Colonizing South America
By Michael Johnathan McDonald
Primordial: means: “before their history.”
Hernando de Soto
: Became the first European to penetrate the heart of the s.e. – traveled
thousands of miles through 10 states in the American South.
: Mapped the California coastline and bestowed new names – he recommended Spain
establish a base on the bay he named for the Conde de Monterrey ( Viceroy who
sponsored his expedition).
Terms and History:
Hernan Cortez added ”de” to give a nobility sound ( a title) to their names,
equivalent to the English title ‘Sir.”
Encomienda, is a 26 square archers (or Miles) of land that was given to the
conquistadors in the new world by the crown for their participation.
The Indians mixed genes with the Spanish to form miscegenation (third hybrid
culture-people) called in modern Mexicans.
Hernan Cortez 1519-1521
3. La Malinche
Pre Invasion: The Spanish in 25 years in the new world had little to show – no
gold. Cortez came from Extremadura ( name means extreme weather) held out
against the Romans for a long time. In Salamas he attends a University for 2
years. It was the best known university in the world. Many conquerors after
Columbus came from Extremadura. He basically after college lives it up and
parties in bars and eats at 11:00 p.m. , the usual stuff. He goes to Cuba and
tries his gambling hand there, and for seven years he makes his life as a
gambler. He gets a wife, and some that go to the new land do not come back. Word
gets out that possibly the new peoples recently known are killing off the
explorations and this will concern or give him an opportunity of a life time.
The Governor one day is looking for some needed men to go looking for the
missing men and Cortez took to firebrand and got ten ships and 350 volunteers on
promises of richness and land, and governor is screaming out “ go find these
men.” Cortez is screaming, “ come with me and we are going to get rich.” One can
see that a gambler and drinker often fantasize of such opportunity to find the
pot of gold. So one can see that Cortex demeanor is not about how sacred human
life is, but his own greed, this suited well with the conquistadors who did not
care about anything in life.
In 1519, Cortez took off, nothing would stop them, nothing got in their way, in
fact the governor called of Cortez for the mission, but he already had the
momentum and the ships he practically stole. Now from Cuba to Mexico, Cortez
lands and meets some wanders or runners of the Aztecs. Possibly tax collectors.
Cholulans, a tribe are friends with Montezuma, leader of Teotihuacán, the
mystical city, now known as any other despotic city of the ancient New World.
“They know you are coming.” Cholulans told Cortex troops. At this point
Montezuma sends gold to Cortez in efforts to appease Cortez coveting of wealth.
He finds in a local indian camp, La Maliche, the women that is integral in
Cortez’s scheme to get to Montezuma. By now, Cortez is wondering, “who is this
king who is sending me so much gold; I bet he has a warehouse full of the
stuff.” – te gamblers brain. He sends, La Maliche into the Cholulans camp as a
spy, and with a huge army of the Indians Cortez show great general leadership in
this episode of battle. He tells La Maliche to call a meeting with all the
chiefs in the center of town, there is about 20-50 indian chiefs who show up and
she gives at a point a signal to Cortex and his troops advances in surprise
attack that throws the Indians into complete confusion. There is another piece
to the puzzle, in that a rival indian tribe, the Talacalans, [Tlaxcalans] who
hated the Cholulans rushed in after the chiefs were killed and proceeded to kill
off the entire tribe, to which Cortez didn’t object too.
Waiting for supplies to show up and learning a little Nahuatl, Aztec language,
shipment comes from Spain, via Cuba, and after seven months of waiting it is off
to Teotihuacán. As he enters the valley you see magnificent causeways, three in
order, that protect, so to speak, the city of mystery. Surrounded by water, it
is said to be for the protection from invading armies, none such as this one.
Montezuma will be ready when Cortez arrives and both know – no war- just a
meeting first. For protection for Montezuma, only La Maliche, Spanish Priest and
Cortez go up to meet the leader of the feared Aztecs. Both could not touch each
other because of laws, but they exchanged necklaces. Montezuma and Cortex most
possibly didn’t trust each other and thought the other one would pull a knife
out of a pocket and stab the other.
