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Art & Architecture of Muscovy & Russia

notes By Michael Johnathan McDonald

Art & Architecture of Muscovy & Russia

Kiev brick cement. Pinkish, crushed brick, mixed into motor, highlights the Byzantine style.

Suzdalia white limestone, available locally.

Muscow, Cinnabar available.

 

#2) Vladimir’s second is the church the Cathedral of the Dormition of the Virgin (Uspensky Sober), known as the Desyatinnaya or Church of the (Virgin of the ) Tithe 989

Saint Vladimir Svyatoslavich the Great (c. 958 – Saint Sophia Cathedral in Novgorod, The five-domed stone cathedral was built by Vladimir of Novgorod on behest of his father, Yaroslav the Wise, as a sign of gratitude to Novgorodians for their support of Yaroslav's struggle for Kiev. ) was the grand prince of Kiev who converted to Christianity in 988, and proceeded to baptise the whole Kievan Rus. His name may be spelled in different ways: in Old East Slavic as Volodimir (Володимир), in modern Ukrainian as Volodymyr (Володимир), in Old Church Slavonic and modern Russian as Vladimir (Владимир), in Old Norse (produced from Slavic form) as Valdamarr and the modern Scandinavian languages as Valdemar. (Wiki)

Subject: Iconography, meaning the writing of the word in pictures.

 

Mosaic, pieces of glass, most of it is pieces of glass, some of it is natural stone. Dedicated to Archangel Michael, these Greek artists were more skillful, in figure making. Than haigia sofia.

 

Elongation of the figures bodies becomes a iconographic motif. 

Cannon, also mean writings.

 

4th century, is how old Christian Church services go back too in time.

 

Ch2 Architecture of Kiev

Vladimir returns from conquering Kherson 989 and imposed conversion. Chronicles of 822 record church of St. Nicholas built by Olma.  Vladimir’s first endeavor, St. Basil. First churches were wooden. Vladimir’s second is the  church the Cathedral of the Dormition of the Virgin (Uspensky Sober), known as the Desyatinnaya or Church of the (Virgin of the ) Tithe 989. This church represented the tithe instituted by Vladimir.  Also used as a palace chaple. It was a basilica with a nave and aisles ending in three semicircles apses and a wooden roof. Possibly a three apse basilica without a dome. Cathedral of St. Sophia, wooden church destroyed by fire in 1045, but chronicles say it was thirteen ‘ tops;’ silhouette pyramid appearance, its predecessor from Novgorod, Russian departure from Byzantine principles, so it marked the beginning of native tradition in masonry construction;  cross-plan, three bays of the nave to the north and south of the space beneath the central dome.

 

Ch4 Architecture of Vladimir-Suzdal:1100-1240; Slavs, early settlements,  forest lands between Oka & Volga rivers. Its cities commanded the headwaters of the Volga, control of trade routs in that region. Vladimir, Suzdal, Rostov the seat of the bishopric  - therefore, important,  increased in size. nomadic contact in the south – trade possibilities, sometimes strife; clearing forests for farming;  Pioneers from Kievan Russia; Ruling Princes Vladimir Monomakh (d. 1125) – Yury II defeated by Tartars 1238. Before Mongols, Suzdalia rivaled Kiev in masonry structures. Constantine founded school, monks, Latin & Greek, a library, 1000 Greek texts; before Monomakh most buildings wood; Novgorod, Kiev brick cement, Suzdalia white limestone, available locally. Kievan Paterik, source, build building like Pechersky church by measuring and copying in the city of Rostov during Vladimir Monomakh period. Vladimir’s son Yury I Dolgoruky ( George ‘Longarm’) built a similar church in the city of Suzdal. Suzdal Cathedral (1222-5). Between 1125 – 1152 no church building projects in Suzdal. Vladimir, Cathedral of the Dormitian, 1158-61, Churches of Vladimir represent a transplantation of the Kievan style of the second period (but not copyists). Andrey, Yury’s son, sacked Kiev in 1169. He was loyal to Suzdal. Yury & Andrey constructions reflected the struggle between boyars and prince. The churches Yuriev-Polsky and Pereyaslav were ‘garrison churches.’ Palace church were small, and they represent the masonry churches of ancient Russia. Possibly Galician builders were present in Suzdal. Yury founded at least five churches. Most important SS Boris and Gleb. With Andrey’s succession he began to build the Vladimir, Cathedral of the Dormitian, 1158-61, about ten miles away from Vladimir in the village of Bogoliubovo. At that time the church was known as Andrey Bogoliubsky.  Original- Six piers, three apses, and a single dome. Rebuilt in 1185-9. Andre assassinated in 1174, jealousy of aristocracy. Vesvolod III, Audrey’s younger brother continued building. First important endeavor was rebuilding the Dormition of Vladimir. In the new plan was similar to the multiple-celled, many piered style of St. Sophia in Kiev and Novgorod. It was the ‘ joy of Vladimir.’ Second project of Vesvolod, Church of St Dmitry, four-piered, single dome. Church of St. George (1229-34), Yury II’s brother, Svyatslav Vsevolodovich in the capital of his appanage; Yury II succeeded Vesvolod.  Period of increasing Mongol agitation. In 1471 the church collapsed, but it was resurrected at the command of Ivan III by the Moscow architect V.D. Ermolin. The end of architecture projects began around 1228 when the Mongols inflicted their first defeat on the Russians at the battle of Kalka. Nine years later, in the winter of 1237, they attacked Suzdalia. Vladimir was besieged, taken and burned. Best preserved old church, Pokrov, on the Nerl, near Vladimir.

 

Chapter 3 Hamilton

 

‘Novgorod school,’ attribution of an artistic style.

 

1103-1207, no fewer than 68 churches built, indicating great wealth of the city.

This is in contrast to Kiev where on ten churches were built in a century. In Kiev on princes built churches, whereas, in Novgorod, private citizens, groups and merchants built churches, indicating more economic freedom. Most small parish churches took three years to finish, whereas larger Sophias could take 20 years. Also, one can only produce the amount of churches when things become standardized. The six pier, five domed plan of Kiev and Vladimir were abandoned in favor of four pier supporting a single central dome (p39). Climate problems can possibly explain the onion or bulbous domes, where the snow needed to fall off the roofs or drainage from heavy rainfall. Kiev used masonry domes, whereas Novgorod used the onion style.

 

After the fall of Kiev under the Tartars Novgorod functioned as the main trade center. Pskov & Novgorod had close contact with the west, especially thought its contacts with German traders. West-to-east ( not n/s) Commercial quarters (Torgovaya Storona). Novgorod merchant family Stroganovs were instrumental in discovery and exploring the Siberia in 16 to early 17th centuries. Important factor in trade was being in good graces with the Posadnik ( Mayor). Alexander Nevsky received the title “of the river Neva” after he defeated the Swedes in 1236. In 1238 he won a victory stopping the Tartar advancements and he routed the German Knights on Lake Peipus in 1242 with skillful bargaining with the Tartars, to whom the court of Batu he visited no less than four times. (p37). 1475 Ivan III conquered Novgorod and its territory for control of Muscovy. Ivan IV.

 

Cathedral of Saint George’s -  architect ‘Master Peter,’ said to be the first truly native endeavor. Another differentiation than Bysantium architecture is that Russian architecture went away from the complex to the more practical and simple – toward simplification.  “ triple apses were almost submerged within the thick eastern wall.” (p44). One of the most significant is the sharper pitched roof plan, which differed from Bysantine and was do in large part because of the climate issues. Customary in Novgorod, each church had one apse and a single dome above a tall, gracefully proportioned drum (p47) .

 

“Pskov, the’ younger brother of Novgorod’, was also a free city during the earlier Middle Ages and just as jealous of its liberties, but it was less wealthy and its activities were more restricted by the pressure of its enemies, the Lithuanians to the west.” (47) .

 

 

Ch7

1169 Suzdalians attacked Novgorod.

1237 Mongols devastated Suzdalia.

Nogvgorod maintained the artistic endeavors after the Kievan state fell.

 

1045-’57, Novgorod Cathedral of St. Sophia was decorated in 1108-1144 with frescos and not expensive mosaics. It was damaged by fire during WWII, so hardly anything survived. (p80).

 

Mjm- Greek master in Novgorod, and Valdimire-Suzdal principalities. At the end of the 10th century, an immediate need for religious objects brought creative influences into Rus’. Articles of Greek Manufacture and the arrival of Greek artisans were a part of Kievan movement of prestige and to fashion the city as the center of religious authority (p107).

 

The refined Greek features…most delicate balance between supernatural and the human attributes. (p81). Byzantine art in examples consist of the real and ideal, a subtle equilibrium, the greatest and most characteristic. The Church of the Savior at Nereditsa (until WWII) contained the earliest complete ensemble of wall paintings. Built by prince Novgorod, Yaroslav Vladimirovich, in 1198 and painted the following year.

 

Local Novgorod dialects, some signatures, indicate Russians learning and contributing under Greek masters. Russian apprentices focus more on lines than modeling. (p86-88). “ Human element,” influence of the west. In Frescos more complicated scenes can be depicted, in otherwise mosaic fashion.  

Theophanes impressionism – chiaroscuro, shades of light.

 

Ch8

Russian art, far more personal icons, then Greek art- eastern art. (p97)

Westerners have a negative view on Russian/Byzantine art because they don’t understand the regions’ history. Until the 17th century icons were used as religious communications. When people became widely literate, the need for them dwindled.

Mind/emotions| nature/supernatural.

 

Scenes often partake of Apocrypha, the books allegedly left out of the Bible. In these books the Virgin Mary is a key player in Christ’s life, or a more active member lets say. Russians also added local saints and interpretations of their own history in art.

Virgin Mary: Bysantine Hodegetria (She who shows the way), the greatest popularity in Russia. Legend, Virgin Blacherniotissa (p101), apse of the church of the Blachemae in Constantinople.

Virgin Platytera, enthroned as queen of heaven. Autocratic reserve, not tenderness.

Frequently Old Testament scenes appear in Russian Art.

There own slant, Church fathers between biblic figures, a unique thing. (p103).

