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South America -- Part 3

Colonizing South America
By Michael Johnathan McDonald

Primordial: means: “before their history.”

Hernando de Soto
: Became the first European to penetrate the heart of the s.e. – traveled thousands of miles through 10 states in the American South.
Sebatian Vincaino
: Mapped the California coastline and bestowed new names – he recommended Spain establish a base on the bay he named for the Conde de Monterrey ( Viceroy who sponsored his expedition).

Terms and History:

Hernan Cortez added ”de” to give a nobility sound ( a title) to their names, equivalent to the English title ‘Sir.”
Encomienda, is a 26 square archers (or Miles) of land that was given to the conquistadors in the new world by the crown for their participation.
The Indians mixed genes with the Spanish to form miscegenation (third hybrid culture-people) called in modern Mexicans.

Hernan Cortez 1519-1521
1. Alvarado
2. Tabascans
3. La Malinche
4. Totonacs
5. Cholulans

Pre Invasion: The Spanish in 25 years in the new world had little to show – no gold. Cortez came from Extremadura ( name means extreme weather) held out against the Romans for a long time. In Salamas he attends a University for 2 years. It was the best known university in the world. Many conquerors after Columbus came from Extremadura. He basically after college lives it up and parties in bars and eats at 11:00 p.m. , the usual stuff. He goes to Cuba and tries his gambling hand there, and for seven years he makes his life as a gambler. He gets a wife, and some that go to the new land do not come back. Word gets out that possibly the new peoples recently known are killing off the explorations and this will concern or give him an opportunity of a life time. The Governor one day is looking for some needed men to go looking for the missing men and Cortez took to firebrand and got ten ships and 350 volunteers on promises of richness and land, and governor is screaming out “ go find these men.” Cortez is screaming, “ come with me and we are going to get rich.” One can see that a gambler and drinker often fantasize of such opportunity to find the pot of gold. So one can see that Cortex demeanor is not about how sacred human life is, but his own greed, this suited well with the conquistadors who did not care about anything in life.

In 1519, Cortez took off, nothing would stop them, nothing got in their way, in fact the governor called of Cortez for the mission, but he already had the momentum and the ships he practically stole. Now from Cuba to Mexico, Cortez lands and meets some wanders or runners of the Aztecs. Possibly tax collectors. Cholulans, a tribe are friends with Montezuma, leader of Teotihuacán, the mystical city, now known as any other despotic city of the ancient New World. “They know you are coming.” Cholulans told Cortex troops. At this point Montezuma sends gold to Cortez in efforts to appease Cortez coveting of wealth. He finds in a local indian camp, La Maliche, the women that is integral in Cortez’s scheme to get to Montezuma. By now, Cortez is wondering, “who is this king who is sending me so much gold; I bet he has a warehouse full of the stuff.” – te gamblers brain. He sends, La Maliche into the Cholulans camp as a spy, and with a huge army of the Indians Cortez show great general leadership in this episode of battle. He tells La Maliche to call a meeting with all the chiefs in the center of town, there is about 20-50 indian chiefs who show up and she gives at a point a signal to Cortex and his troops advances in surprise attack that throws the Indians into complete confusion. There is another piece to the puzzle, in that a rival indian tribe, the Talacalans, [Tlaxcalans] who hated the Cholulans rushed in after the chiefs were killed and proceeded to kill off the entire tribe, to which Cortez didn’t object too.

Waiting for supplies to show up and learning a little Nahuatl, Aztec language, shipment comes from Spain, via Cuba, and after seven months of waiting it is off to Teotihuacán. As he enters the valley you see magnificent causeways, three in order, that protect, so to speak, the city of mystery. Surrounded by water, it is said to be for the protection from invading armies, none such as this one. Montezuma will be ready when Cortez arrives and both know – no war- just a meeting first. For protection for Montezuma, only La Maliche, Spanish Priest and Cortez go up to meet the leader of the feared Aztecs. Both could not touch each other because of laws, but they exchanged necklaces. Montezuma and Cortex most possibly didn’t trust each other and thought the other one would pull a knife out of a pocket and stab the other.

