Russia -- Origins of The Kievan Rus' "State"


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Origins of the Russians

 
a    

RIGINS OF THE KIEV RUS’ “STATE”

I. Geography and climate

A. Review topography and rivers of East European plain

B. Vegetation and soil belts, north to south

tundra, or “cold desert”

taiga, or coniferous forest

mixed forest (includes Moscow)

wooded steppe (prairie, some trees; Kiev located on border between forest and

steppe zones)

steppe (prairie grasslands)

semi-desert, desert: Central Asia

subtropics: Crimea and part of Caucasus

C. Climate

continental

cf. worldwide Jan. temps.

frost-free days: far north, 2 mos.; Siberia, 3 mos.; Eur. Russia, 4 mos.; Black Sea,

6 1/2 mos.

duration of snow cover: 80 days near Kiev; 160 days near St. Petersburg

precipitation: generally inadequate for rich farming

grain yields: 3 seeds from one = subsistence-level farming

 

 

II. The problem of origins: when does “Russian” history begin?

all E. Slays claim Kievan period (9th-l3th cc.) as theirs: Ukrainians (Little

Russians), Belorussians (White Russians), and Russians (or Great Russians)

III. Ethnic groups as of the 9th century

A. Native Baltic and Finnish tribes

B. Slays: from 6th c., expanded from Pripiat’ Marshes

W. Slays: Poles, Czechs

So. (Yugo-) Slays: Croats, Serbs, Bulgarians

E. Slays: Ukrainians, Belorussians, Russians

C. Steppe nomads and empires

Bulgars: capital = Bolgary, near Kazan’ on Volga

Altaic (fr. Altai Mts. between So. Siberia and Mongolia); related to Huns and

Turks

Khazars: capital = Itil’

 

 

Viking legacy to Keiv and Rus’ was the idea of the Prince, but the Prince was not a Viking idea.

 

Geography and Climate

 

3.               Tundra or ‘ cold desert’

4.               taiga, or coniferous forest

5.               Mix forest ( includes Moscow)

6.               wooded steeps ( prairie, some trees; Kiev located on boarder between forest and steep zones.

 7.               Steppe land get increasingly dry toward China.

8.               Nomads are like the great planes America, spread over the land bridge, and Alaska is

9.               Following herds, not much agriculture was invented.

10.            People of the horse, near born on a horse, and live-off the silk rout, and mountains silk-spice rout is protected by mountains next to the steppe that laterally transverses southern Russia in the middle Ages.

11.            Steppe grasslands Arbitrarily divide is the Ural Mountains, below steppe is the desert regions.

12.            Caspian/Black sea, 1000 BC beyond Altie Mountains came nomads, See early migrations, toward Europe and before the Russians, but are conscious that they have in their blood a mixture of these Scythians, were tough do not mess with us.

13.            Kiev and Rus’ Criminean Peninsula, Kieve right on the boarder of forest and steppe.

14.            North/south rivers have a high-bank, because of the turning of the Earth.

15.            Kiev is located on a hill, but rest of area is flat.

16.            Who is living beyond the Uural mountains. 0-1 persons per kilometer, amd man pockets are Siberian people, so pop. Density has to do the trans-Siberian railway, all the way out to the Pacific ocean.

17.            Steppe tribes transverse the railway, on the southern boarders of the Russian regions.

18.            Volga goes north, east then south to the Caspian sea.

19.            Some of the Tubash, who are Turkic and Bar bar are Turkic. Live in western Russia from long ago – by the Caspian – Volga region, before the Slavs came, so they were the reson that today Russia is called a Federation and not just the word Russia.

20.            Cheremis, ( Slavs – related to the fins) have blond hair and blue eyes, but not pure racial appearance.

21.            Various different people’s occupying the Russian region. Baltic people look European.

22.            Mordvin, a Finnic looking people, Udmurt, Mordvinian, Mari, not called anything but Human beings, in all the languages – these are the meanings.

23.            Turkish

24.            TarTar, semi-automatons people.

25.            kasak

26.            Usbec

27.            Tajik

28.            Kirgiz are Tartar – Turkish people

29.            Evenk, until Stalin, followed reindeer and he said you must settle down, many died resisting, before Stalin they were nomadic.

30.            Yakut

31.            Turkman

32.            Buryat related to Mongolians mostly Buddhist.

33.            Armenians people of the caucuses

34.            Chukchi, maritime provinces, like Eskimos.

 

Northern Russia some places get 90 degree below zero, coldest on planet except Mnt. Everest. what does this say about living there?

 

 Slavic: Expansion.


 

36.            Topic: When does Russian History begin?

37.            Relevance: Slavic expansion, in 600 ( Moscow 14th century, some argue this was when Russian begin). Ukrainians are called little Russians by some other Russians. Russians, Little (Yellow) Russians and Ukrainians the three Russian families of origin, each dates their cultural history in Kiev history. Some say Muscovite.

38.            Significant: Hunting berry, honey and conditions kept the populations low and practice pop. Control, by marrying late and exposure to old people and infants. So the modern ancestors and

39.            Polen/ Ukran the Slavs origins’ near Chernobyl, in 600 AD, speaking a common Slavic – not written, over time as they spread language differences emerged west slave- poles ; Yugoslavia slaves  were south slaves, and east were yellow.

40.            Why did they expand and even go north?

41.            Slaves were forest people like Iroquois Indians they liked and mastered the forest.

42.            East Slaves made little tech by clearing the forest by hand to agriculture so this meant they could create larger families so to manage the land they wanted more children, so they occupied bad real-estate, so it was a movement toward the cold climate and not the warmer southern climate and moved away from Europe’s people that had tech invention.

43.            Slavs spread-out, but pockets remaining where different people live today.

44.            Fins in Baltic kept their population low, introduced intensive labor agriculture, and main motor during Russian until the 17th century were the Slavs.

45.            Slavs obliterated the other tribes by pop growth.

46.            End of great silk and spice rout Constantinople, the main artery to colonize and/or control. East Slaves moved in to this era.

47.            Tribalings was a reminder that the Slavs came into modern Ukrainians, the east slavs. A modern convenience to call them modern Russians, but they are eastern Slavs.

Subject: Up until the 17th century peasants used mainly wooden tools, as metal tools were expensive, so many farmers used their hands to break-up the tough-dirt.

 

Slav neighbors, Steppe people mostly Turkish people before Turkish people came about.

 

48.            Huns and Turks related along the Volgu river, and 9th  century split into one Crimean peninsula, prospered as running a guide service or raket service for protecting, extortion racket to protect long traveled traders.

49.            No Kazar language, Khan ruler, a Turkish-type but were not just Turkish but a mixture of many peoples, a large number of Muslims, and some adopted Judaism.

50.            in 10th century they are in the steppe and slavs in the forest.

51.            Baltic warrior traders, sea-coast conquerors, traders and not farmers. And established trade-empire

52.            Relevance: Dnieper River gave Vikings troubles with steppe warriors. 1028 around Europe by Volga rout, the Vikings were participating in trade all the way around the coast of Europe to the Baltic, Constantinople, Spain, and cultivated rout to the black sea, because Muslim ships were beginning to dominate the Mediterranean ,they were seeking a back door to Constantinople, as Muslims blocked them off to sea routs.

53.            So why the Russian state did arose? Kiev and Rus’ is right along the trade rout and Vikings started it, and Rourik, in the 9th century, and grant prince Vladimir

54.            What is the Normanist theory. This is rampant in the literature – historigraghical , 1730s history began to be studding by German historians and reinvented, led by outsiders, examined sources saw names were Germanic and Scandinavians so generalized this as a general statement. Also, outsiders, like Americans, Russians were ape=like people and barbarians – uncivilized. Germanic introduced historiography made Russians mad and they said lets look at our nation. Is it Rus’ or Swedish, this river. The investigation for the roots of Russia.

55.            Vikings by 11th century begin to speak Slavic because of intermixing, so the Norman question has always been debated in the wrong way. So who were the Rus’.

56.            Who are these Rus’ and what is our evidence?

57.            Written sources from three different sources that differentiate the eastern Slavs from Rus’ and Persian, Greek and Latin text. 839, a Frankish King takes a passage and gets protection contract along the Volga river, and that text calls these men Rus’, that is north of Spain meaning north Scandinavian. Wild and ferocious tribes cut off the Constantinople tribes, so he had to contact and make protection plans. They didn’t call their leader of positional but by a name of Khagan, originated in Persian, only two Khazar, was the only other Khagan around, a Persian/Turkic between the black and Caspian seas. So according to this text calls the Rus’ as Scandinavians, traders, and the 846-7 Baghdad, person described the Rus as controlling the  spice-rout north, were Slavs, and a ruler of the Greeks take taxes from them.

58.            Third person writings describing the Vikings: They have a king called Khagan Rus’ – they make raids against the Slavs. Not farmers, and controllers of the trade, controller of the Dniper, and were different form the Slav settlers, said also two languages, Slavic and Rus’/ So two languages being tossed around, so earliest primary chronically 1015 church monastic scribes of Slavic language. Written 200 years later, so in 800s. Monk serving a role prince in Keiv is telling him the Slavs and Rus’ were difference, but take this with a grain of salt. One didn’t become the others as slaves. One tale said, in myth style, asked the Rus’- Scandinavian to come and rule over us, and the tribes said come here and rule us slavs. SO HERE: we have Rus and Slavs in a difference settings in historical context.  

59.            Significant: Normonist Controversy is this legend, that tells how Russian came into history, and that the Rus’ were not Slavic, but were not fully Scandinavian either, but were traders, and they developed little-type of governing polities where before there was not.

60.            Norman Controversy is squarely the reference to trade, world trade and colonization of new lands. So when  Viking origin theory, were in essence Rus were Vikings, So they responded to urban settings to establish communities and a need for someone to buy their trade, so they promote settlements that in turn provide a need to trade with them, that is their lifestyle. The early years they didn’t settle down, but they created depots, and visited them every year. So leave goods in a depot and came back in a year.

61.            In German languages were called Vic/Viks so names like New Brunswick and such names are from German origin.

62.            900: More aggressive Rus’ decided to make a push to colonize or force indigenous to settle. So who were these Norsemen, they couldn’t farm or urbanize, but the farmers and tribes could farm and run settlements for the need to provide commercial base, but they could not sail and create international trade routs on the rivers and seas. So a symbiotic relationship develops. Both intermarry, and become slowly less Scandinavian, and Scandinavians ruled Italy for two-hundred questions and adopted their culture.

63.            What does Rus’ mean. Rus’ derives from Iranian people but this is suspect.

64.            Here is another, by Kollman, but here: Omel’jan, Pritsak, Three-volumes , The Origins of the Rus, 3,500 pages.

65.            He argues two things need separation. The sound components need to be

 

Why or How did Russia Get its name?

 

66.            Fins called a trading company Ruotsi, which means oarsmen, meaning they have river boats. Old Germanic, they were referred too as RTU,  and went as far as Marseille, and military trading organization, a confederation of various languages and peoples, establishing a international trade units, as long as one was tough, so this was more than one type of people, but an idea. They spread into Mesopotamia, Volga, and Northern Reopen Russia, so at first Rus, was a name, and trade company – collectively, diverse people and the company of the men’s clan-rulers were called Rus’. So no single ethnic identity in this area. So this was a planned corporate tradition. They founded the princely house of Kiev, and so the name comes to represent all lands of these people, as the lands and people spread, grow and develop the name sticks and so economic activities brings a name to a group with a system of international trade and Russian word possible came from this conglomerate and symbolic usage. So Honey and big bucks in international trade, so the slave-forest people, were practicing subsistence, and farming and made little profit, but provided place to station the trade company. So the Normanist argument wins and the Vikings were mainly accredited, but must remember this was a diverse operation. So who were the Rus’ – they were a trading group, and what held them together, was profit, a fraternal ideology, a warrior requirements of the job, mostly male converts, and cooperation and loyalty were tribute aspects, and political ideology was rudimentary, a strongman leader, and his underlings had to have complete loyalty, and military conquests must have this tough ethic. So Viking ethic heroism, loyalty and honor, and here comes the relevance, but one finds precedence in the Law Code of the Kiev prince, those Viking type Rus’ brought another element to the political image, brought political legitimacy, and it deserved to have authority over others, even sanctioning laws over other states, an universal triumph over self, and commanding respect of others so the Khagan title is how this came about, the king of the steppe; so the title of Khagan, the Rus’ first title of ruler, was a successful attempt to name a pervious heritage a title of universal authority of the steppe people, so ultimately the title goes back to the Persians, but Rus using the title gave them authority, which using it gave them sanctioned by this heritage, this concepts this restoration of some empire, sa Khazar steppe empire of old. So the use of term is meant to bring respect from among other rulers, so when the western Europeans probably heard the name Khagan, they probably said what not ever hearing of the world. SO this is the background of the government of Kiev and this helps understand how the early Rus’, Russian brought about their rule.

 

 

Silk Rout: Main theme of migration and political control.

 

The Volga Bulgars

The Inner Asian Ting-ling nomads (not involved in fur trade according to Chinese sources).

 

Jordanes (sixth century) remarks that the Onoghuric…72 Golden

 

[On] The Political Organization of the Nomads of Western Eurasia

 

“Primitive society has been characterizes as being based primarily on the kinship system which, together with custom, serves as the means of achieving societal cohesion. It is theoretically, an egalitarian society in which there is little in the way of formal “government,” or any of the institutions usually associated with it: Monarchy, tax collection, standing armies, an organized priesthood. There is little evidence of social stratification or the division of labor.” (73 Gordon).

 

Polovtsian tribal union. Argument that its origins ( genesis) constitutes one of the most complex questions in Eurasian history: Poloyisi ( Rus’) ….( Golden 77)

 

 

Religion, Governance, Society, Economy

I. Introduction to Byzantine culture

old Roman Empire: Rome in West, Byzantium in East

Byzantium on Straits of Bosporus

Emperor Constantine: Byzantium-Constantinople, adoption of Christianity, 325

Eastern and Western Christianity: differences of culture, language, belief,

primacy of Roman pope; Eastern Patriarchs: Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch,

Jerusalem

the filioque

West: Spirit proceeds from Father and Son (to counter Arian heresy:

Arias was a 4th-c. priest in Alexandria who maintained that the Son was inferior

to the Father)

Council of Nicaea, 325 (Nicene Creed); First Ecumenical Council Trinitarian

doctrine: tripartite godhead, Father/Son/Holy Ghost

 

Schism of 1054

coinage

architecture: Holy Sophia, Kiev 1037-46/47, Novgorod, 1050s synthesizing

ideology: Metropolitan Hilarion’s “Sermon on Law and

Grace,” & “Eulogy to Kagan Vladimir”

VI. Economy and society

l000s: Short redaction of Russkaia Pravda (Russian Law), late l000s Slavic

customary law, agrarian society

“dyadic” (dual) legal relations

growth of towns as domestic trade/handicraft centers

1 lOOs-1200s: Expanded redaction of Russkaia Pravda (late 1 lOOs,early 1200s)

“triadic” legal relations: third party (prince)

business, slavery, urban issues in law code

great expansion of towns

estates, private landholding, slavery, “immunities”

VII. Was Kievan Rus’ feudal?

political theory: stages of liberal development; sovereignty subdivided,

contractual, reciprocal relations (emphasis on lords and fealty)

Marxist tradition 19th c., Soviet Marxism 20th c: deterministic, teleological; stage

between slave and bourgeois society; closed manorial enserfed economy

more recent comparative politics: divided sovereignty, “ideal type,” personal ties

VIII. Kievan Russ social and political legacy for Russian history

basic principle of governmental organization kinship

government system minimalist

ruling dynasty (Riurikovichi) claims patrimonial ownership of all resources

personal loyalty = basis of relations between prince and his retinue (druzhina)

great reliance on symbolic strategies of claiming legitimacy

devolution of administrative authority to privileged elite, church, other

landholders mixed economy: basically agrarian, with handicrafts, some urban production, transit trade fate of Kievan Rus’ “state”: fragmentation into regional principalities, each ruled

by a branch of the Riurikid royal dynasty

 

 

II. Kievan culture

Slavic paganism; Scandanavian Thor similar to Slavic Perun

Grand Prince Vladimir 1(980-1015)

Orthodoxy = Pravoslavie = the right worship, the true faith

conversion of Kievan Rus’ in 988/989

Slavic “Christian cultural package”

Cyril (Kirill) & Methodius (Mefodii), 9th c., missionaries from Salonika to

Moravia (West Slays), modern Czech Republic; Cyrillic

(Kirillic) alphabet

Ostromir Gospel, 1056-57

South Slavic; Old Church Slavonic/Slavic

bog = god; slovo = word; theology = bogoslovie = God’s Word

prava = truth; slava = worship; Orthodoxy pravoslavie = the true worship Khan

Boris of Bulgaria, 9th c.; conquered by Constantinople in 1015/16

Ill. Consequences of adoption of Eastern Christianity

benefits to princely dynasty: unity of religion and religious institutions; single

religion, church, headed by metropolitan

alphabet & written language

 

 

 Architecture and Art in Kievan Rus’

I. Finish Lecture 3, Kievan Rus society and economy

II. Basic plan of an Orthodox church

basilica (rectangular) vs. rounded; cross-in-square plan

10th-I ith cc. church plans pictured in Hamilton (in Constantinople and Caucasus)

terminology of Orthodox church

sanctuary/chancel/bema (altar t)

altar (presto 7, throne)

prothesis (zhertvennik), northlleft part of sanctuary; zhertva = sacrifice, offering;

preparation of Eucharist elements (bread and wine)

diakonikon or diaconicon (riznitsa), to right of altar; tended by deacons, store vestments

(rizy), chalices, books, etc.

narthex originally for non-communicants, catechumens

sobor = “cathedral,” lit, gathering, council

kafedral’nyi sobor = cathedral in Western sense, seat of bishop

III. Kiev

Grand Prince Vladimir I, Christianizer of Rus’; married Anna, sister of Byz. Emp.

Desiatinnia (Tithe) Church, dedicated to Dormition (or Assumption) of Virgin Mary

(Uspenskii sobor, Cathedral of the Dormition);

Sviatopolk the Damned; killed brothers Boris and Gleb

Iaroslav (Yaroslav) the Wise, 10 19-1054

Cathedral of the Holy Sophia, Kiev,.1 lth c.

present appearance: Ukrainian Baroque style of late 17th-early 18th cc.

construction and plan: opus mixtum covered by plaster and whitewash; Byz. alternating

rows of brick, mortar, stone

growth of cathedral: 5, then 7, then 9 aisles E-W; 5 original apse projections at east

originally 13 domes (Christ & Apostles), now 21; influence of wooden architecture?

cupolas: from flat-rounded to raised apex, helmet shape

interior: mosaics AND frescoes

crossing large, high space

2nd story gallery (ptribune; khory, “choirs”)

main dome: Christ Pantocrator (Pantokrator) = all-powerful (Vsederzhitel’)

IV. Mosaics in Kiev Sophia Cathedral

in dome: Christ Pantocrator (all-powerful), 4 archangels

cf. 11th-c. Pantocrator mosaic in Daphni, Greece

12 apostles in drum of dome

pendentives of crossing: 4 evangelists (gospel writers: Matthew, Mark, Luke,

John); only Mark original medallion above arch: Christ as priest

Triumphal Arch in sanctuary: deesis (entreaty, prayer) composition -- John the

Baptist, Christ, Virgin Mary

cf. 11th-c. Byz. deesis composition: marble deesis, early Rus icon of deesis

on main arch in front of sanctuary: split Annunciation -- Gabriel on left, Virgin Mary on right on inner surfaces (soffits or intrados) of main arches: medallions of the 40

Martyrs of Sebaste conch of apse: Virgin orans, or orante, almost 18 ft. tall

cf. 12th-c, full-length Virgin with Christ child in Venice

below Virgin orans: Eucharist, or Last Supper

canopy over altar = ciborium, or baldachin

on our left: Peter, John, Luke, Simon, Bartholomew, Philip or Thomas on our

right: Paul;

Andrew (legend that he missionized the Slays)

difficulty of mosaic technique: 3 layers of plaster, tessarae of glass, stone, marble,

gold below Eucharist in apse: Church Fathers

Basil the Great, 4th c., wrote one of the liturgical services

John Chrysostom (Ziatoust, golden-mouth), 4th-5th cc., author of principal liturgy

still  used in Orthodox Church

V. Frescoes in Kiev Sophia Cathedral

Resurrection: Descent iuto Hell (Harrowing of Hell), the most common depiction

of the Resurrection in Orthodox Church

not extant: fresco of Grand Prince Iaroslav presenting model of church to Christ

in center of west end of nave, opposite sanctuary

extant: fresco of 4 of Iaroslavs daughters, who married European kings and

princes misc. saints, not well preserved: St. Nicholas

prothesis (left of altar), which in Sophia Cathedral is also a chapel, dedicated to St.

Peter and St. Paul

diaconicon (right of altar), also a chapel, dedicated to Joachim and Anna, parents

of Mary;

scene: Visitation of Mary and Elizabeth; Book, or Protevangelium of James, 2nd

c.: expands Gospel of Luke on Nativity

Iaroslavs tomb

staircase towers: Byzantine secular scenes -- entertainers, musicians, mummers,

Hippodrome in Constantinople, some Russian items (plants, bear)

VI. Cf. mosaics of Sophia Cathedral with those of non-extant Cathedral of St. Michael of

the Golden Roofs (destroyed in 1930s, recently rebuilt)

 

Kyrie eleison" mean in the Testament

of Vladimir Monomakh.  It's "Lord, have mercy," in Church Slavonic

"Gospodi, pomilui," often repeated in church services and prayers.  He also

asks about cinnabar used for bright red in icons, particularly

Novgorod.  Cinnabar (a natural mineral) happened to be available in

Novgorod.  Its popularity may be related to two things:  (1) red as in

fire, ever-present in the wooden north, and regarded as cleansing and

magical (Elijah rode up into heaven in a fiery chariot, the Archangel

Michael rides a fiery winged horse, etc.); (2) "red" in Russian is krasnyi,

which also means "beautiful."  E.g., Red Square = beautiful square.

 

 

 

 

 

 

IV. The Kievan Rus “state”: Why Kiev? Why 9th c.? How was it established, and by

whom? On gins of the Normanist Controversy

(Normans=Norsemen=Vikings=Varangians)

V. Written references to the “Rus”

A. A Frankish source, 839 Annales Bertiniani: Rhos [Rus’] king called “kagan”;

Rhos =

Swedes

B. Arab sources

1. Ibn Khurdadhbeh, 846-47: “the Rus’ are a tribe of Slays”

2. Ibn-Rusta, 903-17: “The Rus’ have a king who is called Kagan Rus’, and they make

raids against the Slays and take them prisoner and sell them as slaves. They have no

cultivated lands; they eat only what they carry off from the land of the Slays. Their only

occupation is trading in sables and grey squirrel and other furs.”

C. A Byzantine source: Constantine Porphyrogenitus, De administrando imperio, Ca. 950:

 Slavic and Rus’ languages different; Slays are tributaries of the Rus’

D. A Kievan source: the Primary Chronicle, ca. 1015

Varangians (Variagi) summoned from abroad to rule; “. . .these particular Varangians

were known as the Rus’, just as some were called Swedes, and others Normans,...” Riurik,

Sineus, Truvor

 

VI. Who, then, were the Rus’?

A. A community of warrior/merchants/traders, not a nation or a homogeneous ethnic

group

B. Vikings as nomads

C. How did the Vikings get Slavicized?

D. A hypothesis for thc evolving meanings of “Rus”:

1. Viking-led long-distance trading/warrior company

2. The leadership of this company

3. Everyone associated with them or dominated by them

4. The people and the territory dominated by them

E. Why did the Vikings settle in Novgorod and Kiev?

VII. Achieving legitimacy: political ideology

  1. A “Viking”-type political ethic: mannerbunde (“union of young men”) B.
  2. “Kagan”:
  3. the steppe concept/dream of a universal empire

Terms:

early East Slavic tribes: Sloveni, Krivichi, Poliane, Derevliane, etc.

Grand Prince Vladimir I, ruled c.980-1015

Russkaia pravda (“Russian Justice,” a lawcode)

 

Kievan Rus’ -- Religion, Governance, Society, Economy

 

I. Introduction to Byzantine culture

old Roman Empire: Rome in West, Byzantium in East

Byzantium on Straits of Bosporus

Emperor Constantine: Byzantium-Constantinople, adoption of Christianity, 325

Eastern and Western Christianity: differences of culture, language, be1ief primacy

of Roman pope; Eastern Patriarchs: Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch,

Jerusalem

the filioque

West: Spirit proceeds from Father and Son (to counter Arian heresy:

Arias was a 4th-c. priest in Alexandria who maintained that the Son was inferior

to the Father)

Council of Nicaea, 325 (Nicene Creed); First Ecumenical Council Trinitarian

doctrine: tripartite godhead, Father/Son/Holy Ghost

Schism of 1054

II. Kievan culture

Slavic paganism; Scandanavian Thor similar to Slavic Perun

Grand Prince Vladimir 1(980-1015)

Orthodoxy Pravoslavie = the right worship, the true faith

conversion of Kievan Rus’ in 988/989

Slavic “Christian cultural package”

Cyril (Kirill) & Methodius (Mefodii), 9th c., missionaries from Salonika to

Moravia (West Slays), modern Czech Republic; Cyrillic

(Kirillic) alphabet

Ostromir Gospel, 1056-57

South Slavic; Old Church Slavonic/Slavic

bog = god; slovo = word; theology = bogoslovie = God’s Word

prava truth; slava = worship; Orthodoxy pravoslavie = the true worship Khan

Boris of Bulgaria, 9th C.; conquered by Constantinople in 1015/16

III. Consequences of adoption of Eastern Christianity

benefits to princely dynasty: unity of religion and religious institutions; single

religion, church, headed by metropolitan

alphabet & written language

separation from Western Christianity and Latin

local beliefs & practices coexisted w/Christianity (“double faith,” dvoeverie) Rus’

separate from Western neighbors, isolated by religion, distance, language,

climate

practice of faith largely ritualistic

populace still illiterate

linguistic isolation

church sources: could not check accuracy of translations

W. vs. E. Christianity governance; W. more hierarchical under pope Byzantine

theory of “symphony” of church and state

early steps by Grand Prince Vladimir I and Iaroslav to establish the church:

Church of the Tithe in Kiev, Cathedrals of the Holy Sophia in Kiev and Novgorod

 

monasteries: Monastery of the Caves, Kiev; Antonii and Theodosii chronicles:

place Rus’ in universal Christian history

monastic values: piety, asceticism, kenotocism (Sts. Boris and Gleb, d. 1015)

charity: Instrnction of Vladimir Monomach

IV. Goals and objectives of Rus’ leadership, 1000s-1200s

figure out principles of orderly political succession

Grand Prince Vladimir I d. 1015; sons Boris & Gleb killed by brother Sviatopolk;

son Iaroslav (the Wise) becomes Grand Prince of Kiev, 1019-1054

pacify Slavic and other tribes for tribute

weaken Khazars, Volga Bulgars, and steppe nomads

build international prestige

build domestic status arid presence

“govern” -- albeit minimally

regional principalities formalized in Treaty of Liubech, 1097 (fragmentation of

Kievan Rus’)

V. Strategies to accomplish these goals

cultivate the military elite

ideology of warrior band: “Mannerbunde”

patrimonial political principles

largesse: land grants, feasts and banquets

international prestige, domestic presence

marriage alliances

use of “Kagan” imperial title, borrowed from Khazar Empire

Christianization

use of “kagan” to outsiders dropped around 1100; rulers traditionally called

“prince” (kniaz’); prince of Kiev is “Grand Prince” (velikii kniaz’)

 

 

 

Subject: Vikings


 

1.               What was the role of the Vikings in establishing the Kievan Rus’ “state”?

2.               Kievan Rus’ role in adopting Christianity.

 

 Kievan Rus’ : Religion, Governance, Society, Economy


 

1.               What was the role of the Religion in establishing the Kievan Rus’ “state”?

2.               Introduction of Byzantine culture

3.               Byzantium on Straits of Bosporus

4.               Orthodoxy = Pravoslavie = the right worship, the true faith conversion of Kievan Rus’ in 988/989.

 

 Kievan Rus’ disappears in 13th century and in the 14th century changes the core to the center of Moscow, and then later acquires various principalities. The gathering of the Russian lands, in reality a series of conquests. However, there is a cultural continuity even when there was not a political continuity.


 

5.               Relevance: Byzantium is the relevance to understanding of Russia in the Christian context. The sea of Marmara, or the marble sea, and Constantinople is a key place for the eastern Roman Empire as the silk rout terminates there. The control is the key to the spices and commodities of the east. Things that could not produced in the west for various reasons. The importance of the trade created a great need to control the straits of the Bosporus and Constantinople.

6.               Significant: Constantinople and Rome become the centers where Christianity spread, and so spread northeastern into 988 or 989 and started in September the year.

7.               A Constantinople and Rome ( Italy) competes and so Orthodoxy breaks off as a different uniform set of beliefs, and the structure is distinguished different from that emanating out of Constantinople. The predominant language was Greek in Constantinople and west, and in the west and Rome, in Latin.

8.               But in Orthodox churches many languages were the result of spreading in all different languages, but only in Latin in the western Rome ( Europe). This created a nationalized version of Christianity.

9.               So monks presented Cyrillic alphabet to the Slavs, with the intention of spreading Christianity in Russia. So they knew a southern Slavic language in the 9th  century, so only in time did other languages distinguishes. Old Church Slavonic, as on the roads Slavic language into a vernacular type, so a modern Russians had to study, it was an archaic language to modern Russians.

10.            Ecumeni ( whole world from ecumenical) councils, as a recognizable organization, but over time things broke apart, the Great Schism, in fact, was long in coming and this was the official split. Two problems: papal claims authority over Christians, as universal supremacy, and in the east there were four patriarchs, four leaders of the Orthodox. Constantinople Patriarch was the highest official, the trumpman.  Patriarch, Five (5) counting Moscow in the 16th century, these were the highest ranks, then next Metropolitan, then archbishop then bishop, and in eastern Christianism is called Prelate/Hierarchy/ Eparches. The chief bishop of the metropolis is called the Metropolitan, and was the top person for that region on the earth.

11.            Nicene Creed was the argument over the triumvate, the three godheads, holy spirits, the son and the father, the three entities that are one. West has the holy ghost proceeding from the father and the son, and was to combat the Arian, who was the father is wiser than the son, but the stress in 325 was that the Son and father were one and same ability of wiseness. Therefore, three individuals were hypotheses, who all had the same essence.

12.            Orthodoxy objects to this. Orthodox  in Russian: Provaslavie ( provaslavia pronounced) translated as true-faith, right practice in devotion. East said, we should follow the first ecumenical decree and not the 325 one, so the creed was changed.

13.            Priests were required to be married at one point, and never disallowed to marry in the priesthood, and it was hopeful if a priest was married he would not mess around. A wife would keep him in line. There are white clergy and the black clergy, identified by clock, and a black clergy is a monk, a monastery, and a white is clergy that is married.

14.           Vladimir, meaning ruler of the world?

15.           West developed the custom of priestly celibacy, and the calendar changes. West unleavened, and east leavened by using yeast in bread.

16.            988 argely ignorant of the arguments between east and west, so the east slavs adopted Christianity most notably from Bulgaria, is a Christian cultural package, that was it was put into Slavic, and may have contain some references to the why the split, but they were not concerned about the differences.

17.           Dniper, the flatlands, Kiev, situated on the North South, on the Viking trade rout, first Viking centered on Novgorod first for their great trade routs, then the Kiev became the main destination, and grand prince, statue later called equal to the apostles, (980-1014?) this statue was the person that converted the realm and is remembered and venerated, and before he converted the east slavs, they were practicing Iranian, Scandinavian, Finnish and various pagan Slavic gods. Paganism among the east Slavs changed, so why the change. The investigated other religions, the cathedral was observed as the transport of heaven, the Hagia Sof(h)ia, in Constantinople was a place of transformation…

18.          ‘O’ has three different sounds in Russian and so it all depends in spelling where the accent descends, Nóvgorod. ( Northern regions us the ó, and some other places in Russia use other accents that makes the sound like an ‘a’). So the interior was the report, in the chronicle, who said, there he felt truth, and adopted Christianity, and kicked out his many wives, and threw out his pagan idols, and this chronicle was written by a monk three hundred years later, so how do we know this was the facts of how they adopted Christianity? Why did Legima adopt Christianity, because there was an advantage to adopt it was because Paganism was so confusing, no single organization, and no single pantheon of gods, and no clergy and no institution. This Christianity was now a legitimate institution which allowed streamlining of needs for religious worship.

19.           Moment Legima adopted Christianity, Bulgaria, where he adopted it, was a powerful state at this time. Bulgaria, were Turkish, Muslim and some people in there were not a factor, they were few in number and Slav-Bulgarians were the majority and after a while the Arab elements intermarried and lost their identity, and blended into a culture called Bulgarian, under a Christian package, and it was a Bulgarian Christianity that was adopted.