 

Earlier Icons were made of gold and silver and of Greek origin. In the 12th century ground white and yellow ochre substituted for these metals.

 

Flax-seed and olive-oil were used to cover frescos and paintings. There was a vibrant trade for these products. Over time, these products in use darken the surface of the art-work, and later generations tried to copy exactly the colors, not understanding that such things darkened them. (104).

 

Ch 9

End of 10th century

First icons were brought from Kherson to Kiev by Vladimir. 1155 Andrey Bogoliubsky took from the Kievan suburb of Vishgorod to Suzdalia, where he subsequently placed it in the Cathedral of The Dormition of Vladimir. This is regarded as the most venerated, and is called “Virgin of Vladimir”. (107).

 

The second group of Greek artists arrived to Kiev around 1073. They came to decorate Pechersky Dormition. (1131-1136); two icons of the Virgin Mary. In 1395 transferred to Moscow to the right of the Royal Doors in the late 15th century of the Cathedral of the Dormition in the Kremlin.

Russian masters worked under Greek supervision.

Second group of Greek artists arrived in Kiev around 1037. They came to decorate the Pechersky Dormition.

The spiritual energy of eastern, Syria religiosity was to find its parallel in Russia. Mystical energy, entering Russia through its many contacts with the east. (p114).

 

“ A mood of contemplation rather than observation.”

Ch10

Fundamentally Chiaroscuro: where the contour line is most prominent. (119).

Art: Palaeologos style mid-14th century revival of trade between Byzantine and Russia.

The legend of St. George, victorious over a dragon, probably derived from a fresco of about 1167 of the same subject in the church of St. George in Staraya Lodoga. (119).

Chiaroscuro is represented in Saint and Princess (p121), text (122)

 

Novgorod Currency in the 14th century: silver rods.

“After 1350 the Russian version of Palaeologos impressionism completely transformed the earlier two-dimensional linearism into a technique capable of communicating a much wider range of special experience. “ (p 123)

Only a few icons can be attributed to the 14th century.

Early icons: Nativity of the Virgin (c. 1325)

“ Accent of early severity can be found in many icons of the late 14th century, perhaps a refection of the life of the people during those difficult times and of the consciousness of the church.” (p127)

“ the large icon of SS. Paraskeva, Gergory the theologian, John Chrysostom, and Basil the Great illustrates the independence won by the Russian artists in these years.” (127-8).

Probably from the school of Pskov that utilized monochrome schemes. (p128). Russian artists reached a critical point in the development of a national style.

Theophanes the Greek frescos in the church of the Transfiguration of Novgorod.

Method of suggesting a three- dimensional forms; different from earlier 11-12th century where modeling in tomes and lines followed the curve of the plane – inseparable.

Ch.12

Moscow school, Rublev’s Trinity.

Novgorod school, St. Elais c. 1400.

Theophanes prophets, superhuman manifestations.

Novgorod, staple was the Four-Part Icon system. This came from early Christian and Byzantine models. Many were narrative paintings. This was a line of communication, offered as a substitute for literacy. One example: Was the battle between Novgorod and Suzdal in 1169, when Novgorod was besieged by Suzdalians.  This was the earliest known icon to deal with Russian history. (p144). Novgorod painters achieved almost a monopoly in the production of large icons for iconostasis…” (p148). In the Moscow fire of 1547, Novgorodian artists were called up to repair the damaged icons and other works of art. Novgorod is known for the Four-Part icon production. However, when mentioning “mixed styles”, meaning two schools or two styles, this meant that a new national style particularly just for Russian was developing. Finally, Novgorod style was basically practical matters.

 

14 th Century Frescos

 

(Frescos by Theophanes) 14th Century, Frescos in Novgorod: Church of the Transfiguration was built by the people living on the street. Rubble construction, brick, Church of the Savior on the main street,

Frescos the Greek master Theophanes,

Quick strokes of the brush, that suggest couture.  Sit on top of a column, a monk would sit for thirty years and people would lift up to them food, and, Theophanes painted from memory, and talking at the same time, he came north from Bysantine bring styles,

 

Hermit Monk, to desert to escape the pleasures, ascetic departure from this world, the white beard picture no face,

Most famous Fresco is the holy trinity, Abraham and Sarah, three angles, the elderly couple, ‘go get food we shale entertain these three strangers.’ This icon painting comes really important later on, a trefoil roofline, was used on this church.

 

Frescos is done on wet plaster, so can only do small patches at a time. If dry, called Fresco Secco.

(Different Church – no color Frescos in this one)

Moses and Noah, and three apostles fall down the mountain blinded by the light, the Transfiguration , the manifestation of the light is one of the most important things in Orthodox church.

 

Artists, nativity scene, Orthodox belief Christ was born in a cave. So these scenes are important in frescos in Russia. Medieval paintings were narrative, and renaissance were snapshots.

 Russia artists learned their iconography from their Greek masters, and from Books on iconography, and icon in Russia means ‘holy image’ plaster on wooden boards, and plaster is where the paint is laid. 6 feet tale is often a height so that many in Churches sitting far-off can see the iconic image. From portable icons, Russian learned their iconography too. Ikonopis’: To paint it  - is to write it.

 

The Bible says no engraved images of this world, but the saints are argued are not of this world, and the 7th ecumenical council, this issue was dealt with; argue: in theory this is a window to heaven in which we worship. In sense, when Christ was sent to earth, they argue,  God sent the first icon. Some argued, so to say, this was still improper.

 

 

 Cross-boards on the back on the boards, and in a grove, the boards must be seasoned, or dried for a year or two, cannot use a green[wood].  Older boards styles had a raised edge, and typically a canvas is glued to the wood, and 7-10 layers of gypsum or plaster were laid, and these layers fill up to the raised edges, flush now, and now it is ready. So if well prepared the painting can last centuries.

 

Oldest layers in the face of the famous virgin ( Mother and child) are supposed to be the originals, but artist found many layers of paint on her. The nose and eyebrows form a ‘T’ and, there is a suggestion of the three dimensional, but in reality most work is two dimensional in medieval style. Nose radii determine the proportions of the head, in figures. Circle, from the forehead to the bottom tip of the nose. Faces, were added only a little human touch, but tried to stick to the other worldly style. Most icons were painted from icon monastic schools. No true of three- dimensional illusionism in the medieval period. Our Lade of Legima ( The famous one) is the proto type of so many copied in the same style.

 

What happened in Russia before the Greek masters? No monastic icon schools, no icon books, but some copied from texts that had illuminations.

 

 

In general, icon painting, In practice no two icons are alike, even when copying from icon books. Local pigments, cinnabar pigment might not be available other places, some places yes. So these were hand works of art. And no two hand writing scripts for scribes were alike, so we see a comparison of similarity. 

 

 

Patter books, only appear in Russia in the 17th century. In these patterns books instructions to mix gesso, and pin-pricks were used in outlining before beginning with paint.

 

 

Wall of icons, the royal prayer-doors, where these were for confession. Lineseed oil, brightens when first put, but darkens over time, and so they put another layer and over time they paint over the darken layer – to brighten it up.

 

A famous icon collector wrote a book called “ black-boards” indicating this darken appearance of linseed, or flaxseed oil used as a varnish darkened over time the icons reserved till today. Now many restore them. Use turpentine. We can see paint, of the icon, after our techniques of restoration began to be perfected in the 20th century, then let say a icon copyist of a few hundred years ago.

 

 

So why dark skin or fleshtones? Because the copyist might have seen the darken varnish and thought that is how the flesh looked so needed to copy it as it looked. So they think the flesh is almost black.

Why repaint a Icon?

 

 

Changing taste in appearance, is one reason for repainting. Icon boards were often repainted.

 

All icons boards tend to bow-out. So steel frames, then the exploded, so cannot stop the bowing, just retard it. Cinnabar red, backgrounds.

 

 

Hierarchy, of Novgorod, the patron saint, will have the tallest figure in a icon narrative. The semantics, the language of the icon, the prominent figure is the patron’s decision, or the patron saint of the city or the church or we do not know.

Language of perspective or proportions, in medieval, inverse, or reverse perspective, instead of imaginary line in the distance where the perspective converges, it is opposite and sometimes multiple, the sides go outwards and not inwards, one might argue so that you see the both sides or from God’s eyes it is true perspective, especially multiple perspective. INVERSE PERSPECTIVE or MULTIPLE PERSPECTIVE.

 

For example seeing the external scenery and internal scenery and doing are parts of multiple perspectives. Can God see like this, or superman? Medieval two dimensional artistry worked as such.

 

Medieval Iconic narrative artistry: Intended to be vehicles for prayer, not to be put in museums where their was none back then.

 

 

Russian Iconography to the (Russiatation do not use this word) of transformation from the Byzantine style to the Russian new style.

 

Salonika Teacher Icon,  was standing and changed to be sitting, so looks odd.

 

8 pointed style of the Christian Cross. Not the western equal sided cross of the Middle Ages.

 

In Novgorod, Two Nicholas’s, painted as the same time, but different in Hamilton, so two styles, one raised an eyebrow, a human feeling to make him more assessable, again, no two Icons are alike, the painters could have been looking at different models.

 

Red Cinnabar was popular in Novgorod, important to note. There can be boarder scenes and a central icon figure in the center of a narrative board.

 

General, no two figures overlap, not natural, often dynamic poses, but most formalistic.

 

Vita: lives, Boris and Gleb, were warriors, early leaders in Rus’ history, and these 11th century Kiev and Rus’ saints, pop up in icons because in 989 is when Russian adopted Christianity, and these two martyrs were part of the first waves of early Russian Christians. So the reason these people are used in icons is cities tried to claim heritage to them.

 

Crosses on the Robes of a Byzantine Bishop.

 

Novgorod city-states trading with the west and thse Baltic ties,

 

Cities of major heresies were Novgorod, or the boarder towns. Hansiatic league connections, the trade-town it was more influenced to more different types of people.

 

 

Triangular proportions of God ( Novgorod), a formulations in later Icons. So when people pray, meditate they can envision the icon and concentrate on the picture to add a symbol of concentration.

