorities ……White South and much of America, never abandon’s a white person’s country mantra, so they developed a legal fiction of us verses them. Under this ideological racial system they had absolute equality under the law, but also they were different – separate spatial places (separate libraries, and schools, et cetera) and in progress Blacks had inferior libraries, and schools et cetera. Simply it was a monetary-spatial apartheid. How could a black person receive a quality education when the white people controlled the educational purse-strings?

Brown v. Board of Educaton, 1954: Brown was a dramatic episode in US History. The white south erupted in resistance, in a southern manifesto, all southern representatives and congress, with a few exceptions in both houses, supported segregation.  As process of the courts decision, Kenneth & Mamie Clark had conducted a psychological profile of children’s preferences in what was called the “Doll Test.” In 3-7 doll tests, the test administrators gave brown and white dolls to children to play with, asking them which one they preferred to keep. As the color lines proved similar preferences, this was proof to the Solid South that integration was a failed federal policy. Therefore, the court reacted to force integration in which caused the south to react in subverted fashion. The purpose of it was to demonstrate the obvious. This became crucial testimony in the Brown decision. As result, the Solid south used a constellation of excuses as stalling tactic to evade the U.S. laws. Consequently violence and repression against Blacks did not calm from this decision in the South.

Ku Klux Klan violence, and many law enforcements supporting aggressive tactics against blacks in the south, reverberated to do or die circumstances to which some African Americans chose to either face the inevitable of fight back. After World War II, many African American returning from the war exhibited skill in the use of firearms and military tactics. They believed it was their right under the 14th Amendment to armed self-protection from groups such as the KKK. A photo depicting Negroes with Guns, the title of William’s 1962 book published by Marzani & Munsell of New York, became national discourse and eventually took to the world. The photo signified the struggle in the South was real and dangerous. At the same time the United States of America was promoting itself as the ‘Just’ nation to the world in opposition to an ”injust” Communism, and/or socialism, as they had understood it to be. U.S. African campaigns and propagated as interventions for justice against evil, did not fool the world’s community. A global backlash caught the president’s eyes as well as continuing world support for American blacks with letters and print media supporting their cause while covering the U.S. government’s faux pas – the U.S. rhetoric of diversity, justice, equality, and freedom of all social classes in the United States of America.

The backdrop to passive resistance of M. L. King did not work.

Williams represents another, often ignored, side of the story of civil rights movement in the South. Williams represented courage in the face of morbid opposition. The 14th Amendment of the Constitution  had guaranteed services to all minorities but in the Solid South, local law enforcement readily disobeyed its statutes. Blacks in the south were murdered, beaten, harassed, and discriminated against using false promises to bid locals time from implementing equality of civil services. Martin Luther King’s non-aggressive intervention was denounced as compliance against an unruly municipal South. Williams argued, for the Blacks to stop the white crimes which led all the way to the state courts, the blacks needed to defend themselves with firearms. These included

Finally, what stalled and finally stopped the supremacists in the south? It was either give M.L. King the peaceful resolution of integration or face Williams and the guns. The white people, as Williams had noted, were not about to lay their lives on the line for segregation. Correctly observed, the threat of morbid force against the supremacists ultimately pacified the violent south and integration was the result.

What is the normative narrative for the civil rights movement in American classrooms? Martin Luther King’s non-violence movement (non-violence, emphasis of non-violence is about the narrative of the civil rights in the classrooms of America), and the classic South pacifists and West radicals. Yet, William’s life represented the south was not as passive as thought. William’s clashed over Martin Luther King’s non-aggression movement noting that

Internationalism: Williams represented an American who identified with the third world countries plight against white supremacy (foreign Rule of Whites). Williams’s celebrity for the struggle of African Americans plight against the white rule at home became international discourse on democracy and liberty and was directly connected to U.S.A. policies of racism in coups and CIA operations in Africa and abroad.

What were the precursors? After World War II, African Americans returned home from the war fully trained in riflemenship. To Williams ownership of weapons was every American’s right and passage as a full citizen.

Here represented a southern black community's struggle to arm itself in self-defense against the Ku Klux Klan and other racist groups.


  1. Significance : Williams gave the right of blacks to armed self-defense when law and order broke down in the south, and he gave the world an inside view of United States of American hypocrisy – while rhetorically offering democracy, liberty and freedom to blacks in Africa while at home the Solid South represented white racial supremacy.


  1. Martin Luther King’s non-violence as a civil rights strategy.


  1. Every Friday night in Cuba from 11:00 pm to midnight Williams on Radio Havana hosted “Radio Free Dixie,” which enraged the Kennedy administration. From 1961 to 1964 one could hear his show in Los Angeles to New York and taped copies of his show circulated in Watts and Harlem.[38]


  1. He was expelled by the NAACP for his views in 1959.

National Association of Advancement of Colored People ( NAACP) They were fiercely and unfairly attacked as a communist organization.