20.            Since borders were not distinct, neither was the religion, and the faith was evolving and so was the state.

21.            Block letters were the early manuscripts created and disseminated. The Gospel of John was one of the earlier New Testament texts was distributed. So in old Church Slavonic, still taught in U.C. Berkeley, and is like old English, was the language used to translate into from the original sources of the Biblical texts. So in the west only Latin was allowed, but in the east all languages were allowed. This was a big deal in history.

22.            They, the translators, of coerce, phonetically wrote out words they didn’t know, such as God, or truth, and word, but at a higher culture level like theology had to be Slavitized, and create words in old Slavic language, because if not they just writes ‘ Gods’ word’, or provaslavia, Gods’ faith.’ Similarly the native Indians saw the trains of the west they called them the ‘iron horse’.

23.            So they were successful in Arabia, in translation, that many adopt it and Rome takes notice.

24.            South Slavs eventually split from Bulgarian east Slavics.

25.            Church practice, was all Byzantine packaged, and were all blended in with some paganism, as holdovers, like Easter celebration which was reinvented by the Christian Church, and was initially a pagan celebration of spring.

26.            A geographical division is created by the Church, signaling a cultural divide that runs through Russia, and had consequences. 

27.            Significance: Religion brings then culture and a written language.

28.            However, only the connection to Constantinople and Christianity was only trade not real Orthodox overseers, as was noted the territories were divided between east and west and some didn’t care about the differences.

29.            Practice of the faith remains little teaching of the faith, taught by chant, liturgy, and iconic artwork, but most Rus’ clergy didn’t know Greek, Sanskrit, or Hebrew, or Latin, so most formation of the Christian church went isolated from the rest of the world. So the western church was more hierarchical and Eastern Church is much less centralized, and metropolitan, is underpaid, and not supported and ruled by others, like a pope figure. The Byzantinean Church was neither independent nor superior to the west, but paid worldly allegiance to Rome, but held its own values.

30.            In Rus’ the grand prince ran the Religion in the realm, and the prince builds the sophias in the realms and directs the religious formations in the realm. When beating Turkish tribes, sometimes a grand prince built a church in honor of the victory. Monasteries were built to spread the Christian values…

31.            Now apart of Universal History, putting Rus’ now in the fold, but little did people understand this concept, but aware of this were the leaders.

32.            Legal jurisdiction, was a wide control of people of its day, so one can see the influence of the adoption, it was a civilianized law drawn on the vehicle that could implement it.

33.            Succession, some grand prices have twenty sons, and this created small civil wars against  the kinships. So no agree upon thing of inheritance, so people war, and when a grand prince dies people rotate to rule the major centers and Novogrod was second in line to Kiev, but sometimes disagreement meant war of succession.

34.            Goal to pay tribute to Rus then other tribal and organizations floating in and around the area, and limiting the populating migrations. Goal to succumb the strongmen, local rulers who wanted their own autonomous laws, and not universal. So these are no pluralism or public verses private sphere, it was a warrior network, and military based conception of authority and had lasting effects on Russian history even in the 20th century. Another goal was to distribute wealth, and distribute of awards and banquets were a part of a medium to achieve loyalty and achievement. Some types of Middle Ages practices seen in many culture including European middle ages and American Indians.

35.            No bureaucracy, politics equals relationships, its like fraternal organization, and is a holdover in the Russian government today.

36.            Kagan was an ancient Persian, Slavs used this as a claim to resurrect the old empire like Charlemagne used the term restore the ancient regime.

37.            Adoption of Christianity has important ramifications for Russia.

Kievan society and Rus’ economic
 

1.                  Marriage Contracts of various kings and queens of west Europe, the grand prince, used Khagan, great influence in the steppes, as a identifier to the east.

3.               Christianity, international community – reason for adoption. Coins struck, Byzantine like throne, Greek letters, Slavic symbols, and the Law code of 11-12th century,

4.               Yaroslav’s ‘ the wise’ patronage, left eloquent writings, left behind sermon on law in Rus’ describes Rus as part of universal history, and fulfils parts of Bibles prophecies, and speaks of Rus, one among equals with the Byzantine, Rus’ is not a poor or unknown land but is celebrated all over the world.

5.               testament to his children, envision the role of the prince, and intermixes the past.

6.               Yaroslav’s Law Code, 2 versions of it, it was a compendium, and short production late 11th, and princely power is unknown, face to face litigation, mono-momo, diatict relations, the economy is mostly agrarians, forest dweller, not much business in trade, and slavie code of customary law. Lots of recompense of theft, important in agriculture, no stealing, interferes with fighting and hunting rights, one sees in the Rus the growth in towns.

7.               11th century, markets and towns developed, for the first time, more settled manner of governing, a tax system, and in second version of the Law Code, it the Prince taxation, most of the populous is free, a few slaves, not many. The second reduction, more economic activity, bankrupsies, loans, and temporary slavery, indentured servants, more money moving, towns grew up organically in concentric circles around the princes court, and, more social mobility and production in trade, and more landholding, donation to monasteries, more slaves and indentured servants. Urban aristocracy now living off their land all in the second edition. The third party, meaning the prince gets involved in dispute and pay a service for the time of his arbitrary.

8.               Tax exemption, by serving the prince, police duty pay no taxes, but was not a secure, a fragile, based on personal relationship, fragmentation,

9.               Big question, was Kievan Rus feudal?

10.            FEUDALISM: USE WITH GRATE CARE: European political theory, reciprocal relations of lord and vassals- to lead to political pluralism, rights form regional vassals to leave and serve others.

11.            Marxist model: theological? (teleological) , slave society/ feudal/ bourgeois society ( capitalism,) Typically deterministic, most tried to modify what Marx had taught.

12.            Comparative politics, a weak central state, and ancient Greece, or modern-day Iraq.

13.            Kieven and Rus’ economy, the polity  - kinship prince and boyars and is mostly minimalist, patrimonial theory, stress personal loyalty, symbolic strategies of claiming legitimacy, privileges, and mix of agrarian economy and there is still international trade that brought the Vikings.

  • Cruise no longer making the big profits, cut of by steppe tribes in 1200s and Islam, so Slavs cut-off too,

  • 1212AD east slavs no longer in communication with Byzantiim they were cut-off – no communication, no longer trade Dnieper, and so in 1300 pushed back and north, Mongols,

  • Cumans of Polovtsim, and Mongols cut off the steppe system, and Kiev was supposed to by where the price goes to rule to be close to the steppe to run the trade, and

  • Master of the steppe, the Mongols, kids on the horse, stirrups they developed and develop a special type of bow that gave them extra power  - a bone-bow, extra strength, and extension on the ends for extra power, no match for people on the ground. The double-s’s- shape of the nomadic/Mongol bow. Can shoot back and forward, wheel around on the saddle.

 

Subject: Early clearly churches, a basilica, a form of judgment, a court for the princes


 

14.            Basilica, first was a courthouse for the rulers or government, then it became synonymous with the Church. Baptized people can only go it, and ones not stay out side the catacombs.

15.            Apse to the east,

16.            transet ( alter area)  a cross section. Early trusts were wood, five isle church importance,

17.            Other floor plan of the Church was circular, baptisms, circular processions, and circler-plans 8 support columns under a dome,

18.            creates a vault over the circular center

19.            size however, is limited by floorspace that the dome will no collapse,

20.            pendentice, weight on drum and arches to hold the dome,

21.            Hamilton, the cross and square plan, the five-isled church single dome over the transept.

22.            Constantinople plan in the 10th century, western…

23.            996, Church, used later as a rock query for other church, it was a five isle church, apse projection.

24.            side chapels called prosystsis, the sacrifice were prepared here, the Deacon keeps rudiment of the church in here.

25.            Food – sacrifice, functional use for storage place, and food, sacrifice,  - sometimes they are little chapels dedicated to the virgin Mary, and

26.            Haigia sohia, overall pyramid silhouette because of half-domes to the side, and a huge circler dome over the square floor, pierced by lots of little windows.

27.            Barrel or Tunnel Vault. Butress, Voussoirs, keystone, use a scaffolding, a wooden form.

28.            arcade, a series of arches, and intradas the interior..

29.            Yaroslav ‘ the wise’ 1037? Built the church, see family tree…

30.            1019, end of ten year civil war, and 1019-1054, the ‘ the wise’ ruled for a long time and the law code under him, and the Church, the concept of God’s wisdom, originally 13 domes, and flat-round domes, typical of Byzantine, and Mediterranean world,  but north in winter snow no practical they made roofs more steep. To shed snow.

31.            Apse projections, seen from outside, demonstrate the East direction.

32.            Opus mixum, alternating mixture of brick, mortar, and rock. Most Byzantium building way.

33.            Naïve, transept, crossing, How many isles are the church on a floorplan?

34.            Princes worship on second floor in separate isle rooms so not get close to the people.

35.            Crossing-in-Square plan.

36.            Latin crosses were equaled armed, Columns can be made in equal-lateral crosses.

 

 Early basilica times, were the triumphal arch, the message on an arch, this time in a church with a message.

 

37.            Pendentives, support arches, support the dome.

38.            Mosaics and Frescos, This church is unique.

39.            Use Mosaic and decorative marble if you can afford it, but if not just fresco.

40.            Deesis ( entreaty, prayer) composition. Intercession, Mary, John the babtice, and Jesus. Russianograghy very popular.

41.            Significant

 

Oranzy, the original prayer, like showing an armed knight you have no weapons in your hands, this is iconography, 3d century catacomb in Rome, where Christians went to hide from Roman atheistic

 

 Iconography, meaning the writing of the word in pictures.

 

43.            Mosaic, pieces of glass, most of it is pieces of glass, some of it is natural stone.

44.            Dedicated to Archangel Michael, these Greek artists were more skillful, in figure making. Than haigia sofia.

45.            Elongation of the figures bodies becomes a iconographic motif. 

46.            Cannon, also mean writings.

47.            4th century, is how old Christian Church services go back too in time.

49.            Relevance 1054 Yaroslavl‘s death.

50.            There was a hippodrome in Constantinople.

51.            Next week Novgorod

52.            three projections of the apse sections is east.

53.            Greacca, holy Sophia in Kiev in Rus design and decorated by Russians, but Byzantine writings in 1940s were not good, but it was Byzantine influences.

54.            Most architectural historian are definitely out of the Byzantine world, the Rus knew were wood makers, so the early Rus’, masonry architecture they learn it from the Church construction.

55.            Rus’ build in wood, houses, but nothing in masonry until such examples as the Cathedrals, note neatly-cut stone, some not. 12th century cut-stone are rare, the stories go that architects came from afar. Was this a program by some Church promotion of Christianity.

 

 

 

Vladimir I “ Christianzer of Rus’  looks for religion in Constantinople, adopts Orthodox Christianity.

56.            Kievan 11th century, Cathedral of the Holy Sophia

Architecture

 

Core of the Rus’ trading company are Swedes, so this is the ethnicity.

 

Slavs. Baltic groups. And Finnic ( fins, Mari, Volga)

Finnic tribes before the Slavs

 

600 AD west of Kiev, before they came Baltic and Finnic north and along the middle Volga. They were there before the Slavs. Runic Stones in Sweden , in honor of my Rus’ relative in Sweden, so the Vikings were Sweden region and called themselves Rus’ according to the name of the shipping company, not a family name.

 

Cricket marshes slightly west of Kiev, in 600 AD. They started to branch-out, the branched out into the forest away from the nomadic horse steppe zones.

 

Primary Chronicle, is a work of literature, and created for a need of a ‘national myth building’. Urban-myth types of things, some truth in it but some exaggeration, or false stuff.

Why establish marital ties: Marital tie with Constantinople, Rus’ and Constantinople fight battles then sign treaties. We need to have a common level with them, show that we are friends, so we do not have to go to war with them all the time, and sometimes we need protection.

 

No many went after Rus’ because they were small significance, not too rich, if attack, one wanted the Capital of Eastern Rome, that was Constantinople.

 

 


 
  • 1.               Monarch or popular regulation.

     

    Progenitor: Prince Line: Riurik, 9th  century, princely line., residence Novgorod,

    Important is the tradition, it is important to them,

     

    Rus, (Kollman), “Nomads of the Sea” name of a Scandinavian warrior trading company,   

     

    12th, monk discovers the Prime Chronicle, in monastery, called the Laurentian Text.  Pro-Rus, Por Scandinavian, pro-slavs.  Written about Rurike ( Don’t trust).

    Vikings had long-vision, a grand-planned,

     

    Most of the Slavs were forest dwellers in Russia region ( Kollman).

    Steppe: Nomads, Herding big economic, horses, economy is grasslands of the steppe like the great plains of America. Following their herds, fundamentally moving. Winter/summer pastures in different areas. Nomads are not farmers, so they do business with the forest-steppe slavs, get food from sedentary people like slavs.

    Meat/horses, Slavs, honey, furs ( its cold), vetigables, grain,  

     

    Long distant trading company was the nomadic people of the steppe, many people needed protection as well as a guild. Pay money, so hope by end of journey you still have a profit or break even. Spoiling our business, practices, confiscatory, do not destroy our business, sucks the blood out of the organism that we need to live and survive.

     

    Entourage of nomads use Eagles, Golden Eagles, hawks, falcons for hunting.  Golden Eagles can bring down a wolf. Big tallions, not rabbit hunting, small deer antelope,

     

    Then the oreintalism is that they are pillagers, roughians, bad people. But in reality other cultures,

     

    “pax” means the peace of the steppe, but the Tartars established the “pax” Tartarica

     

    Dry mares milk-cheese balls, and take Golden Eagles.

     

    Tartar controlled 11 times zones, fulfilled a dream of the whole little tribes worshipping them, they were too small in number to hold on to it.

     

    Viking came to exploit the long distant trade routs.

     

    Who writes history, from what perspective, so the steppe nomads have gotten a bad rep over time because we are the writers. Why did Tartar decimate a community? To succumb a group. But cannot continue to terrorize them for long periods of time, must have political plan for long term.

     

    Symbiotic relationship, between sedentary and pastoral (nomadic tribes),

     

    Navigating the steppe was too hard for the Slavs, its like being lost in an ocean, they could not keep a bearing so-to-speak, so communication for expedition and conquest of the steppe was too difficult. Monads knew where they were at all times, and the farther they were away from Kiev the scarier it was for troops.

     

    When Vikings came, they taught them navigation of their rivers and this helped teach the princes Rus’ land navigation and to travel better to make war on Kazan, etc…

     

    Kiev, is the forest-steppe line.

     

    Forest zone is acidic soil.

    • Cherno/zem black soil, best soil in the steppe, This is why the Slavs went into the steppe and so there is tension, (page-Golden) between sedentary and nomad. Slaves, of all nationalities, and some slavs themselves, anyone who cannot resist.

    • Slave trading ( After conquest from a battle) not huge within Kiev and Rus’.Hamilton west Art historian, so be careful, the ‘ russiticalilzation’ a bad word condescending. Volgograd Cathedral is a good example about the Greek masoners cut stone, and but later Slavs, once they had left, could not reproduce the feat, according the additions to the Church, made out of rubbles, and  Why Volgorod had beaten Moscow, and we the Russians would have been a democratic country – a sentiment offered sometimes. Volgorod had a pluralistic, representative Steppe noblemen are mainly cavalry, fast and best weapons, and also they had foot soldiers, too.Slavs, students of the nomads: Horsemanship, get their horses from them.

    • Mongol turkey language ( in Russian), and intermixing, postal system , stamps, seals, terms color of a horse, parts for a horse, money ,

    • Pitch battle, Nomads are better on steppe, and so Slavs paid tribute, but farther in forest harder for the horses to get their so they went there.

    • Who are the princes, the ones that can afford horses, weapons, and buy friends, and they learn cavalrymen, and that is the background the Muscovy elite, in time of war they are General and in time of peace they are politicians.

  • Watch for condescending, Rus’ and steppe nomads, history written by sedentary white males, ( i.e fearsome savages).

  • Illustrates the cultural gulf between the two people. But there were also a symbiotic relationship. A mutual beneficial, or certain period there were raids, pillageing and going back to their nomad homes, two words touching themselves for a moment. At the same time a sedentary business is going on at the same time.

  • Like Venice Battling Ottomans, when ever Ottoman attacked Venice, trade would continue, just down to another port down the coast. Business didn’t stop.

  • Environment deterministic argument, Russia needed dictatorship, but that is extremist. God didn’t intend for people to live too far north in Eurasia ( Russia) you can only slash and burn so much - 10 years the soil is exhausted.

  • Farms patchwork strips 12 feet strips the scratch plow row, and looks like embroidery patch. In Rus’ begin allowing one strip to go fallow for one year but they didn’t know that.  

 

 

 

 

 

                                          

Riansanovsky & Steinberg, History of Russia:

Kievan economy stressed the role of trade. Main source, account by a Rus’ composed in the  10th century Byzantium emperor and scholar Constantine Prophyrogenitus. End 3 BC-3AD Scythians/ defeated s/ Russia replaced by Sarmatins, Iranian speaking nomads, stirrups, lances, long sword; Scy. only light equipment. Back Sea/Russian Steppe Greco- Iranian culture. 200-370AD, Gothic, Black Sea-Baltic; 370 Huns, migrate steppe, Turkish, Mongol, Ugrian mix; 415 Huns defeated, Châlon, France, next invaded Italy; Avars. s/Russia ( 100 ys. reign), eastern Russia-Danube; 600 Khazars, fought against Islam, Balkins, Turkish speaking, 1st. permanent paid military. Slav origins Pliny the elder/Tacitus 6th cent. Procopius/gothic Jordanes, Slavs term common ‘ Venedi,’’Antes’; Herodotus, Scythian-ploughmen (poss. Pre-Slavs); east Slavs fought against Goths, swept with Huns westward, then conquered the Avars. Khazar state, 12th cent. Primary Chronicle PC, Slavs already divided into 12 tribes – Black Sea/Danube/Carpathian Mountains across the Ukraine/Novgorod territory. Neighbors, n/e Finnic, w Lithuanians. 18th cent. Creation of Norman myth-theory. No Rus’ name in Scandinavia, 6-7 words attributed only to Scandinavia, most trade words Oriental/Slav. Arabic contemporary scholars, “ Rus’ a tribe of Slavs.” 820,842 recorded already Surozh/Amastris. Best, Normans as ‘one element.’ PC, Oleg’s capture of Kiev in the name of Rurik’s son Igor in 882, the starting point of Kievan History. Kievan political history three parts: #1, Oleg’s semi-legendary 882-972(80);#2)Kievan Russia, Saint Vladimir, Iroslav ‘the wise’ Christianization Orthodox; #3, Decline and fall, difficult to define time-line, 1113-1125 Vladimir Monomakh, considered last effective ruler, same said of son Mstislav r. 1125-1132. Other, capture of Kiev 1169 Prince Andrew Bogoliubski of Suzdal, or 1240 Batu. Kievan Russia, Sviatoslav’s rule ‘ great adventure’ 962-972, troops 60,000 Byzantine source (large army) fought Byzantine, killed by Peachenegs, sig. remarkable eastern campaigns. Pechenegs/Patzinaks, Turkish nomads, 915 assault Kievan state mid-10th cent. Islam disallowed Alcohol, Rus’ people didn’t like that part of the religion ( accredited Vladimir’s response), Judaism could not hold on to a state. Iaroslav offered asylum to disaffected and statesmen; Also, six matrimonial alliances established with Hungary, five with Bohemia, fifteen Poland, eleven Germany- alliance building. The decline, most possibly external forces was a major cause. Kiev Export, early slaves, later furs, wax, honey; Imports, wine, silk, fabric, art, spices, precious stone. Tribute tax unit ‘plough’ household tax ‘ smoke,’ peasants. Jobs mattered to social status, currency before coin, cattle s/, furs n/. Kiev Christianity contentious, different view than glorious.

James Cracaft, ed. Major Problems in History of Imperial Russia

Geography main importance for Russia.

West climate warmer, soil less fertile, east (inland) more cold, better soil. Even southern eastern regions colder than north-west, due to Atlantic Ocean currents. Rus’ Extremely short growing season. Rye, 1:2, northern climate crop.  Western Europe, last 7-8 months. East deep plowing, argument, no effort in preparing the soil led to poverty, led to low market productivity, led to poverty – vicious circle. Mid-18th century, small population compared to other parts of the world.. Less labor factor. To make money, shifted to natural resources for trade – raw materials. Trade the factor of economy. Dramatic pop. changed occurred with Ivan’s conquest of Kazan, and Astrakhan. Pop. Density, western forest zone (shape of a wedge, continued to elongate over time). Steppe strip: Bulgaria ― Mongolia, increasingly dry toward China. Nomads, live-off the silk rout. Good soil, but protected by Turk and Mongol tribes. Not friend of Rus’ people. Communities: Over time: Rus’ Slavs, Basic-unit, tribal community-50-60, related by blood, cooperative, grew and non-blood related entered the fold, then communal organization, joint ownership of lands (mir or obshchina). The realm of Russia should have been decentralized life, Richard Pipes argued. Only geopolitical circumstances changed that.  Furs, main trade items to foreign markets.

 

Reinterpreting Russian History:

  1. First. Info, earliest Slav. Hist. 12th century, Primary Chronicle ( Oral and written) local pop.: eastern European plain. Second. Kievan Rus’, 9th century sources. Source, sparse, religious and ideological conviction.  Myth or fact, Slavs invited the Vikings to settle ( Primary Chronicle confirms fact). Archeology, Slavs, 6th cent. AD settlements. Arch. Multi-ethnic, Slav/non-Slave.   Scandinavia memorial stones attribute Vikings already in Rus’. Economic overlord: (859) Vikings ( Varangians) imposed tribute upon Chuds, the Slavs, Merians, the Ves and the Krivichians. Khazars imposed it on Polianians, The Severians, and the Viatichians. Significance: Some tribes moved inward away form rivers for self-rule - migration. (Slavs settled by r. Ister (Danube), controlled Novgorod & Polota. Other, Vikings, intermixed, vital role economy of the Rus’. Greek trade drew Viking trade 10th cent.; First ‘state’ views: only Slavic, old view; new view multi-ethnic ( Archeology). Finnic, Baltic. Oldest legal Code: Pravda Russkaia (compiled 11th cent.), recognized blood revenge/system of selfhelp; no prince help, yes popular participation. Legend Acceptance: 3 brothers, one in Novgorod, named Rurik, now place called Rus’. Heimshringla, Jaroslave/Harald warm relations, political marriage.

  2. Pagan elements- Pre Christianity: 859 Chron. Finno-Ugrian ( Meria [chud]) influenced politics, pagan ‘bear god’. Iaroslav conversion attempts Slavs, Meria. 9-13th cent, n/w increased settlements / similar Slav-Russian colonization trends, sig. intermix ethics.

  3. 8-9th cent. Hetero/ leftbank Volga, migration from Novgorod. Culture/plow->ecom.>trade>customs( burial/Iron). N/E Forest wars, no peaceful assimilation Slavs.

State Structures of Kievan Rus’

  • Myth Kiev Monarchial, contrast polotsk, Novgorod; self-sufficient sovereign city-states in Kiev 1100s, city assemblies veche, 1147 cordial assembly Sophia, process of founding a republic, not Monarchy, Kiev prior now Novgorod. Prince had power, but people accepted the authority or not. 1169 outside powers desires districts. Novgorod developed social-political result of internal social development; election of princes 11-12th cent. Common, ‘ feeding’ prince/free peoples/public service.

Economy Kiev Rus

  • Volga trade dominate in sectors only, others agriculture; Plow-agriculture/livestock raising; Forest-Zone  difficult farming, slash& burn/harrow, light plow possibly invented; Forest-Steppe, better soil, heavy plow then scratch-plow, plowshares desirable theft item. 1103 draught-labor plowing chronicled. Trade: North, Novgorod, Ladoga, Amber trade; interrupted 13th century, by Teutonic & Livonian Order (Baltic region), Dnieper region, Mongols. Amber destination Prussia, Pope ‘my Amber monopoly’ 14th Rus’/Orders peace.

The Statue of Grand Price Iaroslav 11th century.

  • Women less rights than men in general but ‘all’ women social status’ have representation; aristocratic women more rights; ‘evil’ women seen as only independent, not criminal. Common women 13-14th have some private property rights.  Novgorodian Statue of grand Prince Vsevolod on Church Courts and Merchants. Novgorodian Charter, birchmark, women literate, legal representation by literacy.

Culture everyday Life, Kiev Rus’

  • Open Literacy: Birchmark: casualness in script, inference, 700 known, only northern places, not found in south. England M.T. Chancy, argues 1066-1307 growth in literacy. Kievan 11th century, before contested. Vladimir Monomakh, letters not birch. Most topic money, 11-12th cent. Peasant literacy. Mid-11th quantity, evident of literacy = liturgy, copying of religious texts. Orthodox minority until 14th century, possibly elite culture prior. Choices: Competing religions, Bulgarian (islam)German(Roman Ch.) Jewish. 6496(988) Vladimir besieged Kherson (Tzargrad emperor) cannot marry Anna until baptize, made ultimate decision. Feodossi, life of service, ascetic, physical austerity, path close to god, social implication reverence for saints. 10th cent. Construction, crafts boom = introduction of Churches, Cathedrals, Monasteries.

Russian Primary Chronicle: Laurentian Text.

  • Testament of Vladimir Monomakh, “Kyrie eleison!” best prayer, no idle thoughts, Laziness is the mother of all evil, arise early, first of go to Church, do not let wives have power over you [men]. Lord promised victory over enemies though three means: repentance, tears, and almsgiving. A litany of conquests attributed to God’s guidance – he protects one if one accepts him, set up of princes (Yaropolk). Main theme: take charge yourselves, do not be followers.

Kiev Rus’, b. Grekov.

  • Suggest, quarrying of marble bought across the black Sea form Marmora. Batu, name of Mongoloid who sacked Kiev, 1240, destroyed Desyatinnaya. Desyatinnaya preceded by Princess Olga’s Palace, Brick, two-story, ornamentation, marble, fresco, mosaic, glass..etc…Kiev, other than wood structures, higher culture 10-11th cent. Experience engineers, skilled workers, imported from Greece, their fame had spread before in 9-10th cent. Trieties by Theophile (late 10th) techniques on various handicrafts, Rus’ second only to Byzantine, list of leading countries in Europe. Key, historical development not by chance in 10-11th cent. that Rus’ came about in civilization, crafts, literacy...etc. Political process of drawing in talent to Rus’ successful.

The Art and Architecture of Russia

  • Vladimir first act, threw-out Perun, Volos idols, Kiev, First church dedicated to St. Basil, his patron., First were wooden structures. #2 church, Cathedral of the Dormition of the Virgin “Marble Church” (Desyatinnaya, f. 989, cruciform (not basilica), marbles and frescos), used as palace chapel. Sent for Greek artisans, no mention Yaroslav made similar call. Greek priests accompanied Anna to Kiev, beginning of ecclesial apparatus. Later, Yaroslov, Christian culture developed, more monks, etc…supreme achievement, Cathedral of St. Sophia (emulation ‘contested’ of Justinian’s Hagia Sophia ( Church of holy wisdom)). Novgorod Chronicle says 1018 founded ( church burning in Kiev one year prior), many sacks, many rebuilds, many additions ( 8 new domes in 1685-1707). Silhouette pyramid shape, thick reddish quartzite and thin buff brick, bound in pink mortar ( pieces of brick in mortar), same as in contemporary Byzantium practice. Most notable departure from Byzantine practice – thirteen cupolas ( Christ and 12 apostles). (13 vierkhi), chronicled before fire in 1045. 1100 outer galleries finished, new buttresses. Glittering polychromatic fabric, first great symbolic expression in Russia; Interior space, 1/3 in size  to Hagia S., possibly to support the 13 domes. Written about by visitors, and example of Russian grandeur. Hist of construction. Continues Eastern Pressure halted building in general. Changing requirements, less complicated structures, less money, less time, less loss in wartimes. New types, Cathedral of the Transfiguration ( Spaso-Preobrazhensky Sobor) in Chernigov, 1017, by Mstislav of Tmutarakan, younger brother of Yaroslav. Asia Minor influences, rebuilt in 17th cent. St. Theodosius, the second abbot, 1073, began Cathedral of the Dormition in the Monastery of the Caves, Kiev – first monastic order, monks lived. Larva chronicles mention Constantinople artisans. Church of the Redeemer in the Birch Wood, built by Vladimir Monomakh, c. 1100, burial church for dynasty, Russian adaptation of Greek technique. First artistic works supervised by Greek Clergy. Red dominate hue. Combination of fresco and mosaic common in Caucasus, not in Byzantium. New iconic symbolism bound Greek-Russian for centuries, mural painting. Last judgment usually depicted on the west wall replaced with enthroned Christ approaching from the left with Yaroslav holding a model of the church…Arrangement, Christ’s early life depicted on the floor and progresses to the Pantokrator ( Medallion); general frescos, last less than mosaic, were predominantly Byzantine, executed by Greek masters. Mosaics, second period of Byzantine painting style. 1843 found stair-tower to  galleries, 130 figures, life at Byzantine Court. Break in workmanship, until  Tzargrad-Greek masters, later generation,  decorate St. Michael (after 1108). After the first period of Kievan art, frescos replaced mosaics for financial considerations.

Aspects of the Nomadic factor in Economic Development of Kievan Rus’

Theme: topic nomads. Historiography: Nomadic blamed for the ruin of Rus’ land comments by Volodimir Monomakh ( Congress of Dolobs’k in 1103 – commonplace in chronicles to exonerate the poganye. Pokrovskii, suggested also princely strife. Jerome Blum, faltering nomadic activity, 12th cent; Richard Pipes, nomadic harassment. General terms, broad themes, often do not describe complex relations in history, especially concerning long time-frames.  19-20th century scholarship, Slavic-nomadic confrontation pushed back the Slavs.  B.D. Grekov, patriotic nomads, and Rus’ assimilation of steppe tribes. V.V. Confederations formed against Nomads. Rus’. Kargalov, nomads ‘tore’ land away from Rus’ people, fled north. Nomadism as an economic system, pastoral production trade with sedentary neighbors. Golden, Slavs, Vikings in eastern Rus’ were composite entities- Slavs, Finnic, and other elements. Trade/Landed Liubeck congress 1097 , “ nomads of the sea” get land rights. Significant eastern trade 750 ( note: Period of Abbassid Golden Age), north south trade routs valuable to opportunists. Rus’-Byzantine trade in ear of Ol’ga and Svaitoslav (d. 972) were slaves, furs and honey. Commercial competitors of nomads: Horse trade from Nomadic peoples. major point, nomadic polities for much of the history were ‘ not organized states.’ Khazar Kaganate one true exception, destroyed by the Rus’. Volga Bulgaria, never formed real a threat to Rus’. Mongols organized nomads in history. Nomadic society: Slavs, closet contact. Chernozem steppe, little use for agriculture, nomads here had to gain access to goods. Nomadic societies have greater need for trade than sedentary. If one fails at nomadic life, they often go to sedentary life – hard life. Predation when cannot trade, attacks on sedentary populations, deliberate terror tactics, to made them more willing ‘partners’ in redistribution of goods. So new view, it was sedentary pressure that caused the nomads to attack.  Steppes were centuries’ old preserve for nomads. Egalitarian, but hieratical existed, so contradiction. Also were currier-like service to state and individuals.

 

Products

  • Wines came from Anatolia, also silk, naval stores

  • spices over the caucuses, textiles, steel blades.

    Hides and wools from the steppes.

    Flax, hemp, hides and slaves on the upper steppes east of Kiev.

    Portage, north or south, pass Novgorod is the Volkav river going north.

    Novgorod controls all the east, it was big. Means new city, Novgorod means / new city’.

    They were proud, and called their city Novgorod the Great.

    Hinterland-forest, wax, honey, forest products.

    Itil, is at the mouth of the Volga, I saw it on the map.

     

    Marlet/ right bank, prices and market side, the left bank is the Kremlin side. The Holy Sophia side. Outside is divided into 5 large districts. Vikings settled on the slightly higher left bank side.

    Right side is commercial and made for boats.

    Empire of Novgorod stretching out to the Ural mountains and the white sea.

    Trade routs, in 1212, north/south had been cut-off, even before the Tartars. But there is active trade still with the Baltic.

     

    1. Mote, high fortress walls on the left side. Holy Cathedral, Holy Sophia. \

    2. Apocalyptic notions were there because others wanted to conquer it. These visions, he sees doom for the city, a title wave, or fire in the form of flames that will destroy, or angels above shooting pestilence from above.

    3. City, leftbank, grew in circles, and city walls and fortress walls around the market side display this form.

    4. How do we know Novgorod, it is because of archeology. People are always digging. Birchbark writings.

    5. Log roads, tied together, split, round side underneath, and the flat side, the levelness.

    6. Archeologist (28) layers of streets, lowest 953, top 1462? How do we know these dates?

    7. As streetlogs wear out just add on top - because the sides ride, and the road was the trashheep as well, so good for Archeologists. House foundations right alongside the road, there are crossroads and houses- the rectangle form the foundations of the houses. There were fences as well, a stockade type. Houses could have wooden floor. Hard clay structure were the stoves.  Stockade fences wall off the traffic on the street to keep out animals and whatnot.