 

Purification of the Virgin, 40 days the women was unclean after the child, cannot come into the church until after the 40th day, this was invented by man, not God.

 

Battle of Novgorod and Suzdal, a narrative in 15th century, threatened by Moscow, is a battle scene in the time of the 12th century, so the narrative, shown in three tears, and the army is coming from Suzdal, and the to protect the palladium, the first tier narrative; the second teir the three boyar princes from Suzdal come to negotiate peace, but Suzdal people from beyong shoot arrows at an icon of Novgorod; third tear, the Novgorod army  have three period saints, Boris, Gleb, St. George, (?and two others, making five). So they will win. So the narrative tells of a victory. So it this a image of a holy image or  a historical scene, if from ‘Novgorod the Great’ it is an Icon; it’s a miraculous tale if not from Novgorod.

 

 

The Byzantine miracle the multi perspective one, The Novgorod building up top, while the interior scenes and a cloud, it is a Russian theme, with the onion domes,.

 

 

Miracle of Archangel Michael

Protector of cattle and horses, very important to flocks of these in Russian religious lore.

 

When at Church, you learn to read and pray to the icon as there are the lessons in the church and can approach it in service and in church, so when illiterate you can read history and important things, but can be making more of this in modern history as icons are not important now that we all usually can read and write, so lessons are not necessary.

 

Before, icons were floating, some Novgorodian icons show saints on the grass, on the terra ferma.

 

 

 

White quick highlights suggest flesh, and.

 

 

 

Practice of the faith remains little teaching of the faith, taught by chant, liturgy, and iconic artwork, but most Rus’ clergy didn’t know Greek, Sanskrit, or Hebrew, or Latin, so most formation of the Christian church went isolated from the rest of the world. So the western church was more hierarchical and Eastern Church is much less centralized, and metropolitan, is underpaid, and not supported and ruled by others, like a pope figure. The Byzantinean Church was neither independent nor superior to the west, but paid worldly allegiance to Rome, but held its own values.

In Rus’ the grand prince ran the Religion in the realm, and the prince builds the sophias in the realms and directs the religious formations in the realm. When beating Turkish tribes, sometimes a grand prince built a church in honor of the victory. Monasteries were built to spread the Christian values…

 

 SEQ CHAPTER \h \r 1Class Annual 171A Russia 0235 DWINELLE  Monday Jan 29, 2007

 SEQ CHAPTER \h \r 1Subject: Architecture,

 

Core of the Rus’ trading company are Swedes, so this is the ethnicity.

 

Slavs. Baltic groups. And Finnic ( fins, Mari, Volga)

Finnic tribes before the Slavs

 

600 AD west of Kiev, before they came Baltic and Finnic north and along the middle Volga. They were there before the Slavs. Runic Stones in Sweden , in honor of my Rus’ relative in Sweden, so the Vikings were Sweden region and called themselves Rus’ according to the name of the shipping company, not a family name.

 

Cricket marshes slightly west of Kiev, in 600 AD. They started to branch-out, the branched out into the forest away from the nomadic horse steppe zones.

 

Primary Chronicle, is a work of literature, and created for a need of a ‘national myth building’. Urban-myth types of things, some truth in it but some exaggeration, or false stuff.

Why establish marital ties: Marital tie with Constantinople, Rus’ and Constantinople fight battles then sign treaties. We need to have a common level with them, show that we are friends, so we do not have to go to war with them all the time, and sometimes we need protection.

 

No many went after Rus’ because they were small significance, not too rich, if attack, one wanted the Capital of Eastern Rome, that was Constantinople.

 

 


 

1.               Monarch or popular regulation.

 

 

Progenitor: Prince Line: Riurik, 9th  century, princely line., residence Novgorod,

Important is the tradition, it is important to them,

 

Rus, Khallman, “Nomads of the Sea” name of a Scandinavian warrior trading company,  

 

12th, monk discovers the Prime Chronicle, in monastery, called the Laurentian Text.  Pro-Rus, Por Scandinavian, pro-slavs.  Written about Rurike ( Don’t trust).

Vikings had long-vision, a grand-planned,

 

Most of the Slavs were forest dwellers in Russia region ( Kollman).

Steppe: Nomads, Herding big economic, horses, economy is grasslands of the steppe like the great plains of America. Following their herds, fundamentally moving. Winter/summer pastures in different areas. Nomads are not farmers, so they do business with the forest-steppe slavs, get food from sedentary people like slavs.

Meat/horses, Slavs, honey, furs ( its cold), vetigables, grain, 

 

Long distant trading company was the nomadic people of the steppe, many people needed protection as well as a guild. Pay money, so hope by end of journey you still have a profit or break even. Spoiling our business, practices, confiscatory, do not destroy our business, sucks the blood out of the organism that we need to live and survive.

 

Entourage of nomads use Eagles, Golden Eagles, hawks, falcons for hunting.  Golden Eagles can bring down a wolf. Big tallions, not rabbit hunting, small deer antelope,

 

Then the oreintalism is that they are pillagers, roughians, bad people. But in reality other cultures,

 

“pax” means the peace of the steppe, but the Tartars established the “pax” Tartarica

 

Dry mares milk-cheese balls, and take Golden Eagles.

 

Tartar controlled 11 times zones, fulfilled a dream of the whole little tribes worshipping them, they were too small in number to hold on to it.

 

Viking came to exploit the long distant trade routs.

 

Who writes history, from what perspective, so the steppe nomads have gotten a bad rep over time because we are the writers. Why did Tartar decimate a community? To succumb a group. But cannot continue to terrorize them for long periods of time, must have poltical plan for long term.

 

Symbiotic relationship, between sedentary and pastoral (nomadic tribes),

 

Navigating the steppe was too hard for the Slavs, its like being lost in an ocean, they could not keep a bearing so-to-speak, so communication for expedition and conquest of the steppe was too difficult. Monads knew where they were at all times, and the farther they were away from Kiev the scarier it was for troops.

 

When Vikings came, they taught them navigation of their rivers and this helped teach the princes Rus’ land navigation and to travel better to make war on Kazan, etc…

 

Kiev, is the forest-steppe line. Below

 

Forest zone is acidic soil.

 

Cherno/zem black soil, best soil in the steppe, This is why the Slavs went into the steppe and so there is tension, (page-Golden) between sedentary and nomad.

 

Slaves, of all nationalities, and some slavs themselves, anyone who cannot resist.

 

Slave trading ( After conquest from a battle) not huge within Kiev and Rus’.

 

Hamilton west Art historian, so be careful, the ‘ russiticalilzation’ a bad word condescending. Volgograd Cathedral is a good example about the Greek masoners cut stone, and but later Slavs, once they had left, could not reproduce the feat, according the additions to the Church, made out of rubbles, and 

 

Why hasn’t Volgorod have beaten Moscow, and we the Russians would have been a democratic country – a sentiment offered sometimes.

Volgorod had a pluralistic, representative

Steppe noblemen are mainly cavalry, fast and best weapons, and also they had foot soldiers, too.

Slavs, students of the nomads: Horsemanship, get their horses from them.

Mongol turkey language ( in Russian), and intermixing, postal system , stamps, seals, terms color of a horse, parts for a horse, money ,

Pitch battle, Nomads are better on steppe, and so Slavs paid tribute, but farther in forest harder for the horses to get their so they went there.

Who are the princes, the ones that can afford horses, weapons, and buy friends, and they learn cavalrymen, and that is the background the Muscovy elite, in time of war they are General and in time of peace they are politicians.

Watch for condescending, Rus’ and steppe nomads, history written by sedentary white males, ( i.e fearsome savages).

Illustrates the cultural gulf between the two people. But there were also a symbiotic relationship. A mutual beneficial, or certain period there were raids, pillageing and going back to their nomad homes, two words touching themselves for a moment. At the same time a sedentary business is going on at the same time.

Like Venice Battling Ottomans, when ever Ottoman attacked Venice, trade would continue, just down to another port down the coast. Business didn’t stop.

Environment deterministic argument, Russia needed dictatorship, but that is extremist. God didn’t intend for people to live too far north in Eurasia ( Russia) you can only slash and burn so much - 10 years the soil is exhausted.

Farms patchwork strips 12 feet strips the scratch plow row, and looks like embroidery patch. In Rus’ begin allowing one strip to go fallow for one year but they didn’t know that. 

 

 

 SEQ CHAPTER \h \r 1Class Annual 171A Russia 0235 DWINELLE  Monday Jan 29, 2007

 SEQ CHAPTER \h \r 1Subject: Architecture,

Core of the Rus’ trading company are Swedes, so this is the ethnicity.

Slavs. Baltic groups. And Finnic ( fins, Mari, Volga)

Finnic tribes before the Slavs

600 AD west of Kiev, before they came Baltic and Finnic north and along the middle Volga. They were there before the Slavs. Runic Stones in Sweden , in honor of my Rus’ relative in Sweden, so the Vikings were Sweden region and called themselves Rus’ according to the name of the shipping company, not a family name.

Cricket marshes slightly west of Kiev, in 600 AD. They started to branch-out, the branched out into the forest away from the nomadic horse steppe zones.

Primary Chronicle, is a work of literature, and created for a need of a ‘national myth building’. Urban-myth types of things, some truth in it but some exaggeration, or false stuff.

Why establish marital ties: Marital tie with Constantinople, Rus’ and Constantinople fight battles then sign treaties. We need to have a common level with them, show that we are friends, so we do not have to go to war with them all the time, and sometimes we need protection.

 

No many went after Rus’ because they were small significance, not too rich, if attack, one wanted the Capital of Eastern Rome, that was Constantinople.

2.               Monarch or popular regulation.

Progenitor: Prince Line: Riurik, 9th  century, princely line., residence Novgorod,

Important is the tradition, it is important to them,

 

Rus, Khallman, “Nomads of the Sea” name of a Scandinavian warrior trading company,  

 

12th, monk discovers the Prime Chronicle, in monastery, called the Laurentian Text.  Pro-Rus, Por Scandinavian, pro-slavs.  Written about Rurike ( Don’t trust).