The meeting must have been nice enough that Cortez using his fake charm tricked ol’ Monte into giving him the grand tour. In fact, if Cortez would have shown some courtesy by offering and then eating a few of his men, history may have had a different outcome.

By this time the governor who gets words via supply ships knows Cortez is not following his mission, in reality he lied, is getting a little jealous and demands that some gold rumored he had gotten is to be sent back to the governor, in which he will send to the crown. This is not the case; ol’ Cortez played his cards right this time by already appeasing the Lords of Spain with tribute, thus by passing the governor that will make him even more furious with jealousy.

The sprawl of sight was magnificent. The pyramid of the Sun raised high to the eye against the sky, while the temple of the Moon soon made its presents known as the beautiful corridor of shining gold and silver attire of the Aztecs celebrating the sacrifice party of another glorious day in paradises. Cortez was astonished at such a place. Big cooking pots at the foot of pyramids and buildings for cannibal suppers and dancing and celebration on the streets and 250,000 Teotihuacán’s parting like there is no tomorrow.

The next day Cortez is on the floor of one of the great Teotihuacán structures and he musters up the command to tell-off Montezuma. That he must accept Christianity and stop the madness. Cortez tells Montezuma. “ he must stop this crazy stuff, no more sacrificing and cutting out human hearts from live people and then cooking and eating them.” Montezuma will stop to appease his new guest for a while, as both see opportunities to know about cultures each one has never known before.

Meanwhile, the governor summons Cortez, who has to go back and deal with the fool. At that juncture the governor ( of Cuba) sent to Vera Cruz, orders to bring back Cortez. Cortez knew that he sent gold, but went anyway to Vera Crews to tell the messengers in person he was keeping the rules by sending back gold to the crown. Pedro de Alvarado, sees that ol’ Monte is starting up the sacrifices and cannibalism again, a grotesque sight for a civilized bunch to endure, he goes out 200 miles away to Vera Cruz looking for Cortez to tell him the news. Pedro was in charge and he saw the Aztecs getting ready to party once again in their elaborate head dresses by testing the Spanish on their right to eat it up.

Cortez gets back and another day party preparations is on the way and Cortez faces off on Montezuma and an argument ensues, at this point it one force opinion against the other and its off to the races as stones fly hitting Montezuma in the temple, causing a hemorrhage that two days later the leader surmises. If old Monte made it through the injury still may have had a different outcome, so how ironic to see that the almighty Aztec leader is hit in the head by a rock, by who knows whom, makes war inevitable and it’s all the army force of the Aztecs against the Spanish.

The Spanish tried to retreat, remembering there is only three ways out and they are all narrow bridges. This cause men to fall into the river and drowned as Montezuma the now deceased men head out in kayaks with bows and arrows and row up along side the bridges picking off Spanish left and right. It must have been mayhem as some of Cortez’s men looted the warehouse of as much gold as they could carry – thus some cost their lives as both them and the gold they are carrying tumble into the lake. In the end the Spanish lost several hundred men.

Tlaxcalans tended to the Spanish wounds, hopping one day they would get a shot at their arch enemies, surely they were supportive of the rulers perishment and thanked the Spanish with dressings and indigenous ointments. Cortz slanted over a tree and cries his eyes out over the loss. After he felt better and the Tlaxcalans drew up battle plans as they waited fro new supplies of men and ships. By know Cortez had told the Crown that he is conquering and doing work of the crown and immense richness of metals of gold and silver lay within the city and that it is worth it to conquer Teotihuacán.

The plan will be laid and much though into how they could fight on terms with the Aztecs. Brigantines, small ships were made in countering the water terrain that was so important to advancing and retreating from the mystical city of horror. This mini navy will take on the kayak attack and forge pathways of the causeways. Take control of the causeways, cut off the Aztecs and kill then off. So in 1521 after the decisive Spanish victory of many more men and supplies the Aztecs city was burnt to the ground by Cortes and a touch, “ Because the smell of the dead bodies was too much.” Cortez pronounced it Mexico and at this moment is termed the Hispanicization begins for the new world. This implies al Indians must learn Spanish and Christianity

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