    8. Tree ring patters, and to date it with others. The same climatic circumstances, Match up the good and bad years ( the graph-lines) and get a pretty good view of the year. How do you get the first datable log. Masonry structures where wooden beams were used then the building would be recorded, if a big building, and then fashion the date to these logs used in the building and match them to the streetlogs and see if they match.

    9.  

    10. Treasure of the boggy soil around the streetlogs, were the preservation of birchbark writings. Hard to make curves, so most letters have hard edges, most, not all. Thousands of the writings have been down. Written with a stylus, pressing down on the softer side of the bark. Letters formed by indentation, incision. Most were casual messages, using peoples nicknames, not full names, while others were economic, like how much money to spend on honey and such.

    11. There were no military elite, this was a merchant elite city, about 15 boyars, large landholdings, and they are at the top. Equal in economic, the wealthy landowners were landholders, then below them were the merchants, all three didn’t have to pay taxes:

    12.  

    13. Artisans, and peasants, the bulk pay the taxes.

    14.  

    15. Skis were used to travel. Novgorod were more rural, little houses surrounded by kitchen plots, and same courtyard animals were kept.

    16. Far distance travel and trading archeology finds Arabic coins, western Europe Flemish cloth,

    17. No banks, so people buried their stash.

    18. Cultural artifacts, wooden pagan idols, side-by-side with Christian artifacts.

    19. Women had fairly broad rights to own property. All males voted in the veche, the town assembly.

    20. 1470 Muscovy conquers Novgorod.

    21. Most trade is east west, and not north south in 13th century.

    22. The foreing merchants bought the local Novgorod, and eastern most trade spot 1200s-1400s: salt, wood, and other stuff. France grew up and bought fur, amber from Novgorod, and honey valuable product of the forest.

    23. 1245, merchants settles (Germanic Catholic Church merchants settled there) Where, on the commercial side of the Volkav. It was a town within a town, and its gates were shut at night to protect the goods, and this was a treaty. A separate walled community. Large barrels, hundred of small animal skins were sent out, exported. 1424, 151 merchants were arrested in an uprising, and in 1494, there were still 49 German merchants there. By the 15th century German trade weakened, as European avenues of trade develops. So Novgorod suffers. Overland traderouts also arise taking away river transports.

    24. Novgorod were a variety of peoples. Free thinking and independence, people from the outside saw this as threatening.

    25. Difference from Moscow: political examples inherited from Kiev and Rus’, one is local government, and other is city government, there existence in Novgorod, the communal principle. What is communal principles, it’s a east-Slavic tradition of representation, of villages, and discussed by consensus, and it was difficult to survive in climate conditions, so they people would get together, and it’s a strong tradition, more in the north, communes regulating local government.

    26. Landlord mostly absentee, usually left to the local communes, and customary law to rule the people, up in the forest-zone. Furs were the lifeblood of the northerners.

    27. In around Novgorod, the settlements were sparce, the climate was a big factor, so there were small households banning together to survive, a really short growing season. Some slaves, many freemen, and these people would work other’s lands. Others had a little bit of land.

    28. Mir, council, also means world or peace, but this a  council, by a council of elders, so communes pretty much ruled themselves, they were self governing. Only contact, were the tax purposes. Even after Muscovy conquered, many communes still kept their practices, only worried about collecting taxes, There were quite dynamic in protecting their own rights, petition the Tsar is misrepresented, sometimes takes the law into their own land. Strong- far north communes, but close to get to Moscow, the lesser the rights and lesser the strength. North is above the Volga, freer, more democratic and more rights.

    29. Novgorod: An urban democracy; early on Novgorod got rid of their princes, and they had a direct relationship with Kiev, and grand  prince would enjoy the wealth. How did Novgorod because autocratic that is a good question.

    30. 1136, revolt, and it became a de facto independent entity, and allied with whoever was the most powerful prince in the area.

    31. Contract with the prince, live  in commercial side, cannot own land? Who? Princes were soon kicked out of town??

    32. City was effectively not ruled by the prince, the assembly the veche , by the ringing of the bell, everyone comes, and veche decided all affairs. Law and order, the Prince-relationship whoever it is, had to do his part and be the protector of the city.

    Democracy-Like, and Government of Early Rus'

    Where did they get this model, a urban version of a Slavic city. It’s a stretch to say it came from Greek sources, and this self government.

    Each commune elect a representative to the veche.

    • Districts, each unit, a complex.

    • And elector,

    • Met sporadically,

    • Archbishop helped,

    • Negotiated the contract with the prince,

    • Political and justice issues, it was self-governing.

    • It was democratic, or that is of the myth.

    Three officials

    1. First was lieutenant

    2. Second: Thousand man, a old military term, an officer over a thousand men.

    3. Third official was the prince.

    Veche only met sporadically, it was tumultuous, just as democracy proceeding go.

    1. Try  to arrive at some form of unanimity.

    2. The mayor’s office: Council of Magnets ( Merchant oligarchy), were the council of Lords, were past living officials, church and boyars, a merchant oligarchy,

    3. As Carl Marx would say it was not a democracy, the man who had the dollars is the ones that ruled. So periodically 14-15th century there were uprisings. Like protests in democracy.

    4. Single dome church, three-part gable, becomes the standard of c 1370s, the churches the lasting testament of this city. More steep roofs, for the snow to fall-off,

    5. 1169 a major Novgorod battle

    6. Novgorod had a rivalry with Moscow.

    7. Anti-Novgorod is the White Cow.

    8. First bible translation.

    9. Why was Novgorod conquered in the 15th, Moscow more power, a weakness of an oligarch rule, no major permanent fortifications, trade slumped, as discussed, and centralizing states arose, and constituents were willing to succeed if their neighbor gave them a better deal. Like states succeeding to the North or South, whoever gives the better deal. So politics as well as force caused Novgorod to fall.

    10. It was called by liberal intelligencia as a democracy, they saw it as western democracy. They are the ones that put forth, but no.

    11. People look to the past to revive, an ideology.   

 

14th Century Frescos

 

  1. (Frescos by Theophanes) 14th Century, Frescos in Novgorod: Church of the Transfiguration was built by the people living on the street. Rubble construction, brick, Church of the Savior on the main street,

  2. Frescos the Greek master Theophanes,

  3. Quick strokes of the brush, that suggest couture.  Sit on top of a column, a monk would sit for thirty years and people would lift up to them food, and, Theophanes painted from memory, and talking at the same time, he came north from Byzantine bring styles,

  4. Hermit Monk, to desert to escape the pleasures, ascetic departure from this world, the white beard picture no face,

  5. Most famous Fresco is the holy trinity, Abraham and Sarah, three angles, the elderly couple, ‘go get food we shale entertain these three strangers.’ This icon painting comes really important later on, a trefoil roofline, was used on this church.

  6. Frescos is done on wet plaster, so can only do small patches at a time. If dry, called Fresco Secco.

  7. (Different Church – no color Frescos in this one)

  8. Moses and Noah, and three apostles fall down the mountain blinded by the light, the Transfiguration , the manifestation of the light is one of the most important things in Orthodox church.

  9. Artists, nativity scene, Orthodox belief Christ was born in a cave. So these scenes are important in frescos in Russia. Medieval paintings were narrative, and renaissance were snapshots.

  10.  Russia artists learned their iconography from their Greek masters, and from Books on iconography, and icon in Russia means ‘holy image’ plaster on wooden boards, and plaster is where the paint is laid. 6 feet tale is often a height so that many in Churches sitting far-off can see the iconic image. From portable icons, Russian learned their iconography too. Ikonopis’: To paint it  - is to write it.

  11. The Bible says no engraved images of this world, but the saints are argued are not of this world, and the 7th ecumenical council, this issue was dealt with; argue: in theory this is a window to heaven in which we worship. In sense, when Christ was sent to earth, they argue,  God sent the first icon. Some argued, so to say, this was still improper.

  12. Cross-boards on the back on the boards, and in a grove, the boards must be seasoned, or dried for a year or two, cannot use a green[wood].  Older boards styles had a raised edge, and typically a canvas is glued to the wood, and 7-10 layers of gypsum or plaster were laid, and these layers fill up to the raised edges, flush now, and now it is ready. So if well prepared the painting can last centuries.

  13. Oldest layers in the face of the famous virgin ( Mother and child) are supposed to be the originals, but artist found many layers of paint on her. The nose and eyebrows form a ‘T’ and, there is a suggestion of the three dimensional, but in reality most work is two dimensional in medieval style. Nose radii determine the proportions of the head, in figures. Circle, from the forehead to the bottom tip of the nose. Faces, were added only a little human touch, but tried to stick to the other worldly style. Most icons were painted from icon monastic schools. No true of three- dimensional illusionism in the medieval period. Our Lade of Legima ( The famous one) is the proto type of so many copied in the same style.

  14. What happened in Russia before the Greek masters? No monastic icon schools, no icon books, but some copied from texts that had illuminations.

  15. In general, icon painting, In practice no two icons are alike, even when copying from icon books. Local pigments, cinnabar pigment might not be available other places, some places yes. So these were hand works of art. And no two hand writing scripts for scribes were alike, so we see a comparison of similarity. 

  16. Patter books, only appear in Russia in the 17th century. In these patterns books instructions to mix gesso, and pin-pricks were used in outlining before beginning with paint.

  17. Wall of icons, the royal prayer-doors, where these were for confession. Linseed oil, brightens when first put, but darkens over time, and so they put another layer and over time they paint over the darken layer – to brighten it up.

  18. A famous icon collector wrote a book called “ black-boards” indicating this darken appearance of linseed, or flaxseed oil used as a varnish darkened over time the icons reserved till today. Now many restore them. Use turpentine. We can see paint, of the icon, after our techniques of restoration began to be perfected in the 20th century, then let say a icon copyist of a few hundred years ago.

  19. So why dark skin or fleshtones? Because the copyist might have seen the darken varnish and thought that is how the flesh looked so needed to copy it as it looked. So they think the flesh is almost black.

Why repaint a Icon?

 

  1. Changing taste in appearance, is one reason for repainting. Icon boards were often repainted.

  2. All icons boards tend to bow-out. So steel frames, then the exploded, so cannot stop the bowing, just retard it. Cinnabar red, backgrounds.

  3. Hierarchy, of Novgorod, the patron saint, will have the tallest figure in a icon narrative. The semantics, the language of the icon, the prominent figure is the patron’s decision, or the patron saint of the city or the church or we do not know.

  4. Language of perspective or proportions, in medieval, inverse, or reverse perspective, instead of imaginary line in the distance where the perspective converges, it is opposite and sometimes multiple, the sides go outwards and not inwards, one might argue so that you see the both sides or from God’s eyes it is true perspective, especially multiple perspective. INVERSE PERSPECTIVE or MULTIPLE PERSPECTIVE.

  5.  For example seeing the external scenery and internal scenery and doing are parts of multiple perspectives. Can God see like this, or superman? Medieval two dimensional artistry worked as such.

  6. Medieval Iconic narrative artistry: Intended to be vehicles for prayer, not to be put in museums where their was none back then.

  7.  Russian Iconography to the Russiatation of transformation from the Byzantine style to the Russian new style.

  8.  Salonika Teacher Icon,  was standing and changed to be sitting, so looks odd.

  9.  8 pointed style of the Christian Cross. Not the western equal sided cross of the Middle Ages.

  10.  In Novgorod, Two Nicholas’s, painted as the same time, but different in Hamilton, so two styles, one raised an eyebrow, a human feeling to make him more assessable, again, no two Icons are alike, the painters could have been looking at different models.

  11.  Red Cinnabar was popular in Novgorod, important to note. There can be boarder scenes and a central icon figure in the center of a narrative board.

  12.  General, no two figures overlap, not natural, often dynamic poses, but most formalistic.

  13. Vita: lives, Boris and Gleb, were warriors, early leaders in Rus’ history, and these 11th century Kiev and Rus’ saints, pop up in icons because in 989 is when Russian adopted Christianity, and these two martyrs were part of the first waves of early Russian Christians. So the reason these people are used in icons is cities tried to claim heritage to them.

  14.  Crosses on the Robes of a Byzantine Bishop.

 

Novgorod city-states trading with the west and thse Baltic ties,

 

  1. Cities of major heresies were Novgorod, or the boarder towns. Hansiatic league connections, the trade-town it was more influenced to more different types of people.

  2. Triangular proportions of God ( Novgorod), a formulations in later Icons. So when people pray, meditate they can envision the icon and concentrate on the picture to add a symbol of concentration.

  3. Purification of the Virgin, 40 days the women was unclean after the child, cannot come into the church until after the 40th day, this was invented by man, not God.

  4. Battle of Novgorod and Suzdal, a narrative in 15th centiry, threatened by Moscow, is a battle scene in the time of the 12th centiry, so the narrative, shown in three tears, and the army is coming from Suzdal, and the to protect the palladium, the first tier narrative; the second teir the three boyar princes from Suzdal come to negotiate peace, but Suzdal people from beyong shoot arrows at an icon of Novgorod; third tear, the Novgorod army  have three period saints, Boris, Gleb, St. George, (?and two others, making five). So they will win. So the narrative tells of a victory. So it this a image of a holy image or  a historical scene, if from ‘Novgorod the Great’ it is an Icon; it’s a miraculous tale if not from Novgorod.

  5. The Byzantine miracle the multi perspective one, The Novgorod building up top, while the interior scenes and a cloud, it is a Russian theme, with the onion domes,.

  6. Miracle of Archangel Michael

  7. Protector of cattle and horses, very important to flocks of these in Russian religious lore.

  8. When at Church, you learn to read and pray to the icon as there are the lessons in the church and can approach it in service and in church, so when illiterate you can read history and important things, but can be making more of this in modern history as icons are not important now that we all usually can read and write, so lessons are not necessary.

  9. Before, icons were floating, some Novgorodian icons show saints on the grass, on the terra ferma.

  10.  White quick highlights suggest flesh, and, in the rise of Moscow they retain more of the inherited traditions, the land Pomest’e system.

  11. Novgorod a member of the Hansiatic league a bid deal.

  12. Veche by nature was chaotic, one sense it was a riotous assembly by nature, that is why the council of magnates bypasses it after 15th century.

  13. Common expression V. Principe: meaning in principle. In practice it was an other story.

  14. In Soviet Russia one had to smell the butter before one ate it because it could be rancid.

  15. Kiev had a veche too but was not as strong as the Novgorod city,

  16. Administration systems were Kontsy, five of them, and left over were hundred men, a military term for one-hundred men, and used in civil lingo, as 10 Sonti.

  17. What is the Veche, where is the council of nobles, leftbank in the princes’ palace, the bishop of Novgorod on the fortress side, and the veche’s bell was on the market side, anyone could ring it to summon the people. The prince could not control the council of magnates so he went outside of the boundaries of the city to exist. The magnates were too powerful. Military achievments were what the prince had to do for the people, but can be a figure head in civil matters, which was the case, and the 15th century this was true. Military prowess, and where does the prince die, he makes several trips the Serai to visit the capital of the Golden Horde, so why?

  18. Alexander was not just a prince that was a military genius, he was a tactician and goes to Sarai to hobnob and pays the tribute: he made three trips and died on his final return. This was political knowhow as well. St. Petersburg, Peter founds a Monastery dedicated after the local prince made good.  Russian bemoan that Moscow conquered Novgorod, what would Rus’ be like today.

  19. Pksov, it was smaller place a democracy, closer to a typical democracy not a stratification of divides of classes. It was a wealthy place, as a trade town as well. Power of the prince remained greater in Pskov.

  20. Novgorod: Its flat, short growing season, lots of marshes in spring, its not great land. 1470s, Muscovy win because of a military superiority.

  21. Do not trust people is the reason that Moscow didn’t adopt democracy of the likes of Novgorod. Lenin and Stalin moved vast groups of people to keep their influence politically out of the way.

  22. It is easy to defend rough terrain, that is why Russia have a hard time with Chechnya.

  23. Amber is petrified pine-sap. Jewellery, much liked in Novgorod. It comes in 125 different colors, a famous room, paneling of the walls,  in St. Petersburg – Present of the King of Russia to Peter the Great – Nazi took it in WWII, and carted it off. Post Soviet, American and Germans helped pay to reconstruct it. German firms and American philanthropists.

  24. Baltic area was famous for its Amber, but still second to fur trade in the medieval ages. Novgorod had a vast hinterland in which they could get amber and pelts, a vital and rich trade which was one reason the place was valued.  After a storm in the Baltic, it washes up on the banks and pick up chunks and take it to the trade or commercial side of Novgorod.

  25. Why pay tribute to Mongols, Rus’ at this time was not a military  society at this time and paying tribute was much easier to deal with the Mongols than to constantly get one’s towns and cities burnt to the ground. Do not try to see cultural influence. Two sets of people.

  26. Power multi-faceted-pieced bow, saddles, a

  27. Raisanovsky, what for the way he describes the Mongols, what happened to Rus’ just before the Mongols, the trade in the Mediterranean was changing, Rus’ lost its world/Europe pre-eminence, now that Venice, ( other traders) and others were taking over the trade, and Dutch were rising?????

  28. Trade is changing in the North South Rout, and politically there is not a strong unity, a collateral and unilateral continuity between the ones in power, and there is this stereotype that the Mongols destroyed Kiev and Rus’ but this is not true, it was on the decline before they arrived. Culturally speaking Rus’ came form Kiev and Rus’ but the power moved to Novgorod, then to Moscow, as forest zones were too tough for Mongol horse warfare to conduct with success as out in the open prairies of the steppe. That is why they were so successful, was the steppe was flat and horses could swiftly move and the Mongols were no match to anyone. Rus’ and Kiev miss out on the renaissance was not because of the Mongol Tartars, but because their was no close contact.

  29. Strong tradition in Russian though, a sense of inferiority, to look at the west, and it is the Tartar question, the Scythian question – Tartar heritage, the nomads were a part of its heritage, this was and is a stereotype, and not the case, but a sense of understanding to Russian and streak in Historiography a crudeness, it came form the Tartars, this is so wrong. The Dakota Indians’ and New Yorkians are not culturally a mix, they never mixed. Slavs looked at the horse ridding of the Tartars said I liked to learn that, but didn’t mean cultural sharing.

 

 

 

NOVGOROD:  OASIS OF DEMOCRACY?

 

 

Novgorod ("New City"):  location, trade routes

100 m. south of St. Petersburg, 320 m. northwest of Moscow

Olearius:  17th-c. visitor to Russia

icons:  Vision of the Novgorod Sexton Tarasii; 17th c.; gives info on layout of city and its                         architecture

Gorodishche area; Volkhov River; Lake Il'men; Nereditsa, St. George (Iur'ev) Monastery

Bipartite city: high fortified Detinets (kremlin) on left (west) bank, Iaroslav or trading or                                market side on lower right bank

Detinets from deti, children -- the place where women and children are taken in time of

            trouble

5 ends (kontsy), or boroughs of the city:

Nerevskii - Finnic

Slovenskii -- West Slavic Slavs

Zagorodskii -- "outside the town/Detinets" merchants' quarters

Plotnitskii -- carpenters

Goncharovskii, or Liudin -- potters

 

 Sources: chronicles, laws, treaties; dendrochronology

            28 levels of streets, down to 26 feet below present ground levels

            level 28 dates from 953 A.D.; level #1 dates from 1462

birchbark documents:  note by Onfim, a boy in 13th c.

            see <http://gramoty.ru/>:  almost 1,000 birchbark documents unearthed in Novgorod

 

Economic and social life

social ranks:  boyars, zhit'i liudi (well-to-do men), merchants (kuptsy) -- all privileged,                              non-tax-paying citizens

below them:  artisans, workers, peasants (chernye liudi, black people)

International trade: the Hansa (Hanseatic League), the kontore at Peterhof

furs:  cap of Monomakh (14th c.?)

Svir' River, flows from Lake Onega to Lake Ladoga

 

Colonial hinterland divided into "fifths" (piatiny) and the communes (volost', mir)

freemen (smerdi), slaves, freeholders (svoezemtsy)

 

Urban democracy (veche) and urban officials

5 boroughs, or ends (kontsy); 2 hundreds (sotni) per end; several streets (ulitsy) per                                                         hundred

princes, up to 1136 rebellion

bishop/archbishop

posadnik (mayor) -- Mikhalka clan

thousandman (first military, then judicial)

Council of Magnates (sovet gospod)

 

Cultural life

            heresies:  Strigol'niki (shearers, tailors), late 14th c.

            architecture and art:  trefoil-gabled churches

                        Church of the Transfiguration of the Savior in Il'in Street, 1370s

Archbishop Evfimii (1429-58)

Tale of the White Cowl

Icon, "Battle between the Novgorodians and the Suzdalians"

Archbishop Gennadii (late 15th c.)

 

Moscow conquest, 1478

 

            Hot topic in Russia during the last two decades:  can we revive the pluralistic political traditions associated with ancient Novgorod?  Or are we doomed to follow in the authoritarian tradition of Moscow?

 

Additional bibliography:

 

FOR RUSSIAN HISTORICAL TERMINOLOGY:

            Pushkarev, S.G., et al., compil., Dictionary of Russian Historical Terms from the Eleventh Century to 1917.  Yale U. Press, 1970. 

 

FOR NOVGOROD:

  • Philippe Dollinger, The German Hansa (1964).

  • M. W. Thompson, Lord Novgorod the Great. Excavations at the Medieval City (1967).

  • Eve Levin, "Novgorod Birchbark Documents: The Evidence for Literacy in Medieval Russia," in Medieval Archaeology, ed. Charles L. Redman (1989).           

 

St. Sergii (Sergius) of Radonezh (1321?-1392) Life was composed by a monk of the monastery, Epifanii. Born in Rostov to boyar family, his family moved to Radonezh northeast of Moscow. Sergii tried to be hermit, but instead found his calling at the monastery in the Ephipany of Moscow where he joined the metropolitan Aleksii becoming abbot and confessor to boyars and the Grand Prince. He founded the Trinity Monastery at Zagorsk, 45 miles northeast of Moscow. It became a model for many other Muscovite foundations.  Rublev, brought over from Novgorod, eventually created his masterpiece, The Icon of the Old Testament Trinity (ca 1410), there.  (ham, 133) Sergi gained political influence and was instrumental in the beginning of  a Muscovite synthesis which would mature under Ivan III’s reign. Sergii was a leading participant of the monastic revival and left Muscovy with a monastery that was a flourishing spiritual and cultural center.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ch2 Architecture of Kiev

Vladimir returns from conquering Kherson 989 and imposed conversion. Chronicles of 822 record church of St. Nicholas built by Olma.  Vladimir’s first endeavor, St. Basil. First churches were wooden. Vladimir’s seconf church the Cathedral of the Dormition of the Virgin (Uspensky Sober), known as the Desyatinnaya or Church of the (Virgin of the ) Tithe 989. This church represented the tithe instituted by Vladimir.  Also used as a palace chaple. It was a basilica with a nave and aisles ending in three semicircles apses and a wooden roof. Possibly a three apse basilica without a dome. Cathederal of St. Sophia, wooden church destroyed by fire in 1045, but chronicles say it was thirteen ‘ tops;’ silhouette pyramid appearance, its predecessor from Novgorod, Russian departure from Byzantine principles, so it marked the beginning of native tradition in masonry construction;  cross-plan, three bays of the nave to the north and south of the space beneath the central dome.

 

 

Ch4 Architecture of Vladimir-Suzdal:1100-1240; Slavs, early settlements,  forest lands between Oka & Volga rivers. Its cities commanded the headwaters of the Volga, control of trade routs in that region. Vladimir, Suzdal, Rostov the seat of the bishopric  - therefore, important,  increased in size. nomadic contact in the south – trade possibilities, sometimes strife; clearing forests for farming;  Pioneers from Kievan Russia; Ruling Princes Vladimir Monomakh (d. 1125) – Yury II defeated by Tartars 1238. Before Mongols, Suzdalia rivaled Kiev in masonry structures. Constantine founded school, monks, Latin & Greek, a library, 1000 Greek texts; before Monomakh most buildings wood; Novgorod, Kiev brick cement, Suzdalia white limestone, available locally. Kievan Paterik, source, build building like Pechersky church by measuring and copying in the city of Rostov during Vladimir Monomakh period. Vladimir’s son Yury I Dolgoruky ( George ‘Longarm’) built a similar church in the city of Suzdal. Suzdal Cathedral (1222-5). Between 1125 – 1152 no church building projects in Suzdal. Vladimir, Cathedral of the Dormitian, 1158-61, Churches of Vladimir represent a transplantation of the Kievan style of the second period (but not copyists). Andrey, Yury’s son, sacked Kiev in 1169. He was loyal to Suzdal. Yury & Andrey constructions reflected the struggle between boyars and prince. The churches Yuriev-Polsky and Pereyaslav were ‘garrison churches.’ Palace church were small, and they represent the masonry churches of ancient Russia. Possibly Galician builders were present in Suzdal. Yury founded at least five churches. Most important SS Boris and Gleb. With Andrey’s succession he began to build the Vladimir, Cathedral of the Dormitian, 1158-61, about ten miles away from Vladimir in the village of Bogoliubovo. At that time the church was known as Andrey Bogoliubsky.  Original- Six piers, three apses, and a single dome. Rebuilt in 1185-9

Andre assassinated in 1174, jealousy of aristocracy. Vesvolod III, Audrey’s younger brother continued building. First important endeavor was rebuilding the Dormition of Vladimir. In the new plan was similar to the multiple-celled, many piered style of St. Sophia in Kiev and Novgorod. It was the ‘ joy of Vladimir.’ Second project of Vesvolod, Church of St Dmitry, four-piered, single dome. Church of St. George (1229-34), Yury II’s brother, Svyatslav Vsevolodovich in the capital of his appanage; Yury II succeeded Vesvolod.  Period of increasing Mongol agitation. In 1471 the church collapsed, but it was resurrected at the command of Ivan III by the Moscow architect V.D. Ermolin. The end of architecture projects began around 1228 when the Mongols inflicted their first defeat on the Russians at the battle of Kalka. Nine years later, in the winter of 1237, they attacked Suzdalia. Vladimir was besieged, taken and burned. Best preserved old church, Pokrov, on the Nerl, near Vladimir.

 

Chapter 3 Hamilton

 

‘Novgorod school,’ attribution of an artistic style.

1103-1207, no fewer than 68 churches built, indicating great wealth of the city.

This is in contrast to Kiev where on ten churches were built in a century. In Kiev on princes built churches, whereas, in Novgorod, private citizens, groups and merchants built churches, indicating more economic freedom. Most small parish churches took three years to finish, whereas larger Sophias could take 20 years. Also, one can only produce the amount of churches when things become standardized. The six pier, five domed plan of Kiev and Vladimir were abandoned in favor of four pier supporting a single central dome (p39). Climate problems can possibly explain the onion or bulbous domes, where the snow needed to fall off the roofs or drainage from heavy rainfall. Kiev used masonry domes, whereas Novgorod used the onion style.

 

After the fall of Kiev under the Tartars Novgorod functioned as the main trade center. Pskov & Novgorod had close contact with the west, especially thought its contacts with German traders. West-to-east ( not n/s) Commercial quarters (Torgovaya Storona). Novgorod merchant family Stroganovs were instrumental in discovery and exploring the Siberia in 16 to early 17th centuries. Important factor in trade was being in good graces with the Posadnik ( Mayor). Alexander Nevsky received the title “of the river Neva” after he defeated the Swedes in 1236. In 1238 he won a victory stopping the Tartar advancements and he routed the German Knights on Lake Peipus in 1242 with skillful bargaining with the Tartars, to whom the court of Batu he visited no less than four times. (p37). 1475 Ivan III conquered Novgorod and its territory for control of Muscovy. Ivan IV.

 

Cathedral of Saint George’s -  architect ‘Master Peter,’ said to be the first truly native endeavor. Another differentiation than Bysantium architecture is that Russian architecture went away from the complex to the more practical and simple – toward simplification.  “ triple apses were almost submerged within the thick eastern wall.” (p44). One of the most significant is the sharper pitched roof plan, which differed from Bysantine and was do in large part because of the climate issues. Customary in Novgorod, each church had one apse and a single dome above a tall, gracefully proportioned drum (p47) .

 

“Pskov, the’ younger brother of Novgorod’, was also a free city during the earlier Middle Ages and just as jelous of its liberties, but it was less wealthy and its activities were more restricted by the pressure of its enemies, the Lithuanians to the west.” (47)

 

Ch7

1169 Suzdalians attacked Novgorod.

1237 Mongols devastated Suzdalia.

Nogvgorod maintained the artistic endeavors after the Kievan state fell.

 

1045-’57, Novgorod Cathedral of St. Sophia was decorated in 1108-1144 with frescos and not expensive mosaics. It was damaged by fire during WWII, so hardly anything survived. (p80).

 

Mjm- Greek master in Novgorod, and Valdimire-Suzdal principalities. At the end of the 10th century, an immediate need for religious objects brought creative influences into Rus’. Articles of Greek Manufacture and the arrival of Greek artisans were a part of Kievan movement of prestige and to fashion the city as the center of religious authority (p107).

 

The refined Greek features…most delicate balance between supernatural and the human attributes. (p81). Byzantine art in examples consist of the real and ideal, a subtle equilibrium, the greatest and most characteristic. The Church of the Savior at Nereditsa (until WWII) contained the earliest complete ensemble of wall paintings. Built by prince Novgorod, Yaroslav Vladimirovich, in 1198 and painted the following year.

 

Local Novgorod dialects, some signatures, indicate Russians learning and contributing under Greek masters. Russian apprentices focus more on lines than modeling. (p86-88). “ Human element,” influence of the west. In Frescos more complicated scenes can be depicted, in otherwise mosaic fashion.   

Theophanes impressionism – chiaroscuro, shades of light.

Ch8

Russian art, far more personal icons, then Greek art- eastern art. (p97)

Westerners have a negative view on Russian/Byzantine art because they don’t understand the regions’ history. Until the 17th century icons were used as religious communications. When people became widely literate, the need for them dwindled.

Mind/emotions| nature/supernatural.

 

Scenes often partake of Apocrypha, the books allegedly left out of the Bible. In these books the Virgin Mary is a key player in Christ’s life, or a more active member lets say. Russians also added local saints and interpretations of their own history in art.

Virgin Mary: Bysantine Hodegetria (She who shows the way), the greatest popularity in Russia. Legend, Virgin Blacherniotissa (p101), apse of the church of the Blachemae in Constantinople.

Virgin Platytera, enthroned as queen of heaven. Autocratic reserve, not tenderness.

Frequently Old Testament scenes appear in Russian Art.

There own slant, Church fathers between biblic figures, a unique thing. (p103).

 

Earlier Icons were made of gold and silver and of Greek origin. In the 12th century ground white and yellow ochre substituted for these metals.

 

Flax-seed and olive-oil were used to cover frescos and paintings. There was a vibrant trade for these products. Over time, these products in use darken the surface of the art-work, and later generations tried to copy exactly the colors, not understanding that such things darkened them. (104)

Ch 9

End of 10th century

First icons were brought from Kherson to Kiev by Vladimir. 1155 Andrey Bogoliubsky took from the Kievan suburb of Vishgorod to Suzdalia, where he subsequently placed it in the Cathedral of The Dormition of Vladimir. This is regarded as the most venerated, and is called “Virgin of Vladimir”. (107).

The second group of Greek artists arrived to Kiev around 1073. They came to decorate Pechersky Dormition. (1131-1136); two icons of the Virgin Mary. In 1395 transferred to Moscow to the right of the Royal Doors in the late 15th century of the Cathedral of the Dormition in the Kremlin.

Russian masters worked under Greek supervision.

Second group of Greek artists arrived in Kiev around 1037. They came to decorate the Pechersky Dormition.

The spiritual energy of eastern, Syria religiosity was to find its parallel in Russia. Mystical energy, entering Russia through its many contacts with the east. (p114).

“ A mood of contemplation rather than observation.”

Ch10

Fundamentally Chiaroscuro: where the contour line is most prominent. (119).

Art: Palaeologos style mid-14th century revival of trade between Byzantine and Russia.

The legend of St. George, victorious over a dragon, probably derived from a fresco of about 1167 of the same subject in the church of St. George in Staraya Lodoga. (119).

Chiaroscuro is represented in Saint and Princess (p121), text (122)

 

Novgorod Currency in the 14th century: silver rods.

“After 1350 the Russian version of Palaeologos impressionism completely transformed the earlier two-dimensional linearism into a technique capable of communicating a much wider range of special experience. “ (p 123)

Only a few icons can be attributed to the 14th century.

Early icons: Nativity of the Virgin (c. 1325)

“ Accent of early severity can be found in many icons of the late 14th century, perhaps a refection of the life of the people during those difficult times and of the consciousness of the church.” (p127)

“ the large icon of SS. Paraskeva, Gergory the theologian, John Chrysostom, and Basil the Great illustrates the independence won by the Russian artists in these years.” (127-8).