Vikings had long-vision, a grand-planned,

 

Most of the Slavs were forest dwellers in Russia region ( Kollman).

Steppe: Nomads, Herding big economic, horses, economy is grasslands of the steppe like the great plains of America. Following their herds, fundamentally moving. Winter/summer pastures in different areas. Nomads are not farmers, so they do business with the forest-steppe slavs, get food from sedentary people like slavs.

Meat/horses, Slavs, honey, furs ( its cold), vetigables, grain, 

 

Long distant trading company was the nomadic people of the steppe, many people needed protection as well as a guild. Pay money, so hope by end of journey you still have a profit or break even. Spoiling our business, practices, confiscatory, do not destroy our business, sucks the blood out of the organism that we need to live and survive.

 

Entourage of nomads use Eagles, Golden Eagles, hawks, falcons for hunting.  Golden Eagles can bring down a wolf. Big tallions, not rabbit hunting, small deer antelope,

 

Then the oreintalism is that they are pillagers, roughians, bad people. But in reality other cultures,

 

“pax” means the peace of the steppe, but the Tartars established the “pax” Tartarica

 

Dry mares milk-cheese balls, and take Golden Eagles.

 

Tartar controlled 11 times zones, fulfilled a dream of the whole little tribes worshipping them, they were too small in number to hold on to it.

 

Viking came to exploit the long distant trade routs.

 

Who writes history, from what perspective, so the steppe nomads have gotten a bad rep over time because we are the writers. Why did Tartar decimate a community? To succumb a group. But cannot continue to terrorize them for long periods of time, must have poltical plan for long term.

 

Symbiotic relationship, between sedentary and pastoral (nomadic tribes),

 

Navigating the steppe was too hard for the Slavs, its like being lost in an ocean, they could not keep a bearing so-to-speak, so communication for expedition and conquest of the steppe was too difficult. Monads knew where they were at all times, and the farther they were away from Kiev the scarier it was for troops.

 

When Vikings came, they taught them navigation of their rivers and this helped teach the princes Rus’ land navigation and to travel better to make war on Kazan, etc…

 

Kiev, is the forest-steppe line. Below

 

Forest zone is acidic soil.

 

Cherno/zem black soil, best soil in the steppe, This is why the Slavs went into the steppe and so there is tension, (page-Golden) between sedentary and nomad.

 

Slaves, of all nationalities, and some slavs themselves, anyone who cannot resist.

 

Slave trading ( After conquest from a battle) not huge within Kiev and Rus’.

 

Hamilton west Art historian, so be careful, the ‘ russiticalilzation’ a bad word condescending. Volgograd Cathedral is a good example about the Greek masoners cut stone, and but later Slavs, once they had left, could not reproduce the feat, according the additions to the Church, made out of rubbles, and 

 

Why hasn’t Volgorod have beaten Moscow, and we the Russians would have been a democratic country – a sentiment offered sometimes.

Volgorod had a pluralistic, representative

 

 

Steppe noblemen are mainly cavalry, fast and best weapons, and also they had foot soldiers, too.

 

Slavs, students of the nomads: Horsemanship, get their horses from them.

 

Mongol turkey language ( in Russian), and intermixing, postal system , stamps, seals, terms color of a horse, parts for a horse, money ,

 

 

Pitch battle, Nomads are better on steppe, and so Slavs paid tribute, but farther in forest harder for the horses to get their so they went there.

 

Who are the princes, the ones that can afford horses, weapons, and buy friends, and they learn cavalrymen, and that is the background the Muscovy elite, in time of war they are General and in time of peace they are politicians.

 


 

 

 

Watch for condescending, Rus’ and steppe nomads, history written by sedentary white males, ( i.e fearsome savages).

 

Illustrates the cultural gulf between the two people. But there were also a symbiotic relationship. A mutual beneficial, or certain period there were raids, pillaging and going back to their nomad homes, two words touching themselves for a moment. At the same time a sedentary business is going on at the same time.

 

Like Venice Battling Ottomans, when ever Ottoman attacked Venice, trade would continue, just down to another port down the coast. Business didn’t stop.

 

Environment deterministic argument, Russia needed dictatorship, but that is extremist. God didn’t intend for people to live too far north in Eurasia ( Russia) you can only slash and burn so much - 10 years the soil is exhausted.

 

Farms patchwork strips 12 feet strips the scratch plow row, and looks like embroidery patch. In Rus’ begin allowing one strip to go fallow for one year but they didn’t know that. 

 

 

 

 

 

                                 

 SEQ CHAPTER \h \r 1Class Annual 171A Russia 0235 DWINELLE  Monday Jan 29, 2007

 

 SEQ CHAPTER \h \r 1Subject: Architecture,


 

1.               Kievan society and Rus’ , economic,

2.               Marriage Contracts of various kings and queens of west Europe, the grand prince, used Khagan, great influence in the steppes, as a identifier to the east.

3.               Christianity, international community – reason for adoption. Coins struck, Byzantine like throne, Greek letters, Slavic symbols, and the Law code of 11-12th century,

4.               Yaroslav I the Wise (c. 978-1054) (East Slavic: Ярослав; Christian name: George; Old Norse: Jarizleifr) was thrice Grand Prince of Novgorod and Kiev, uniting the two principalities for a time under his rule. During his lengthy reign, Kievan Rus' reached a zenith of its cultural flowering and military power.

5.               Yaroslav I the Wise , patronage, left eloquent writings, left behind sermon on law in Rus’ describes Rus as part of universal history, and fulfils parts of Bibles prophecies, and speaks of Rus, one among equals with the Byzantine, Rus’ is not a poor or unknown land but is celebrated all over the world.

6.               Testament to his children, envision the role of the prince, and intermixes the past.

7.               Yaroslov’s Law Code, consist of two versions of it, it was a compendium, and short production late 11th, and princely power is unknown, face to face litigation, mono-momo, diatict relations, the economy is mostly agrarians, forest dweller, not much business in trade, and slavie code of customary law. Lots of recompense of theft, important in agriculture, no steal, interfere with fighting and hunting rights, one sees in the Rus’ the growth in towns.

8.               11th century, markets and towns developed, for the first time, more settled manner of governing, a tax system, and in second version of the Law Code, it the Prince taxation, most of the populous is free, a few slaves, not many. The second reduction, more economic activity, backrushes, loans, and temporary slavery, indentured servants, more money moving, towns grew up organically in concentric circles around the princes court, and, more social mobility and production in trade, and more landholding, donation to monasteries, more slaves and indentured servants. Urban aristocracy now living off their land all in the second edition. The third party, meaning the prince gets involved in dispute and pay a service for the time of his arbitrary.

9.               Tax exemption, by serving the prince, police duty pay no taxes, but was not a secure, a fragile, based on personal relationship, fragmentation,

10.            Big question, was Kievan Rus’ feudal?  

11.            FEUDALISM: USE WITH GRATE CARE: European political theory, reciprocal relations of lord and vassals- to lead to political pluralism, rights form regional vassals to leave and serve others.

12.            Marxist model: theological, slave society/ feudal/ bourgeois society ( capitalism,) Typically deterministic, most tried to modify what Marx had taught.

13.            Comparative politics, a weak central state, and ancient Greece, or modernday Iraq.

14.            Kiev and Rus’ economy, the polity  - kinship prince and boyars and is mostly minimalist, patrimonial theory, stress personal loyalty, symbolic strategies of claiming legitimacy, privileges, and mix of agrarian economy and there is still international trade thar brought the Vikings.

 

Crusise no longer making the big profits, cut of by steppe tribes in 1200s and Islam, so Slavs cut-off too,

1212AD east slavs no longer in communication with Byzantiim they were cut-off – no communication, no longer trade Dnieper, and so in 1300 pushed back and north, Mongols,

Cumans of Polovtsim, and Mongols cut off the steppe system, and Kiev was supposed to by where the price goes to rule to be close to the steppe to run the trade, and

 

Master of the steppe, the Mongols, kids on the horse, stirrups they developed and develop a special type of bow that gave them extra power  - a bone-bow, extra strength, and extension on the ends for extra power, no match for people on the ground. The double-s’s- shape of the nomadic/Mongol bow. Can shoot back and forward, wheel around on the saddle.

 

 SEQ CHAPTER \h \r 1Subject: Early clearly churches, a basilica, a form of judgment, a court for the princes,


 

15.            Basilica, first was a courthouse for the rulers or government, then it became synonymous with the Church. Baptized people can only go it, and ones not stay out side the catacombs.

16.            Apse to the east,

17.            transet ( alter area)  a cross section. Early trusts were wood, five isle church importance,

18.            Other floor plan of the Church was circular, babtisms, circular processions, and circler-plans 8 support columns under a dome,

19.            creates a vault over the circular center

20.            size however, is limited by floorspace that the dome will no collapse,

21.            pendentice, weight on drum and arches to hold the dome,

22.            Hamilton, the cross and square plan, the five-isled church single dome over the transept.

23.            Constantinople plan in the 10th century, western…

24.            996, Church, used later as a rock query for other church, it was a five isle church, apse projection.

25.            side chapels called prosystsis, the sacrifice were prepared here, the Decon keeps rudiment of the church in here.

26.            Food – sacrifice, functional use for storage place, and food, sacrifice,  - sometimes they are little chapels dedicated to the virgin Mary, and

27.            Haigia sohia, overall pyramid silhouette because of half-domes to the side, and a huge circler dome over the square floor, pierced by lots of little windows.

28.            Barrel or Tunnel Vault. Buttress, Voussoirs, keystone, use a scaffolding, a wooden form.

29.            arcade, a series of arches, and intradas the interior..

30.            Yaroslave ‘ the wise’ 1037? Built the church, see family tree…

31.            1019, end of ten year civil war, and 1019-1054, the ‘ the wise’ ruled for a long time and the law code under him, and the Church, the concept of God’s wisdom, originally 13 domes, and flat-round domes, typical of Byzantine, and Mediterranean world,  but north in winter snow no practical they made roofs more steep. To shed snow.