“In June of 1961 the NAACP Chapter of Monroe, North Carolina, decided to picket the town’s swimming pool. This pool, built by WPA money, was forbidden to Negroes although we formed one-quarter of the Population of the town. In 1957 we had asked not for integration but for the use of the pool one day a week. This was denied and for four years we were put off with vague suggestions that someday another pool would be built.”[39] As the protest and stand-ins continued the Ku Klux Klan began to assemble counter protests which reached an estimated “7,500,” according to Monroe Enquirer.[40] The media attention attributed the clan’s sentiments that the NAACP was a “Communist-Isnpired-Naitonal-Associateion-for-the-Advancement-of-Colored-People.”[41] After signing petitions the K.K.K. revved up its harassment with gunfire and motorcades that passed the protestors. The city officials claimed the K.K.K. had a constitutional right for their counter protests. As Williams writes, “ Since the city officials wouldn’t stop the Klan, we decided to stop the Klan ourselves.”[42] Next, the Monroe Chapter of the NAACP tried to contact Washington and the Eisenhower administration to no avail. Next, Williams writes, “[W]e started arming ourselves.”[43]


The Kissing Case:

“In October, 1958, two local colored boys, David Simpson, aged 7, and Hanover Thomson, aged 9, were arrested on the charge of rape which is punishable in North Carolina by death.”[44] In the fall of 1958 a group of black and white children were engaged in a kissing game, after a game of Cowboys and Indians which turned into a game of “play house.” A black and white child kissed, setting of a racial reaction.  Sissy Sutton sat on Hanover’s lap, and recognizing him as an old playmate gave him a peck on the cheek ( a brush –kiss). The little girl ran home to tell her mother. As reactional outrage, White moms chased black parents in order to lynch them; they called the cops and arrested the boys before they reached their house.  The boys were sent to a reformatory, and Williams began to follow the case. The National Chapter of the NAACP did not react, and William’s chapter stood the lone cause. Williams had called a civil rights lawyer, Conrad Lynn, who came down from New York and asked for a “separate but equal hearing.” An English reporter, as friend of Lynn, followed up with presenting to the world photographs of the boys, in which Lynn sneaked into the reformatory to snap. On December 15, 1958, London New Chronicle placed the story and the photo of the boys on the front page news.[45] There were protests in London, Rotterdam, Rome, and Paris. “Only then did many Americans newspapers began to express “concern” about the “Kissing Case.” [46]

World pressure mounted as 15,000 students and faculty in Rotterdam, Holland, high school named after Franklin Delano Roosevelt, signed petitions. “The petition called for the release of the children and it was sent to Mrs. Roosevelt.”[47] “Somebody said something, finally, to President Eisenhower, and finally he said something to our then Governor Hodges, and of Feb. 13, 1959, the children were released.” [48]

What did this represent?

As deeper psychology in the desegregation movement – if blacks get into the white school, the whites believed, the black and white will marry – cannot let this happen they claimed. Robert Williams appealed to international and national public opinions on this issue, and protests from eight European countries signified international outraged at the white supremacist of the U.S.A. The Dutch sent letters to U.S. high schools too about segregation, and at the urging of the Eisenhower administration, the army was called into force integration at Little Rock HS. Communities fought against integration in the high schools in the south, they believed the “sexual structure of white male” was a threat to have black man in a school with white women – because of the physically maternal nature of women’s roles. As result, Williams and the Monroe chapter of the NAACP were distanced from the national chapter – although internationally the national chapter was blamed.

1940s and 1950s – the emergence not the revolution?

George Washington prior to 1776 had black armed revolutionaries in his Army, who he considered great soldiers for the revolutionary cause, before the Congress forced him not to recruit them any longer; and Alexander Hamilton was the first European to set up an underground emancipation program for black slaves in U.S.A. history. The term civil rights were complex in its nature. Under the pretext of the origins of the civil rights movement, Professor Postel argues that historians view the south in the 1960s as the heroic origins of the Civil rights revolution – is in fact a negative narrative – and resulted in two distinct phases: 1960s south as non-violent and heroic, moving to the North and West – and as distinct -- the West as violent and hateful. However, as Postel intends, the modern civil rights movement moved to the North and West before World War II (1940s) and continued to shape Civil Rights narrative of American history which has been ignored in most United States of American classrooms.

As to Monroe, North Carolina, Robert Williams argued in his book “Negroes with Guns” (1962) that the Fourteenth Amendment of the Constitution of the United States of America was useless. As systematic human right abuses toward the black communities in North Carolina, the judicial system ignored the laws on the books and sided with white European racists – in all manners of the law. Under this context, the gains of the Civil War rhetoric of freedom ( and liberty as synonymous)  and representation for all minorities meant little as the U.S.A., it has been argued, entered its nadir on human rights issues in its history.