Probably from the school of Pskov that utilized monochrome schemes. (p128). Russian artists reached a critical point in the development of a national style.

Theophanes the Greek frescos in the church of the Transfiguration of Novgorod.

Method of suggesting a three- dimensional forms; different from earlier 11-12th century where modeling in tomes and lines followed the curve of the plane – inseparable.

Ch.12

Moscow school, Rublev’s Trinity.

Novgorod school, St. Elais c. 1400.

Theophanes prophets, superhuman manifestations.

Novgorod, staple was the Four-Part Icon system. This came from early Christian and Byzantine models. Many were narrative paintings. This was a line of communication, offered as a substitute for literacy. One example: Was the battle between Novgorod and Suzdal in 1169, when Novgorod was besieged by Suzdalians.  This was the earliest known icon to deal with Russian history. (p144). Novgorod painters achieved almost a monopoly in the production of large icons for iconostasis…” (p148). In the Moscow fire of 1547, Novgorodian artists were called up to repair the damaged icons and other works of art. Novgorod is known for the Four-Part icon production. However, when mentioning “mixed styles”, meaning two schools or two styles, this meant that a new national style particularly just for Russian was developing. Finally, Novgorod style was basically practical matters.

 

Lord Novgorod: The art of Statecraft

Theme: Looking at art we can surmise the state of affairs.

Religion and state. Together? Was Catholicism trying to influence the Orthodox side?

 

“There can be little doubt that it was the constitutional reform of

1416/17and the appropriation of the office oftysyatskiy, along with that

of the Commercial Court at St. John's, by some forty powerful boyar

families, that brought about the definitive switch from a quasi-democratic

form of government based .on the veche to a purely oligarchic rule determined exclusively by the feudal lords.”

 

Westerners, and early Russian scholars held a belief that “Novgorod was

frequently pictured as being well under way on the road to a participatory democracy. The veche, the general town assembly, was viewed as a symbol of democratic decision-making and popular rule, if not as an all out democratic institution representing all strata of the city's population.” In contrast, Soviet scholarship, especially of recent years, has often claimed that nothing could be farther from the truth. It has been conceded, though, that the Republic of St. Sophia was not ruled autocratically by its prince as the other Russian principalities

were.”

 

1.     Under Tartar rule, the princes were obedient to the Kiev leader.

2.     Soviet historians argue that Kiev was assertive and aggressive toward Novgorod; but also Novgorod had an oppressive system as well.

3.     Privileges, it was argued, were only for the elite.

4.     Exclusive privileges for the elite.

5.     Why? Landed boyars controlled the veche.

6.     In addition, some were of the merchant class that were not apart of the ranks of the feudal aristocracy. They were known as the zhit'i lyudi.

 

“On Slavic soil, two city-states in particular stand out as political entities where the art of statecraft was exercised with much sophistication

and felicitous skill, despite the fact that both, in the end, succumbed to superior political and military powers. These two city-states are Dubrovnik-Ragusa, the Republic of St. Blaise on the South Dalmatian coast of the Adriatic, and Novgorod, the Republic of St. Sophia, controlling the waterways linking the Baltic to the Russian North”. (p83)

 

 

Historians believing Novgorod had the potential for popular rule?

A.  I. Herzen, an outspoken and radical "Westernizer," He saw potential

(p84)

A. V. Issatschenko, a Slavist and cultural historian. His speculation as to

what might have happened "if, at the end of the fifteenth century,

Novgorod had carried the day over Moscow" created a furor at the 1973

international congress of Slavists in Warsaw. (p84)

Soviet scholar M.N. Tikhomirov viewed Novgorod's struggle for its municipal freedoms as comparable to that of the urban communes of medieval Western Europe.

 

N.V.Riasanovsky, while pointing out the "truly outstanding…power of the Novgorodian veche ... composed... of all free householders" nonetheless comes to the conclusion that "apparently in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries Novgorod became increasingly an oligarchy, with a few powerful families virtually controlling high offices.” (p84)

 

 

Contemporary Soviet Historians ( the other view)

 

Yanin’s claim of boyar dominance  (oligarchy) is a general claim, and thus not correct.

 

V. L. Yanin, presently head of the permanent Novgorod Archeological Expedition (cosponsored by Moscow University and the Soviet Academy of Sciences). Yanin's overall conception of how the Republic of Novgorod was ruled at various stages of its history is sufficiently important to be recounted here in some detail. It will subsequently serve as a point of departure for further discussion.” (p85)

 

 

Beginning Novgorod, the princes functioned as a lieutenant (namestnik) of the Kievan ruler. Yaroslav to become ruler needed to made a deal with the Novgorodians. District towns called Kontsy would be governed by the Novgorod boyars. This would separate the prince and the ruling class. The prince then would rule all other free people organized in the Sotnya system. Over the eleventh century the boyars influence increased and they established a new institution, the office of posadnik (Approximately equivalent to lord mayor). The prince countered by taking control of the shipping on the Volkov river. Also, the prince built fortified churches, made of stone close to his residence. Churches in this period had a duel-use. One for service and the other for protection.

 

“The erection of the stone Cathedral of St. Sophia in the mid-eleventh century symbolized the agreement reached between the prince and the boyars. However, this peaceful relationship was not to last for long.” (p85)

 

The Novgorod uprising of 1136 created difficulties for the prince to control all the people and the boyars won a victory which mend that the prince had to share posadnik administration powers with the boyars. Princes residence at Gorodishche. The last major princely church was constructed - the Church of Our Savior on Nereditsa. (p86)

Last days of the12th century the prince lost his power over the artisan and merchant classes.  Boyas take control: “A new office, whose incumbent was to be elected by the veche, was established. This was the tysyatskiy, whose title was previously used for a military commander subordinated to the prince only. Henceforth, he was to represent all the free townspeople of Novgorod other than the boyars and those immediately dependent upon them. While the posadnik remained the chief spokesman of the landed nobility, the tysyatskiy's office, too, was soon appropriated by the boyars. By this time the city-state had irreversibly turned into a full-fledged boyar republic.” (p86)

 

Boyars often vied for power and control amongst themselves

“Added to the original three "ends" were a fourth one (Plotnitskiy konets) in the twelfth century, and a fifth and last one (Zagorodskiy konets) in the

thirteenth century. Various boyar groupings, representing these kontsy, were engaged in bitter internal feuds for the key positions in the state. In the thirteenth - century, in an attempt to resolve these conflicts and to consolidate the political power of the boyar class, the Council of Lords (Sovet gospod), with each "end" equally represented, was formed as a delegated and executive organ of the veche. It has occasionally been referred to as the defacto government or senate of the city-republic. By the fourteenth century, the office of the posadnik - or rather, the collective posadnichestvo - had six members, one district (konchanskiy) posadnik from each borough, in addition to the chief lord mayor (stepennyi posadnik). (p86)

 

“Consequently, virtually each of the mighty boyar families was at the same time represented in the city government, thus establishing a clear-cut class-determined oligarchic rule of the city-state. The other segments of the free but less well-to-do citizenry, the so-called chernye lyudi, grew increasingly disenchanted and frustrated. The gradual and systematic consolidation of the power position of the boyar class must, to a large extent, be seen as a measure taken to counter and render ineffectual these sentiments and sociopolitical aspirations of the large "middle" class.” (p87)

 

Yanin contends that one of the main instruments used by the boyars in their attempts at persuasion and demagogic influence of the masses was the Church. The construction of parish churches, promoted and financed by the boyar class from the twelfth century onward, bears testimony to this policy.” (p87)

 

 

Yanin believes the symbolism and the mere physical aspects of a church was a main persuasion instrument for boyars to consolidate power.

 “Muscovy represented at that time what was genuinely Russian and Orthodox, that is, in the final analysis, the post-Byzantine political and ideological alternative. By way of contrast, Lithuania, with its considerable East Slavic - Ruthenian - population, represented the Western and potentially Catholic option.23It was the contention of A. V. Issatschenko, vehemently disputed by Soviet scholars as well as by some Russian students of history in the West, that had Novgorod been given a true and fair opportunity to choose the Western option, Russia's catching up with modern Europe would have occurred not in the eighteenth but already in the sixteenth century.” (p 100)

 

Summary: Novgorod was not a full fledged democracy. Even in the earlier stage in the veche, it was never fully developed or defined by legal codes. The…”First Novgorod Chronicle under the years 1219 and 128616- it seems more likely that the tysyatskiy was also an appointee of the veche. Even more important, the veche had the final say when it came to declaring war and concluding peace.” (p 94) “‘Satellite towns’, Pskov and Ladoga, would also participate in deliberation and voting” (p 94). Yanin believed that the boyars always remained in complete control from the beginning to the end.

 

V.L.Yanin holds a different view of the composition and role of the veche during the later period of the autonomous city-state. According to him, it was three to four hundred boyar families, plus a few wealthy merchant households not originally part of the feudal aristocracy, who not only dominated but in effect made up its total membership. Craftsmen, shopkeepers, and petty traders were, in the Soviet historian's opinion, economically dependent on this upper class and lacked all political influence of their own”. (p95)

 

Different view:

The system of the sotnya administration, as yet insufficiently investigated, coexisted with the parallel system of the konets administration during all of the city-republic's history. It was reinforced, so Smirnov and  Smolitsky claim, by guilds of craftsmen and by merchant associations (corporations). Among the latter, the first was the so-called Ivanskoyes to, an association of wax merchants formed in the twelfth century at the Church of St. John the Baptist in Opoki, which is still extant within the perimeter of the old Market Square. The free people of Novgorod participated - in forms not always readily discernible, such as the assemblies ofthe street, the "end," and the town - in the establishment of the organs of self-government at all levels. The citizens enjoying equal 'rights, primarily the boyars and other well-to-do people, were referred to as the free men of Novgorod (Novgorodskiye muzhi). As can be seen from this brief account, Smirnov's and Smolitsky's view of Old Novgorod's social organization and political system differs in

some important respects from the conception of Yanin and his school.(p92)

 

“… archimandrite who resided in Yur'yev Monastery on the left bank of the Volkhov River just south of the city and who was the formal head of the entire monastic community which spread over the five town boroughs and the city's environs. “ The monasteries were the locations where the rulers kept the wealth.

 

Henrik Birnbaum, Lord Novograd (Slavica Publishers,Inc 1981

 

 Women in Medieval Novgorod

Reinterpreting Russian History: Readings, 860-1869s

 

Women in Medieval Novgorod.

Church Statute of Iaroslav, helped form formal prescriptions on sexuality; forbidding sexual relations with kin. Iaroslav’s daughters were married into European royalty. 10th century, all familial relations came under ecclesiastical jurisdiction. The best history sources for women’s rights are found in church documents. Feudal law gave underprivileged women a modest role in society. (55) Spiritual fathers divided representative into two groups: “good” and “evil” women. Didactic literature sought to make people God fearing. Women were admonished to be silent, except that of the family. (54) Many women that were socially independent came under the guise of “ evil.” However, the stratification of the society classes possibly softened the gaze in which they were under. Privileged women had more independence. Russkaia Pravda.  Marriage was not a  reason for enslavement among Novgorod women. (55) Sources tell that sometimes a father and son were slaves living under free women who were their mistresses (55). 9 –10th centuries feudalism was beginning. (55) Lower strata women’s resources are very limiting. Some of the women’s jobs included, bleaching, brewing and weaving. Property rights for dependant women were limiting. Peasant women had no right to a legacy. On the other hand, Aristocratic women in feudal Novgorod had extensive rights guaranteed to them by the law statutes: It “defended not only the life but also the honor, dignity, and social freedom of privileged and aristocratic women.” (56)

 

 

Iaroslav’s Church Statute was law in Novgorod. A fine for parents if they forced their daughters to marry. Novgorod society were able to decide their own fates. A highly developed institution gave rights to female inheritance, characteristic of both Novgorod and other areas of the medieval Russia. [institution????] (57) Birchbark documents also showed women lent money. In early Novgorod history women could only hold movable property. (57). Only in the 14 – 15th centuries that we can speak of the acquisition of extensive rights to land by aristocratic Novgorod women. (58). “A women is ruled by her husband, her husband is ruled by the prince and the prince is ruled by God.” (59) The social imperative was the family unit. However, all women in Novgorod didn’t confirm exactly to the ecclesiastical formula. Private land documents testify to women’s ownership (59), women held men as slaves? The result is class had more to do with rights of women and men than gender.

 

State-Building in Post-Kevian Rus’

In 1136 Novgorodians’ overthrew their prince, and established a system that required a new prince to agree to limitations of the exercise of his power. The mayor, archbishop, and other officials who governed the city and its far-flung territories were all subject to election by the city assembly. (83) However, Russian historians play down the fact of a democracy, and more than reasonable the elite dominated the upper echelons of power in the assembly. Moscow grand prince Ivan III extinguished Novgorod’s independence and carted off the assembly bell with for centuries summoned Novgordians to assemble. (83)

 

Charles Halprin urged a reprisal of the Mongol invasion. (83)

 

Northwest Rus’: First Treaty of Novgorod with Tver’ Grand Prince Iaroslav Iaroslavich [ c. 1264-65]

 

“Merchant Republic,” aspirations of the citizenry, less absolutist comparable to Muscovy. One example, is a series of treaties negotiated between prince and Novgorodians. Prince cannot deprive a citizen of their land; and without the mayor, the prince cannot give out any lands. Lands under jurisdiction: Volok with all its districts ( Split into two major sections, one with the prince’s overseer); Torzhok, one overseer; Gorodets’ cannot be taken back by the prince; Bezhiche[ Bezhesk], M[ele]chia,Shipino,Egna, Vologda, Zavolots [ district beyond Volok], Koloperem, Tre, Perem’ [Perm], Iugra, Pechera. And you are to rule these districts with Novgorodian men; and take a gift from those lands.” (84). A prince and the boyers could not establish a settlement or hold any settlement or villages. The Prince cannot rule from Suzdal’ land, nor give out land. And to Lagoda, prince, you may go [hunting] every third summer. Judges should travel in summer throughout the land, and lands taken by the prince and given to his relative are to be given back to the populace. Some tax laws.

 

In southwest Rus’ ( After the fall of Kievan State) in western Ukraine, a different form of government operated, but it also gave the prince limited power. Boyars who jockeyed for control of the state, in the process greatly diminished state authority for their own purposes. The Galycian-Volhynain Chronicle provides some examples of state authority in Southwest Rus’ in the thirteenth century. (p85) (1230) A great conspiracy was forming among the godless Galician boyars: With danilo’s nephew [Prince] Oleksander [of Belz,d. ca. 1234] they plotted to kill [ Prince] Danilo [d. 1264] and to deliver the land [ to the Hungarians]. As [Danilo and Prince Vasilko (d. 1269)] sat in council,[ the boyars] wanted to set fire [to the building], but the [all-] merciful Lord implanted in Vasilko’s mind the idea to leave [ the council]. (p 85).

 

Russkaia Pravda’s expanded version probably in the late twelfth century to early thirteenth century.

Novgorod’s Judicial Charter ( dispute resolution) ( survived only in fragments, but wealth of information), stressed land ownership policies, archbishop’s authority (over all classes of people) ; also legal standing of women, economy and society. Besides Amber, the forest provided a wealth of trade possibilities in the northwest. Mayor to conduct his own court with the grand prince’s lieutenant, according to custom ( Never without him). And the millenarius is to conduct his own court; Kissing the cross of the charter, a ritualized symbol of honesty. No slander is allowed: if so, the court rules that 50 rubles if a boyar, 20 rubles if he a middle-income and 10 rubles if a poor person.  A slave can only be a witness against another slave, never a free man. Character witness laws, comprehensive; If additional evidence needs to be brought to court, an short extended time period is allowed, but not in a case of dragging out a verdict. And a grivna [ fee] is to be collected. Monday, Wednesday, and Friday are the referral judges available. Take no bribe. If a judge doesn’t complete a case over land in two months, then the litigant is to take bailiffs from Novgorod the Great against him [ the judge], and he the judge is to finish that case in the presence of those bailiffs. Further legislation over this entails a comprehensive system of judicial power in Novgorod. The one month law is strictly adhere too, and a bailiff would be issued for apprehending a person if they do not show up for court. If a slave runs away to a different lord than that lord must return him to the owner’s lord, a slave law. Send a summons to someone if a judge does not appear on the day prescribed for the court day, then it will be postponed to the next adjournment. Distant laws, 100 versts, two weeks is the prescribed time for a summons. And if nearer or further, then the 100 versts  calculate accordingly to the time. Expedient cases: one month. Do not let court cases protract. Assault and robbery laws.  (p108-144)

 

The decline of Novgorod’ Fur Trade Network

 

Novgorod had from an early time developed direct contact with remote, international markets. Indeed, in the middle Ages Novgorod became the easternmost outpost of the Hanseatic League. (p122) This was trade monopoly over the Baltic Sea region beginning roughly from the 12th century to the seventeenth century. Hansa is like a guild. The westernmost outpost was London.  Lively trade in squirrel, whose outpost stretched to London and Paris.  Combination of muscovite upstart power and changing European commerce doomed the fur trade in the second-half of the 15th century. Another reason for the decline was the ongoing animosity between the Russians and the Germans. They tolerated each other through the 13-14th centuries, but pressure of competition gave way to uncooperative business ventures. Things didn’t help when the rise of Muscovy was declaring war on Livonian Knights in the 1440s. The Hansa blockaded Novgorod; this time the Hansa also abandoned Peterfoh [headquarters for the Hansa merchants] for six years ( 1443-48). Twenty years later, German traders were arrested which further prolonged a resumption of trade. (p123)

 

 

Reluctant factors: Hansa’s reluctance to export silver ( Also diminishing the silver content) to Novgorod. Another factor, a change in fur consumption as lower class were able to purchase squirrel fur easier which used to be only for  the upper classes and as a  result of novelty, the upper classes changed their tastes for other types of fur, such as sable,  fox and marten. (123) The weak market further brought troubles wich included the major contributing group, the boyars, and when the money began to dry up so did amicable relations between them. Only a few Novgorodian boyars tried to adapt to the new demand to trade in sable and ermine, and had to forge out to the Dvina River that provided these commodities. The attempts were unsuccessful and this lead to an economic collapse. In 1462 Muscovy began to become the dominate player in politics. People sold land to off-set debt to people who owed allegiance to Muscovy. The peasants that lived on the land that raised and hunted for the animal trade were also the ones that paid those taxes. By the time Ivan III annexed Novgorod the latter’s fur trade network had already diminished.  (123). Muscovy annexed Novgorod, they replaced Novgorodian merchants for Muscovite merchants and slowing they became powerful city.

 

Culture and Everyday Life in post –Kievan Rus’

Detecting cultural change. A.M. Sakharov argues, that the Mongol occupation is to blame. (127). Everything connected to elite culture was affected. Andrei Rublev, arguably the most accomplished painter of this ( mongol yoke) era. Born mid-way through the Mongold Yoke, Rublev helped pioneer whole new perspectives on painting. Having completed him most famous work some fifty years before the Moscow princes formally overthrew the Mongol domination (127).

 

The minstrels who brought music, acting, and animal acts to village squares. (p128).

 

 

Evidence for Literacy: Novgorod Birchbark Charters (ca. 1220-30s)

Excavated at Novgorod are Birchbark, some have alphabet and other mixed with pictographs. There is possibility evidence for schools or, at least, instruction for youngsters to learn to write. A lat will and testament was found dating from the late fourteenth to early fifteenth century.

 

( Need 79-84)

 

 

Reinterpreting Russian History: Readings, 860-1869s, ed., Daniel H. Kaiser & Gary Marker (New York: Oxford University Press, 1994).

 

Discussion
 

Ch2 Architecture of Kiev; Vladimir returns from conquering Kherson 989 and imposed conversion. Chronicles of 822 record church of St. Nicholas built by Olma.  Vladimir’s first endeavor, St. Basil. First churches were wooden. Vladimir’s second church the Cathedral of the Dormition of the Virgin (Uspensky Sober), known as the Desyatinnaya or Church of the (Virgin of the ) Tithe 989. Cathedral of St. Sophia, wooden,fire in 1045, ‘ tops;’ silhouette pyramid appearance, predecessor Novgorod, Russian departure from Byzantine;Vladimir built Desyatinnaya, palace church, ( Saw basilicas in Kherson) Greek artisans accompanied Princess Anna. Yaroslav ‘ the wise’ overthrew his brother, Svyatopolk ‘ the cruel’ ( r. 1019-’54), Church of St. Sophia, greatest monumental religious  structure in Russia, (1017? or 1037) stands, in honor; Nine-isle plan (originally 1 nave, 4 isles), Reached definitive form in 1100, polychromatic fabric, symbolic expression of Russian architecture. Dutch artist, Abraham van Westerveldt, meticulous drawings. With Desy., St. Sophia., destroyed St. George & St. Irene formed an important group of multi-isled churches in southern Russia. Hilarion first metropolitan.

Ch4 Architecture of Vladimir-Suzdal:1100-1240; Slavs, early settlements,  forest lands between Oka & Volga rivers. Its cities commanded the headwaters of the Volga, control of trade routs in that region. Vladimir, Suzdal, Rostov the seat of the bishopric  - therefore, important,  increased in size. nomadic contact in the south – trade possibilities,Pioneers from Kievan Russia; Ruling Princes Vladimir Monomakh (d. 1125) – Yury II defeated by Tartars 1238. Before Mongols, Suzdalia rivaled Kiev in masonry structures. Constantine founded school, monks, Latin & Greek, a library, 1000 Greek texts; before Monomakh most buildings wood; Novgorod, Kiev brick cement, Suzdalia white limestone; Galician builders were present in Suzdal. Yury founded at least five churches. Most important SS Boris and Gleb. With Andrey’s succession he began to build the Vladimir, Cathedral of the Dormitian, 1158-61, about ten miles away from Vladimir in the village of Bogoliubovo. At that time the church was known as Andrey Bogoliubsky.  Original- Six piers, three apses, and a single dome. Rebuilt in 1185-9

Andre assassinated in 1174, jealousy of aristocracy. Vesvolod III, Audrey’s younger brother continued building. First important endeavor was rebuilding the Dormition of Vladimir. In the new plan was similar to the multiple-celled, many piered style of St. Sophia in Kiev and Novgorod; resurrected Ivan III by the Moscow architect V.D. Ermolin. The end of architecture projects began around 1228 when the Mongols inflicted their first defeat on the Russians at the battle of Kalka. Nine years later, in the winter of 1237, they attacked Suzdalia.

Chapter 3 ‘Novgorod school,’ attribution of an artistic style.

1103-1207, no fewer than 68 churches built, indicating great wealth of the city.

This is in contrast to Kiev where on ten churches were built in a century. In Kiev on princes built churches, whereas, in Novgorod, private citizens, groups and merchants built churches, indicating more economic freedom. Most small parish churches took three years to finish, whereas larger Sophias could take 20 years. Also, one can only produce the amount of churches when things become standardized. The six pier, five domed plan of Kiev and Vladimir were abandoned in favor of four pier supporting a single central dome (p39). Climate problems can possibly explain the onion or bulbous domes, where the snow needed to fall off the roofs or drainage from heavy rainfall. Kiev used masonry domes, whereas. West-to-east ( not n/s) Commercial quarters (Torgovaya Storona). Novgorod merchant family Stroganovs were instrumental in discovery and exploring the Siberia in 16 to early 17th centuries. Important factor in trade was being in good graces with the Posadnik ( Mayor). Alexander Nevsky received the title “of the river Neva” after he defeated the Swedes in 1236. In 1238, German Knights, Lake Peipus in 1242 with skillful bargaining with the Tartars, to whom the court of Batu he visited no less than four times. (p37). 1475 Ivan III conquered Novgorod and its territory for control of Muscovy. Ivan IV.Cathedral of Saint George’s -  architect ‘the Lithuanians to the west.” (47)

Ch71169 Suzdalians attacked Novgorod;1237 Mongols devastated Suzdalia.

Nogvgorod maintained the artistic endeavors after the Kievan state fell;1045-’57, Novgorod Cathederal of St. Sophia was decorated in 1108-1144 with frescos and not expensive mosaics. It was damaged by fire during WWII, so hardly anything survived. (p80).Greek artisans part of Kievan movement of prestige; refined Greek features…most delicate balance between supernatural and the human attributes. (p81). Nereditsa (until WWII) ;Novgorod, Yaroslav Vladimirovich, in 1198 and painted the following year. Local Novgorod dialects; Frescos more complicated scenes; Theophanes impressionism – chiaroscuro, shades of light.

Ch8 Russian art, far more personal icons, then Greek art- eastern art. (p97)

Westerners have a negative view on Russian/Byzantine art because they don’t understand the regions’ history. Until the 17th century icons were used as religious communications. When people became widely literate, the need for them dwindled.

Mind/emotions| nature/supernatural;Apocrypha;books the Virgin Mary is a key player in Christ’s life, or a more active member lets say. Russians added local saints;Virgin Mary: Byzantine Hodegetria (She who shows the way), the greatest popularity in Russia. Legend, Virgin Blacherniotissa (p101), apse of the church of the Blachemae in Constantinople. Virgin Platytera, Earlier Iconsgold and silver;not understanding that such things darkened them. (104)

Ch 9 First icons were brought from Kherson to Kiev by Vladimir. 1155 Andrey Bogoliubsky took from the Kievan suburb of Vishgorod to Suzdalia, where he subsequently placed it in the Cathedral of The Dormition of Vladimir. This is regarded as the most venerated, and is called “Virgin of Vladimir”. (107).second group Greek artists 1073. Pechersky Dormition. (1131-1136); two icons of the Virgin Mary. In 1395 transferred to Moscow to the right of the Royal Doors in the late 15th century of the Cathedral of the Dormition in the Kremlin. SS. Paraskeva, Gergory the theologian, John Chrysostom, and Basil the Great earlier 11-12th century where modeling…curve of the plane – inseparable.

Ch.12 Moscow school, Rublev’s Trinity; Novgorod school, St. Elais c. 1400.

Theophanes prophets, superhuman manifestations; Novgorod, Four-Part Icon system;line of communication, battle Novgorod and Suzdal 1169, Novgorod painters achieved almost a monopoly in the production of large icons for iconostasis…” In the Moscow fire of 1547, Novgorodian artists were called up to repair the damaged icons and other works of art;” mixed styles”, meaning two schools or two styles, this meant that a new national style particularly just for Russian was developing. Finally, Novgorod style was basically practical matters.

White Cowl, (Symbol, resurrection of the Orthodox Church by Russia in General, or the heads of Archbishops of Novgorod). the cornerstone of Russian medieval ideology, conceived with the purpose of defending the sovereignty of the Novgorodian Church, in particular, and the Russian Church, in general, from encroachment by the Grand Duke of Muscovy,  Concept, Book of Danial (Old Testament 7:27) , formulated by Monk Philotheus (circa 1510—1540) when he wrote: “All Christian realms will come to an end and will unite into the one single realm of our sovereign, that is, into the Russian realm, according to the prophetic books, Both Rome’s fell, the third endures, and a fourth there will never be.”’ (Three parts, analogues to Father, Son, and Holy Spirit “third Rome”) First Constantine, Rome, and then Constantinople, taken over by Ottomans 1453, then passed on to Archbishop of Novgorod. Therefore, Russia becomes the keeper of the true Christian flame. The tale states that a century before the fall of Constantinople, God, who had predestined the last Orthodox nation, after the fall of Byzantium, to be Russia, commanded that the White Cowl be taken to the Archbishop of Novgorod, Vasily.

Alexander Nevsky: (Object to keep the faith)  courage, piety,  heroism, lasting fame, Russian pride, three front war n/w/east ( Mongols) & Western Country: the Livonian Order of German Knights; Battle against the Roman Catholics; Battles of adversary from the Western Country; Pelgusius was the head of a local Finno-Ugric tribe and was converted to Christianity by the Russians. Prince Alexander (1220—1263) was the son of Great Prince Yaroslav of Vladimir. and grandson of Great Prince Vsevolod the Great Nest (1154—1212), who was instrumental in transferring the balance of power from declining Kiev in southern Russia to the city of Vladimir in the north, where a new capital of the Russian land developed. Most Vitae described Russian monks, or bishops. Metaphors to biblical figures off-set the text comparison to Alexander. He liberated Pskov (1242). Uniter of Orthodox people.  Batu saw him, he marveled; Alexander refused to participate…Alexander succeeded this time in convincing the Great Khan of the Golden Horde not to use Russian troops in his campaign. In later years, however, Russian armies were forced to lend a hand in the Mongol’s conquest of China.

Reinterpreting Russian History: Readings, 860-1869s, Women in Medieval Novgorod.

Church Statute of Iaroslav; ecclesiastical jurisdiction. modest role in society; two groups: “good” and “evil” women. Didactic literature; socially independent; Privileged women; Russkaia Pravda; slaves living under free women; Lower strata women; very limiting. bleaching, brewing and weaving. Property rights; Aristocratic women

Birchbark documents also showed women lent money. In early Novgorod history women could only hold movable property.  Only in the 14 – 15th , acquisition of extensive rights to land by aristocratic Novgorod women. “A women is ruled by her husband, her husband is ruled by the prince and the prince is ruled by God.”

State-Building in Post-Kevian Rus’, In 1136 Novgorodians’ overthrew their prince, and established a system that required a new prince to agree to limitations of the exercise of his power. The mayor, archbishop, and other officials subject to election-assembly. Russian historians play down the fact of a democracy, and more than reasonable the elite dominated the upper echelons of power in the assembly. Moscow grand prince Ivan III extinguished Novgorod’s independence and carted off the assembly bell with for centuries summoned Novgordians to assemble. Charles Halprin; First Treaty of Novgorod with Tver’ Grand Prince Iaroslav Iaroslavich [ c. 1264-65]“Merchant Republic,” jurisdiction: Volok; Torzhok, one overseer; Gorodets’ cannot be taken back by the prince; Bezhiche [Bezhesk], M[ele]chia,Shipino,Egna, Vologda, Zavolots [ district beyond Volok], Koloperem, Tre, Perem’ [Perm], Iugra, Pechera. And you are to rule these districts with Novgorodian men; and take a gift from those lands.” Some tax laws.

Novgorod’s Judicial Charter ( dispute resolution) ( survived only in fragments, but wealth of information), stressed land ownership policies, archbishop’s authority (over all classes of people) ; also legal standing of women, economy and society. Monday, Wednesday, and Friday; Distant laws, 100 versts, Expedient cases: one month.

The decline of Novgorod’ Fur Trade Network; Lively trade in squirrel, whose outpost stretched to London and Paris; animosity between the Russians/Germans. 13-14th / uncooperative; rise of Muscovy; Livonian Knights in the 1440s. The Hansa; Ivan III fur trade diminished. 

Culture and Everyday Life in post –Kievan Rus’

Detecting cultural change. A.M. Sakharov argues, Mongol occupation ,elite culture was affected. Andrei Rublev, The minstrels who brought music, acting, and animal acts to village squares.

Evidence for Literacy: Novgorod Birchbark Charters (ca. 1220-30s)

Literacy, Excavated at Novgorod are Birchbark ( 700 found), some have alphabet and other mixed with pictographs. There is possibility evidence for schools or, at least, instruction for youngsters to learn to write; found dating from the late fourteenth to early fifteenth century.

Raisanovsky: A History of Russia: Pskov, democratic-like –political evolution, principality 75 miles, Novgorod fought Swedes 26 times, German knights 11 times, Lithuanians 14 times, Norwegians 5 times. Livonian/Teutonic merged 1237 ( objective Catholicism). Mongols didn’t reach Novgorod ( f. 8th century/prominence 12-14 [15-16 still added territorial influence]) – St. Sophia side/ Commercial side, PC Riurik came 862. urban democracy (veche[met in marketplace]), pop, 30,000; popular revolution 1136, posadnik, elected official; veche assembly – shared with prince, charge of army in prince’s absence, ( quarters/kontsy; sotnia/hundred (streets); bell –people, veche, prince can use, self-reliant, Council of Nobles rose in prominence, archbishops mediators in times of discord or vacillation; The Muscovy [temp] Catholicism vs. Novgorodian Orthodoxy. The Chronically of Novgorod; Literature, so-called Ostrommirovo Gospel 1056-57, previously the oldest manuscript of Novgorod origin, now Psalms 67,75 and 76 c. 1025. Pskov’s relations differed toward Moscow than Novgorod- not a rival, Pskov lost its institutions in 1551 when Moscow took over, after suffering deportations. Moscow beat out Novgorod, although wealthy, competitive prince, but linked to Catholicism and Poland, a Muscovy’s strife management of divide and conquer, bloodlessly. Why did they prefer Ivan III to their own oligarchy? Muscovy’s incorporation of the North brought them added wealth to bargain with subsidies to buy-off allegiances’, and general consent. Poles and Swedes were archrivals and in close proximity to Novgorod. It was a boarder town, implying it met with a variety of contacts that possibly led to open-minded thinking, at least in theory. Posadnik and the tysaiskii, elected by the veche, shared executive duties with the prince and if need be, especially the posadnik served as the prince’s main associate and assistant, who tool charge of the administration and the army in the prince’s absence. (77).  Direct democracy of the free householders, the council, had its problems in delaying decisive decisions due to bickering. Thus, the Council of Notable arose, to make up the slack of important decisions. The Notable was overseen by the archbishop. It effectively represented the wealthy and led to the Oligarchial problematics later wrestled in social division. Still, as a  main trading post, the wealth of the city off-set many problems to social inequalities. Novgorodians only developed one element of Kievan political synthesis, the democratic. (81) The importance of the middle class, the urban life and culture of Novgorod exemplified its close contacts to the outside world, as well as its evolution of the one element of Kievan synthesis.