32.            Apse projections, seen from outside, demonstrate the East direction.

33.            Opus mixum, alternating mixture of brick, mortar, and rock. Most Byzantium building way.

34.            Naďve, transept, crossing, How many isles are the church on a floorplan?

35.            Princes worship on second floor in separate isle rooms so not get close to the people.

36.            Crossing-in-Square plan.

37.            Latin crosses were equaled armed, Columns can be made in equal-lateral crosses.

 

 SEQ CHAPTER \h \r 1Subject: Early basilica times, were the triumphal arch, the message on an arch, this time in a church with a message.

 


 

38.            Pendentives, support arches, support the dome.

39.            Mosaics and Frescos, This church is unique.

40.            Use Mosaic and decorative marble if you can afford it, but if not just fresco.

41.            Deesis ( entreaty, prayer) composition. Intercession, Mary, John the Baptice, and Jesus. Russianograghy very popular.

42.            Significant

 

Oranzy, the original prayer, like showing an armed knight you have no weapons in your hands, this is iconography, 3d century catacomb in Rome, where Christians went to hide from Roman atheistic

 

 

 

 

 SEQ CHAPTER \h \r 1Subject: Iconography, meaning the writing of the word in pictures.


 

43.            Topic

44.            Mosaic, pieces of glass, most of it is pieces of glass, some of it is natural stone.

45.            Dedicated to Archangel Michael, these Greek artists were more skillful, in figure making. Than haigia sofia.

46.            Elongation of the figures bodies becomes a iconographic motif. 

47.            Cannon, also mean writings.

48.            4th century, is how old Christian Church services go back too in time.

 

 SEQ CHAPTER \h \r 1Subject


 

49.            Political sponsorship of princes in churches,

50.            Relevance 1054 Yaroslavl’s death.

51.            There was a hippodrome in Constantinople.

52.            Next week Novgorod

53.            three projections of the apse sections is east.

54.            Greacca, holy Sophia in Kiev in Rus design and decorated by Russians, but Byzantine writings in 1940s were not good, but it was Byzantine influences.

55.            Most architectural historian are definitely out of the Byzantine world, the Rus knew were wood makers, so the early Rus’, masonry architecture they learn it from the Church construction.

56.            Rus’ build in wood, houses, but nothing in masonry until such examples as the Cathedrals, note neatly-cut stone, some not. 12th century cut-stone are rare, the stories go that architects came from afar. Was this a program by some Church promotion of Christianity.


 

 

 

Topic: Vladimir I “ Christianzer of Rus’  looks for religion in Constantinople, adopts Orthodox Christianity.

57.            Kieve 11th century, Cathedral of the Holy Sophia

 

 

The Art and Architecture of Russia

Vladimir first act, threw-out Perun, Volos idols, Kiev, First church dedicated to St. Basil, his patron., First were wooden structures. #2 church, Cathedral of the Dormition of the Virgin “Marble Church” (Desyatinnaya, f. 989, cruciform (not basilica), marbles and frescos), used as palace chapel. Sent for Greek artisans, no mention Yaroslav made similar call. Greek priests accompanied Anna to Kiev, beginning of ecclesial apparatus. Later, Yaroslov, Christian culture developed, more monks, etc…supreme achievement, Cathedral of St. Sophia (emulation ‘contested’ of Justinian’s Hagia Sophia ( Church of holy wisdom)). Novgorod Chronicle says 1018 founded ( church burning in Kiev one year prior), many sacks, many rebuilds, many additions ( 8 new domes in 1685-1707). Silhouette pyramid shape, thick reddish quartzite and thin buff brick, bound in pink mortar ( pieces of brick in mortar), same as in contemporary Byzantium practice. Most notable departure from Byzantine practice – thirteen cupolas ( Christ and 12 apostles). (13 vierkhi), chronicled before fire in 1045. 1100 outer galleries finished, new buttresses. Glittering polychromatic fabric, first great symbolic expression in Russia; Interior space, 1/3 in size  to Hagia S., possibly to support the 13 domes. Written about by visitors, and example of Russian grandeur. Hist of construction. Continues Eastern Pressure halted building in general. Changing requirements, less complicated structures, less money, less time, less loss in wartimes. New types, Cathedral of the Transfiguration ( Spaso-Preobrazhensky Sobor) in Chernigov, 1017, by Mstislav of Tmutarakan, younger brother of Yaroslav. Asia Minor influences, rebuilt in 17th cent. St. Theodosius, the second abbot, 1073, began Cathedral of the Dormition in the Monastery of the Caves, Kiev – first monastic order, monks lived. Larva chronicles mention Constantinople artisans. Church of the Redeemer in the Birch Wood, built by Vladimir Monomakh, c. 1100, burial church for dynasty, Russian adaptation of Greek technique. First artistic works supervised by Greek Clergy. Red dominate hue. Combination of fresco and mosaic common in Caucasus, not in Byzantium. New iconic symbolism bound Greek-Russian for centuries, mural painting. Last judgment usually depicted on the west wall replaced with enthroned Christ approaching from the left with Yaroslav holding a model of the church…Arrangement, Christ’s early life depicted on the floor and progresses to the Pantokrator ( Medallion); general frescos, last less than mosaic, were predominantly Byzantine, executed by Greek masters. Mosaics, second period of Byzantine painting style. 1843 found stair-tower to  galleries, 130 figures, life at Byzantine Court. Break in workmanship, until  Tzargrad-Greek masters, later generation,  decorate St. Michael (after 1108). After the first period of Kievan art, frescos replaced mosaics for financial considerations.

Aspects of the Nomadic factor in Economic Development of Kievan Rus’

Theme: topic nomads. Historiography: Nomadic blamed for the ruin of Rus’ land comments by Volodimir Monomakh ( Congress of Dolobs’k in 1103 – commonplace in chronicles to exonerate the poganye. Pokrovskii, suggested also princely strife. Jerome Blum, faltering nomadic activity, 12th cent; Richard Pipes, nomadic harassment. General terms, broad themes, often do not describe complex relations in history, especially concerning long time-frames.  19-20th century scholarship, Slavic-nomadic confrontation pushed back the Slavs.  B.D. Grekov, patriotic nomads, and Rus’ assimilation of steppe tribes. V.V. Confederations formed against Nomads. Rus’. Kargalov, nomads ‘tore’ land away from Rus’ people, fled north. Nomadism as an economic system, pastoral production trade with sedentary neighbors. Golden, Slavs, Vikings in eastern Rus’ were composite entities- Slavs, Finnic, and other elements. Trade/Landed Liubeck congress 1097 , “ nomads of the sea” get land rights. Significant eastern trade 750 ( note: Period of Abbassid Golden Age), north south trade routs valuable to opportunists. Rus’-Byzantine trade in ear of Ol’ga and Svaitoslav (d. 972) were slaves, furs and honey. Commercial competitors of nomads: Horse trade from Nomadic peoples. major point, nomadic polities for much of the history were ‘ not organized states.’ Khazar Kaganate one true exception, destroyed by the Rus’. Volga Bulgaria, never formed real a threat to Rus’. Mongols organized nomads in history. Nomadic society: Slavs, closet contact. Chernozem steppe, little use for agriculture, nomads here had to gain access to goods. Nomadic societies have greater need for trade than sedentary. If one fails at nomadic life, they often go to sedentary life – hard life. Predation when cannot trade, attacks on sedentary populations, deliberate terror tactics, to made them more willing ‘partners’ in redistribution of goods. So new view, it was sedentary pressure that caused the nomads to attack.  Steppes were centuries’ old preserve for nomads. Egalitarian, but hieratical existed, so contradiction. Also were currier-like service to state and individuals.

 

Ch2 Architecture of Kiev; Vladimir returns from conquering Kherson 989 and imposed conversion. Chronicles of 822 record church of St. Nicholas built by Olma.  Vladimir’s first endeavor, St. Basil. First churches were wooden. Vladimir’s second church the Cathedral of the Dormition of the Virgin (Uspensky Sober), known as the Desyatinnaya or Church of the (Virgin of the ) Tithe 989. Cathedral of St. Sophia, wooden,fire in 1045, ‘ tops;’ silhouette pyramid appearance, predecessor Novgorod, Russian departure from Byzantine;Vladimir built Desyatinnaya, palace church, ( Saw basilicas in Kherson) Greek artisans accompanied Princess Anna. Yaroslav ‘ the wise’ overthrew his brother, Svyatopolk ‘ the cruel’ ( r. 1019-’54), Church of St. Sophia, greatest monumental religious  structure in Russia, (1017? or 1037) stands, in honor; Nine-isle plan (originally 1 nave, 4 isles), Reached definitive form in 1100, polychromatic fabric, symbolic expression of Russian architecture. Dutch artist, Abraham van Westerveldt, meticulous drawings. With Desy., St. Sophia., destroyed St. George & St. Irene formed an important group of multi-isled churches in southern Russia. Hilarion first metropolitan.

Ch4 Architecture of Vladimir-Suzdal:1100-1240; Slavs, early settlements,  forest lands between Oka & Volga rivers. Its cities commanded the headwaters of the Volga, control of trade routs in that region. Vladimir, Suzdal, Rostov the seat of the bishopric  - therefore, important,  increased in size. nomadic contact in the south – trade possibilities,Pioneers from Kievan Russia; Ruling Princes Vladimir Monomakh (d. 1125) – Yury II defeated by Tartars 1238. Before Mongols, Suzdalia rivaled Kiev in masonry structures. Constantine founded school, monks, Latin & Greek, a library, 1000 Greek texts; before Monomakh most buildings wood; Novgorod, Kiev brick cement, Suzdalia white limestone; Galician builders were present in Suzdal. Yury founded at least five churches. Most important SS Boris and Gleb. With Andrey’s succession he began to build the Vladimir, Cathedral of the Dormitian, 1158-61, about ten miles away from Vladimir in the village of Bogoliubovo. At that time the church was known as Andrey Bogoliubsky.  Original- Six piers, three apses, and a single dome. Rebuilt in 1185-9

Andre assassinated in 1174, jealousy of aristocracy. Vesvolod III, Audrey’s younger brother continued building. First important endeavor was rebuilding the Dormition of Vladimir. In the new plan was similar to the multiple-celled, many piered style of St. Sophia in Kiev and Novgorod; resurrected Ivan III by the Moscow architect V.D. Ermolin. The end of architecture projects began around 1228 when the Mongols inflicted their first defeat on the Russians at the battle of Kalka. Nine years later, in the winter of 1237, they attacked Suzdalia.