As qualified Democracy, Plessy v. Ferguson, 163 U.S. 537 (1896), was a landmark United States Supreme Court decision in the jurisprudence of the United States, upholding the constitutionality of racial segregation even in public accommodations (particularly railroads), under the doctrine of "separate but equal."

The decision was handed down by a vote of 7 to 1, with the majority opinion written by Justice Henry Billings Brown and the dissent written by Justice John Marshall Harlan, (with Justice David Josiah Brewer not participating in this case). "Separate but equal" remained standard doctrine in U.S. law until its final repudiation in the later Supreme Court decision Brown v. Board of Education (1954).

In conjunction, Jim Crow Laws, implemented Racial segregation, ‘By law, public facilities and government services such as education were divided into separate and unequal "white" and "colored" domains.’ Disenfranchisement -- The voting rights of blacks were suppressed; Exploitation, increased economic oppression of blacks, Latinos, and Asians, denial of economic opportunities, and widespread employment discrimination; Violence, as  Individual, police, organizational, and mass racial violence against blacks (and Latinos in the Southwest and Asians in California).  This described the origins of American Apartheid.

When the USA entered the war on the ally’s side to fight NAZI white supremacy, minorities took notice. Even a black tank squadron was vital in the Battle of the Bulge. Here, as Professor Postel intends “the civil rights begun.” It was NAZI biological determinism exposing white supremacy afar but linking it to white supremacy on the home front.

As complexity, United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt in the State of the Union Address he delivered to the 77th United States Congress on January 6, 1941, in a speech called the four freedoms, enumerated four points as fundamental freedoms humans "everywhere in the world" ought to enjoy: Freedom from want, Freedom of speech and expression, Freedom of every person to worship in his own way, and freedom from want. These four freedoms were taken seriously,” Professor Postel intends.

Therefore, In early summer of 1941, the birth of the Modern Civil Rights Movement begun with  a planned march on Washington, which never took place,  but threatened by A Philip Randolph, which resulted in Executive order 8802, June 25, 1941 singed by President Roosevelt.

Yet, as “dilemmas of race the 1940s, the  Bracero program, the Caucasian Race—Equal privileges Resolution, Texas, 1943 – segregated Mexicans,  the Los Angeles “ Zoot Suit riots, as well as executive order 9066, that F.D.R. signed dispatching intercampus of west coast Japanese illustrate the multi-racial difficulties in having part in democracy.

Important: Usually, U.S. Historians tell of civil rights’ revolution as the main important factor in the Civil Rights of America, emerging from Montgomery, with Rosa Parks and Martin Luther King, Jr. (The Southern Christian Leadership Conference) from the south in the 1960s, and radicals from the west in the 1960s. The Freedom riders, the The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), playing a leading role in the 1963 March on Washington, and the Mississippi Freedom Summer, and the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party,

However, Civil Rights’ emerged much earlier; and key groups and players are interregnal to the national narrative. As Qualified Democracy: the tentative name applied to the United States of America of its white person domination of all aspects of society. ‘Only the Chosen people or master race enjoys democracy’-- as Professor Postel intends, Civil Rights began in the 1940s all over the United States. One key example was the Bay Area, California in the 1940s.

Robert O. Self, in his book, “American Babylon” (2003) details the political, economic, spatial transformation in the postwar United States of the east corridor of the San Francisco Bat Area. The book is about a fierce contest between conservative populists who celebrated private rights, individualist conceptions of property rights and low taxes and a broad liberal coalition that sought expansions of social wages and racial equality.

As part of F.D.R’s “Arsenal of Democracy,” (massive military industrialization) employment reached into all available communities in California for the war effort. As results, it was the first time many African Americans felt a part of the American community.  Despite working condition set backs, as with Port Chicago incident, racism in general was placed aside as an ardent issue by both sides during the war. In the East Bay, warship building, in Richmond, Oakland, Alameda and Vallejo was accompanied by a “gold rush” of federal contracts for the East Bay corridor. The wartime economy brought in one-half a million migrants to the Bay Area. However, after the war, as Self explains, and at mid-century two distinct laborite cultures existed. (did they really want blacks?)

West Oakland in the 1920s was “city within a city.” Blacks lived close to work, in the flatlands,  as Pullman Porters, red caps, dinning car waiters and railway employees. After the war, deindustrialization of the centers of city changed the spatial relationship of economic and politics of the East Bay corridor. As part of the second phase of the New Deal reforms, the Wagner Act (1935), resulted in unionization of workers, post-war cities experienced urban-trade unions as a result to end urban tensions of first generation suburbanites of the 1930s. The American Federation of Labor (AFL), the Fair Employment Practices Commission ( FEPC), and Post-war cities changed into “industrial gardens,” which describe the rise of suburban cities, a decentralization of industry from the urban areas, a metaphor of post-war suburbia.