 

White Cowl, (Symbol, resurrection of the Orthodox Church by Russia in General, or the heads of Archbishops of Novgorod).

 the cornerstone of Russian medieval ideology, conceived with the purpose of defending the sovereignty of the Novgorodian Church, in particular, and the Russian Church, in general, from encroachment by the Grand Duke of Muscovy,

Concept, Book of Danial (Old Testament 7:27) , formulated by Monk Philotheus (circa 1510—1540) when he wrote: “All Christian realms will come to an end and will unite into the one single realm of our sovereign, that is, into the Russian realm, according to the prophetic books, Both Rome’s fell, the third endures, and a fourth there will never be.”’ (Three parts, analogues to Father, Son, and Holy Spirit “third Rome”) First Constantine, Rome, and then Constantinople, taken over by Ottomans 1453, then passed on to Archbishop of Novgorod. Therefore, Russia becomes the keeper of the true Christian flame. The tale states that a century before the fall of Constantinople, God, who had predestined the last Orthodox nation, after the fall of Byzantium, to be Russia, commanded that the White Cowl be taken to the Archbishop of Novgorod, Vasily.

 

Alexander Nevsky: (Object to keep the faith)  courage, piety,  heroism, lasting fame, Russian pride, three front war n/w/east ( Mongols) & Western Country: the Livonian Order of German Knights; Battle against the Roman Catholics; Battles of adversary from the Western Country; Pelgusius was the head of a local Finno-Ugric tribe and was converted to Christianity by the Russians. Prince Alexander (1220—1263) was the son of Great Prince Yaroslav of Vladimir. and grandson of Great Prince Vsevolod the Great Nest (1154—1212), who was instrumental in transferring the balance of power from declining Kiev in southern Russia to the city of Vladimir in the north, where a new capital of the Russian land developed. Most Vitae described Russian monks, or bishops. Metaphors to biblical figures off-set the text comparison to Alexander. He liberated Pskov (1242). Uniter of Orthodox people.  

 

Vita (brief biographical résumé of one's career) , the Alexander protagonist version

 

On Saturday [April 5th, 1242] when the sun rose, the two armies clashed

But [in 1246] Prince Alexander decided to go to the Khan’s Horde and the Metropolitan Archbishop Cyril blessed him to do it. When Than Batu saw him, he marveled at him and said to his dignitaries: “I was told the truth--that there is no other prince like Alexander’ Pope Alexander IV (1258—1281) or Urban IV (1261—1264) who tried to involve Russia in an all-European coalition to fight the Mongols. Alexander refused to participate…Alexander succeeded this time in convincing the Great Khan of the Golden Horde not to use Russian troops in his campaign. In later years, however, Russian armies were forced to lend a hand in the Mongol’s conquest of China.

 

God had smiled on both Moscow and the Church.

 

Demise of Kievan Rus'

  

  1. demise of Kievan Rus'
    1. Was not the Mongols, they only depopulated it.
    2. Most of the Slavs were forest dwellers in Russia region. The nomads were steppe dwellers, and both traded with each other.
    3. Mongol raids  peasants needed to seek protection of lords
    4. What factors protected Novgorod from Mongol devastation? First luck, spring thaw-out forced Mongols to stop 60 miles short and refrain. among other things, distance, forest, shrewd princes.
    5. Mongols cannot make war in the thick-forest, they rid horses, and cannot maneuver, they are not as well as infantry.
    6. Must focus on trade restructuring, what changed?
    7. What was Novgorod's political relationship with the Kievan
    8. State after 1136: Princely over lordship up until the rebellion of 1136.
    9. Russians to switch from trade to agriculture.  Well, we learned that trade declined around Kiev, the center of population shifted NE, where small settlements with modest (subsistence) farming and little long distance trade were the norm. 
    10. what degree was its democratic reputation exaggerated.
    11. Navigating the steppe was too hard for the Slavs, its like being lost in an ocean, they could not keep a bearing so-to-speak, so communication for expedition and conquest of the steppe was too difficult. Monads knew where they were at all times, and the farther they were away from Kiev the scarier it was for troops.
    12. Constantinople cut off 1453, and long ally of Kievan Rus’.
    13. 1212 AD east slavs no longer in communication with Byzantiim they were cut-off – no communication, no longer trade Dnieper, and so in 1300 pushed back and north, Mongols,
    14. Byzantium is the relevance to understanding of Russia in the Christian context. The sea of Marmara, or the marble sea, and Constantinople is a key place for the eastern Roman Empire as the silk rout terminates there. The control is the key to the spices and commodities of the east. Things that could not produced in the west for various reasons. The importance of the trade created a great need to control the straits of the Bosporus and Constantinople.
    15.  
  2. Was Kievan Rus' a monarchy?  A democracy?
    1. Novgorod had a pluralistic, representative government. The idea of democracy, according to Karl Marx, would be a mute point. Why wealth was only distributed into a few hands, he would ask?
    2. Who are the princes, the ones that can afford horses, weapons, and buy friends, and they learn cavalrymen, and that is the background the Muscovy elite, in time of war they are Generals and in time of peace they are politicians.
    3. veche is the best evidence of a democratic process. It was a urban democracy. The vehce had a town bell, a symbol of democracy, and anyone could ring it and summoned the town’s electives for a special meeting to address concerns.
    4. Why kingship? Progenitor: Prince Line: Riurik, 9th  century, princely line., residence Novgorod, Important is the tradition, it is important to them; Lateral succession over time created 100 of princely lies. During the Mongol Yoke period, new high-clans were adopted, despite lineage.
    5. Where is the prince? Outside the city’s boarders, by agreement of the citizens?
    6. Where there that many people? No not a large populations which helped to continue as a pluralistic representative body.
    7. Law codes, fist indication of a civil formality. Yaroslav’s Law Code, 2 versions of it, it was a compendium, and short production late 11th, and princely power is unknown, face to face litigation, mono-momo, didactic relations, the economy is mostly agrarians, forest dweller, not much business in trade, and slavie code of customary law. Lots of recompense of theft, important in agriculture, no stealing, interferes with fighting and hunting rights, one sees in the Rus the growth in towns.
    8. Kieven and Rus’ economy, the polity  - kinship prince and boyars and is mostly minimalist, patrimonial theory, stress personal loyalty, symbolic strategies of claiming legitimacy, privileges, and mix of agrarian economy and there is still international trade that brought the Vikings.
    9.  
    10. 11th century, markets and towns developed, for the first time, more settled manner of governing, a tax system, and in second version of the Law Code, it the Prince taxation, most of the populous is free, a few slaves, not many. The second reduction, more economic activity, bankrupsies, loans, and temporary slavery, indentured servants, more money moving, towns grew up organically in concentric circles around the princes court. and, more social mobility and production in trade, and more landholding, donation to monasteries, more slaves and indentured servants. Urban aristocracy now living off their land all in the second edition. The third party, meaning the prince gets involved in dispute and pay a service for the time of his arbitrary.
    11. In Kiev, Political sponsorship of princes in churches gave them more weight in influence in the city. They had the money and so they buit the symbols that represented their importance in legacy.
    12.  

 

How do veches in

Novgorod and Pskov differ? -- I don't think we have enough in our readings

to answer; briefly, the one in Novgorod was more active.

Russian  population was sparse, widely dispersed in northern forest, poor soil and

short growing season, few cities of any size (likewise no farms of great size).

In Novgorod:  relationship of prince vis-a-vis town council,  city elders, etc.  Good question:  take another look at our readings and  see if you can define the prince's role and how it changed over time.

 

 

 

 

LECTURE 8:  THE EMERGENCE

OF MUSCOVY AND THE MONGOL "YOKE"

 

I. Demonization of Mongols, the "Mongol yoke"

           

II.  The first vacuum of power: early 1200s, the Mongol invasion

            economic devastation and recovery

            invasion and exploitation: l3th century direct fiscal administration and military recruiting  (baskak)

            l4th century:  intermediary Rus' princes -- those who won the "iarlyk," or Khan's charter to collect and deliver taxes

 

III.  The second vacuum of power: 1360s+

            Novgorod and Pskov

            The Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Ukraine, Belarus' 1260s+

            Northeast Rus' = "Grand Principality of Vladimir" = Vladimir-Suzdalia

            1300s: Struggle for grand-princely title: Moscow vs. Tver', Suzdal', Riazan'

           

IV. Moscow's rise: V. O. Kliuchevskii's "litany"

            geography

            primogeniture and dynastic war (1433-56)

            the iarlyk: tax collecting for the Khan

            metropolitan's favor

            territorial expansion to North and Baltic (not Kiev)

 

V. Cultural influence: patterns and structural barriers

            Steppe nomads vs. forest dwelling farmers

            Turkic speakers vs. Slavic speakers

            Islamic high culture in Arabic or Persian vs. Orthodox Christian culture in Old Church Slavonic

 

VI. Mongol influence:

            Devastation and resource depletion

           Cultural isolation from the West and Byzantium?

            Barbarity in law codes and social mores? Autocracy?

            Military, trade and administration

           

VI. The utility of the "yoke" for argument for Kiev-Moscow continuity

 

Tatar/Turkic words entering Russian

 

terms of military, trade, administration (Tatar words taken into Russian)

 

den'ga -- a monetary unit; later den'gi = money

altyn -- a coin = 6 den'gi

tamga -- brand, seal, stamp

surguch -- sealing wax

kniga -- book

iarlyk -- charter of privileges or immunities

tolmach -- interpreter, translator

karandash -- pencil

bumaga -- paper

zhikovina -- signet ring

defter' -- license, document authorizing tax collection

kazna -- treasury

kaznachei -- treasurer

kagan -- khan, king

kaganets -- oil lamp

bakcha -- kitchen garden

bakshish -- tip, bribe

stakan -- drinking glass; from Persian through Turkic

lavka -- a bench or shelf; a shop, a small store

korchma -- tavern, inn

tovar -- commercial goods

klobuk -- headgear, cowl

lal -- ruby

biriuza -- turquoise

almaz -- diamond

zhemchug -- mother of pearl

tafta -- taffeta

kamka -- damask

barkhat -- velvet

voilok -- felt

tvarog -- cottage cheese; fermented cheese

psheno -- millet, wheat

pirog -- pie

kover -- carpet

 

also -- numerous terms for horses, horse breeding, colors of horses, types of horses, equestrian skills, etc. -- e.g.:

loshad' -- horse

kobyla -- brood mare

kobylka -- filly

khomut -- horse collar

telega -- cart

kolymaga -- 2-wheeled cart

bugai -- bull, ox

 

other misc. words:

ukha -- fish soup

barsukov -- badger

kuga -- bulrush

kovyl' -- feather grass (one of the steppe grasses)

moroz -- frost, freezing

pugat' -- to frighten, scare

 

 

 

Mongolian:

Pony-size horses, the blood sweating horses,  the grassy steppe,

Naturally horsy culture of the steppe, where boys grow-up on the horseback, and the

 

 

1240 Swedes defeated then in 1242 Teutonic Knights threaten Russia, and Alexander and Novgorod, and Alexander other principalities are paying tribute so that they will not get conquered.  Russians vast lands are coveted by the Germans and the Mongols.

 

Battle of the Neve River, the Teutonic Knights, there we fought a vast army, cruel adversary the Swedish host, we broke their ship into matchsticks, and for the sake of our Motherland. (Russian movie 1938, a year later the movie taken off the showing because of the signing of a Russian/Nazi pact and this movie makes the Germans look bad, throwing babies into the rivers).

 

Alexander at Novgorod, had a hard time to getting the Free Novgorodians to fight in a war, pacifists. So impassioned speeches. “ For the great people.”

 

“ we have a saying, it is better to die than to leave your country”

 

Two different worlds meeting Alexander and the Tartars, and he refuses to become a general in their Golden Horde.

 

Lecture section:

Mongolians,

 

2000 years, literally the nomadic culture of the steppe rout, and span from China to Europe. Silk and Spice rout involved on the steppe rout.

Spears of the Russians using them on horseback, and

 

The general empire, the whole rout capture, and Mongols get a adjective to describe Turkish, and Tartars, and a whole list of tribes, and peoples, and Turkish word was Tartar, so it was an interchangeable reference that Chinngis Khan established. Last about 250 years refered too as the Mongol ‘Yoke’ The Scythians also becomes a generic word for the various steppe cultures and warriors of the steppe. The Russian consciousness about this period is sever in many historians, because they were slaves, captured, and the subjugation, etc… These Soviet books also created historiography. Children lead-off  to captivity, land the property of foreigners, by bearing the weight of full Tartar , saved Europe form the scourge, so it was this reason, the tale says, that Russia remained 200 years behind Europe. This was historiaograghy. The Scythians in the 20th century then got a positive look in history, and westerners got a negative pussy perception.

 

So anathema, so Tartars is to blame for cutting off Democracies of the west, so what we have in this mythology, Mongols are the blow that cuts-off the Russian that caused the Russia to the backwardness for over 250 years.

 

1227 Chinngis Khan died, from Germany To China, to India to China, then Ugaday, Chinngis’ third son, then Kublai Khan served as the third great leader. Headquarters was established at Surai, next to the Volga, right in Russian lands. Mongols were the last of the great dynasty of the steppe, it was widely successful. The Mongols were their for a reason, a profit was to be had, and the vacuum of power before the Mongols, in Kiev and Novgorod, and so when the Mongols came it was easy for them to conquer the Rus’ people.

 

Today, a Afghanistan horse tournament, even today, has no rules, and it is rough, the game is timeless, and even some American troops have tried to take part in the game. It is a no-rules game, emphasis added.

 

Stirrups and the High-Saddle allowed them to get up and swivel with their multi-boned bows, with could pierce armor which is why they were so dangerous. Traveled with gigantic caravan of supplies.

 

Houses can be set up in about one hour, and mobility was awesome in this day. When a Mongol army is approaching, puts up a lot of dust because each man takes 3-4 horses with them, they eat horse but the sight can look awesome from a distance. Fermented mare’s milk, is brought, so they can have it for a long time. A horse is not wasted on any parts. Dried cheeseballs, pack in their saddlebags, and take with them. Appanage the term when Kiev and Novgorod declines, and splintering of principalities, and ruling families drift apart each getting different lands, and trade-routs were drying up, no more Viking, and Rus’ and Bysantium was cut off by the steppe warriors. At its height, 1220s-1320s it established a unity in the steppe, and the Rus; lands in the 1220s conquered Rus’ but left to Chinngis death, and returned in 1230s-1240s to Rus’.

 

1294: From Ukraine to China empire, and subdivides with sons and borthers with the great Khan ( Chinngis) and subdivide into near Russia the Golden Horde, so we have subdivided. The Pax Mongolia ( Tartaria some places) was now in this period.

 

15ht century is the rise of Muscovy because it was protected from the forest, and people had moved north. So Pax Mongolia (Tartica) was keeping the trade rolling, historians says; so in the initial attack cities and town destroyed, but after pay tribute then let people live. Severe economic stress after the attacks in about 50 years later, do Suzdalia and Novgorod get enough funds to pay form stone structures.

 

Novgorod trade had changed from far-trade to local trade, and the Mongols didn’t want to kill everyone because they wanted to exact tribute from living people, so historians are mixed. To be accurate, there was to be a negative respect, humiliating tribute, personal visits by the grand price , a humiliating factor, the collection of funds to pay the bastards. 13th century, the Muslim head-tax, is installed. Local populations had to also provide services, feed and house the enemies, keep the roads the waste and horses, and later on in history, the people’s of the steppe do not want to be in the forest, so they get Russian Princes to collect the taxes, the princes skim off the top and gather wealth, so they have power later on.

 

1) So first, direct and direct collection of taxes

2) Later they rule by threat of attack and collection by Rus’ people.

No grave site was ever found in the Russian forest, so the Mongols didn’t like the forest, so the Russian move up to Moscow and wagged their tongues at them, and later schemed.

 

Princes squabbles, subdividing from collateral succession, and everyone didn’t get along, and it comes increasingly an agrarians economy, where as Kiev and Novgorod had a increasing hunting and gathering culture, but now a settling and sedentary mentality and more urban society, people settle so this laster 1360s, a new vacuum resulted, the Mongoloid Empire was severely splintereing because of dynastic conflicts there, so the subdivisions were great. So the Mongolians weaken and buy the mid 1400s, the splintering off turns to autonomous splinter states, and the

 

1360, we have princes, skipping taxes, taking risks and it was a post-Mongoloid of power.

3 emerging powers:  Novgorod, Poland Lithuania, and Northeast Rus’ had been called a Mesopotamia for all the rivers, and two major waterfares, were great portages to the Baltic and  

 

Various princes especially Moscow and Kiev vow to call the grand prince of Lagima, so travel to Tartar capital and vie to be the king, hostage at Surai for  - brother, and at the same time Moscow, doing everything to become a state. Why did Moscow win out the succeeded over rival, first, Moscow is advantageous geography, the various river routs, and in a  50 mile river you can go all directions, a central point to river connections to all of the directions of the world.  Soon Moscow controlled the river trade routs which eventually meant big-money and this meant expansion, and to capture the heads at these rivers, all the towns on the banks of these rivers the Muscovites considered this as the plan to consolidate power over all of Russia. So water was the key.

 

Kiev and Rus’ was gone, and since the Mongol Tartars. So Rus’ gone. To Moscow rose as the new spirit of the Russian people, and this was a major factor, and most notably was a string of luck the royal hours began to practice primogeniture and this was key for the powerbase. As lateral base succession is an actual weakening of power, but Primogeniture is also dangerous, but usually builds a strong center base. So notice that circles of power meant people were blinded not killed, because it will start a blood feud, and that was a bid deal. The boyars are practicing the lateral success meaning their possession become more fragmented.

 

Third factor, the rise of Muscvite princes was the won the support of the Golden Horde, that is to collecte taxes and they pocked a good amount, they were the authorize tax collector of Surai.

 

Possible Mid-Term Question/themes:

  1. demise of Kievan Rus'
    1. Was not the Mongols, they only depopulated it.
    2. Most of the Slavs were forest dwellers in Russia region. The nomads were steppe dwellers, and both traded with each other.
    3. Mongol raids,  peasants needed to seek protection of lords
    4. What factors protected Novgorod from Mongol devastation? First luck, spring thaw-out forced Mongols to stop 60 miles short and refrain. among other things, distance, forest, shrewd princes.
    5. Mongols cannot make war in the thick-forest, they rid horses, and cannot maneuver, they are not as well as infantry.
    6. Must focus on trade restructuring, what changed?
    7. What was Novgorod's political relationship with the Kievan Rus
    8. State after 1136: Princely over lordship up until the rebellion of 1136.
    9. Russians to switch from trade to agriculture.  Well, we learned that trade declined around Kiev, the center of population shifted NE, where small settlements with modest (subsistence) farming and little long distance trade were the norm. 
    10. what degree was its democratic reputation exaggerated.
    11. Navigating the steppe was too hard for the Slavs, its like being lost in an ocean, they could not keep a bearing so-to-speak, so communication for expedition and conquest of the steppe was too difficult. Monads knew where they were at all times, and the farther they were away from Kiev the scarier it was for troops.
    12. Constantinople cut off 1453, and long ally of Kievan Rus’.
    13. 1212 AD east slavs no longer in communication with Byzantiim they were cut-off – no communication, no longer trade Dnieper, and so in 1300 pushed back and north, Mongols,
    14. Byzantium is the relevance to understanding of Russia in the Christian context. The sea of Marmara, or the marble sea, and Constantinople is a key place for the eastern Roman Empire as the silk rout terminates there. The control is the key to the spices and commodities of the east. Things that could not produced in the west for various reasons. The importance of the trade created a great need to control the straits of the Bosporus and Constantinople.
    15.  
  2. Was Kievan Rus' a monarchy?  A democracy?
    1. Novgorod had a pluralistic, representative government. The idea of democracy, according to Karl Marx, would be a mute point. Why wealth was only distributed into a few hands, he would ask?
    2. Who are the princes, the ones that can afford horses, weapons, and buy friends, and they learn cavalrymen, and that is the background the Muscovy elite, in time of war they are Generals and in time of peace they are politicians.
    3. veche is the best evidence of a democratic process. It was a urban democracy. The vehce had a town bell, a symbol of democracy, and anyone could ring it and summoned the town’s electives for a special meeting to address concerns.
    4. Why kingship? Progenitor: Prince Line: Riurik, 9th  century, princely line., residence Novgorod, Important is the tradition, it is important to them; Lateral succession over time created 100 of princely lies. During the Mongol Yoke period, new high-clans were adopted, despite lineage.
    5. Where is the prince? Outside the city’s boarders, by agreement of the citizens?
    6. Where there that many people? No not a large populations which helped to continue as a pluralistic representative body.
    7. Law codes, fist indication of a civil formality. Yaroslav’s Law Code, 2 versions of it, it was a compendium, and short production late 11th, and princely power is unknown, face to face litigation, mono-momo, didactic relations, the economy is mostly agrarians, forest dweller, not much business in trade, and slavie code of customary law. Lots of recompense of theft, important in agriculture, no stealing, interferes with fighting and hunting rights, one sees in the Rus the growth in towns.
    8. Kieven and Rus’ economy, the polity  - kinship prince and boyars and is mostly minimalist, patrimonial theory, stress personal loyalty, symbolic strategies of claiming legitimacy, privileges, and mix of agrarian economy and there is still international trade that brought the Vikings.
    9.  
    10. 11th century, markets and towns developed, for the first time, more settled manner of governing, a tax system, and in second version of the Law Code, it the Prince taxation, most of the populous is free, a few slaves, not many. The second reduction, more economic activity, bankrupsies, loans, and temporary slavery, indentured servants, more money moving, towns grew up organically in concentric circles around the princes court. and, more social mobility and production in trade, and more landholding, donation to monasteries, more slaves and indentured servants. Urban aristocracy now living off their land all in the second edition. The third party, meaning the prince gets involved in dispute and pay a service for the time of his arbitrary.
    11. In Kiev, Political sponsorship of princes in churches gave them more weight in influence in the city. They had the money and so they buit the symbols that represented their importance in legacy.
    12.  

 

How do veches in

Novgorod and Pskov differ? -- I don't think we have enough in our readings

to answer; briefly, the one in Novgorod was more active.

Russian  population was sparse, widely dispersed in northern forest, poor soil and

short growing season, few cities of any size (likewise no farms of great size).

In Novgorod:  relationship of prince vis-a-vis town council,  city elders, etc.  Good question:  take another look at our readings and  see if you can define the prince's role and how it changed over time.

 

 

(((Sort))

 

ALWAYS BE CAREFUL OF RUSSIAN CHRONICALS> 1350s Russians and Tartars on both sides of the battlefield. So, much more complex picture, but looms large in the Muscovy imagery of history. Monkish-scribe gather up the regions that they conquered, how to write history, and they re-write, or copy pieces of them, that they want, and shove in a Moscow oriented story to show the importance of Moscow in history, then they teach it to the kids, a nd the kids tell their kids until it’s a legend and a myth duly admitted as a truism in history. So if mix a little truth with made up story telling, then one gets a hard to break historigraghy of one’ people’s history.

 

 

1560s the Nikon Chronicle, owned by patriarch Nikon, and it was the end-all of Chronicles, and illustrated collection, in 10 volumes and 20 thousand pages hand written and 16 thousands illustrations Too big.

Moscow grand princes descended from Roman kings, a classic renaissance motif, a way to make one legitimate was to make a myth of oneself.

The White Emperor the Made up Cap of Roman.

Uzbec cross, and tremendously ironic, is a 14th century Usbec cap, and its ironic they think it came from Roman dress of kings, so it was so ironic they thought this way.

 

Myth of Autocrat

Myth is Tsar is absolute and 16th century quoted, and Tsar referred to the Mongol King, and Constantinople, the city of the tsar God, and God himself, so has a multiple reference.

“I’m you slave,” as the boyars bow down to the tsar, head on the ground, this is absolute power, this was customary, a way to make obeisance. But in reality, he was the God Father, the who needed his boyars to make recommendations and the boyars did rule, and the tsar never said do this or do that, it was always they say do this or do that. Oprinchina is a different story.

Tsar is just a man, and walks instead of carried like goddesses, and he is just like a common man,

Christ on a donkey motif is referred to grand princes, the autocratic tsar was not what it appered when foreigner visited Russia and saw for themselves.

Comradeship, patrimonial politics seen in Kiev, and humble of the all powerful image. The precessions, in paintings and frescos, that of a hierarchy being benevolent to the one’s below.

Boyars acted as Christian love with G Prince, and at same time present an autocratic reverence to the G Prince himself with prostrations.

 

1488, Chronicles refer to do business until his boyars are present at the meetings, the Emphasis on comradely rule, a close relations with the boyars, they are his cousins, relatives and family members,

 

So does this come from Constantinople, Kiev or Rus’?

This was the nature of politics with lots of consultations between boyar and tsar and Church, and the right of the citizen the common to petition the tsar. But when population increases this became impossible.

Sothe tsar is God’s representative, and so when someone approaches the tsar one approaches God’s chosen one. This is crap. This is the imagery presented in ceremonial, ritual just like conveyance of lefty thought through television, the symbolism of how to act live and breath. The political correctness is as old and humans. Kremlin the symbolic center of the Russia.

Moscow Architecture.

Mostly wooden structures of Moscow then to stone.

Brick Novgorod, Pskov and Italy art heritage in Moscow, and boasting it now owns these places by using their stuff.

Holiest icons assembles other Mary and child, the famous one, 1125 brought to Kiev, 1155 legimar, and 1395 brought to Moscow, then installed in Dormission Cathedral in Moscow.

 

Architectural trend in Muscovy: Moscow incorporates regional styles and then exports them back out to the regional localities.

God had smiled on both Moscow and the Church.

 

(/sort)))

 

 

4 MAJOR POINT TO KNOW RISE OF MOSCOW

 

 

Recap: factors: Water, Succession, Rise of tax collectors of GH, and finally Metropolitan Peter happens 1325 visiting Moscow, he died, and the Moscow persuades the next in line to move the see to Moscow, and the guy that dies was just visiting. So ecclesiastical legitimacy was passed to Moscow. Now the central authority of the Slavs. A cult of St. Peter builds up as the visitor, and his is the important persona a cult of personality. So it becomes dominant by these things so they became

 

  • 1480 standing off the Golden Horse actually see collapsing, and they Moscow, tax collectors said I do not want to pay taxes, in reality thGH was already in deep decline.

  • Emblematic of wars were tartars on both sides and Russians – so not as neat.

  • What was the Mongol yoke, that history is written by white man in their forties, so the Mongol experience did not mean fundamental changes in Russian culture, there was not much contract and when there was we see a cultural borrowing.

  • Russians were people who trapped and hunted, the Nomads were herders and travelers.

  • Turkish language, used by the Mongols,Russian on the Russian sides. SO THEY COULD NOT CONVERSE

  • They couldn’t intermarry because the Mongol became Islamic, the Tartars, and the cutlrue interchange was limited. SO the level of culture, Persian in literacy in Culture, the arts of Persona and Islamic religious development, but the Russians were illiterate mostly, and art of Greek.

  • Mongols took to Aristotle, but didn’t happen in Muscovy, and if it is often said, corporal punishment in Muscovy law codes, but in reality were less harsh that their predecessors, and only in the 17th century that they get harder. Also, the barbarian’s views.

  • The Mongols didn’t leave political theory, the an election in Mongolia town clan elections. Muscovy more autocracy than Mongoloid power so no influence.

  • What are the culture impact of the Mongols, Practical skills in military organization and government administration and bureaucracy ( not kingship). Look at the handout list, coming from Mongol.

  • Only barrow what they see can make them better in all aspects of life.

 

 

When did Russian History Began, what is the continuity debate really about?

 

How did Moscow Rise to Power?

 

The first vacuum of power: early 1200s, the Mongol invasion can be said to be a piece of the puzzle, but we must be careful not to conclude that the Mongols have brought an end to the Kievan Rus’. Economic devastation were created problems from the west, where traditional trade routs were exchanged with new and growing western powers that severely hampered the economics of the trade towns such as Novgorod and Pskov. The decline of Kiev had taken place before the Mongols arrived. The city had not enough resources due to previous economic devastation to field an army to ward off the powerful steppe incursions to the west. Kiev close to the boarder of the steppe began a shift in migration toward the northern forest-zones, as the steppe nomads made their homes and bases along the grassy planes. 

 

Moscow arose from four basic principles: geograghy, political (includes military), luck and ecclesiastical.

 

First, geography, the causeways became a set of ideals to establish satellite towns. Moscow is centered on rivers that spread out in all directions. Controlling these river towns and cities created dominance in trade privileges. Second, Muscovy was protected from the forest, and people had moved north, where the steppe nomads preferred not to travel or inhabit.

 

 

Ecclesiastical:

 

Ecclesiastical dominion produces an added principle for power in Muscovy legitimacy. Vladimir had procured Keivan legitimacy by moving the see to Kiev (PLACE DATE), and building churches, which helped legitimize Orthodox Christianity for all of Rus’. Ecclesiastical expansion and church construction became a continuing policy of legitimacy later for all Kievan Rus’. In similar fashion, but without continuity to Rus’ history, the metropolitan was moved from Kiev to Vladimir and then to Moscow. This came about in Northeast Rus' as one aspect of the second vacuum of power in 1300s which saw a struggle for grand-princely title. The Grand Principality of Vladimir consisted of Vladimir-Suzdalia and saw a struggle between two powerful princes and succession privileges controlled by the head of the Golden Horde.

 

 

Mikhail Yaroslavich, second son of Yaroslav III, fashioned himself as the first Grand Prince of of all Rus’.  Subsequently, Uzbeg Khan had given Yuri Danilovich, Prince of Moscow, the title of Grand Prince of Vladimir. Mikhail Yaroslavich, also held the title of Grand Prince of Vladimir and Tver. Both men wanted to legitimize their rule the way Vladimir had in Kiev in the 10th Century by promoting their own metropolitan. Mikhail promoted his own metropolitan and Peter (d. December 20, 1326)  was promoted by ( Other person).  Consequently, Mikhail battled Yuri at Bortenevo on December 22, 1317 and defeated him in which upset Uzbeg who summoned Mikhail and had him killed at Sarai. With the fall of the competition, ecclesiastical legitimacy was passed-on to Moscow and now the central authority of the Slavs. Peter became the first metropolitan to reside in Moscow.  In continuing fashion, “the Cathedral of the Dormition and several other stone churches were built by Ivan Kalita, Yury's successor, in the Moscow Kremlin” to symbolize this new Muscovite ecclesiastical dominion, just as Vladimir had once envisioned legitimacy by use of the ecclesiastical symbolism. (wiki). Ecclesiastical dominion was one principle in Muscovy’s rise to power. (THAT IS THE TIE BACK)

 

 

 

 

 

As regards Russian politics, Öz-Beg supported the earliest princes of Muscovy - his brother-in-law Yury of Moscow and Yury's successor Ivan Kalita - against the westward-leaning Princes of Tver. Three of these - Mikhail of Tver, his son Alexander and grandson Theodor - were killed in Sarai at Öz-Beg's behest. Tver's uprising against the Horde was bloodily suppressed by Muscovite and Tatar forces in 1327.

 

Ivan I Danilovich Kalita (Ива́н I Дани́лович Калита́ in Russian) (1288 – March 31, 1340, Moscow), Prince of Moscow (from 1325), Grand Prince of Vladimir (from 1328), son of Daniil Aleksandrovich (Prince of Moscow).

 

After the defection of Tver to Lithuania, khan Muhammad Ozbeg of the Golden Horde was forced to rely on Ivan as his preeminent Russian vassal. Ivan was the Mongols' leading tax collector and made himself and Moscow very wealthy by maintaining his loyalty to the Horde (hence, the nickname Kalita, or moneybag). He used this wealth to give loans to neighbouring Russian principalities. These cities gradually fell deeper and deeper into debt, a condition that would allow Ivan's successors to annex them. Ivan's greatest success, however, was convincing the Khan in Saray that his son should succeed him as Grand Prince of Vladimir, from then on the important position almost always belonged to the ruling house of Moscow.

 

Political: Taxes” Luck/taxes: Mongols lose power, infighting, and tax collection.