Chapter 3 ‘Novgorod school,’ attribution of an artistic style.

1103-1207, no fewer than 68 churches built, indicating great wealth of the city.

This is in contrast to Kiev where on ten churches were built in a century. In Kiev on princes built churches, whereas, in Novgorod, private citizens, groups and merchants built churches, indicating more economic freedom. Most small parish churches took three years to finish, whereas larger Sophias could take 20 years. Also, one can only produce the amount of churches when things become standardized. The six pier, five domed plan of Kiev and Vladimir were abandoned in favor of four pier supporting a single central dome (p39). Climate problems can possibly explain the onion or bulbous domes, where the snow needed to fall off the roofs or drainage from heavy rainfall. Kiev used masonry domes, whereas. West-to-east ( not n/s) Commercial quarters (Torgovaya Storona). Novgorod merchant family Stroganovs were instrumental in discovery and exploring the Siberia in 16 to early 17th centuries. Important factor in trade was being in good graces with the Posadnik ( Mayor). Alexander Nevsky received the title “of the river Neva” after he defeated the Swedes in 1236. In 1238, German Knights, Lake Peipus in 1242 with skillful bargaining with the Tartars, to whom the court of Batu he visited no less than four times. (p37). 1475 Ivan III conquered Novgorod and its territory for control of Muscovy. Ivan IV.Cathedral of Saint George’s -  architect ‘the Lithuanians to the west.” (47)

Ch71169 Suzdalians attacked Novgorod;1237 Mongols devastated Suzdalia.

Nogvgorod maintained the artistic endeavors after the Kievan state fell;1045-’57, Novgorod Cathederal of St. Sophia was decorated in 1108-1144 with frescos and not expensive mosaics. It was damaged by fire during WWII, so hardly anything survived. (p80).Greek artisans part of Kievan movement of prestige; refined Greek features…most delicate balance between supernatural and the human attributes. (p81). Nereditsa (until WWII) ;Novgorod, Yaroslav Vladimirovich, in 1198 and painted the following year. Local Novgorod dialects; Frescos more complicated scenes; Theophanes impressionism – chiaroscuro, shades of light.

Ch8 Russian art, far more personal icons, then Greek art- eastern art. (p97)

Westerners have a negative view on Russian/Byzantine art because they don’t understand the regions’ history. Until the 17th century icons were used as religious communications. When people became widely literate, the need for them dwindled.

Mind/emotions| nature/supernatural;Apocrypha;books the Virgin Mary is a key player in Christ’s life, or a more active member lets say. Russians added local saints;Virgin Mary: Byzantine Hodegetria (She who shows the way), the greatest popularity in Russia. Legend, Virgin Blacherniotissa (p101), apse of the church of the Blachemae in Constantinople. Virgin Platytera, Earlier Iconsgold and silver;not understanding that such things darkened them. (104)

Ch 9 First icons were brought from Kherson to Kiev by Vladimir. 1155 Andrey Bogoliubsky took from the Kievan suburb of Vishgorod to Suzdalia, where he subsequently placed it in the Cathedral of The Dormition of Vladimir. This is regarded as the most venerated, and is called “Virgin of Vladimir”. (107).second group Greek artists 1073. Pechersky Dormition. (1131-1136); two icons of the Virgin Mary. In 1395 transferred to Moscow to the right of the Royal Doors in the late 15th century of the Cathedral of the Dormition in the Kremlin. SS. Paraskeva, Gergory the theologian, John Chrysostom, and Basil the Great earlier 11-12th century where modeling…curve of the plane – inseparable.

Ch.12 Moscow school, Rublev’s Trinity; Novgorod school, St. Elais c. 1400.

Theophanes prophets, superhuman manifestations; Novgorod, Four-Part Icon system;line of communication, battle Novgorod and Suzdal 1169, Novgorod painters achieved almost a monopoly in the production of large icons for iconostasis…” In the Moscow fire of 1547, Novgorodian artists were called up to repair the damaged icons and other works of art;” mixed styles”, meaning two schools or two styles, this meant that a new national style particularly just for Russian was developing. Finally, Novgorod style was basically practical matters.

White Cowl, (Symbol, resurrection of the Orthodox Church by Russia in General, or the heads of Archbishops of Novgorod). the cornerstone of Russian medieval ideology, conceived with the purpose of defending the sovereignty of the Novgorodian Church, in particular, and the Russian Church, in general, from encroachment by the Grand Duke of Muscovy,  Concept, Book of Danial (Old Testament 7:27) , formulated by Monk Philotheus (circa 1510—1540) when he wrote: “All Christian realms will come to an end and will unite into the one single realm of our sovereign, that is, into the Russian realm, according to the prophetic books, Both Rome’s fell, the third endures, and a fourth there will never be.”’ (Three parts, analogues to Father, Son, and Holy Spirit “third Rome”) First Constantine, Rome, and then Constantinople, taken over by Ottomans 1453, then passed on to Archbishop of Novgorod. Therefore, Russia becomes the keeper of the true Christian flame. The tale states that a century before the fall of Constantinople, God, who had predestined the last Orthodox nation, after the fall of Byzantium, to be Russia, commanded that the White Cowl be taken to the Archbishop of Novgorod, Vasily.

Alexander Nevsky: (Object to keep the faith)  courage, piety,  heroism, lasting fame, Russian pride, three front war n/w/east ( Mongols) & Western Country: the Livonian Order of German Knights; Battle against the Roman Catholics; Battles of adversary from the Western Country; Pelgusius was the head of a local Finno-Ugric tribe and was converted to Christianity by the Russians. Prince Alexander (1220—1263) was the son of Great Prince Yaroslav of Vladimir. and grandson of Great Prince Vsevolod the Great Nest (1154—1212), who was instrumental in transferring the balance of power from declining Kiev in southern Russia to the city of Vladimir in the north, where a new capital of the Russian land developed. Most Vitae described Russian monks, or bishops. Metaphors to biblical figures off-set the text comparison to Alexander. He liberated Pskov (1242). Uniter of Orthodox people.  Batu saw him, he marveled; Alexander refused to participate…Alexander succeeded this time in convincing the Great Khan of the Golden Horde not to use Russian troops in his campaign. In later years, however, Russian armies were forced to lend a hand in the Mongol’s conquest of China.

Reinterpreting Russian History: Readings, 860-1869s, Women in Medieval Novgorod.

Church Statute of Iaroslav; ecclesiastical jurisdiction. modest role in society; two groups: “good” and “evil” women. Didactic literature; socially independent; Privileged women; Russkaia Pravda; slaves living under free women; Lower strata women; very limiting. bleaching, brewing and weaving. Property rights; Aristocratic women

Birchbark documents also showed women lent money. In early Novgorod history women could only hold movable property.  Only in the 14 – 15th , acquisition of extensive rights to land by aristocratic Novgorod women. “A women is ruled by her husband, her husband is ruled by the prince and the prince is ruled by God.”

State-Building in Post-Kevian Rus’, In 1136 Novgorodians’ overthrew their prince, and established a system that required a new prince to agree to limitations of the exercise of his power.

 

           

UC Berkeley, History 171A Instructor: Jack Kollmann

Russia to 1700 Wednesday, 7 February 2007

Lecture 6: Architecture and Frescoes in

Vladimir-Suzdal’, Novgorod, and Pskov

I. Decline of Kievan Rus’ -- review

shifting control of trade routes in Mediterranean

decline of N-S trade route in Eastern Europe

steppe nomad tribes north of Black Sea

Mongol/Tatar empire, 13th C.: Pax Tatarica over entire silk & spice route

Russian lands under Kipchak Khanate (Golden Horde); capital at Sarai on lower Volga internecine warfare among Riurikid princes

sons of Grand Prince (& St.) Vladimir I (d. 1015) of Kiev

son Sviatopolk the Damned kills brothers Boris and Gleb

Iaroslav the Wise drives out brother Sviatopolk

Kiev sacked in the internecine struggle

II. Rise of Vladimr-Suzdal’ in the NE

Grand Prince Vladimir Monomakh of Kiev, 1113-25

son Iurii Dolgorukii (George Long-Arm), Grand Prince of Suzdal’, 1149-57

Iurii’s sons: Andrei Bogoliubskii (Andrew the God-Loving), Grand Prince of Vladimir,

1157-74

Iurii’s other son: Grand•Prince Vsevolod Big Nest (bol’shoe gnezdo), 1176-1212

Vsevolod’s grandsons include Aleksandr Nevskii, Prince of Novgorod, 1252-63

son of Aleksandr Nevskii Daniel of Moscow, whose descendants become the Moscow dynasty

III. Church architecture and external sculpture in Vladimir-Suzdal’

A. Cathedral of the Transfiguration, Pereiaslavl-Zalesskii, 1152-1158

Prince Iurii Dolgorukii.