In 1945 (-1970s), the Metropolitan Oakland Area Program (MOAP) was created and had a vision (1945-‘55 time frame) to develop these new industrial gardens as a competition with the mid-west and east for federal contracts associated with the New Deal liberalism.  The vision was a confluence of neighborhoods, factors, workers, managers, single-family homes and highways –all coexisting as Machine (industry) harmony. The only problem was the exclusion of blacks and minorities as a general covenant-agreement between city officials and home buyers. As “white gardens,” Berkeley, San Leandro, Albany and El Cerrito prospered under the Veterans Administration (VA) and FHA loans and mortgage guarantees.

Self argues that it was more complex. It was not “white flight” from the inner cities in which were heavily workers, and the black communities, but complex issues of real-estate values, city regulated taxes, and conservative ideas on freedom of private-ownership that resulted in “white suburbia” of the East Bay corridor of the 1940s-1950s.  However, the vital post-war civil rights movements of the west are traced back to here in the flatlands of the East Bay corridor.

Alameda Country Central Labor Council set standards, local wages and the NAACP sought to end racism and win economic rights and union equality for blacks and minorities. In 1947, the University of California released a major study which concluded that one-third of the one-hundred unions in the Bay Area contained no black members. It was a result of power of white solidarity. As discrimination, unions blamed employees and employees blamed the unions, O. Self exclaims. In 1948 NAACP concluded those East Bay industries such as General Motors, Chrysler, Key System and the Bethlehem Pacific Coast Steel Corporation, sponsored unfair racial practices. This vicious cycle infuriated C.L. Dellums, Self explains. West-Oakland during the 1940s and 1950s was “highly Jim Crowed,” “they just did not believe in promoting blacks to any position of authority,” Self explains. (p. 51)

As blacks observed, white’s attitudes were not going to change. Therefore,  a decision to form a black grass-roots coalition and in association with the East Bay Democratic ( party?) they legally fought measures such as Proposition 18 ( the right to work, anti-union measure; “ White supremacy of the Old South survived in the anti-union crusade of the right to work advocates in California”).

C. L. Dullems, International Vice President of the Brotherhood of Sleep Car Porters, and member of Alameda County NAACP, after the war became California’s principle advocate for a statewide FEP law. In the late 1930s, he led attempts to open up opportunities for blacks in the city’s transit jobs (such as Key System). Terea Kall Pitman and he represented part of the grass roots coalition who in 1949 changed political focus away from city politics to state politics to pass civil rights measures.

As fierce competition, Bill Knowland, conservative and owner of Oakland Tribune, in which was a political mouthpiece for conservatives in the Bay Area, promoted classical liberalism – i.e. laissez-faire economics and freedom to private-ownership rights. After the war the Oakland Tribune and as reaction to unionism, began red-baiting with political rhetoric for persuasion against integration of social welfare and unionization of all workers. In conjunction, radical Popular Front, existing of the “Alameda Country Communist Party (CP),  as was one of many radical groups active in the OVL campaign,” (p 69) sought to unionize all members of the working class. These were bitter struggles played out in the East Bay corridor over mass worker representation or abetment of it.

As for representation of democracy, and in the 1940s,“ citywide balloting for all city council positions continued to prevent any single community form controlling an elected seat in municipal politics.” (p. 81) By 1948, Self proclaims, C. L. Dellums began to understand the weakness of municipal elections and alliances like the OVL as vehicles for challenging racial oppression and advancing their interests.” ( Self, p. 81)

C. L. Dullems had enough and went to lobby in Sacramento instead of local city positions from 1951-1959, in which he won decision for labor rights initiative (employment desegregation)  from the Fair Employment Practice Committee, FEPC.

As part of the grass-roots coalition, Pat Brown swept into office after Kowland’s overwhelming defeat and in 1959 singed into law the Fair Employment Practice Law. This can be explained in that trying to change attitudes at the local level did not work. Even after the national refutation of “covenants,” these un-lawful measures were part of unspoken deals within the suburban political centers of the East Bay corridor.  The only way for the minorities and the Blacks to make a dent in white racism was to attack the “State Law” systems while grass-root activism took place at the local level.

Fair Housing Laws (1963) changed California’s history forever. As result of the Democratic landslides of political offices beginning of the 1960s, Self intends that the East Bay saw a phenomenal growth in the ‘60s as result of state subsidies into colleges and universities, unemployment insurance, and health and welfare protections.

Negros with Guns, the often untold Story of another aspect of the Southern Civil Rights Movement.