 

 

The Golden Horde in13th century ran direct fiscal administration by sending in their own people to cities to collect taxes. Geography of Northern Rus’ played some role in changing fiscal administration.  The forest-zone of the north did not fit the lifestyle of the steppe nomadic people. To offset this preference, some of the intermediary Rus' princes won the right to the iarlyk in the 14th century. This led to indirect tax collections. The Mongols continued to control by a threat-policy of war. In addition, this could be seen as a result of the second vacuum in the 1360s; the Mongoloid Empire was severely splintering because of dynastic conflicts which made it harder for them to regulate their fiscal authority. These indirect polices allowed the iarlyk to skim-off, not report, and sometimes steal revenue. Without direct Mongol oversight the iarlyk did not report the exact amount to them, thus they were able to keep some of the money for themselves. The result was a rise in princely wealth.

 

  •  While Peter was visiting Moscow he died, and this was seen as luck as his successor was asked to stay in Mocow, and move the Holy See to there.

 

This can be seen as luck when the Golden Horde broke up into four major groups, and division created a certain freedom in the North in which Muscovy took advantage. In the 1360s, a new vacuum resulted; the Mongoloid Empire was severely splintering because of dynastic conflicts. By the mid-14th century autonomous splinter states can be seen as a result of luck or more autonomous power in the north.

 

Kiev and Novgorod declines, and splintering of principalities, and ruling families drift apart each getting different lands, and trade-routs were drying up, no more Viking, and Rus’ and Byzantium was cut off by the steppe warriors.

 

Peter's alliance with Moscow helped assert his own authority and contributed to the rise of the House of Moscow. (Wiki)

 

In order to procure legitimacy, Peter was promoted as a Metropolitan of Moscow (?By Yuri) Vladimir had procured Keivan legitimacy by moving the see to Kiev, building churches, and establishing Orthodox Christianity for all of Rus’. In similar fashion, but without continuity, the  metropolitan was moved from Kiev to Vladimir and then to Moscow.

 

Saint Peter, Metropolitan of Moscow and all Russia (Пётр in Russian) (? — December 20, 1326) was the Russian metropolitan who moved his see from from Kiev to Vladimir and then to Moscow. Later he was proclaimed a patron saint of Moscow. (wiki)

 

the Cathedral of the Dormition and several other stone churches were built by Ivan Kalita in the Moscow Kremlin.

 

ecclesiastical legitimacy was passed to Moscow. Now the central authority of the Slavs.

 

(wiki)

Mikhail Yaroslavich (Russian: Михаил Ярославич) (1271 – November 22, 1318), also known as Michael of Tver, was a Prince of Tver (from 1285) who ruled as Grand Prince of Vladimir from 1304 until 1318.

 

Mikhail Yaroslavich, Grand Prince of Vladimir and Tver, wanted to advance his own candidate for this position. Peter's nomination caused prolonged animosity between Mikhail and Peter to the point that the latter had to ask for protection from the Muscovite princes.

 

Mikhail Yaroslavich was the second son of Yaroslav III and succeeded him in 1285. As a result of a long struggle, he became the Grand Prince of Vladimir in 1305 and the first among Russian rulers started to style himself Grand Prince of All Rus.

 

In 1317, Uzbeg Khan of the Golden Horde gave the title of the Grand Prince of Vladimir to Yuri Danilovich, Prince of Moscow, and sent his army to help Yuri in his struggle with Mikhail Yaroslavich. On December 22, 1317 Mikhail defeated Yuri at a village called Bortenevo (40 km from Tver). Later on, Mikhail was summoned by the Khan and had to go to the Horde to "explain" himself. He was eventually killed in the Horde by Yuri's servants. Later, the Russian Orthodox Church declared Mikhail the holy patron of Tver. (/wiki)

 

 

 

Recap: factors: Water, Succession, Rise of tax collectors of GH, and finally Metropolitan Peter happens 1325 visiting Moscow, he died, and the Moscow persuades the next in line to move the see to Moscow, and the guy that dies was just visiting. So ecclesiastical legitimacy was passed to Moscow. Now the central authority of the Slavs. A cult of St. Peter builds up as the visitor, and his is the important persona a cult of personality. So it becomes dominant by these things so they became

 

 

 IDEOLOGY AND AUTOCRACY IN MUSCOVY


I. Amber Room, Catherine Palace, Tsarskoe Selo (Pushkin), outside St. Petersburg
II. Finish discussion of Mongol “yoke”
III. Adopting an image in Ivan III’s time


“White Emperor” (albus imperator)


Orthodox “translatio imperii” model
“Zadonshchina” -- tale of victory by Or. Pr. Dmitrii Donskoi over Mamai and Golden Horde in 1380 at Kulikovo Field
Kremlin churches:
Annunciation Cathedral (palace church, gr. pr. baptized and married here)
Dormition Cathedral (Uspenskii sobor); Tsarskoe mesto (Monomakh Throne), mid- 16th c. (Vladimir Monomakh, 12th-c. Kievan gr. pr.)
chronicle writing: Nikon Chronicle (1520s), Book of Degrees (1560s)
“Tale of Princes of Vladimir”
The Cap (shapka; crown) of Monomakh
IV. Claims about the power of the tsar: two interdependent strains
the most powerful tsar: Agapetus
the most pious and most comradely tsar: Agapetus
grand prince rules TOGETHER WITH HIS BOYARS
Herberstein: 16th-c. visitor
Olearius: 17th-c. visitor
V. Integrating the empire through symbol, ritual and ceremony
coronation ceremonies
Cap (Crown) of Kazan’, l550s
Palm Sunday Procession
architecture and icons as visible claims of integration: Kremlin as center of empire Archangel Michael Cathedral: necropolis of Moscow dynasty
Dormition Cathedral: necropolis of metropolitans/patriarchs of the Church spread of Muscovite architecture to provinces: Kazan’, Pereslalv’-Zalesskii
cults of saints: the three “Moscow miracle-workers” -- Metropolitans Peter, Aleksii, and Iona
cults of regional saints and regional icons
attempt to link Muscovy with Kievan Rus’
using ritual to establish a “symbolic center” and to demonstrate tsar’s power AND piety ritual as catharsis and community building
grand prince rules together with his boyars
Coronation of Michael Romanov, 1613

 

Moscow the “Third Rome,” or “New Jerusalem”
Muscovite expansion:
1478 Novgorod, 1510 Pskov, 1514 Smolensk
1551 Kazan’, 1556 Astrakhan and Volga River route
Key rulers:
Ivan III (1462-1505)
his son, Vasilii III (1 505-33)
his son and grandson of Ivan III, Ivan IV (1533-84)

 

THE EMERGENCE OF MUSCOVY AND THE MONGOL “YOKE”

 

I. Demonization of Mongols, the “Mongol yoke”


II. The first vacuum of power: early 1200s, the Mongol invasion
economic devastation and recovery
invasion and exploitation: 13th century direct fiscal administration and military recruiting (baskak)


14th century: intermediary Rus’ princes -- those who won the “iarlyk.” or Khan’s charter to collect and deliver taxes
III. The second vacuum of power: 1360s+
Novgorod and Pskov
The Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Ukraine, Belarus’ 1 260s+
Northeast Rus’ = “Grand Principality of Vladimir” = Vladimir-Suzdalia
1 300s: Struggle for grand-princely title: Moscow vs. Tver’, Suzdal’, Riazan’


IV. Moscow’s rise: V. 0. KIiuchevskii’s “litany”
geography
primogeniture and dynastic war (1433-565
the iarlyk: tax collecting, for the Khan
metropolitan’s favor
territorial expansion to North and Baltic (not Kiev)
V. Cultural influence: patterns and structural barriers
Steppe nomads vs. forest dwelling farmers
Turkic speakers vs. Slavic speakers
Islamic high culture in Arabic or Persian vs. Orthodox Christian culture in Old Church Slavonic
VI. Mongol influence:
Devastation and resource depletion
Cultural isolation from the West and Byzantium?
Barbarity in law codes and social mores? Autocracy?
Military, trade and administration
VI. The utility of the “yoke” for argument for Kiev-Moscow continuity

 

 

 

Both Sophias in Nov. and Keiv are dedicated to Yaroslav.

 

 

Italian style in St. Petersburg,

Amber panels were a gift from Russia from the Prussia Emperor.

Moscow, and Amber thin slivers, arranged in a mosaic,

One British visitor thought one of the most gaudy things in bad taste.

 

By Aksherkan, and below Sarai, is the try steppe, and dramatically didn’t environment than the slavs who lived in the north. On the Volga, American Indians Run through the forest, on foot, the Last Mohican reference, without making any noise runs through the forest, but the steppe warriors were not forest dwellers, and could not being horse culture, was helpless in the forest against the Muscovites. So compare the forest zone with the dry steppe, so horses not so quite useful thorough the forest. In Novgorod, a wet boggy season in the spring is not the enviorment that steppe nomads wanted to live or inhabit.

 

Lagimar- Suzdala principality, so each principality is ruled by a prince, form Rurik heritage, and Mongols live on steppe. What was it like living under Mongol power, so there is a logical assumption there had to be a lot of contact, they come over the mountains, and each year collect taxes; but cultures have their own set of ideals and only barrow what is useful. So when we examine the Scandinavian Vikings, there were relatively few in number and they melded into Slavs; they also conquered Sicily, and they were adsorbed in to the culture, but the Tartars were not a small group of peoples, they were a massive group of peoples.

 

Surely it was not benign relationship. But I do not think it is appropriate to blame the ills of Russia on Mongols ‘ yoke’ period, and Russian historiography has invented that the Mongols are to blame for all the RUussian’s current and historic problems.

 

So why was Kiev and Rus’ so important? Seminal movement politically and ecclesiastical, - Rurik, and Vladimir Christianity, but Kiev falls victim to the Mongols, but cultural heritage begins where one chose, and there was a cultural legacy, but not a culture a cultural continuity, and Kiev and Rus’ declined, and when Moscow rose, we can start Russian history here – there was no continuity. The argument was Kiev, trade to east, political contact with western Europe, Kiev direct infusions of Greek high culture, Kiev was politically more pluralistic, more lively and among the princes, the Rurik veche, had cooperation, but in Moscow emphasis on a single autocratic ruler, a nature on this concept. Muscovy is more agrarian and depended less on trade, then Kive and Rus’, no veche in Moscow, so how can one show continuity, so if one blames the Mongols you can finesse this contradiction. Continuity exist if you blame the

 

Greeks called foreigners barbarians because they couldn’t understand their speaking and it sounded like bar, bar, bar, bar…. But this happen in Classical Greek, even when refereeing to the Macedonians. So barbarian practices were not a creating of the tartars, but already in culture.

 

 

So if there is discontinuity you cannot blame it on the Mongols, Different periods, direrento locations and different experiences, so Keiv Rus never can be assumed as the precursors for Muscovite politics and culture.

 

Tartar words into Russian language, is mainly trade products, and not political or culture.

Viking was Slavic trade languages, and very few came form Scandinavians.

 

Viking legacy to Keiv and Rus’ was the idea of the Prince, but the Prince was not a Viking idea.

 

 

Muscovy

 

When did Russian History Began, what is the continuity debate really about?

 

 

  1. Ivan Kalita (r. 1328-41) won the right to the iarlyk.

  2. Ivan II, the Meek (r. 1353-59)

  3. Dmitrii Donskoi (r. 1359-89)

  4. Basil I (1389-1425)

  5. Basil II, the blind (1425-62)

  6. Ivan III, the Great m. Zoe Paleologue ( patrimony, coercive, state building ( takes Novgorod)

  7. Basil III (Vasilli) m. Helen Glinskaia, Regent 1533-38

  8. Ivan IV, the Terrible m. Anastasia Romanova (coercive, state building ( takes Mongol Lands)

 

 

1474 Ivan sent for specialists from Venice, repeatedly asks for volunteers and Italian architects, mathematicians and artists to help create Moscow as the cultural center of Russia. Prominent builder Marco Ruffo, Pietro Solario, Alevisio, and Fieravanti. Fieravanti built (lived in Russia 1475-1479) Cathedral of Assumption.

Cathedrals of Annunciation, the Assumption, and the Archangel Michael became the centerpieces of the Kremlin. Coronations, weddings, and  tombs of the rulers of Russia

 

Appanage period education was in an eclipse.

 

Grand. Duke Ivan Danilovich of Moscow (1301-1341), called Kalita ("Moneybag"), was the actual founder of the Muscovite state. He spread his reign over a considerable part of the land between the Oka and Volga rivers. Rostov was an important city of the Volga

 

1354 Moscow becomes the seat of the metropolitan. Peter dies on a visit to Moscow, and this is luck, as his successor is asked to stay the see.  

 

Appanage landlord acted as rulers. So how to have a state when everyone is the boss? Apaanage is connected to commerce of the tilling of the soil, international trade  during this period is hard to reconcile.

 

Sergius starts out as monk in forest, then becomes recognized spiritual leader. Blessing added strength to Dimitrii.  St. Sergius inspired Russian people and introduce a more disciplined and strictly enforced communal life in the monastery(281).

 

The building of the Kremlin, incorporation of local saints of the various traditional cities into the Muscovy pantheon.

The façade of autocracy,

Church council and new legal codes the Subenik of 1550(134 HOR)

1556, the establishment of general regulations and military service. People either joined the army or were there jobs were considered to support it through various programs including taxes.

The tightening of the Church’s power of land ownership.

1550, Ivan IV engaged in army reform, such as developments of a southern defense line, The creation of new military squads, such as the streltsy, the incorporation of Mongolian military tactics. 1550 a new struggle against people of the step. Ivan incorporated commoners into his army and personal or court official he met on campaigns, such as Alexis Adashev.

Appendage period under Ivan was ended.

Ivan crowned tsar, now in ideology a titular leader of foreign affairs and Muscovy government. However, the boyars still ruled along with Ivan.

 

 

How did Moscow Rise to Power?

 

The first vacuum of power: early 1200s, the Mongol invasion can be said to be a piece of the puzzle, but we must be careful not to conclude that the Mongols have brought an end to the Kievan Rus’.

 

 

Economic devastation were created problems from the west, where traditional trade routs were exchanged with new and growing western powers that severely hampered the economics of the trade towns such as Novgorod and Pskov. The decline of Kiev had taken place before the Mongols arrived. The city had not enough resources due to previous economic devastation to field an army to ward off the powerful steppe incursions to the west. Kiev close to the boarder of the steppe began a shift in migration toward the northern forest-zones, as the steppe nomads made their homes and bases along the grassy planes. 

 

 

Moscow arose from four basic principles: geography, political (includes military), luck and ecclesiastical ( include church building, incorporating each cities aesthetics, saints localized, see in Moscow).

 

First, geography, the causeways became a set of ideals to establish satellite towns. Moscow is centered on rivers that spread out in all directions. Controlling these river towns and cities created dominance in trade privileges. Second, Muscovy was protected from the forest, and people had moved north, where the steppe nomads preferred not to travel or inhabit.

 

Ecclesiastical:

 

Ecclesiastical dominion produces an added principle for power in Muscovy legitimacy. Vladimir had procured Keivan legitimacy by moving the see to Kiev (PLACE DATE), and building churches, which helped legitimize Orthodox Christianity for all of Rus’. Ecclesiastical expansion and church construction became a continuing policy of legitimacy later for all Kievan Rus’. In similar fashion, but without continuity to Rus’ history, the metropolitan was moved from Kiev to Vladimir and then to Moscow. This came about in Northeast Rus' as one aspect of the second vacuum of power in 1300s which saw a struggle for grand-princely title. The Grand Principality of Vladimir consisted of Vladimir-Suzdalia and saw a struggle between two powerful princes and succession privileges controlled by the head of the Golden Horde.

 

 

Mikhail Yaroslavich, second son of Yaroslav III, fashioned himself as the first Grand Prince of of all Rus’.  Subsequently, Uzbeg Khan had given Yuri Danilovich, Prince of Moscow, the title of Grand Prince of Vladimir. Mikhail Yaroslavich, also held the title of Grand Prince of Vladimir and Tver. Both men wanted to legitimize their rule the way Vladimir had in Kiev in the 10th Century by promoting their own metropolitan. Mikhail promoted his own metropolitan and Peter (d. December 20, 1326)  was promoted by ( Other person).  Consequently, Mikhail battled Yuri at Bortenevo on December 22, 1317 and defeated him in which upset Uzbeg who summoned Mikhail and had him killed at Sarai. With the fall of the competition, ecclesiastical legitimacy was passed-on to Moscow and now the central authority of the Slavs. Peter became the first metropolitan to reside in Moscow.  In continuing fashion, “the Cathedral of the Dormition and several other stone churches were built by Ivan Kalita, Yury's successor, in the Moscow Kremlin” to symbolize this new Muscovite ecclesiastical dominion, just as Vladimir had once envisioned legitimacy by use of the ecclesiastical symbolism. (wiki). Ecclesiastical dominion was one principle in Muscovy’s rise to power. (THAT IS THE TIE BACK)

 

Political: Taxes” Luck/taxes: Mongols lose power, infighting, and tax collection.

 

 

The Golden Horde in13th century ran direct fiscal administration by sending in their own people to cities to collect taxes. Geography of Northern Rus’ played some role in changing fiscal administration.  The forest-zone of the north did not fit the lifestyle of the steppe nomadic people. To offset this preference, some of the intermediary Rus' princes won the right to the iarlyk in the 14th century. This led to indirect tax collections. The Mongols continued to control by a threat-policy of war. In addition, this could be seen as a result of the second vacuum in the 1360s; the Mongoloid Empire was severely splintering because of dynastic conflicts which made it harder for them to regulate their fiscal authority. These indirect polices allowed the iarlyk to skim-off, not report, and sometimes steal revenue. Without direct Mongol oversight the iarlyk did not report the exact amount to them, thus they were able to keep some of the money for themselves. The result was a rise in princely wealth.

 

 

 

 

This can be seen as luck when the Golden Horde broke up into four major groups, and division created a certain freedom in the North in which Muscovy took advantage. In the 1360s, a new vacuum resulted; the Mongoloid Empire was severely splintering because of dynastic conflicts. By the mid-14th century autonomous splinter states can be seen as a result of luck or more autonomous power in the north.

 

Kiev and Novgorod declines, and splintering of principalities, and ruling families drift apart each getting different lands, and trade-routs were drying up, no more Viking, and Rus’ and Byzantium was cut off by the steppe warriors.

 

 

 

 

Peter's alliance with Moscow helped assert his own authority and contributed to the rise of the House of Moscow. (Wiki)

 

 

 

 

In order to procure legitimacy, Peter was promoted as a Metropolitan of Moscow (?By Yuri) Vladimir had procured Keivan legitimacy by moving the see to Kiev, building churches, and establishing Orthodox Christianity for all of Rus’. In similar fashion, but without continuity, the  metropolitan was moved from Kiev to Vladimir and then to Moscow.

 

 

 

Saint Peter, Metropolitan of Moscow and all Russia (Пётр in Russian) (? — December 20, 1326) was the Russian metropolitan who moved his see from from Kiev to Vladimir and then to Moscow. Later he was proclaimed a patron saint of Moscow. (wiki)

 

the Cathedral of the Dormition and several other stone churches were built by Ivan Kalita in the Moscow Kremlin.

 

ecclesiastical legitimacy was passed to Moscow. Now the central authority of the Slavs.

 

(wiki)

Mikhail Yaroslavich (Russian: Михаил Ярославич) (1271 – November 22, 1318), also known as Michael of Tver, was a Prince of Tver (from 1285) who ruled as Grand Prince of Vladimir from 1304 until 1318.

 

Mikhail Yaroslavich, Grand Prince of Vladimir and Tver, wanted to advance his own candidate for this position. Peter's nomination caused prolonged animosity between Mikhail and Peter to the point that the latter had to ask for protection from the Muscovite princes.

 

Mikhail Yaroslavich was the second son of Yaroslav III and succeeded him in 1285. As a result of a long struggle, he became the Grand Prince of Vladimir in 1305 and the first among Russian rulers started to style himself Grand Prince of All Rus.

 

In 1317, Uzbeg Khan of the Golden Horde gave the title of the Grand Prince of Vladimir to Yuri Danilovich, Prince of Moscow, and sent his army to help Yuri in his struggle with Mikhail Yaroslavich. On December 22, 1317 Mikhail defeated Yuri at a village called Bortenevo (40 km from Tver). Later on, Mikhail was summoned by the Khan and had to go to the Horde to "explain" himself. He was eventually killed in the Horde by Yuri's servants. Later, the Russian Orthodox Church declared Mikhail the holy patron of Tver. (/wiki)

 

Recap: factors: Water, Succession, Rise of tax collectors of GH, and finally Metropolitan Peter happens 1325 visiting Moscow, he died, and the Moscow persuades the next in line to move the see to Moscow, and the guy that dies was just visiting. So ecclesiastical legitimacy was passed to Moscow. Now the central authority of the Slavs. A cult of St. Peter builds up as the visitor, and his is the important persona a cult of personality. So it becomes dominant by these things so they became

Both Sophias in Nov. and Keiv are dedicated to Yaroslav.

Italian style in St. Petersburg,

Amber panels were a gift from Russia from the Prussia Emperor.

Moscow, and Amber thin slivers, arranged in a mosaic,

One British visitor thought one of the most gaudy things in bad taste.

 

By Aksherkan, and below Sarai, is the try steppe, and dramatically didn’t environment than the slavs who lived in the north. On the Volga, American Indians Run through the forest, on foot, the Last Mohican reference, without making any noise runs through the forest, but the steppe warriors were not forest dwellers, and could not being horse culture, was helpless in the forest against the Muscovites. So compare the forest zone with the dry steppe, so horses not so quite useful thorough the forest. In Novgorod, a wet boggy season in the spring is not the environment that steppe nomads wanted to live or inhabit.

 

Lagimar- Suzdala principality, so each principality is ruled by a prince, form Rurik heritage, and Mongols live on steppe. What was it like living under Mongol power, so there is a logical assumption there had to be a lot of contact, they come over the mountains, and each year collect taxes; but cultures have their own set of ideals and only barrow what is useful. So when we examine the Scandinavian Vikings, there were relatively few in number and they melded into slavs; they also conquered Sicily, and they were adsorbed in to the culture, but the Tartars were not a small group of peoples, they were a massive group of peoples.

 

Surely it was not benign relationship. But I do not think it is appropriate to blame the ills of Russia on Mongols ‘ yoke’ period, and Russian historiograghy has invented that the Mongols are to blame for all the RUussian’s current and historic problems.

 

So why was Kiev and Rus’ so impoirtatn? Seminal movement politically and ecclesiastical, - Rurik, and Vladimir Christianity, but Kiev falls victim to the Mongols, but cultural heritage begins where one chose, and there was a cultural legacy, but not a culture a cultural continuity, and Kiev and Rus’ declined, and when Moscow rose, we can start Russian history here – there was no continuity. The arguemtn was Kiev, trade to east, political contact with western euroipe, Kiev direct infusions of Greek high culture, Kiev was politically more pluralistic, more lively and amoung the princes, the Rurik veche, had cooperation, but in Moscow emphasis on a single autocratic ruler, a nature on this concept. Muscovy is more agrarian and depended less on trade, then Kive and Rus’, no veche in Moscow, so how can one show continuity, so if one blames the Mongols you can finesse this contradiction. Continuity exist if you blame the

 

Greeks called foreigners barbarians because they couldn’t understand their speaking and it sounded like bar, bar, bar, bar…. But this happen in Classical Greek, even when refereeing to the Macadonians. So barbarian practices were not a creating of the tartars, but already in culture.

 

 

So if there is discontinuity you cannot blame it on the Mongols, Different periods, direrento locations and different experiences, so Keiv Rus never can be assumed as the precursors for Muscovite politics and culture.

 

Tartar words into Russian language, is mainly trade products, and not political or culture.

Viking was Slavic trade languages, and very few came form Scandinavians.

 

Viking legacy to Keiv and Rus’ was the idea of the Prince, but the Prince was not a Viking idea.

 

 

Muscovy

 

 

Tartar was used west of the Urals, and that is how the Muscovites referred to them. The principality of Moscow,

 

So territorial expansion to west and north note the 4 ways spoken about in the last lecture. Water,

 

 

Golden Horde, split into four powerful subdivisions, and Kasan was the capital of the most powerful, Seria was the former capital of the Golden Horde.

 

Successful mobilizations of the realm that is the reason Muscovy rose to power. It became wealth but showcasing its legitimacy, to show a grandeur, and resorted to methods like Kiev, to the outside world. Remember the early Rus’ princes calling themselves Khagan because they most powerful neighbor, Khagan a powerful ruler of the steppe and so Russian adopt this title to so legitimacy they had power around their world-region

 

 

Pointed gable is like a cross section of the Dome. IT is interest in the Church to advance that the Prince of Russia is the best one. Last Free Orthodox country in the world is Russia after 1453, so this was a duty and a job to keep the flame.

 

So what clothes do you dress in 15ht century Muscovy, so what image do you present to the west or the people

 

Ivan III the first negotiations in the 1480s, and interesting to see how the Russwian dlegates represented themselves as, and they represented the White Emperior of Rus’ and used various words such as Khagan and tsar and this made sense to the Russians, this made sense

 

The four points of the compass are represented by colors, of the steppe people ( Mongols), and white was north, and north was scared, and so in Holy Roman Emperor said what? What is white Ruler? So Russians used the powerful peoples around them to imitate their culture because they had culture that was working better then theirs. This was a methodology.

 

 

ALWAYS BE CAREFUL OF RUSSIAN CHRONICALS> 1350s Russians and Tartars on both sides of the battlefield. So, much more complex picture, but looms large in the Muscovy imagery of history. Monkish-scribe gather up the regions that they conquered, how to write history, and they re-write, or copy pieces of them, that they want, and shove in a Moscow oriented story to show the importance of Moscow in history, then they teach it to the kids, a nd the kids tell their kids until it’s a legend and a myth duly admitted as a truism in history. So if mix a little truth with made up story telling, then one gets a hard to break historigraghy of one’ people’s history.

 

  1. 1560s the Nikon Chronicle, owned by patriarch Nikon, and it was the end-all of Chronicles, and illustrated collection, in 10 volumes and 20 thousand pages hand written and 16 thousands illustrations Too big.

  2. Moscow grand princes descended from Roman kings, a classic renaissance motif, a way to make one legitimate was to make a myth of oneself.

  3. The White Emperor the Made up Cap of Roman.

  4. Uzbec cross, and tremendously ironic, is a 14th century Usbec cap, and its ironic they think it came from Roman dress of kings, so it was so ironic they thought this way.

 

Myth of Autocrat

Myth is Tsar is absolute and 16th century quoted, and Tsar referred to the Mongol King, and Constantinople, the city of the tsar God, and God himself, so has a multiple reference.

 

“I’m you slave,” as the boyars bow down to the tsar, head on the ground, this is absolute power, this was customary, a way to make obeisance. But in reality, he was the God Father, the who needed his boyars to make recommendations and the boyars did rule, and the tsar never said do this or do that, it was always they say do this or do that. Oprinchina is a different story.

 

Tsar is just a man, and walks instead of carried like goddesses, and he is just like a common man,

 

Christ on a donkey motif is referred to grand princes, the autocratic tsar was not what it appered when foreigner vited Russia and saw for themselves.

 

Commradship, patrimonial politics seen in Kiev, and humble of the all powerful image. The pressessions, in paintings and frescows, that of a hierarchy being benevolent to the one’s below.

Boyars acted as Christian love with G Prince, and at same time present an autocratic reverence to the G Prince himself with prostrations.

 

1488, Chronicles refer to do business until his boyars are present at the meetings, the Emphasis on comradely rule, a close relations with the boyars, they are his cousins, relatives and family members,

 

So does this come from Constantinople, Kiev or Rus’?

This was the nature of politics with lots of consultations between boyar and tsar and Church, and the right of the citizen the common to petition the tsar. But when population increases this became impossible.

 

SO the tsar is God’s representative, and so when someone approaches the tsar one approaches God’s chosen one. This is crap. This is the imagery presented in ceremonial, ritual just like conveyance of lefty thought through television, the symbolism of how to act live and breath. The political correctness is as old and humans. Kremlin the symbolic center of the Russia.

 

Moscow Architecture.

Mostly wooden structures of Moscow then to stone.

Brick Novgorod, Pskov and Italy art heritage in Moscow, and boasting it now owns these places by using their stuff.

 

Holiest icons assembles other Mary and child, the famous one, 1125 brought to Kiev, 1155 legimar, and 1395 brought to Moscow, then installed in Dormission Cathedral in Moscow.

 

Architectural trend in Muscovy: Moscow incorporates regional styles and then exports them back out to the regional localities.

 

Tartar was used west of the Urals, and that is how the Muscovites referred to them. The principality of Moscow,

 

So territorial expansion to west and north note the 4 ways spoken about in the last lecture. Water,

 

 

Golden Horde, split into four powerful subdivisions, and Kasan was the capital of the most powerful, Seria was the former capital of the Golden Horde.

 

Successful mobilizations of the realm that is the reason Muscovy rose to power. It became wealth but showcasing its legitimacy, to show a grandeur, and resorted to methods like Kiev, to the outside world. Remember the early Rus’ princes calling themselves Khagan because they most powerful neighbor, Khagan a powerful ruler of the steppe and so Russian adopt this title to so legitimacy they had power around their world-region

 

 

Pointed gable is like a cross section of the Dome. IT is interest in the Church to advance that the Prince of Russia is the best one. Last Free Orthodox country in the world is Russia after 1453, so this was a duty and a job to keep the flame.

 

So what clothes do you dress in 15ht century Muscovy, so what image do you present to the west or the people

 

Ivan III the first negotiations in the 1480s, and interesting to see how the Russwian dlegates represented themselves as, and they represented the White Emperior of Rus’ and used various words such as Khagan and tsar and this made sense to the Russians, this made sense

 

 

( This is not correct) The four points of the compass are represented by colors, of the steppe people ( Mongols), and white was north, and north was scared, and so in Holy Roman Emperor said what? What is white Ruler? So Russians used the powerful peoples around them to imitate their culture because they had culture that was working better then theirs. This was a methodology.

  

 

THE POLITICAL ELITE:  THE BOYAR MAFIA

 

 

Three miracle workers, 14th century, iconic paintings, some overlap, these are the three saints, the house of Moscow, connected to the mythical side of the rise. Moscow also incorporates saints, imported to Moscow local venerated icons like Novgorod, put in the Kremlin Churches, and put on display, then original taken back after a copy.

 

The embroidery icons, late 15th century placed (these were 14th century saints), put in the Dormition Cathedral. Include Metropolitan Peter, also Boris and Gleb.

 

 

3) Holiday and saints in embroidery, also Metropolitan Peter.

Alter cloth, Aleksie, Peter, Sergi all become associated with the rise of Moscow.

 

Robe in today’s Kremlin, on display.

1613, Coronation of Mikhail Romanov, paintings, shows foreign dignitaries, a ritual and ceremony. Not many see him on a daily schedule so this is important. HE is the symbolic center of the realm, the embodiment of its institutions, this is not meaningless ceremony it has cathartic things. Things only become real when ceremonies act out these rituals.

 

“He is appointed by God to rule over by men” most of the sources, this was the Byzantine theme of association of the Church and State. Not a democracy. Third Rome idea in the 17th century gained weight but not in the 16th century, in the 16th century, it was the new Jerusalem. Godless Turks, last Orthodox, independent country on earth, it was not a empire theme, but a preserve and protect ideology until Christ comes.

 

Ruler ideology in Muscovy: Command, Just, Pious, as well as fearsome, autocratic ruler.

16th century Moscow, not many people were literate, so people couldn’t understand Roman past, but Jeruselam had greater awareness then.

 

Theme  1300-1700 boyar period

 

1547: How is power distributed in Muscovy.

etymology: boy-fight, and wealthy.

Kiev some boyar were not military leaders, but only wealthy landholding, But in Moscow different, they were cavalrymen, wealthy landowners and military leaders.

 

Novgorod, Prince lived outside of town, so boyars had a different relationship. In Moscow, the boyars and Prince live together.
 

Boyar clans kept close records of their genealogy, to keep their claim on wealth.

By 15gth century there were 100 of Riurik branches, so house of Moscow was only one of those decedents form Rurik.

 

Codes are written down for boyars, but was it written down and shown to everyone, no. In sources they are there that is how we know. A prince could defect in Kiev and Novgorod, if they had an army, but in Moscow you cannot defect, but unite, must be a team. This is the code of laws. The boyars are his slaves, and must submit.

 

How can we rectify the boyars and Ruler’s authority. How to rectify that the ruler rules by God’s authority, but in reality, the ruler listens and rules in joint decision-making with the boyars.

 

Important in the Rise in Moscow

Primogeniture:   FIRST BY ACCIDENT THEN BY DESIGN.

  1. Rise of Muscovy, first by accident then by design, Primogeniture,

  2. Daniovhich line begins Moscow?????.

  3. Prince dies, this is the accident, and it happens a few times, then the boyar and prices decide to make primogeniture the law for the grand prince.