The meeting must have been nice enough that Cortez using his fake charm tricked
ol’ Monte into giving him the grand tour. In fact, if Cortez would have shown
some courtesy by offering and then eating a few of his men, history may have had
a different outcome.
By this time the governor who gets words via supply ships knows Cortez is not
following his mission, in reality he lied, is getting a little jealous and
demands that some gold rumored he had gotten is to be sent back to the governor,
in which he will send to the crown. This is not the case; ol’ Cortez played his
cards right this time by already appeasing the Lords of Spain with tribute, thus
by passing the governor that will make him even more furious with jealousy.
The sprawl of sight was magnificent. The pyramid of the Sun raised high to the
eye against the sky, while the temple of the Moon soon made its presents known
as the beautiful corridor of shining gold and silver attire of the Aztecs
celebrating the sacrifice party of another glorious day in paradises. Cortez was
astonished at such a place. Big cooking pots at the foot of pyramids and
buildings for cannibal suppers and dancing and celebration on the streets and
250,000 Teotihuacán’s parting like there is no tomorrow.
The next day Cortez is on the floor of one of the great Teotihuacán structures
and he musters up the command to tell-off Montezuma. That he must accept
Christianity and stop the madness. Cortez tells Montezuma. “ he must stop this
crazy stuff, no more sacrificing and cutting out human hearts from live people
and then cooking and eating them.” Montezuma will stop to appease his new guest
for a while, as both see opportunities to know about cultures each one has never
Meanwhile, the governor summons Cortez, who has to go back and deal with the
fool. At that juncture the governor ( of Cuba) sent to Vera Cruz, orders to
bring back Cortez. Cortez knew that he sent gold, but went anyway to Vera Crews
to tell the messengers in person he was keeping the rules by sending back gold
to the crown. Pedro de Alvarado, sees that ol’ Monte is starting up the
sacrifices and cannibalism again, a grotesque sight for a civilized bunch to
endure, he goes out 200 miles away to Vera Cruz looking for Cortez to tell him
the news. Pedro was in charge and he saw the Aztecs getting ready to party once
again in their elaborate head dresses by testing the Spanish on their right to
eat it up.
Cortez gets back and another day party preparations is on the way and Cortez
faces off on Montezuma and an argument ensues, at this point it one force
opinion against the other and its off to the races as stones fly hitting
Montezuma in the temple, causing a hemorrhage that two days later the leader
surmises. If old Monte made it through the injury still may have had a different
outcome, so how ironic to see that the almighty Aztec leader is hit in the head
by a rock, by who knows whom, makes war inevitable and it’s all the army force
of the Aztecs against the Spanish.
The Spanish tried to retreat, remembering there is only three ways out and they
are all narrow bridges. This cause men to fall into the river and drowned as
Montezuma the now deceased men head out in kayaks with bows and arrows and row
up along side the bridges picking off Spanish left and right. It must have been
mayhem as some of Cortez’s men looted the warehouse of as much gold as they
could carry – thus some cost their lives as both them and the gold they are
carrying tumble into the lake. In the end the Spanish lost several hundred men.
Tlaxcalans tended to the Spanish wounds, hopping one day they would get a shot
at their arch enemies, surely they were supportive of the rulers perishment and
thanked the Spanish with dressings and indigenous ointments. Cortz slanted over
a tree and cries his eyes out over the loss. After he felt better and the
Tlaxcalans drew up battle plans as they waited fro new supplies of men and
ships. By know Cortez had told the Crown that he is conquering and doing work of
the crown and immense richness of metals of gold and silver lay within the city
and that it is worth it to conquer Teotihuacán.
The plan will be laid and much though into how they could fight on terms with
the Aztecs. Brigantines, small ships were made in countering the water terrain
that was so important to advancing and retreating from the mystical city of
horror. This mini navy will take on the kayak attack and forge pathways of the
causeways. Take control of the causeways, cut off the Aztecs and kill then off.
So in 1521 after the decisive Spanish victory of many more men and supplies the
Aztecs city was burnt to the ground by Cortes and a touch, “ Because the smell
of the dead bodies was too much.” Cortez pronounced it Mexico and at this moment
is termed the Hispanicization begins for the new world. This implies al Indians
must learn Spanish and Christianity
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