As contention with the non-violent and heroic south, the narrative of the violent verses violence narrative of Monroe, North Carolina had been ignored as part of the civil rights movement narrative in U.S. history. Robert F. Williams armed defense philosophy resulted in self imposed exile in Cuba, continuing publishing of his newsletter, The Crusader,  (even distributed and read in Watts, CA, when from Cuba) then moving on to North Vietnam 1964 to swap stories of Harlem with Ho Chi Mihn,  and then onto China (1965-1968) under Mao Zedong’s guest and involvement with the  inner government CCP circle for three years and then negotiated with the Nixon administration to chair the Ford Foundation-sponsored post at the Center for Chinese Studies at the University of Michigan – where he spent the rest of his life until his passing in 1996. His narrative started at a segregated swimming pool, in a ardent segregated area of Monroe, N.C. in June 1961, picketing along with the NAACP chapter of Monroe, North Carolina -- a neighborhood in an area heavy with Ku Klux Klaners reacted and over time the violence and resistance increased, especially as William’s set to protect white freedom riders who came to North Carolina, until Williams fled to New York, then onto Canada then Cuba to broadcast his Radio Free Dixie program at the chagrin of the U.S. federal administration which could hear it up the east coast to New York. He had organized black groups with guns for defense of unlawful injustices of the white racists in N. Carolina. The group gained national attention from an interview he gave on the Kissing Game, and from that time the N. Carolina chapter of the NAACP, in which Williams was relived of duty as leader, became national discourse leading to him being wanted in at least two countries by the United States Federal government. Photos of blacks with guns in newspapers, in which Williams provided the photos, shocked America. Williams claims to never have promoted violence, only self defense in his book, “Negroes with Guns,” (1962) --- which eventually was the prime influence on one of the founders of the California Black Panther party. Williams’s story is important, in that it tells of a dynamic of another possible solution to the Civil Rights dilemma. If Martin Luther King, Jr’s non-violence action committees and movements were not going to stop the violent injustice, as illustrated in N. Carolina’s lawful injustice against civil right activists, then blacks with guns would eventually be the norm and vehicle for Civil Rights success in America.

Civil Rights, 1954-1964 :

1954 marked a turning point in the world, (Postel) only two countries that separated their countries on Race: South Africa and the U.S.A.  When Lyndon Baines Johnson singed New Civil Rights Legislation it was part of a second great reconstruction (civil rights). At the same time, Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (1954) overturned the Plessey vs. Ferguson, (1896) the “separate but equal” act which saw a reaction in Little Rock, Arkansas that needed military to force segregation. As legal challenge, black were called equals under the Fourteenth Amendment of the United States of America Constitution, but in reality they had separate and inferior libraries, schools (et cetera). The Brown decision was a dramatic in US History. The white south erupted in resistance, in a southern manifesto, all south representatives and congress, with a few exceptions in both houses, supported segregation. As complex, Black school teachers were also concerned, that sending blacks to white school would harm them, so they fought the NAACP. Earl Warren, of the California Supreme Court, a liberal Republican, endorses the Doll Test, and enforced segregation. The purpose of the Doll Test was to demonstrate the obvious.   It was crucial testimony in the Brown decision; it was done by a Blackman. Martin Luther King, Jr. argued that the purpose of non-violent action is to bring in the army, the federal, a national federal protection against the states that held racist manifestos or beliefs and coalitions against segregation – this was not a world without guns, it was a world of force where force brought down justice. It was a courageous and difficult path, the unexpected path, and there was a great deal of what brought the best results. If violence was justified, what would that say about America? What would this have said about the American system?

People accepted Martin Luther King, Jr. (although he carried a gun under circumstances) because he was non-violent. A broad understanding that people were going to act out by themselves… he did have success, but how much did it succeed?  When the whites kill blacks, some blacks say non-violence is not working, so they act out.

Why success of Civil Rights? As Postel intends, The Williams Movement and the Martin Luther King, Jr. movement and not just the classic narrative of only Martin Luther King, Jr. movement helped to describe the modern Civil Rights movement in the United States of America. The Civil Rights Movement can be viewed as more complex and more involved by dissuading the classic narrative. We can surmise that the Civil Rights Movement came down to the dynamic between the Martin Luther King, Jr. movement and the violent alternative. Either give M.L. King the peaceful resolution or face Williams and the guns.

Africa & America

          Portuguese Empire (Angola, Mozambique, Guinea Bissau)

          Belgian Congo, 1960 ( Lamumba assassinated, tortured, set up puppet ruler)

          Patrice Lumumba


          South Africa

          Apartheid, 1948

As the Africa coups and interventions were going on the Civil Rights was happing because of Malcolm X and others who had relayed information back to the States of information of what was going on about spreading.