  4. ( Show strengths and weakness)

  5. (ANSWER)Creates a predictability in succession, in the marriage crises everyone knows who the marriage target is. The women want to marry their daughters to the first in line, the eldest son of the Grand Prince.

  6. Does one person rule alone? Do people share his ideals or does he execute his ideals alone? In Moscow,

  7. RURIK CLANS WERE THE PRINCES, AND BY 16TH CENTURY THERE WERE 1000S OF THEM.

  8. Lateral succession, or primogeniture: 16th problems.

  9. Three instances, THREE INSTANCES.

#1) 1450: mid15th Vasilli, Basil I, leaves behind 10 year-old son, younger brother Yuri, was a robust adult, he could have been GP if lateral succession was revived. If Yuri comes in he would have booted the old boyars out, so the boyars in say we keep the ten-year old son and the power. The blinded, Vasilli young prince get blind, and so bindings to destroys harmony.

One gut ruled while blind, showing how the boyars ruled the government.

 

Taboo, do people get second chances. The guy rewarded for blinding the grand prince with lands.

 

Divorced, must become a nun, once a nun the marriage is nullified. This was ecclesiastical law.

 

Glinski clan, 14th century trace back their origins to the Tartar Khan, and has tartar roots, and one of the new princely clans in Russia. So this is news.

#2) 1515. Women

 

#3 1530 – Ivan IV divorced, has many unvles who wanted to take the throne.

 

I.  Review of ideology:  all-powerful tsar, but also comradely

            use of ritual and symbolism for political message

            note:  3rd Rome idea was not significant at the time

            Illuminated Chronicle of 1560s (Litsevoi svod):  10 vols., 20,000 pages, 16,000 ills.

 

II.  The boyars and the Muscovite political system

            "boyar" = warrior (boi, fight) and probably wealthy (bogatyi)

            Moscow boyars:  fourteenth‑century origins, reign of Gr. Pr. Dmitrii Donskoi

            warrior origins and ethos: a "face to face" elite

            primogeniture and the opportunity for boyar power

            hereditary succession

            grand-princely "marriage politics" and the hierarchy of boyars

            rewards

           

            examples that show how the political elite formulated and maintained its role

 

            #1  the dynastic war of the mid-15th century -- victory of primogeniture in the royal  family

                        Gr. Pr. Vasilii I dies 1425; 10-year-old son, Vasilii II succeeds

                        Pr. Iurii, brother of Vasilii I, contests succession

                        Vasilii II's mother = daughter of Vytautas, Gr. Pr. of Lithuania

                        Iurii dies 1435, but opposition continues by his two sons, Vasilii the Squint-Eyed

                                    and Dmitrii Shemiaka (the Unjust)

                        1436, Vasilii the Squint-Eyed blinded

                        1445, Dmitrii Shemiaka captures Gr. Pr. Vasilii II and blinds him

                        1447, Vasilii II re-takes the kremlin

 

            #2  the divorce of Gr. Pr. Vasilii III -- there must be a male heir

                        1505-1525, Vasilii III married to Solomoniia Saburova, who is forced to take  tonsure in 1525

                        1526, Vasilii III marries Princess Elena Glinskaia of Lithuania ( Princess, a political marriage.)

                        1530, son and heir born, Ivan (IV, the Terrible)

 

            #3  Ivan IV's minority, 1530s-40s

                        1533, Vasilii III, Ivan's father, dies; mother, Elena Glinskaia, regent

                        1538, Elena Glinskaia dies

                        boyar clans struggle for position -- esp. the Shuskie and Bel'skie clans

                        1547, Ivan crowned Tsar, married to Anastasiia Romanova ( She is not from a prominent clan, but a boyar clan, so this is why to stop the bloodshed,

                        reconciliation:  # of boyar clans increased, even losers rewarded

 

  1. Collaborating with Lithuania, was Ivan’s mother, so 1538 Ivan’s mother dies, and all hell brakes loose, and before 1548 all factions in honorific posts in equality. Problem who is closest to the ruler, of the clan. The game of political hardball and the bodies fall in the Kremlin, so blind before, now killing – but never the grand prince is killed.

  2. One family seems to gain power, metropolitan intercedes, gets some men out of jail, and annual shits each 1538-47, back and forth, and in 1547 back-room arm twisting come to and end of the blood killing, and Ivan IV is 17 years old and ready to marry.

  3. Marry him to one of the warring factions, Anastasiia Romanova. Not marrid to one of the two big clans, so this is seen as a blow. But everyone plays honorable roles in the marriage ceremony. Ivan rewards boyar rank from 25 to 50 increasing the number.

  4. Marriage to cement power – like B Movie plot #1. The Boyar lost some heads and killed. Stopped when Ivan is marriage age, and it was a political act.

  5. No longer allowed to leave the service of the grand prince, see Novgorod reference, and thus then now they are given land for their service. It is cohesive and small conscious elite. A club of power brokers, they were the cavalry warrior leaders, and over time came political administrators, not the warring types ( much later – still under Ivan  IV boyars had to go  to war, under the service obligation, you can enjoy the land because they go to war, “I’m servivng so I get land”). Over time this is blurred, some do not go to war, they were political elites.

  6. In general, Ruler pick a boyar clan  Based upon friendship chosen.

  7. If Tartars convert, they are welcome into the Muscovite system. Many examples.

  8. Who comes in from the outside? Tartars, people with international connections that were some how conquered;  must refresh the political elite, it small, many die off possibly in war, so must adopt new ones.

  9. Inner court, 5-8 in the inner circles, and some clans get jobs to do outside the inner circles. But being close to the eyes of the ruler was the number one cause of a boyar.

  10. Glinskiaia Princess of Lithuania, a political marriage.

  11. In 17th century, 100 of boyar clans and this lead to weakness, to many decision makers. This led to the policy of Peter the Great.

  12. Until Peter I the Great, no precedence for women holding the Russian throne, until his wife.

 

A System Behind the Bureaucracy

Who are the Boyars.

  1. So Boyars, make foreign policy, the collective, they fight the wars so it’s a collective government, and the Ruler is symbolic, a contradiction in power.  

  2. Boyars continue to practice collateral inheritance.

  3. Izgoi: principle, you are tossed out of the Boyars if your father was not a boyar. It helped with simplicity in a complex system.

  4. Conflict with boyar elite, the outsiders coming in

  5. The conflicts of the marriages

  6. Then with Glinskaia they finally reach out of themselves to the outside to include ‘others’

  7. Concentric circles, the #1 boyar clan has a wedge inside the inner circles, 3 clans in inner probably 4-5 five on the second circle.

  8. Do your darndest to get power by marriages. Have good looking babies.

  9. No way to move up by being a military person in the boyars, so not like the western middle age system.

  10. Never becamne a boyar on merit, but by the accident of your birth. But the timing you becoming the boyar may be by how powerful you were in military  - only when being picked, but cannot be eligible unless in heritable line of Riurik.

  11. Boyars were the ones that wanted autocratic rule, a façade of autocracy, not a false , but a collective autocracy, Where sometimes a boyar is the one that makes life-changing foreign policy.

  12. To be within the bright eyes of the tsar, ( you are in power baby)

  13. Political culture had written rules for behavior , but also unwritten rules of behavior, so they could  reserve by not letting everyone know.

  14. They were the Rock-n-Roll Stars. They were the stars of their age.

  15. Unwritten rule, no killing because it becomes an endless chain of feuding. ( feudal) So avoid capital punishment, like blind, tonsure, and exile. Another way mercy, forgiveness. Victors not punishing rivals, only to have hostilities break-out in a few weeks.

  16. Limited violence by a complicated system was the military field position, by position in the army was by your families role in historic battles.

  17. Muscovy Judicalship – How to Deal with Criminals – Public Humiliation like the Puritans

  18. Elaborate riturals to humiliate the losers the criminals, then reintegrate them into the sytem. Do not abandon them.

 

  

III. The "system" of court politics

            basis of boyar power:  military background, landed wealth, traditional clan positions

            closed elite? -- no

            small elite:  10-15 families in 15th c.; in 1547 # of boyar clans increased from 24 to 46

            not hierarchical or pyramidal structure with tsar at top:  rather, circles of power

                        around the tsar, who is the focal point of power

            little bureaucratic structure; personal politics

            mechanisms for continuity include primogeniture in the royal family (Daniilovichi,  descendants of Moscow Pr. Daniil, early 14th-c. ruler; Moscow Daniilovichi =

                        one branch of the princely Riurikovichi, descendants of 9th-c. Riurik)

                       

 

Sociological, how did government get powerful? Pre-modern, face-to-face government, so this is a buddy-buddy government. These were pre-modern rulers need to cultivate supporters, they cannot rule alone by law. ( I think this applies today as well) Basis of Muscovite boyar power, they were not English nobility, they were a fairly young elite, a 14th century prince origins. There power was not regional with land like the European nobles, they were hereditary and clans that had histories saying that they were in this war or that war, or histories. Claimed to power was charismatic – this is important. Each boyar is wealthy, he enjoys gifts from the peasants.

 

     means of avoiding conflict: unwritten rules of boyar behavior

            reciprocal and limited violence:  thou shalt not kill (usually)

            reconciliation

            mestnichestvo (lit., "place system")

            "facade of autocracy":  boyars unite behind the power of the tsar

            taboos as sources of stability -- e.g., avoid conflict, do not interfere with primogeniture

                        in the royal family

            ideological justifications:  Dmitrii Donskoi's Testament, other testaments, law codes

 

IV.  Concluding observations

            was this a "good" political system?  (good or bad, like the Soviet system, it worked)

            did the boyars constitute an "aristocracy" or a "nobility"? -- nobility no, aristocracy yes

 

 

 Recommended bibliography:

            Anthony Giddens. A Contemporary Critique of Historical Materialism. 1. Power, Property and the State (Berkeley, 1981) and The Nation-State and Violence. Volume Two  (Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1987).

            Edward L. Keenan, "Royal Russian Behavior, Style and Self‑Image," in Edward Allworth, ed., Ethnic Russia in the USSR. The Dilemma of Dominance (l980), pp. 3‑16. 

            Edward L. Keenan, "Muscovite Political Folkways," Russian Review 45, no. 3

            Nancy S. Kollmann, "Ritual and Social Drama at the Muscovite Court," Slavic Review 45, no. 3 (Fall, l986).

            Nancy S. Kollmann, Kinship and Politics: The Making of the Muscovite  Political System, 1345‑1547 (l987).

            Nancy S. Kollmann, "Pilgrimage, Procession, and Symbolic Space in Sixteenth-Century Russian Politics." In Flier and Rowland, eds., Medieval Russian Culture (Los Angeles, 1994), 163-81.

            Michael Mann, The Sources of Social Power. Vol. 1: A History of Power from the Beginning to AD 1760 (Cambridge, 1986).

            Daniel Rowland, "The Problem of Advice in Muscovite Tales of the Time of Troubles," Russian History 6, pt. 2 (1979): 259-83.

            Daniel Rowland, "Did Muscovite Literary Ideology Place Limits on the Power of the Tsar? (1540s-1660s)," Russian Review 49, no. 2 (1990): 125-55.

 

 

 

 

 

Oprich ( paritble inheritance to one section to wife)

 

Nature of the Tartar rule in Russia.

  1. impact on Mongol Russia, Kollman doesn’t argue there was no impact, but it was relatively small. When does a Russia Bishop, ever meet a Mongol Tartar, but Halperin says the Church bookman knew sooo much about Mongols, this is argument, the argument of “silence of the Bookman” is hard to solve, it is hard to prove. So first, need to understand, did the two come into contact. Halprin argues that Bookmen knew the most about the Tartars – how so? Halperin, the Church’s influence in the request was tainted by the bookmen.

  2. Borrowing their prestige by naming your son with a Mongol name, but this was not wildly. To paint a picture you were descended from this powerful was a fad in Russia up until the 17th century.

  3. Careful to say about Russian being influenced by the Russians the or the Russians influence on the Tartar and Mongols.

  4. Russia and the Golden Horde , relationship with Rus’.

  5. Trubetzkov ( A romanticized view, not liked by Kollman, tries to eat and have his cake), prince in imperial Russia ( after the Revolution), he wrote in exile, part of the Eurasian school of thought as Raisnaovsky. He is our leading representative in our readings. What is the Russian heritage. It is Eurasia, not typical Europe, so this represents traditional Russia in a broad sense.

  6. National revival” there was no nations – so he used this as a Russian national pride, as his terminology.

  7. Raisnaovsky; Tartar Toke exaggerated, Kulikov battle, Raisnaovsky doesn’t mention that Tartars were on both sides. 

  8. Trubetzkov: Ghenggiss a spirit of unity, a romantic, it was a irresistible model, and Russian national thought (13-14) too immature to argue.

  9. Was not the Mongol barbarity that introduced it into Russia, it was part of the times. Rise of Moscow is from the Tartar Yoke a direct opinion of Trubetzkov, not a reality – because we do not know.

  10. Golden Horde, Serai was an exception, it was a settled ‘state’, but Mongols didn’t have a state.  

  11. Mongol Tartar ‘Yoke’

  12. Halperin: Bookman, the writers of that time, were mostly churchman, wanted ‘ to keep silence’ which made the ignore the benefits of the Mongols. Book on purpose mis-represented on purpose, are deliberately held information  - this is hard to prove. It was hard to believe.

  13. Poruka was in Kievan times, so Halperin wrong that it was increases with the influence of Mongols.  

  14. Isolating elite women, never came from Mongols, the Greeks isolated women in commoners, and so why do the people do this? Seclusion of Muscovite women, intermarriage in the political elite is key increasing a man’s power; women are pawns in a chess game.

  15. Khan may have a harem, of political wives, and Islam says 4 wives.

 

Rise of Muscovy

1) Shrewd grand princes, the luck, the giving of patrimonial estates, and intermarriages, the gathering land, proving Ivan “Money bags”

2) Also practiced primogeniture, first by accident of coincident ( princely families) then by design. Title passes and all of the property goes to the eldest son. This was shrewd business tactics. The blinding, the fights, all protest for this.

3) Location: geography.

4) Ecclesiastical center

5) Do not forget the political elite.

6) shift of trade, fur up north, Moscow up north/central, more into the forest.

7) shift of population is a bit difficult to quantify and pin-down.

8) Shift of political power central from Kiev to Moscow area, but doesn’t mean that people took that rout. Moscow is quick to claim it was the cultural inheritor of Kiev.

9) 1238 Kiev was temporary wiped out but doesn’t mean migration.

10) Slash-burn, there is always some deserted land in Russia at any given time. Populations moved.

 

  1. Peter Metropolitan fortunately died in Moscow, and so they kept the Metropolitan there.

  2. Peasants were never paid anything; they were the ones that paid, the grand princes. Right after Peter dies, an immediate claim to have the see represent Moscow. Church was a landlord, many peasants living on church land. Increasingly the Church is wealthy landowner. Church has some amount of power and in Moscow, and….

  3. Conquests of Novgorod: Issue, Patrimony; Ivan III I have always owned Novgorod, it was my ancestors, which was never the case.

  4. Rather frustrating in 15th is chronicles of court cases over land, and that many documents are refereed too as having been destroyed, so that we know that a lot of material about history has been lost.

  5. Traditional patrimony of service of estates for a part of land to go to the widow allowed by the princes. Oprich (Partible Inheritance), comes from a ‘widow’s mite.’

  6. Why was Kiev totally destroyed and not saved as the Mongols needed a people to have as a tax base. When they first came in they didn’t know how powerful the peoples of Kievan Rus’ were so they killed as many as they could, not knowing the populations.

 

Discussion

 

Reinterpreting Russian History: Readings, 860-1860s. ed. Daniel H. Kiaser  Gary Marker (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994).

 

 

87-90) Northeast Rus’: The Second Testament of Moscow Grand Prince Dmitrii Donskoi (1389) Last will, came to throne as boy, 1359, Metropolitan Aleksie (1354-78) protected him, grew into a able and wily prince, most famous for 1380 headed Moscow force at Kulikovo Field near the river Don ( here he derived his name Donskoi) fighting the Mongols to a draw, and promising the eventual overthrow of the hated conquerors. He “conceive idea of Patrimony’ (87)(see Ivan III Novgorod conquest): Idea of Patrimony changed Russian history, no?  Partible Inheritance (Common to slavs): Lateral succession practice, seen as negative for splitting lands, eventually no land to an heir: so what did they do?  Dmitrii tried to bequeath a larger portion to one of his eldest son; disputes often, and a legacy awarded The Grand Prince’s  widow as a means to appreciate  the role of gender in Moscow. 90-99)Annexation of Novgorod, according to Moscow Chronicle (1477-8), Hist. Novgorod placed limitations of Princes, when Ivan III calls for incorporation of his patrimony, Novgorodians instantly ask for traditional Novg. Privileges: Did they believe it was their ‘right’ to ask?  N. Opposition, war II’men (march), accusations by Moscow of ‘some’-  alliances with Kasimir, K. of  Poland & G.P. of Lithuania: How much meddling in Novgorodian politics did the G.P. of Lithuania do?  Stipulations of Moscow, no veche, negotiations, ½ down to10 monasteries, hereditary land Novotorzho: Where was this land? GP Ivan, gives little, finally boyars, Jr. Boyars, Burghers petition GP for inclusion, granted, Muscovite gov installed: Did they see no way out of Moscow’s persistence?  Veche Bell to Moscow: Was this for an ornament of conquest, or a tribute to heritage? 99-101)Novgorod Chronicle, Christian God employed tartar to punish Rus’. Infighting, cause, Novgorod princes’ not following advice of G.P Iaroslav, created dis-unity: Did this Chronicle also leave out the Poland-Lithuanian influence  in Novgorod discord?  Kazan, De. 21, 1238, taken Pereiaslavl, Iurer, Dmitrov, Volok, Volodmir, Rizan, Torzhok, on road Seregeri - stopped 66 miles east of Novgorod: was this because the spring snow thaw-out ( i.e. marshes) , the Mongols called it off?  101-2) Immunity Charter for Catholic Church, reason Mongol needed pop: Did Mongols so this for toleration of other religions? Or for economic and judicial so can collect taxes ( Mongol theme, don’t destroy all the people)? 102-3) Birth of Autocracy, Sergei Patonov: argued apologists of the G.P. imbued him with divine authority which gave the Muscovite tsars almost messianic right to absolute rule; G.P. begin to believe all Russian land is his personal property: This is tied into the concept of Patrimony?; Rise of Ottomans, thusly, Russia last Orthodox state in the world. 104-07)Charles Halperin, argues much positive Mongols brought, look at history another way than the Chronicles that demonize the Mongols. Halperin, religious intolerance generated an  ideal of silence’ which refuses the genuine achievements of the conquerors: Does Halperin blame Orthodoxy?; Tartars are the Mongols in Russian sources: Were Tartars originally just one of many nomadic tribes of the steppe? ; Turkish speaking nomads called Kipchaks, 14th cent. Shamanist Mongols convert to Islam: Riasnaovsky says no Mongol empire ever in Russia (History of Russia 70-1) Mongols left infrastructure alone because it was economy and polity: Why didn’t Mongols operate as civic officials? Chinngis decreed not to interfere with other religions: How much does religion play in all of this? Were they not living separately?  Halperin: Russian princes married Tartar princesses; other theme, Russians barrowed heavily from Mongols, political, military, administrative and fiscal institutions: Were they really institutions or policy? Articulated only Mongol system, not adopted Islamic (Persian diwan) Russians learned Turkish dialects to communicate. “Muscovite may even have molded their dynastic concept upon that of Chinggissids” (106): How so? Where is the evidence?  Koran kept in Kremlin: Was this symbolic or authoritative?; Mongols didn’t influence High-Culture (Christianity/Orthodox) Russians couldn’t borrow from Sarai because Islamic: Could Christianity and Islam really get along?  Thesis: Russian Chronicle had nothing positive to say about the Mongols: Should Russian have just ignored that Mongols wiped out much of their population in the initial incursion?  114-17)Muscovite law on values not judicial: Was this adopted from Islamic/Mongol tradition?  Dueling rare, but popular talk: So dueling was rare?  Ivan IV heard trial records read allowed: more proof that possibly he was illiterate? Witness testimony most widely used, usually starozhil’tsy, longtime resident of the area; dobrye liudi, good men of the area, reputable: This appears Muslim-like laws used in Ottoman law, no? They ran a similar witness system of justice.   Pagan swearing on the earth, customary until the 19th century: So how many peasants were not Christians?; Elite, ‘God Justice’,’ kiss the cross used for judicial, political-administration, religious, an oath\honesty pledge, a character judgment: this was for judgment of character?  Muscovite courts 15-16th cent. Supervised verbal contests: 117-22) Judge passive role, active role litigants: When paperwork burned in many fires due to fires, it was hard for a judge to litigate property rights, no?  Illiterate people usual believed what was read to them: Most of the population was illiterate?  Written records took second place (but sometimes taken at face-value), title-confirming charters destroyed during ‘Mongol Yoke,’ so many verbal-witness litigations. 124-26) A. M. Sakharov, presents a Marxist interpretation of economic development ( feudal is Mongol’s fault, (see Halperin for diff. analysis.)). Sakharov,’ Mongols continuous ruination created mass migration, created forest devastation, undermined peasant farming, created exploitation by feudal lords, lead to serfdom(see Halperin for diff. analysis.)). 130-1)Testament of Patriki Stroev (late15th) one of the oldest extant will to have originated form a secular hand in Moscow ( This illustrated literacy was possibly for some, probably rich who could afford books); 1470 Minstrels in Rus’ An Immunity Charter: (gusli)  a stringed instrument, accompanied minstrels: When and where did these performances take place? 137-40) A. M. Sakharov: Mongols and Cultural Change. Argues “Mongols failed to introduce any cultural innovations in their place.” However, “…cultural revival in the 14th cent. which coincided with the gradual rise of Moscow principality.” Loosely-thesis: Old culture destroyed, new culture needed to be invented: Was Moscow reinvented without remembrance of Kiev’s past?   Many books only reached us through survival form Novgorod: Was this because Mongols didn’t burn buildings full of books?  Discovery at end of 18th cent.  The Lay of the hose of Igor . D.S. Likhachev, the writing of Chronicles declined. Argues, nothing borrowed from the Mongols; ‘including social thought, literature, painting’(138). First stage, decline, impoverished culture, but Culture of Novgorod, Pskov were different, they remained connected to the west. Second stage, 1350s -1450s economic rise of Rus’, the strengthening of local government structures, upsurge of Moscow, Tver, Novgorod, Nizhnii Novgorod and Risan, large powerful economies….(139) Rise of Russian culture: Words of Praise of the Monk Foma, chronicle tale about Prince Mikhail Iaroshavich, and contrasting chronicling done in Moscow, advanced idea Moscow had been divinely chosen and that the descendants of Katila had the right to political direction of the Russian lands. (139) This period, Mongols disintegrating, now contact with Bulgarian, Serbian cultures….anticlerical “heretic” currents arose, and bold rationalist thinking… made embryonic form” D.S. Likhachev thusly called this period “Pre-Renaissance.” (1450s-1500s): Did Mongols create circumstances that Russian couldn’t join in the renaissance, or was geography always the reason they could not interact with the west? Furthermore, he argues a rise in building, ceremonies, contact to west (until Latinism), Moscow focal. Argues, Russian didn’t proceed to full renaissance status because of the detour to feudalism.

 

Halperin, Charles J., Russia and the Golden Horde: The Mongol Impact on Medieval Russian History (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1985)

General Thesis: PC. Demonized Mongols, reinterpretation, Mongols/Islam positive culture force. VIII Mongol and the Muscovite Autocracy:  1380 Allied forces/Both sides mixed, Donskoi’s victory over Mamai at Kulikovo Field; Moscow shrewder politicians. N. Karmazin, thesis: Moscow’s ascendance was the direct result of its alliance with the Horde and political and military support came with it. (88). Richard Pipes, Muscovite autocracy of the 16th cent. relied on numerous political, military, and social institutions borrowed from the now defunct Golden Horde:’ taxes, census, treasury, postal, army organization bureaucrats, language, diplomatic forms, and some aspects of criminal punishment and liability ( i.e. communal responsibility). Russians didn’t learn wickedness form Tartars. (97).  “Muscovy power was based on internal strengths, but these strengths arose from Tartar Influences.” Vernadsky ‘ The Mongols and Russia ‘ - Halperin agrees(89). Roublev argued: Mongol contributions to the rise of Moscow was administrative: What did he mean?  (89) The Mongols facilitated rather than caused the appearance of the Muscovite Autocracy which endured in one form or another , until modern time (88).  The Golden Horde fostered the resurgence of the Russian economy and subsequent growth of Russian power (86) Halperin Ch. Economy Thesis: ‘We see they [ Mongols] brought both wow and wealth and that both were inequitably distributed.’(85). Cherniavsky: coin-mint 1480+ legitimacy, dynasty succeeding another; Ivan’s name in Arabic, tsar/khan/ remain sensitive to steppe traditions of rule (100). VII Economic and demographic Consequences: Mongols shattered economy [ I thought econ. declined before they arrived?] (75) Yarliki, or patents, R.O. Church, except form taxation. Historians have almost invariably assumed that the grand princes grew rich through embezzling the tribute. This was dangerous, however, since the Tartars treated it as a capital offence. Michael Roublev, demonstrated that G.Ps  enriched themselves in a safer mode, by increasing local taxes above the Mongol 10% level, and therefore kept the proceeds for themselves. Mongols didn’t care as long as they received their 10%. This tax system, was argued, remained in affect after ‘Mongol Yoke’ disappeared (78). XI Mongol impact on different social levels, peasants did not understand Christianity, only jobs as slaves, or forced labor? Contra. The increase in wealth and influence on RO Church under Tartar aegis and accompany spread of Christianity in rural Russia must also have affected peasant life (60) Peasants 13th century, still largely pagans. “Russian Orthodoxy screened out Mongol Influences from Russian society, so that the forced social accommodation of the upper classes left no permanent effects” (107) another school of thought, Russians never lost sight of eventual liberation, Russian folk-epics (byliny), Halperin, problem with this, bookmen knew the names of the Mongols, aristocrats more familiar with higher-levels of Mongol presence-bookmen misinterpreted them (Demonized them)  (105-6) “friendly cooperative interactions”, Halperin (118) Halperin quoting Horace W. Dewey ,”Kingship and Poruka before Peter the Great” “ The practice of Poruka, collective responsibility for the behavior of members of a sworn group, became more common in Russia during the Mongol period, perhaps because the Mongols used the idea of collective responsibility widely”. (93) veche. Continued under Mongols, didn’t seem to be a  threat. (contra.) Tartars punished the veche uprisings in Rostov in 1289 and Nizhii Novgorod in 1305 and the 1327 Tver’ rebellion (96). When veche in general fell it was not the  deliberate policies of the Tartars (See Karamzin opp. interp.  95). Cherniasvsky, veche declined because princely administration made the boyar duma more efficient. (foot 17 p. 96) Mongol economy: “ Perhaps the most difficult question is whether the Russian recovery took place in spite of the Mongols or because of them?” Tartar sponsorship trade had a positive effect.(85) Kabala [Arabic language] (Bondage/debt-slavery) (Kabal’noe kholopstvo) People sold themselves into bond-service to pay-off debts. Absolute rule didn’t come from the Mongols (95). Russian compelled to learn Turkish/Mongol (117) Ulozhenie (law code) of 1649 imposed serfdom after Russian foreign policy had refocused upon the west, Halperin[Not Mongols fault] (117) Quote: Roublev, Ch. 5  The New Order Subverted: The Muscovite Baskaki, in “The Scourge of God” : Mongols influenced Russian administration, “Muscovite power was based on internal strengths, but these strengths arose form Tartar influence.” (89)

 

'Moscow – Second Constantinople, Third Rome or Second Kiev? trans., ed., J.A.V. Haney (Canadian Slavic Studies, III no.2., Fall 1968) General Thesis: “Thus both external and internal forces compelled the Muscovite rulers to justify their claims to rule all of Russia” : Can we use external influences in our writings on the reasons for the rise of Moscow or do we just focus on internal changes within Russian ideology? Metropolitan Zosima, Exposition of Paskhalia not adopted but reviewed. New theory in 1510 by monk Filofei appealed to the secular interests of the G.Ps. This new arrangement was chosen and the Third-Rome was not. It appealed to the secular interests of the Grand Princes. The tale … Valdimir Monomakh …provided irrefutable … crowning of the grand princes (357) The evidence of the Tsar title was now at hand. Skazanie can be divided into three parts: the genealogy of Muscovite grand princes, the story of the transfer of the imperial insignia from Constantinople to Kiev, and the excommunication of the Latin Church ( The fourth part of Lithuanian Princes left-out). Spirirdon’s Poslanie and the Skazanie were placed into the public realm: How much weight in the princely circles did these texts have an influence? Did the peasants realize the significance of these writings or did they even know about them?

 

The Legend of Genghis Khan, N.S. Trubetzkov, from Major Problems in the History of Imperial Russia, Russia and Europe. Thesis: The political unification of Russia under the power of Moscow was a direct result of Tartar Yoke: Was this because of the policies of “ Gatherers of the Russian Land” by the prices’ or was it solely on Religious context? (26) Trubetzkov argues “They became genuine rulers of a state only when they abandoned the "gathering of Russian land" for the "gathering of Tatar land:" During the gathering of lands were the Russian co-rulers with the Mongols, or were they still subjugated or a mix? (T28) Sergius of Radonezh, founder of the [Trinity St. Sergius] Monastery, the principle center of the religious revival during the Tartar rule (26) “The assimilation of the techniques of the Mongolian state system and of the Tartar life style proceeded at an especially rapid pace in Moscow:” (26) What was the Mongol state system? Was there even an Empire, or just overlordship? Riasnaovsky sees only overlordship, not Mongol empire. Trubetzkov sees a Chinggis Khan vision of Empire that only with the later conversion of Tartars to Christianity this vision came about through Russian autocracy. Tartars converted to Orthodoxy. Was this a vision of Chinggis Khan’s vision of reputable nobles: did they contribute the formation of the Muscovy state? (T29)

Riasanovsky, Nicholas V. & Mark D. Steinberg, History of Russia, vol. I. ed. 7th, (Oxford: Oxford Unity Press, 2005).Mongols were not an Empire, no dynasty in Russia, relatively unstable and short-lived. (R70) He references “Kubli Khan built Peking and in 1280 he completed the of southern China, but in 1368 the Mongol dynasty was driven out of China; the Mongol dynasty in Persia lasted only from 1256 to 1344; and the Mongol Central Asiatic State with its capital in Bukhara existed from 1232 until its destruction by Tamerlane in 1370.” (70): Riasnaovsky fails to cite the Mūghals (Mongols) who dominated South Asia (most of India and Bangladesh) well into the 17th century as subsisted as a legitimate Empire & dynasty. Riasnaovsky argues that the Eurasian school, all numerous and varied, believe that Muscovy was a direct result of the Mongols transforming a weak and divided appanage Russia into a powerful, disciplined, and monolithic autocracy (R69): Did Mongol internal schisms indicate a need for funds which they traded for certain privileges with Russian princes, leading to ‘a gathering of lands’ by economic conquest, instead of war?  Church with its tremendous landholdings played a key economic role in appanage system: How did wooden architecture and icon painting reflect high achievements when former artistry declined in many activities? How did this symbolize the celebrated dispute that pitted the “possessors” against the “non-possessors”.  How did the Church rectify its position, when the secular position of the grand prince whose aim was economic and the church at times stressed some adherents to live poor? Ivan Kalita, ransomed prisoners from the Mongols, purchase appanages from bankrupted princes, made political alliances, and won the right for tax collection from the khan of other princes:  Was Kalita spurred on by his religious convictions, or a pre-patriot sentiment? (91) Kalita also took measures to move the religious center to Moscow: How did this affect trade? Was the role of trade in appanage Russia difficult to determine?  Simeon began to reference himself as grand prince of “all of Russia.” (R91) Scholar judgments of appanage (R104): Did Muscovite princes by skillful aggression ‘gather lands’ from Russians and various non-Russians?  Or was it only against outside aggressors? Pavlov-Silvansky’s three traits feudalism argument is too controversial, because feudalism has never been clearly defined in a general world context. Not all feudal systems had variables like the pomestie, because if so they were linked to a concept of a votchina already, granted inherited land, not separate concepts. Riasnaovsky, vassals of vassals: rudimentary stage of feudalism.  Pavlov-Silvansky’s opponents: Russian landlords acquired their estates through inheritance: contra. other sources.  Was this before Ivan IV changed land to compensation for services in the Oprichnina? Was this policy intact at anytime prior? (R106-8) Klet or srub: processes for church, followed Byzantine cannon outlines, and peasant buildings. Stone structures in decline during appanage period (R118). Tent churches, Literature, Wanderings beyond the three sees: Tver Merchant’s journey to the east, including India 1446-1472, before da Gama; other literature of journeymen. (R116) 1474,Ivan III sent agents to Venice to ascertain Italian architects:  How did he lure them? 16th century stone structures begin to appear again. Suzdal, first icon school, c. 1290s, flourished in the 14th merged into the Moscow school in the 15th century: icons were of vital importance in Russia. Kievan was urban, no longer after Mongol, therefore, education was in eclipse (122): Were basic literary skills such as deed composition or trade notes, a skill that survived even during the Mongol period?  Mindovg (r. 1240-63), accepted Christianity, Pope Innocent recognized him, later Roman Church severed relationship. Gediminas, son brother of Viten, united tribes in Lithuania: founder of state.(125) Russian became official language, adopted Kievan culture: Was this really a Russian-Lithuanian state? Moscow: Later rivalry between Lithuania who believed it was the inheritor of the Kievan state. Lithuania rises,  (late 14th- early 15th)  and consolidates with incorporation of Moldavia, Wallachia, and Bessarabia: How did Roman Catholicism payout in the Moscow/Lithuania drama when it came to Lithuania from Poland? Jagiello’s marriage (r. 1377-1434, married Queen Jadwiga): marked the beginning of Polanizaton of Lithuania.(126): How did the united force create problems for Moscow princes?  Did Poland-Lithuania try to make an effort to incorporate Novgorod, which became a concerted policy of Ivan III to frame it as his patrimony, in essence understanding the nature of political and economic circumstances if it fell into their hands? Or was this not a concern and Novgorod was safe from foreign economic entanglement? Did the dynastic agreement of Krewo concern Vasillii I at that time? Over time the principality of Lithuania moved away from Kievan successorship into the realm of its own princedom (1569 Union of Lubin): Did this create a dual monarchy of Poland — Lithuania into a unitary kingdom? (127).