 

B. Church of the Intercession (or Protection: Pokrov), 1150s and 1180s 4-piered, single-domed, 3 apse projections

ashlar (cut, dressed, squared) blocks of limestone

helmet-shaped original dome

band of blind arcading at half height and on apses

bas-relief sculptures in zakomary (gables)

drum of dome: shingle-like carving, sawtooth frieze

rounded door surrounds

acanthus (palmetto) leaves; colonettes of blind arcade

 

facade sculpture: heads of humans, chimeras, lions, griffins, birds, bulls middle gable on N/W/S facades: King David

female heads; facing lions

Physiologus, popular medieval bestiary

sources of ornamentation?: Byzantium; German Romanesque

door surrounds: repetitive leaf, vine and tree designs

possible influence from Armenia and Georgia

Iurii, son of Andrei Bogoliubskii of Vladimir, married Queen Tamara

of Georgia in 1185

 

C. Bogoliubovo (‘Place Beloved of God,’ of”Place That Loves God”)

Prince Andrei Bogoliubskii; former palace and church

 

D. Cathedral of the Dormition (or Assumption) (Uspenskii sobor)

1158-61; rebuilt 1185-89

Kliazma River

one dome, then 5 domes, helmet shaped

3 aisles, then 5 aisles; 3 apses projections

dressed/cut limestone

facade ornamentation similar to Nerl’ church

 

E. Cathedral of St. Dmitrii, 11 90s (Demetrius of Salonika, 3rd-4th cc,)

I dome, 4 piers, 3 apses

surface bas-relief sculpture: beasts, real and mythical; King David; Alexander the Great; Vsevolod III Big Nest; St. Theodore Stratilates St. George Sts. Boris & Gleb

upper register: 566 sculptured items -- 470 beasts and plants, 46 saints interior frescoes: apostles

F. Iur’ev-Pol’skii (or Yuriev-Polsky), Cathedral of St. George, 1229-34; 1470s

collapsed, reassembled in 1470s by Ermolin (from Moscow)

rich facade ornamentation (as in Vladimir Dmitrii Cathedral)

rarity of sculpture in Russian lands, discouraged by Church

IV. Architecture of early Novgorod

A. Holy Sophia Cathedral

first cathedral ordered built by Vladimir I (Kiev) in 989 of oak; 13 “tops1’ (verkhi); burned 1045

Vladimir’s son, Iaroslav the Wise (Prince of Novgorod, then Kiev), commissioned masonry cathedral

5 domes over cathedral; plus one dome over staircase tower

5, then 7 aisles; originally 3 apse projections

outer galleries at N & S raised and vaulted; quadrant (half-barrel) vaults

quadrant vaults buttress central core

material: outer added galleries of rubble (uncut stone in mortar, made pink by

 

addition of crushed brick

on original apses: more ordered layers of Byzantine opus mixtum

Sophia Cathedral the seat of the Novgorod bishop, then archbishop (1165)

B. Iur’ev Monastery, Cathedral of St. George; Master Peter

asymmetric placement of domes: main one over crossing; smaller dome over SW corner; attached staircase tower at NW

rubble construction: uncut stone in mortar made pink from addition of crushed brick

C. Church of the Transfiguration at Nereditsa: 1 dome, 4 piers, 3 apses, the outer 2 lowered; rounded gables; destroyed in WWII, rebuilt since frescoes

V. Architecture of Novgorod’s classic period, l4th-l5th cc.

A. Church of the Transfiguration of the Savior in Ilin (Elijah) Street, 1378

frescoes by Feofan Grek (Theophanes the Greek):

Old Testament Trinity

Noah; Abel; Makarii

stylite saints

B. cf. Church of Theodore Stratilates (the Warrior, the General) ‘on the Brook’

 (na ruch’iu, 1360-61; trefoil roof line

 

C. cf. Church of Sts. Peter and Paul in Kozhevniki (Leather Workers’ District),

1406 trefoil roof line, wooden shingles on vaults and dome

construction: uncut stone, mortar; bricks for accent lines

D. cf. Pskov architecture; Trinity Cathedral; multi-sloped roofs atop rounded vaults Pskov ‘kremlin” called “Krom” (similar root: kreml’, probably meaning

oaken stockade)

F. Church of the Dormition in Volotovo Field, Novgorod, 1352, Frescoes 1380s

VI. Novgorod trefoil gables appear in Moscow

 

 

Iconography

Russia to 1700

Introduction to Russian Icons and Iconography

1. Finish Novgorod frescoes of the 14th c.

Church of the Transfiguration of the Savior in Il’in (Elijah) Street, 1378

frescoes by Feofan Grek (Theophanes the Greek)

stylite saints, Abel; Makarii (4th-c. Egyptian desert father)

Old Testament Trinity

Church of the Dormition in Volotovo Field, 1352, frescoes 1380s (not extant)

 

STOPPED HERE

 

II. The Byzantine background and early Rus icons

Kiev Holy Sophia Cathedral, 11th c., mosaic of Mother of God Orans (Orante) ef. Great Panagia. full length icon of Mother of God with medallion of Christ

on her breast (from Greek, pan-hagia, all holy)

half-height Mother of God of the Sign (Isaiah 7: 14))

construction: support (carrier) = boards joined together, cross splines at back to hold them together and retard warping

warping is always outward, towards us

icon = ikona = image, esp. portable holy image

iconography = ikonopis’ lit., the writing of the image

iconoclastic controversy, 8th-9th cc.

iconoclasts: lit., breakers of the images

make no graven image of the Lord

saints are incorporeal, not of this world

images can become like idols, worshiped for themselves

iconodules: lit., lovers of the images

discourage sculpture as too this-worldly

Christ = the Lords first ‘icon, made in His image

icons can be vehicles through which we worship the heavenly archetypes

III. Early icon themes in Rus’

The Vladimir Mother of God

Savior Not-Made-By-Hands, or mandilion

flat, 2-dimensional style of medieval art vs. chiarascuro (light/dark), 3-dimensional legend: St. Luke painted the first icon of Mother and Child

icon type: Mother of God Hodegitria (she who points the way)

Virgin Orans; cf. Great Panagia (from Greek pan-hagia, all holy)

Archangel Gabriel: Byzantine icon

cf. Angel with the Golden Hair (Novgorod)

cf. Pskov Gabriel

cf “Northern” Gabriel

 

IV. Making, painting, and restoring icons

the artist as copyist, like a scribe: copy from holy examples, changing nothing different “hands”

pattern, or cartoon books not used until 17th c.

the ground: gesso, fine plaster; mixture of gypsum and size, which is a weak glue solution)

painting with tempera; egg yolk emulsion, natural pigments

restoring tempera painting

olifa = boiled linseed (or flaxseed) oil, used as varnish over tempera paint

Vladimir Soloukhin, Searching for Icons in Russia; Russ. title: Chernye doska, “black boards”

icons in process of restoration

dark flesh tones (esp. Pskov ‘School): explanations

warping outward towards us

sculpture discouraged by the Orthodox Church (too ‘this-worldly,” too close to pagan idols)

inverse/reverse/multiple perspective; composite views

reminder: icons holy, a means of dialog between believer and heavenly archetypes

V. Early Rus’ icons, c. l2th-l3th centuries

Vladimir Mother of God (tenderness type) (Hamilton 54)

Ustiug Annunciation (Hamilton 55)

note proportions of Virgin’s head

cf. more linear head of Gabriel; cf. Angel with the Golden Hair ( Archangel

Garbiel; Hamilton 62)

Great Panagia Mother of God (Hamilton 57)

cf. Pskov version with local prince and princess

St. Demetrius of Salonika Enthroned (Hamilton 58)

Savior Not-Made-By-Hands (archeiropoietos; Nerukotvornyi) (Hamilton 59); or mandilion (cloak that Christ wore)

Adoration of the Cross (Hamilton 60)

2-sided icon; other side = Savior Not-Made-By Hands

Calvary; Adam’s skull; Golgotha = place of the skull = Rus., lohnoe mesto

St. Nicholas (Hamilton 61)

St. Nicholas (Hamilton 63)

Savior with the Golden Hair (Hamilton 62; Sal’ko 187)

Sts. John Climacus (of the Ladder), George and Vlasii (Blaise); Novgorod icon (Hamilton 64)

“semantics” of the icon: why is John much larger?

Vi. Early Rus’ icons, 14th-i 5th cc.

St. George and the Dragon, Novgorod (Hamilton 65)

border scenes of his vita

 

cf. 14th-c. Novgorod St. George and Dragon

Saints Boris and Gleb, Moscow/Suzdal School (Hamilton 66)

cf. Pskov Boris and Gleb on horseback, Pskov School

cf. Saints Boris and Gleb with Life Scenes, early 14th c., Moscow School

This icon, #209 in the inventory of the State Tret’iakov’ Gallery, Moscow, is pictured in the following books:

Alpatov, Early Russian Icon Painting, #s 52-5 3

Lazarev. Moscow School of Icon Fainting, #s 3-8

Moscow Icons (Smirnova), #s 46-52

The border scenes are arranged in the following order, matching the Vita of Sts. Boris and Gleb:

 1   2   3     7
9               8
10           12
11           13
4              5
6  14  15 16
Border scenes marked with an asterisk will be shown.

1. Vladimir Sviatoslavich (Grand Prince Vladimir I) presents his son Boris with a sword and sends him out into battle with the Pechenegs.

2. The burial of Vladimir.

*3 Boris returned, not having met the enemy (“Boris vozvratisia, ne obrete supostat”).

*4 Boris foretells to George the Hungarian that a martyr’s death threatens both of them at the hands of Sviatopolk.

*5 Sviatopolk pays off the murderers.

6. Siatopolk orders the men of Vyshgorod to kill Boris.

7. Boris prays with his servant, George the Hungarian (Ugrin) in his tent.

*8. In a dream, Boris foresees his death (“Boris vidit son o smerti svoei”).

*9 The murder of Boris and George the Hungarian.

*10. Burial of Boris at Vysegorod.

11 1-us cook, Torchin, murders Gleb, by order of Sviatopolk.

*12. They threw Gleb’s body between two logs (“Povergosha Gleba mezhiu dvema kolodoma”).

13. Transfer of the remains of Boris and Gleb.

14. laroslav the Wise (brother of Boris and Gleb) joins battle with their brother Sviatopolk. 15. Sviatopolk is wounded.

16. Sviatopolk’s body is thrown into a cave, somewhere “between the Czechs and the

Poles (mezhdu Chekhi i Liakhi).”