As Westad intends, Truman and Eisenhower “wonder about the viability of African states, while being --- in principle—in favor of decolonization.” (p. 131) “Throughout he late 1940s and the 1950s Washington worried about the effect African decolonization would have on its European allies,…” (Westad, p. 131)

Westad intends, “Early decades of the Cold War set a pattern for a trouble set of interactions, which were to reach their high point in the Cold War confrontation over the decolonization of the Portuguese empire of the 1970s.” ( p. 131)  U.S. ideology emerged in the late 1950s , “when most of the continent was getting ready for the setting up of new, independent states.” (p 131) Washington greatest preoccupation was contending with growing Soviet communist influence and at the same time “securing the continued access of the West to strategic raw materials.” ( p. 131) As example, Congo Uranium was used to make the first U.S. Atomic bombs.


Ending African colonialization also included decolonization of Portuguese

Battle of Algiers (1966)

 A French Colonial hold.  France won the war but lost the battle.

Crisis, assassination of French soldiers, so French have sent in paratroopers.

“officer If you want to stay you must get tough, and for a time it worked but finally did get out.”


of the Civil Rights Movement were passage of Civil Rights Act of 1964, that banned discrimination in employment practices and public accommodations; the Voting Rights Act of 1965, that restored voting rights; the Immigration and Nationality Services Act of 1965, that dramatically opened U.S. immigration policy to other than traditional European groups; and the Civil Rights Act of 1968 ( was this C. Dellums?), that banned discrimination in the sale or rental of housing.

Birth of the Modern Civil Rights Movement ( Postel, German racism)

•         March on Washington, July 1st, 1941 ( did not happen)

•         A. Philip Randolph

•         Ex. Order 8802, June 25th, 1941.

•         Double “v” campaign


The End of American Apartheid

Qualified Democracy: the tentative name applied to the United States of America of its white person domination of all aspects of society. ‘Only the Chosen people or master race enjoys democracy.’

Why did the modern Civil Rights Movement emerge in the 1940s and the 1950s?

After the civil war and African Americans gained their freedom, were they free? The Jim Crow era legalized segregation. However, as Odd Arne Westad, in his book,  “The Cold Global War, Third World Intervention and the Making of our Times,“  intends, before and after the civil war “ The concept of guidance and its object, the ward, were prominent in American images of African Americans…. because they were seen as being incapable of controlling themselves.” (p22)

President Franklin D. Roosevelt in solving the problems of the Great Depression?

  • 1942 The Congress of Racial Equality or CORE

At the end of the war and with the formation of the United Nations with its aim to decolonize the world.

Civil rights can refer to protection against public (government) and or private sector discrimination. In the United States, the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution protects citizens against many forms of State discrimination, with its due process and equal protection requirements. Robert O self describes that Black leader’s from the East Bay corridor sought agency from the state courts  ( Sacramento) instead of local political offices as the only outlet to pass civil rights legislation. ( link to book)

As veterans returned home from the Great War, the Forgotten Man, represented the soldiers at the bottom of the economic pyramid. The African Americans after serving in World War II as soldiers and domestic war efforts, came home to deindustrialization in cities, in which they had jobs due to the massive war effort, but in post-war economics they were squeezed out of jobs. 

Robert O self and Liberty of Metropolitan Oakland Area Program (MOAP) : Individualist and liberal conceptions of liberty relate to the freedom of the individual from outside compulsion; A socialist perspective, on the other hand, associates liberty with equality in wealth. As such, a socialist connects liberty (i.e. freedom) to the equal distribution of wealth, arguing that liberty without equal ownership amounts to the domination by the wealthy. Thus, freedom and material equality are seen as intrinsically connected. On the other hand, the individualist argues that wealth cannot be evenly distributed without force being used against individuals which reduces individual liberty. (((liberalism distinguishes itself from socialism and communism in that it advocates for a form of representative democracy, while socialism claims to work for a direct democracy.)))

Changing conceptions of Liberty: FDR commented that “economic slavery is not freedom.” This was a turning point in the defining notions of the concept of “liberalism” (known then as liberty). He forged the “rudiments of the welfare state.” Out of F.D.R.’s revised rhetoric came an adapted new interpretation of “liberalism.” It addressed a wider and broader concern for the population. Postel intends that F.D.R. could adapt to change

The Labor-Management Relations Act, commonly known as the Taft-Hartley Act, is a United States federal law that greatly restricts the activities and power of labor unions. The Act, still largely in effect, was sponsored by Senator Robert Taft and Representative Fred A. Hartley, Jr. and passed over U.S. President Harry S. Truman's veto on June 23, 1947, establishing the act as a law. Labor leaders called it the "slave-labor bill"[1] while Truman argued that it would "conflict with important principles of our democratic society"[2] despite subsequently using it twelve times during his Presidency.[3] The Taft-Hartley Act amended the National Labor Relations Act (NLRA, also known as the Wagner Act), which Congress had passed in 1935.

Significance of the Taft-Hartley: Everyone understood this was a body blow to the whole New Deal – it marked the overthrow of socialist movement in the USA. In 1947?

In US News a publication. The point is Americans, conservatives as not labor act, but against the pinkish, collectivist, new deal.

Wagner act of 1935: part of second wave of New Deal legislation: The National Labor Relations Act (or Wagner Act) is a 1935 United States federal law that protects the rights of most workers in the private sector to organize labor unions, to engage in collective bargaining, and to take part in strikes and other forms of concerted activity in support of their demands.

The double V camping symbolized a victory over racism at home and abroad. Blacks said are you for Hitler’s way or America’s way?

However, to ignore the socio-spatial relationships

1964: “””When we talk about the “civil rights revolution,” we usually speak in terms of a series of legislative acts beginning in 1964 and continuing through the Voting Rights Act of 1965, the Fair Housing Act of 1968,”””)

Part II 1941 to 1968 Time frame

Gaddis ( Soviet mis behavior) – the Long Peace.

American Strategy Aims (Leffler)

Stage of Euro-American control (Westad)

U.S.A. in general: Iconic War: Iconic World War II, it was perceived by the United States of American citizen as the “Good War.” It brought prosperity.

(Forbidden Discourse) Melvin P. Leffler in his book, “The American Conception of National Security and the Beginning of the Cold War, 1945-48, ” states that American officials first began to think seriously about the nations post war security during 1943-44. Military planners devised elaborate plans for an overseas base system. .. These plans received President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s endorsements in early 1944. After his death, army and navy planners presented their plans to Harry Truman and Army Chief of Staff George C. Marshall. (p. 349) “From THE CLOSING DAYS OF WORLD WAR II, American defense officials believed that they could not allow any prospective adversary to control the Eurasian land mass. This was the lesson taught by two world wars. Leffler: Col War/ Paranoia not about Russia, Americans are afraid of upheavals – threatening the strategic plan of America falling victim to deprivation.

Chalmers Johnson:  Blowback (2000); A University of California, Berkeley professor; blowback is a CIA concept of “intermingling,” a concept applied to the USA’s involvement of backing the Mujahideen of Afghanistan against the Soviet military. Johnson did not anticipate September eleventh, nineteen ninety-nine. Johnson warned, “America needs to be aware of [its] imperial power,” “we have consequences” [for this type of action]. During the last years of World War Two the United States of America sought to encircle the northern hemisphere with satellite bases for multipurpose. The primary purpose was American protectionism for prosperity.

Niall Ferguson[49]: “ Colossus: the Rise and Fall of the American Empire” (Allen Lane, 2004) believes in a benevolent Empire, an empire with better responsibility than the ones we know of in the past. He speaks about the Empire of Liberty, a Thomas Jeffersonian rooted concept. Chalmers differs from Ferguson in that Chalmers holds empires to be inherently unfair to human free choice and rights of individuals to make their own decisions. However, understand that a paradox at the foundry of “expanding an Empire of Liberty.” This explication tends contradictory evolvement.

[1] The American Civil War broke out in April 1861 with the Battle of Fort Sumter in Charleston, South Carolina.

[2] The United States of America ("The Union") held secession illegal and refused recognition of the Confederacy.

[3] “American abolitionism” was considered by most prominent historians to be the underlying cause of the Civil War. However, and to lesser extent, other factors did play a part as well – such as congressional representation, aims of U.S. policies – such as industrialization and other factors too long to list. 

[4] Robert E. Lee and considered the face of the Confederate Army.

[5] Miscegenation, Wikipedia, unsourced editing, [ available online] 23 January 2008.

[6] Anti-Miscegenation Laws, Wikipedia, unsourced editing, [ available online] 23 January 2008.

[7] see 32 Cal. 2d 711, 198 P. 2d 17 (Cal. 1948).

[8] California Civil Code, section 69.

[9] Perez v. Sharp, Wikipedia, unsourced editing, [ available online] 23 January 2008.

[10] Loving vs. Virginia, Wikipedia, unsourced editing, [ available online] 23 January 2008.

[11] Where were interracial couples illegal?, Loving Day, [ available online] 23 January 2008.

[12] Ibid.

[13] Alabama removes ban on interracial marriage, USA Today, November 7, 2000, [ available online] 23 January 2008.

[14] Postel, Charles to Class in “personal class lecture notes,” unpublished material, 31 January 2008 (Berkeley: University of California, Berkeley, History 124B, 2008).

[15] United States Department of State, Bulletin, 18 December 1943, 431. See Ma, Xiaohua,  A Democracy at War: The American Campaign to Repeal Chinese Exclusion in 1943 (Academic Society, Home Village: Osaka Kyoiku University, 1998) in “The Japanese Journal of American Studies,” No. 9 (1998) [available online] 2008.