 

The Virgin’s Assembly (Pskov; Hamilton 68)

The Nativity of the Virgin (Novgorod; Hamilton 67)

St. Paraskeva, Gregory, John Chrystom, and Basil the Great (Pskov; Hamilton 69)

The Prophet Elijah (Novgorod; Hamilton 81)

cf. Nereditsa fresco

Four-part icon, Novgorod (Hamilton 82-83)

Raising of Lazarus

Presentation of the Christ Child in the Temple

St. John the Evangelist Dictating his Gospel to His Assistant, Prokhor

Old Testament Trinity

The Intercession (or Protection) (Pokrov) of the Virgin

perspective: true, inverse, multiple/summation, dynamic

Nativity of the Virgin

Deposition (taking Christ’s body from the cross)

Florus, Laurus and the Archangel Michael

St. Paraskeva-Piatnitsa (patron saint of market day, Friday)

The Battle Between the Novgorodians and the Suzdalians (Novgorod; Hamilton 84)

 

Question: Is this an icon?
The Protection (or Intercession;
Pokrov) of the Mother of God (Novgorod; hamilton 85-
86)
St. Paraskeva-Piatnitsa (Novgorod I-hamilton 90)
Saints Florus and Laurus (Flor & Lavr)
( Miracle of the Archangel Michael and Florus and Laurus (Novgorod; hamilton 91)
Praying Novgorodians; 15th c.
End

 

 

Lecture 4: Architecture and Art in Kievan Rus’

Kievan Rus society and economy

II. Basic plan of an Orthodox church

basilica (rectangular) vs. rounded; cross-in-square plan

10th-I ith cc. church plans pictured in Hamilton (in Constantinople and Caucasus)

terminology of Orthodox church

sanctuary/chancel/bema (altar t)

altar (presto 7, throne)

prothesis (zhertvennik), northlleft part of sanctuary; zhertva = sacrifice, offering;

preparation of Eucharist elements (bread and wine)

diakonikon or diaconicon (riznitsa), to right of altar; tended by deacons, store vestments

(rizy), chalices, books, etc.

narthex originally for non-communicants, catechumens

sobor = “cathedral,” lit, gathering, council

kafedral’nyi sobor = cathedral in Western sense, seat of bishop

III. Kiev

Grand Prince Vladimir I, Christianizer of Rus’; married Anna, sister of Byz. Emp.

Desiatinnia (Tithe) Church, dedicated to Dormition (or Assumption) of Virgin Mary

(Uspenskii sobor, Cathedral of the Dormition);

Sviatopolk the Damned; killed brothers Boris and Gleb

Iaroslav (Yaroslav) the Wise, 10 19-1054

Cathedral of the Holy Sophia, Kiev,.1 lth c.

present appearance: Ukrainian Baroque style of late 17th-early 18th cc.

construction and plan: opus mixtum covered by plaster and whitewash; Byz. alternating rows of brick, mortar, stone

growth of cathedral: 5, then 7, then 9 aisles E-W; 5 original apse projections at east originally 13 domes (Christ & Apostles), now 21; influence of wooden architecture?

cupolas: from flat-rounded to raised apex, helmet shape

interior: mosaics AND frescoes

crossing large, high space

2nd story gallery (ptribune; khory, “choirs”)

main dome: Christ Pantocrator (Pantokrator) = all-powerful (Vsederzhitel’)

IV. Mosaics in Kiev Sophia Cathedral

in dome: Christ Pantocrator (all-powerful), 4 archangels

cf. 11th-c. Pantocrator mosaic in Daphni, Greece

12 apostles in drum of dome

pendentives of crossing: 4 evangelists (gospel writers: Matthew, Mark, Luke,

John); only Mark original medallion above arch: Christ as priest

Triumphal Arch in sanctuary: deesis (entreaty, prayer) composition -- John the

Baptist, Christ, Virgin Mary

cf. 11th-c. Byz. deesis composition: marble deesis, early Rus icon of deesis

on main arch in front of sanctuary: split Annunciation -- Gabriel on left, Virgin Mary on right on inner surfaces (soffits or intrados) of main arches: medallions of the 40 Martyrs of Sebaste

conch of apse: Virgin orans, or orante, almost 18 ft. tall

cf. 12th-c, full-length Virgin with Christ child in Venice

below Virgin orans: Eucharist, or Last Supper

canopy over altar = ciborium, or baldachin

on our left: Peter, John, Luke, Simon, Bartholomew, Philip or Thomas on our

right: Paul;

Andrew (legend that he missionized the Slays)

difficulty of mosaic technique: 3 layers of plaster, tessarae of glass, stone, marble,

gold

below Eucharist in apse: Church Fathers

Basil the Great, 4th c., wrote one of the liturgical services

John Chrysostom (Ziatoust, golden-mouth), 4th-5th cc., author of principal liturgy

still

used in Orthodox Church

V. Frescoes in Kiev Sophia Cathedral

Resurrection: Descent into Hell (Harrowing of Hell), the most common depiction

of the Resurrection in Orthodox Church not extant: fresco of Grand Prince Iaroslav presenting model of church to Christ in center of west end of nave, opposite sanctuary extant: fresco of 4 of Iaroslavs daughters, who married European kings and princes misc. saints, not well preserved: St. Nicholas

prothesis (left of altar), which in Sophia Cathedral is also a chapel, dedicated to St.

Peter and St. Paul diaconicon (right of altar), also a chapel, dedicated to Joachim and Anna, parents of Mary; scene: Visitation of Mary and Elizabeth; Book, or Protevangelium of James, 2nd

c.:

expands Gospel of Luke on Nativity

Iaroslavs tomb

staircase towers: Byzantine secular scenes -- entertainers, musicians, mummers,

Hippodrome in Constantinople, some Russian items (plants, bear)

VI. Cf. mosaics of Sophia Cathedral with those of non-extant Cathedral of St. Michael of

the Golden Roofs (destroyed in 1930s, recently rebuilt)

 

 

 

 

webhist.

 

The Kremlin walls and towers were built by Russian masons under the supervision of Italian engineers and architects whose names have been retained in the descendants’ memory.

 

The talented Russian architect and sculptor Vassily Dmitriyevich Yermolin worked in the Kremlin in the second half of the 15th century. century. He restored the dilapidated parts of the white-stone wall of the time of Dmitry Donoskoy between the Sviblov and Borovitsky Tower. While reconstructing the St. Frol (Spassky) Tower he chiseled two White-stone sculptures. One of them representing St. George (Moscow’s emblem) was mounted on the outside of the entrance gate in 1464. The monument has survived and is now being restored.

In 1508-1516, under Prince Vassily III, a moat (Alevisio’s moat) was dug out along the east walls with the aim of strengthening the Kremlin’s defenses on the side of Red Square where the settlements was situated. It was designed by Alevisio Friazin and was 32m wide and 12m deep. The moat was filled with water and connected the Moscow River (on the south) and the Neglinnaya River (on the south-west). The Kremlin became an island fortress reliably protected on the sides of all the gates (the  moat was not evened until 1801). Wooden draw-bridges (replaced by the stone ones in the 17th century) ran over the moat towards the Spassky and St. Nicholas Gates. Trade was done on the bridges in those days.

Despite the fact that the Kremlin was a fortress and in some details resembled a medieval castle, it retained a traditional spatial composition and layout typical of an Early Russian town center. In the course of excavations, ancient roadways, basements of wooden structures, and churches with necropolises around them were discovered in the Kremlin.

In the 1620s, a large-scale construction was resumed in the Kremlin as testified by Russian chroniclers. In the period between 1624 and 1685 tiled tent-shaped tops were added to all the towers except the St. Nicholas Tower, which made the severe image of the Kremlin fortress more picturesque. (link)

 

 

Wiki, and general info, see photos as accompany

As early as 12th century, Halychian churches conspicuously resemble the Romanesque temples of Central Europe.

 

The great churches of Kievan Rus', built after the adoption of Christianity in 988, were the first examples of monumental architecture in the East Slavic lands. The architectural style of the Kievan state which quickly established itself was strongly influenced by the Byzantine.

 

FIRST STONE CHURCH IN KIEV The Church of the Tithes (Ukrainian: Десятинна Церква, Desiatynna Tserkva; Russian: Десятинная Церковь, Desyatinnaya Tserkov') was the first stone church in Kiev. It was built by the order of Grand Prince Vladimir (Volodymyr) the Great between 989 and 996 by Byzantine and local workers to commemorate the Baptism of Kievan Rus' and was originally named the "Church of Our Lady". Vladimir set aside a tithe of his income to finance the church construction, which gave the church its popular name.

 

 

Holy Spirit Church of the Holy Trinity Lavra (1476).

 

Moscow: ChurchoftheDeposition_1488

 

Holy Spirit Church of the Holy Trinity Lavra (1476).

 

There are two domestic churches of the Metropolitans and Patriarchs of Moscow, the Cathedral of the Twelve Apostles (1653-56) and the one-domed exquisite church of the Deposition of the Virgin's Robe, built by Pskov artisans over the years 1484-88 and featuring superb icons and frescoes from 1627 and 1644.

 

 

Saint Vladimir Svyatoslavich the Great (c. 958 – 1015) was the grand prince of Kiev who converted to Christianity in 988, and proceeded to baptise the whole Kievan Rus. His name may be spelled in different ways: in Old East Slavic as Volodimir (Володимир), in modern Ukrainian as Volodymyr (Володимир), in Old Church Slavonic and modern Russian as Vladimir (Владимир), in Old Norse (produced from Slavic form) as Valdamarr and the modern Scandinavian languages as Valdemar.

 

 

 

Kaiser & Marker, Reinterpreting Russian History,

"Reinterpreting Russian History: Readings", 860-1860s. ed. Daniel H. Kiaser Gary Marker (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994).

 

Riasanovsky & Steinberg, History of Russia, vol. I, pp. 161-195.

 

Bibliography:

 

“A Biography of Boyarina Morozova,” in Basil Dmytryshyn, ed., Medieval Russia: A Source Book, 850-1700, 3rd ed., Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1991, pp. 489-497.

 

Benjamin Phillip Uroff, transi., “Grigorii Karpovich Kotoshikhin on Russia in the Reign  of Alexis Mikhailovich: An Annotated Translation,” Ph.D. dissertation, Columbia  University, 1970, pp. 163-179 & 230-238.

 

Rinehart and Winston, 1991, Section 53, “Russian Conquest and Exploitation of Siberia,”  pp. 342-355, and Section 63, “Provisions of Russian Protectorate over Ukraine in 1654,” pp. 442- 450. 

 

 


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