[16] Ma, Xiaohua,  A Democracy at War: The American Campaign to Repeal Chinese Exclusion in 1943 (Academic Society, Home Village: Osaka Kyoiku University, 1998) in “The Japanese Journal of American Studies,” No. 9 (1998) [available online] 2008.

[17] Marcell, Ronald O.,  Bracero Program Hurt Domestic Farm Workers in “Borderlands,” El Paso County Community College [ available online] 2008.


[18] Eduardo Obregón Pagán. Murder at the Sleepy Lagoon: Zoot Suits, Race, and Riot in Wartime L.A. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. 2004. ( In wiki, zoot suit riots)

[19] Carey McWilliams. "Blood on the Pavements." In: Fool's Paradise: A Carey McWilliams Reader. Heyday Books, 2001. [ page ?] ( Wiki Zoot suit Riots)

[20] Speech 450, March on Washington, 28 August 1963,  Robert W. Glenn in  “University of Tennessee School of Communication Studies” [ available online] 2008.

[21] Jervis Anderson, A. Philip Randolph: A Biographical Portrait (1973; University of California Press, 1986); Paula Pfeffer, A. Philip Randolph, Pioneer of the Civil Rights Movement (1990; Louisiana State University Press, 1996); Andrew E. Kersten, A. Philip Randolph: A Life in the Vanguard (Rowan and Littlefield, 2006);Cynthia Taylor, A. Philip Randolph: The Religious Journey of An African American Labor Leader (NYU Press, 2006), in Asa Philip Randolph, “Wikipedia,”  unsourced editing, [ available online] 2008.

[22] Executive Order 8802 , Franklin Delano Roosevelt, 25, June 1941, in “American Decades, Primary Sources, 1940-1949” (Farmington Hills, MI: Gale Group, Inc., 2004), p. 265.

[23] Ibid.

[24] Ibid.

[25] Ibid.

[26] Ibid.

[27] Ibid., p. 266.

[28] Cassedy, James Gilbert,  African Americans and the American Labor Movement in “Federal Records and African American History,” Summer 1997, Vol. 29, No. 2.  (College Park, MD: The U.S. National Archives and Records Administration, 1997). See the Preliminary Inventory to the Records of the U.S. Maritime Commission, entry 90, Labor Relations, which contains some information on African American labor in shipyards. Records of the War Department General and Special Staffs (RG 165), Records of the Office of Intelligence (G-2), 1917-1949, and Records of the Army Staff (RG 319), Records of the Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff, G-2, Intelligence, 1939-1955, will contain an extensive amount of information concerning African Americans and Labor.



[29] Japanese Internment and the Law, Executive Order 9066, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, 19, February 1942, in “American Decades, Primary Sources, 1940-1949” (Farmington Hills, MI: Gale Group, Inc., 2004), p. 268.

[30] Ibid.

[31] Ibid.

[32] Ibid., pp. 268-269.

[33] Ibid., p. 269.

[34] Ibid.

[35] Shelley v. Kraemer, Fred M. Vinson, Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, 1946-1953, 3, May 1948, in “American Decades, Primary Sources, 1940-1949” (Farmington Hills, MI: Gale Group, Inc., 2004), p. 294.

[36] Ibid., pp. 294-295.

[37] Ibid., p. 295.

[38] Tyson, B. Timothy, intro, in Williams, F. Roberts, Negroes With Guns, 2nd. ed.  (Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1998), p. xxviii.

[39] Williams, F. Roberts, Negroes With Guns, 2nd. ed.  (Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1998), p. 6.

[40] Ibid., 16.

[41] Ibid.

[42] Ibid., p. 17.

[43] Ibid., p. 19.

[44] Ibid., p. 21.

[45] Ibid., p. 22.

[46] Ibid., p. 24.

[47] Ibid.

[48] Ibid.

[49] Niall Ferguson (b. April 18, 1964 in Glasgow, Scotland) is an award winning Scottish historian specializing in financial and economic history. He is best known for his views on imperialism and colonialism. Ferguson’s views represent what Karl Marx had observed about British colonialism in the east. It brought about great benefits. However, he does not appear to entertain the same distain for the family disruption on capitalistic measures as Karl Marx contended. See Niall Ferguson, "Empire: How Britain Made the Modern World" (2004). Niall Ferguson, MA, D.Phil., is the Laurence A. Tisch Professor of History at Harvard University and William Ziegler Professor at Harvard Business School. He is a resident faculty member of the Minda de Gunzburg Center for European Studies. He is also a Senior Research Fellow of Jesus College, Oxford University, and a Senior Fellow of the Hoover Institution, Stanford University. See his  personal website [ available online]



Direct corrections and technical inquiries to
Please direct news submissions to Here

Copyright © 1999 — 2017 Michael Johnathan McDonald