 

 

QUESTIONS:

 

1       1) Cherniavsky:  points out that coin-minting from 1480 onwards represented legitimacy, dynasty succeeding another; Ivan’s name is in Arabic (on one side), tsar/khan/ - was this to remain sensitive to steppe traditions of rule?

 

2) How was a dobrye liudi chosen? Could he be a prince, or a peasant? Did it matter? What qualified them?

 

3) Spirirdon’s Poslanie and the Skazanie were placed into the public realm: How much weight in the princely circles did these texts have an influence? (J.A.V. Haney)

 

Boyars 250 Years of Russian Power

 

 

Raisanovsky, see index on Feudalism, and how he addresses it.

 

Women: broad anthropological look across cultures and society. “ The seclusion of Elite Muscovite Women” hand out.

 

 

Proposed essay topics: Any favorite suggestions e-mail.

 

Stovglov (1551) “ Means, ‘ one hundred chapters’ is attributed to Ivan IV himself, but he had a speech writer.

 Deti Boiarskie “ kids of the boyars, but it came to mean lesser rank or “middle level servicemen” – they were frequently the children of boyar clans.

 

Marriage is politics and politics is marriage in this period of Russian history. Concept of the elite of the inner circles of power with the tsar or grand prince in the middle with wedges of inner boyar circles, then the next circles, all literally interrelated, linking marriage patterns, everyone trying to marry into the inner circles. Everyone is trying to jocking for position into the positions of power, i.e. the inner circle.

 

First Rule: Ceremonial positions.

 

Many unwritten rules, this was a political system where these political families were on top. The boyars were the highest political positions in the land, and in times of war they were the generals.

 

The position of women as marriage pawns, because marriage is so important in this male dominated society, so you want to guarantee your pureness in a line of heritage, where ‘clan purity’ has to be preserved, like pedigree for pure breed dogs.

 

Ceremonies, where people sit, all the little things in a ceremony – all the clans have little things to do – a role to play, so they all come together in harmony, to show they had the power in the land. After the women has passed the child bearing years, she can venture out and be free, she is not in harms way of having bastard children, she can much power and freedom.

 

Second Rule: Do not kill. Only in Ivan IV, is the exception to Russian hist. Mercy, the losers are recompensed with another marriage or land. Compensation of losers was a rule, and Ivan IV it happens. So everyone gets rewards even when they killed during Ivan’s rule, after they killed each other, this was mercy rule and a forgiveness.

 

Next, court lawsuits were very strong problem, where they took place all the time, usually in positions on the field. This led to clans in the 16th century keep extensive genealogy books, some going back far and being fictional, then everyone’s books become part of the evidence in the litigations; if the litigants refuse to listen to the court’s rule, they do not except the game, they are publicly humiliated in public, or they can leave Russia.  Publicly a man or person can shout out he forgiveness for his wrong claims, then  so he can also curse the man and not get in trouble, and is very interesting, so some amount of right is recognized for both sides.

 

Grand Prince, is feared and respected and so his representatives are feared and respected. Is a mafia like system, the grand prince is a godfather, but its not like they are a bunch of crooks, but centralizing around the locus of power. So the representatives have power invested by the grand prince. Boyars serve an idea that the grand prince has a ‘right’ a duty’ to be there, this way they kept power but only have to revere the grand prince. The grand prince is the locus of power that the boyars rally around, that is why baby Ivan IV was not killed but bodies dropped all around the Kremlin. Ivan could have been killed at any time, but the power of the central figure is where the boyars get all their power from. So cannot destroy the very mechanism that gives one power.

 

There were murders of the leaders, but we are speaking in the 15th - 16th century. The tsar autocratic power gives the boyars strength, and protected the boyars own ambitions, and the primogenitor problems the weak minded son dies in 1598 and there is no male left, no dynasty and political system was not prepared to handled, and they elected a tsar then the time of troubles, and then all hell breaks-out. 1616, the boyars had to come back together, a strong conservative restoration of the 16th century system in the 17th century. But later the foreign armies came in with modernized forces made the Russian realize they needed to modernize, and so reform, innovations and technical borrowing form the west.  

 

Donskoi’s will in our readings is the ideal of a grand prince, and how does this contrast with Ivan’s last will and testament. What do the contrasts predict or say.

 

1515 law code, that the boyar should be involved in new laws with the grand prince, but consensus politics, but in reality they boyars are there to advise the tsar, not to make a consensus on policy. They are sometimes criticized for not giving good advise to the tsar. Harshly criticize a boyar that was not hanging arund the Kremlin, but is off taking vacations, because the boyar is not there to give the advice to the tsar, and small rooms, the anti-room is small room fit into one room and they did so almost daily unless they were out on campaign. Its called the inner circle of policy making where in the name of the tsar is the law published, but it was the council of the boyars that went into making the consensus on the decision with the boyars in the little room where Russia was governed. 25x12 foot room or so about was the room where Russia was governed from on a daily basis.

 

It was a fairly stable system, except when the grand prince is just a kid, because who ever is in the inner circle has to control things and this where problems come in to this system. When the tsar gets to the age of ruling, usually around 17 years-old things ran rather smoothly.

 

Official boyars, the eldest of the clan of boyars, but doesn’t’  mean you get selected into the system of the circles.

No meritocracy or social upward mobility. But a systematic way that worked for over 2 and ½ centuries.

 

Pre-Modern Government.

Aristocracy: No such things as Nobles ruling Russia, but there were nobles,

 

 

More an aristocracy, then a noble. Because nobility was a particular class in Europe with rights and privileges, that westerners guaranteed rights too, an institutional forms such as House of Parliament, not House of Lords, no Magna Carta, no corporate identification, not a corporate estate and privileges, but identified with clans, families and friends, and are content with this personal face-to-face , to be ‘ within the bright-eyes of the grand prince’ then they were happy, this was power the locus of power.

 

INVENTED IZBRANNAIA RADA – polish term, invented word by Kurbsky.

Chosen Council, of the Boyars, this is an invention, invented by Andrei Kurbsky. Histories made a big deal, ‘ heah, look this is evidence of a politburo, this was not, it was made up. This was like Charlemagne’s government.

 

Boyars had great wealth, and had to bow-down and prostrate head on the ground, but they didn’t care they had the power, and if you are serving the godfather, and no civil war and you are getting your income you do not ask the godfather to put it into writing. So there really was no needed for record keeping. However, after the printer, secretaries did show up in the history, but this didn’t mean a institution of record keeping.

 

To be in the presence of the grand prince was usually only the boyars, and only on occasion did monks and others get to have close proximity with the tsar. So power was to be close to the tsar. This doesn’t mean the tsar didn’t make public outings to show the pubic he was alive and concerned with them, this just meant a private audience with the tsar was rare to a commoner. But anyone could in theory could petition the tsar if anyone had a grievance.

 

Why didn’t a wealthy independent middle class didn’t arise? The boyars didn’t let it happen, so only a few families were middle classmen that the boyars let be wealthy, some more in the 17th century. This political elite was not a nobility, this tells us why Russia and Europe develop on a different lines in history. This is not complaint to why it worked out this way, it was the way it was, it should not be a lament, that beats the past, but this elite gave Russia cohesiveness, all of this added great power and stability to the end of the 17th century. Only a few bumps along the way.

 

General Façade:  He could act like a severing if he chose too. Impenetrable façade of autocracy, it was very real, the guy on the throne had the real power, but we must remember that friendship was a key factor in this government, not the faceless, bureaucratic corporate notion of the western ways that developed in the west with intellectual thoughts and philosophies.

 

Why problems: it was the government wasn’t it? The Times of Troubles, comes from peasants, and suppressed nationalities or foreign armies, the Poles and Swedes easily defeat the Muscovite army.

 

Summery it was a consensus politics, personal face-to-face politics with intermarriage as the key to retaining power, and under outside influence under Poland and Lithuania will eventually change the power in Russia  - how they think about it and how they rationalize it.

 

Historiography: Marxist theory screwed up how people see the world. Everyone from Marx’s perspective is class struggle, and not personal relationships. It is the perspective on how one looks at the system. So historians made up bad interpretations by placing Marx’s universal theory onto a very personal thing of one region, therefore, they had to make things up to make Marx relative to the Russian historical argument. They forced into history instead of what was seen and observed from the sources.

 

1462-1584 ( Three unique powerful figures, grand princes): How was rule administered? Coercion, reward, ideology

 

  1. Standing army, more taxes, patrimony, …..

  2. Foreign visitors say a lot of violence, but they are writing for their hometowns. But the west has a lot of war and barbarianism too. So there was no difference. There were times of radical times of barbarianism, be it government, of tribes or foreign powers.

  3. Death penalty, for repeat offenders in 16th century, but in 17th it was more used and applied to foreigners. More punishments of whips

  4. Women who were convicted of killing their husbands were buried alive; this was on radical death penalty. But not for men who killed their wives. This was a radical example. But usually capital punishment was not administered, usually many outlets were considered before the ultimate conviction. So again usually repeat offenders of serious crimes.

  5. Laws of punishments: what did they do to help government, especially the small government? This helped the courts and helped people enforce themselves and,

  6. Communism: So the communes, was ruled by male elder members and lets appoint tax officials and lets make them be the court-represented. Some said this was a weakening of central authority, this was not the punishments were ordered as a system by the central government, so this was not decentralization, by having the communes rule themselves, it was how it was done.

  7. 1930s, the memory of the terror kept people in line, like the do not talk to foreigners they are spies, memories of having family members disappear, so the fear kept them in line.

  8. The cadastral surveys begin to help pin-down the population to begin later on to serfdom later on in eastern places, as the west were coming out of serfdom, up till 1861 emancipation.

  9. Middle-16th pre-institutions did arrive onto the scene, scribes, secretaries, different chancelleries, but these were premature when looking from a western view point.

  10. All peasants are made liable for taxes, except for the free peasants living on crown land. Purceedure, court books, and had versions of texts for reference.

  11. Boyars have jurisdiction over high crimes. What are HIGH CRIMES? : murder, brigandage, material theft with evidence, verbal insult , false accusation , dispute over loans and making disparaging comments about the grand prince.

  12. 1/3 of arable land in mid-16th century were owned by the church. They had courts too.

  13. So have a widely dispersed population, so placing responsibility on the peasants was one way of controlling such a vast land. Without it, it could not.

  14. Middle level servitors:  A new 16th century concept: The change for service elite, a little bit of productive land with peasants in returned for service to the government.

  15. So boyars, middle level servitors, and peasants.

 

 

Boyars 250 Years of Russian Power

 

Topics: Muscovite: Strategies of Governance: Church

Service Elite: may be rich or not so rich, why given land with servants, because they give service to government, most lands pomeste “place system” are around Moscow.

1478: Ivan III the primary role increasing the use of service estates and decreasing hereditary estates. Moscow region 1300 new service estates.

When he conquers Novg. He assigns Moscow people to Novg. And Novg. People to service estates to Moscow to weaken local roots.

 

Some was church land, some was newly conquered lands, and any land available. Who were the recipients, new middle level servitors, meritocracy, paralleled the Guba reforms, changed it system to rule peasants in the vast hinterlands. So how do we make the system to make it better. Some thought a democratization, by giving local populace more control over their region, but this was not democracy but a better way to be autocratic, the gov. went every year to the lands and forced collected taxes. So this decentralization authority was infact an increase of authority – a dispersal of authority only to get more people involved in the autocracy.

 

Kremlin: Who served where, and when in wars and this was so important. So they begin to use folio pages, but before they used pages that needed scroll-gluing. Now using pages in books bound together. S

 

Stovglov 1551: emphasizes harmony and unity. We will all benefit by a lack of violence, less vengeance.

 

The right in principle to petition the tsar, and even boyar turned to petitions the tsars.

Church address him as beseechers, and pilgrims.

Ivan III informally used title Tsar, only Ivan IV used it officially for the first time.

 

Ulozhenie.1649: Right to petition goes to the typewriters and law code is humongous. 

 

Zemski sabor, are difficult to explain, foreigners notice these: May have 300-600 members, many different types of people. JKollmann, met to decide only one issue, ‘ shall we go to war, shall we increase the tax’ Not really a formal institution, and met only  sporadically, maybe 45 times, No records of meetings, only passing reference in the chronicles. Only historians seen as proto-democ., they were not representative. It was burdensome to travel to Moscow, and some were paid a little to travel to the council. Agenda of meeting was typically set in advanced and no institutional permanence or defined authority. Never hint of descending opinions, no records of fights, it was like a rubber stamp where the addenda was decided upon before the people met. Unanimity was always the goal either perceived or forced as an ideology. A theoretical union of Church/tsar/people all coming in union – the coming together of the forces of Rus to make this wise decision. The political elite had already decided upon. Some cases exist where some venues for redress, and this get noted in the 17th century when more groups such as merchants get represented, but this was not the going thing. 

 

What does this mean for Russian autocracy? This is not a totalitarian system, a façade of an autocracy, intertwine between political elite, marriages, blood ties, mafia. Pre-Modern system, so law is not uniform and that is what people note when reading the sources.

 

Church: Next week: Honor, rise of towns, the

 

Church

 

Historiography  of the church, the closeness of Church, state and people, all in harmony.

Stoglov

Harmony  = church/state

Unanimity=people/boyars/state

  • 1326 Metropolitican (petr?) takes up residence of Moscow. These are the hierarchs.

  • Sabor=gathering zemski= land

  • Sabor a notion, a church is a gathering of people.

  • Ukraine and Bellerose was created a metropolitan ( not created yet).

  • Black clergy are the monastic, only a monastic can become a bishop. Only a celibate monk can become hierarchy. But white clergy had to be married.

 

Church is only a spectator in politics, not a hardball player, not like the Latin Church who believed it was supposed to be the power above the state in universal law, as Patriarch Nikon had pointed out in the 17th century.

 

Church court and church land peasants are to go to the church courts. Kissing the cross, allegations a church matter, witchcraft if one kissed the cross and lied.

Moscow monastic figures inspiration, and wilderness adventurers.  They found new communities, may start our hermits, but over time things always evolve, especially a community, when deciles, and synabidic?, and live all aspects together.

 

  • 1600s 200-240 monasteries, 1/3 of the arable land not owned  by the tsar.

  • 16-17th about 15 monasteries owned nearly all the church land.

  • Churches in a city: Two churches: Summer church is larger, and winter church small no windows.

  • Breathing techniques, austere monasticism.  See Jesus prayer

  • Acquisition of land was in the story of monasticism.  The question: what the purpose of the monastery:

 

 

Two sides ( Roles of the Monastery, both legitimate) , Both trends are legitimate of monastic movement.

 

1) one get land to serve the poor, help the commoner, inquzitive, we need to have wealth to serve God’s people

 

2) Be apart from the world, be by one’s self:

 

In towns

16th  OFFICAL SAINTS

17TH  more local saints and pagan elements.

 

All Religions have elements of earlier religions, such as the case with Christianity. Such as Easter eggs.   Prayer to Jesus and Mart coincide with prayers to the Oak, and the Bear. Do not view as warring between pagan and Christian elements, but a co- existence. Reform efforts like the Stovglov 1551 to standardize practices. Talked about poor houses, and bishops complaining about corruption of tax collection, low moral standards, but hard to measure.

 

1620 printing. Ivan IV reign, he didn’t like what they were printing so he destroyed the machines. Printing, correcting text, education was not liked by Ivan. Pre-modern system.

 

Little literacy:

 

Holy Fool in the eastern Orthodox religion. Village simpleton, village idiot, some were possibly mentally ill, looked like un-kept homeless. Holy Fools. Autistic son, inner body thermostat ( Takes close-off in snow and winter, inhuman) , repetitive behavior like rocking, social misunderstanding so they become misfits and outcasts. So possibly autistic these fools; there were respected the ‘otherness’ the counterforce to the official church person.  A Human being, suffering like us, an appetence of a protection by God. They often rebuked people for not following Christ. Social release valve for social stress of official structures. He could be critical of tsar and boyars, and sometimes could be together talking being separate form the people, all separate form the norm people, so they befriend them and take their suggestions.

 

 

1598 Boris Gudonov is elected first tsar outside of Riurik dynasty as it died-off with Fedor’s death ( Theodore )

 

 

When Fedor dies it was truly a crisis, the people asked who will rule us, and even thought about having a metropolitan rule, but there were no consent and no precedent, but it was thought about. Truly a troubled time. Was this like the story when the people supposedly of Kiev asked for the Vikings to become their ruler?

 

 

 

 

Social People in the Medieval Russia

 

Obscure window on gender relations, and social life, Modernism is fragmented social, these people were tight-knit social – so there is a difference.

 

Domestroi, Life Model of St. Sergi

 

Try to imitate the saint.

 

  1. Live soberly

  2. Politically correct laws, no insults, so there are hate words.

  3. Freedom and individuality is frowned upon

  4. Men were masculine, One’s masculinity is shown by your obedience in place,

  5. You are born into a fix and set position called a ‘chin’ = rank, both in society and in iconostasis.

  6. Protestant do good deeds to get salvation.

  7. Ivan, “ I’m the new servant of the state” what does this mean and how do we fit this into history?

  8. Orthodox tradition, healthy respect for the body, where ( Professor) Latin church has a problem, Issue honoring the body.

  9. Trope of evil women crop up in the sources, formally disapproved in sex in marriage, only for baby, but over time Orthodoxy moved away from this.

  10. Women honor fee is usually twice the free, Women honor cases the most. Women’s modesty, must respect a women’s headdress, and a women’s dress. Vieled women out in seclusion, cannot have their veiled lifted, out in closed carriages.

  11. Why in a male dominated society is the women’s role in honor more important in regards to laws and fines than men? Food-maker the family was the basis of the social order. Men needed a home to go to after work, and having a civil social environment meant a stable family unit in society.

  12. However, an elite women is like a princes, and had social status and respect, so a male dominated society serves their own roles by having elite women’s high-status. MJM – I think it was a farce, women are seen in politics and importance, they are the marriage=politics.

 

 

LOVE MEANT HONOR, DEFENSE OF YOUR WIFE

Marry for security and stability: that is what is said, but what was in reality?

 

Economic power of women, and in 16th century less as the GP began to take away the land for the state. So partible inheritance was now leaving to GP ownership. So the service landholding system is a deliberate attack on private property, meaning women couldn’t hold on to the land.

 

  1. In practice we see women getting and giving land, and widows.

  2. Court, women could sue on behalf of their husbands.

  3. Not much economic social climbing. Born into rank, that is your job.

  4. Muscovite Society, conservative ( What conservative? Religion?) , traditional, pre-modern.

  5. Norm, people are embedded into a clan or rank and that is your job.

  6. Orthodox serves the born into rank. The religion is geared for that structure. Therefore, Orthodox doesn’t promote social mobility.

  7. Inside the church fine penalties are much higher. Closer in physical presence to the palace in the Kremlin, in Moscow, the greater the fine. Don’t insult the tsar, during Boris Goudenov’s time, he wasn’t sure how long he be on the throne.

  8. Unity of public and private spears, the honor role. Political church and state is acted out in the honor court cases. The community of true believers, all united in seeking salvation, after the life. Theses are the ideal values of Muscovite society. Doesn’t mean people lived this religious life. There was ethnicity, regional and geographical things to take in mind. The Church bureaucracy was small, no literacy, Ivan IV put his own men in positions in the church.

  9. Pain staking interviews when over land, so the community comes together and participates in a solution, but solves long standing feuds. ( really so if one is lied to and taken advantage of they are happy?) An element of dynamism in a conservative society? ( What is this?).

  10. Middle Age Law on Women, and approved by Orthodox Church.

  11. Russian Law on Beating Women: Domestroi, beat a disobedient life when you are alone, but do not do it in hatred, use no iron or wood, do not injure her bad.

Rape cases: Two aspect, the seriousness was addressed by ecclesiastical and gov, and social diversity of litigants. Records of numerous rape cases survive in the sources, but not all were resolved.  What about false charges?

 

One of the escapes for a women in this society was to become a nun, in this male dominated society. Even men could get out of government duty or war by asking the GP to be tonsured, that is go to a monastery. In 17th cent. Women took on strong leadership roles in churches, and were powerful.

 

Marriage: 12-16 years-old, most women married, because this was survival.

Elite women, imprisoned-like, kept separate, they are pawns in a political chess game.

Common women were treated different, they had to get outside and work.

 

Slaves: Could sue if they were beaten to crippling: Muscovite slave population: 5-10%, 1/3 were women. But masters could beat slaves like they could beat their women.

 

Elite women in Poland, were better-off.

Elite women in Russia, obeyed their husbands and the tsar.

 

Peter the Great follows the well oiled police state, don’t follow me, follow the state.

 

He orders the women to leave the “ chari” and the houses have large rooms, women must organize them, women must wear gowns, low neck-lines, women learn to play cards, learn foreign language, and do a party, These were government decrease.

 

 

 

Oprichnina

 

Oprichnina was a seven year period in which Ivan IV divided up the land (1565-72) into two main parts, formed a personal court, separate administration, a personal army, and conducted a notorious “reign of terror” designed to purge his enemies – but ended up affecting everyone in Muscovy. This represented something dramatically different and was not a reform. Ivan’s psychological and physical wellbeing might have been part of the cause. It was more likely a dramatic need of the tsar to escape from rulership where there was no precedence. The social, political, and economic results were a genuine disaster. Ivan may have killed his son Ivan Ivanovich, leaving a feeble minded son Feodor on the throne that died childless -- leading to a dynastic crisis which ultimately led to the unfortunate events of the Time of Troubles.  - Michael J. McDonald.

 

 

There was no rational for the Oprichnina, everyone was affected and targeted.

  1. Oprichnina  to separate ‘oprich’ and  in usage, “widow’s mite”

  2. Was Ivan really Terrible?

  3. Ivan during his own life time all types of rumors flew about, and later.

  4. It is such a challenge to figure this man’s reign out?

  5. Vasilii III who divorced wife in 15? Because she didn’t have an hair, male, because of agree upon primogeniture.

  6. Ivan born to a Lithuania women Elena Glinskaia (d. 1538), and in 1533 father dies, and his .

  7. Boyar unrest in 1530s, 1547 he comes of age, marries Anastasiia Romanovna Zakharina, who becomes the progenitor of the Romanov dynasty.

  8. 1530s-1550s positive government reforms.

  9. New measures of weights and measures, a single tax standard, by the plow, if you have a plow you are taxed.

  10. 1530-40s, take back fiscal immunities from the church lands.

  11. Indenture servitude,

  12. Taxes and payed in time are converted to cash payments.

  13. Zemski reforms are made responsible to law, taxes and reforms in their own communities. This was not a decentralization, it was a power central moving, a cheap way in making administration of justice and taxes to make the local people responsible.

  14. 50s-60s, that glorify the “Book of degrees;” Nikon, illustrated chronicles, 16 thousand illustrations, never finished,  to glorify Moscow, Metropolitan Malarkii plan ( revered leader, icon painter, a positive influence on Ivan, collector of bible stuff and saint stories). Gather saints lives and Muscovize regional and local saints to a Muscovy principle.

  15. 1553, allegedly falls ill,  the boyars hesitate to swear allegiance, and Dimirti the little baby dies, and Ivan Ivanich 1554 is born, (it may have happen but not how it is described professor). On the other hand, Ivan brother Urii, feeble minded, - so there is a certain amount of tension. If genuine, would there be more killings of boayrs,

  16. Chronicle: “The History of the Reign”, is where 10 years later in the margins the note to this episode took place.

 

Ivan IV

 

 

 Ivan the Terrible


 

1.               Quite spare, the sources of his life when he lived? But many after who wrote on what he felt, and put their own aspirations.

2.               Understanding the sixteenth century for next few weeks.

3.               Significant Read crummy

4.               Look in Pavlov and Perrie, look for what Crummy – these are the arguments that we will focus on.

5.               Bias view.

6.               There are bits and pieces, what did people perceive it to be, such as foreigners, and they report back to their home audiences, in a sensational way – exotica. They think they find English Parliament and such, but were not there.

7.               Prime documents can not tell the whole or real story behind the official statements.

8.               Focus on open system to a closed system.

9.               The historians build on one another. Will pick an historian that has a strong point of view, like a Marxist. Social classwarfare, the essence of polity is the prime mover, like who owns the factors and who are the workers in it – sees class struggles.

10.            Look at the 16th and see was there classes, or not.

11.            In readings it was an autocracy, Grand Prince, 17th crown Tzar, Caesar work translation.

12.            No single transliteration of the cyliteriac alphabet, so Tsar’ ( soft ‘r’). so French men looked at Latin letters that made the sound and gave it a Czar spelling.

13.            Tchaikovsky, for example, was a result of French translation and in its Russian form is Chaikovskii, but French hear the ‘t’ in the name.

14.            In Russian it is Ioann, in the sources sometimes refererd. Last, Vasil/evich, son of basil.

15.            Who was his father, Vasilii III, dies in 1533.

16.            Ioann born in 1530, note the grand prince was only three years old when he inherits the throne.

17.            Muscovite political system.

18.            No biographies, or autobiographies, at this time in Ivan’s reign.

19.            Nature of the political elite.

20.            Autocratic and all powerful ruler, but same time comradely, pious and just. At the time there were iconic symbolism, icons, architecture, Saints, and paint a picture of a godly vision,

21.            Moscow, referred to the third room, this has been exaggerated, so first room is Rome, then second Byzantine, Constantine transferes the capital to Constantinople, becomes a rival to western Rome’s capital for allegiance. Then 1453 Ottomans’ conquer Constantinople. Moscow had acquired their religion from Constantinople, so they were eastern orthodox, referred to the Turks as Godless Turks, first Rome fell to barbarians, second fell to the Turks, so the third is Moscow was the last God favored civilization on Earth, so we have a special mission ot hold God’s word in tact until the second coming, so last surviving Orthodox capital that was independent was Russia.

22.            Many historians later blew it out of proportion, in the 1930s, people in Moscow didn’t know about this, but later myth building about stories  - like Czar goes back to the Augusta was put forth in the 15th century.

23.            Chronicals do not have a narrative cohesion.

24.            Topic: How is power distributed, who is allowed to rule and or govern over others and who was decided to

25.            Nobles: Boyars, 1300-1700s, the nobles ( Some time Bioyar, etymological : fight or boy),

26.            DruzhÍna, comrade or friend, in Kiev – these were wealthy, the two functions came together , the chief servitors to the prince and the nobles came together, and wealthy landowners, were military then nobles, and known as boyars.

27.            Moscovite ( North Boyar were independent) but in Moscow were aristocracy were boyar status, Boyar clans, date their origins to the 14th century, sons and heirs to the prince Denial, and Demitri …..last name…

28.            Consolidated, and built a legacy, some boyars were princes from 9th century legendary Rouick, so it was a branch house, so there were other house branch houses.

29.            Admissions ot the boyars in sources, individually and as a group you are to advise the grand prince, unwritten rule, do not oppose the grand prince.

30.            Must not refuse to serve, no longer could they defect to the opposing forces. The prince should listen to the bayars, and the the boyars should listen to eachothers – to foster harmony.

31.            Domestic white males in the Kremlin, to prostate their forehead on the ground to the grand prince, to ‘ beat their forehead on the ground’ in his presence.

32.            Lateral succession the boyars traditionally were lateral practices, but in Moscow first by accident then by design, to practice primogenitor  - the eldest son inherits all the power to the throne. Over time the political elite saw it gave them some stability so they started to enforce this practice.

33.            plot of a movie: #1)Problems: Kremlin, trouble, when 10 year-old kid get throne, so one an uncle and boy on the throne in a contest and both get blinded. Note nobody is killed Vasili II is blind and the uncle is called the squint-eye. Note nobody gets killed in this civil war. Just easily could have been blinded. Are their political principles at work here. Why no murder of the prince,

34.            Plot #2 Movie) Solomoniia Suburova, was infertile, and in an absence of a male heir, who would ascend to  the throne, so they were divorced, the Church Orthodox had provisions, but she was forced to take the viel, so the marriage was nullified.

35.            Forcing a man to become a monk, so he could not become a prince.

36.            Contracts are by swearing on the cross, so becoming de tonsured it too hard.

37.            So he remarries: princess Elena Glinskaia ( A boyar clan) of Lithuania. Not the first time this was done, a political marriage, they were fighting with the Lithuanians. Their son would become Ivan the IV  ( the terrible).

38.            Bindings were done to preserve primogenitor, does the uncle or young boy inherit the throne.

39.            All hell breaks loose in 15th century.

40.            1598 royal dynasty of Moscow died out, Theodore IV died and there was no make heir. But no good enough clan to establish a new dynasty so Poles and Swedes invade to take throne, a civil war erupts, and pick a 16 year old kid, a picking on purpose a kid, a politically assassinated is when they force one to become a monk in which they did so they can control the son, but father gets out of prison to become a patriarc of the Church, they thought, they were rid of him, but only the chief Bishop the powerful behind the thrown is what he becomes.

41.            1525, the divorce and political crisis, to preserve the progenitor, but not one mention of divorce in major Soviet historical Encyclopedia, this was left out, but more important piece of history.

42.            Plot #3) 1533 Price Vasili III dies and three-year-old inherits the thrown, and many relatives want to inherit the  throne, but the 80 years ago a huge civil war, and everyone loses, so lets stick together and we will continue to enjoy the fruits of power, and there was no standing army only a spring army.

43.            Days after Vasili III death the boyars arrest his brother, so when that brother dies, they arrest the next brother.

44.            Boyars were understanding stiff competition, and 1538, the Regent, Ivan mother dies, and 8 year-old is now on the throne. Two noble families split apart, and all the clans become ambassadors and repositions, 1538, they have disagreement, murder, imprisonment, and happen, and this blindness didn’t hold now, murder happened now so we see a change.

45.            Lines of kinship and marriage, changed to position for important roles. 1538-47 the period of Boyar unrest is called in history. No one tries to kill Ivan or even blinds him, he may have been passive, or had been chosen by Boyars. They probably needed him to have a son, the continuance of the line.

46.            Why settled down, Boyars settles in the back room, the 17 year-old kid was marriage, and a new official title of Tsar, of all the Rus’ lands. Gave him the many titles of the likes most were doing in this period.

47.            They had him marry a Romanoff warring clan for a wife, 1547 the wedding, honorific roles, and Ivan started to avoided Boyar ranks, from 45 to 50 ranks of Boyars were raised to commemorate.

48.            After this were intermarriage, attempting to reach consolidation and balance of power. Was this made up B- movie history?

49.            Ivan himself may have thought about this, was he a significant actor, we do not know. Several historians think they know. I doubt love had to do with it, it was a political marriage. Historians take liberties into placing their own thoughts into others.

50.            He didn’t like Stalin, the opera Izantine, so Stalin though I didn’t like this image.

51.            How did the boyars get powerful? If the government have a policy, they operate the policy and have a job to rule over the populations.

52.            Rulers need to cultivate an elite, pre-modern means there are not a lot of bureaucrats, secretaries, and so its an old-boy buddy-elite, who control things.  The job, pass along wealth, land and daughters and make everyone happy, and make people gratified. So the Muscovite were fairly young elite, so their claim to power was not necessarily regional by hereditary – because you were a descendant of a boyar. Top-down order of rulers, no one came from below, no one comes up by merit, their claim to power was charismatic, they had a special rite to retain and maintain power. Traditional respect for their hereditary clan,  and institutional memory by oral. But were they owners of vast lands or… warrior, cavalry and elite, made their backbone claim to importance, to provide the army. They Boyars that supported Ivan reap the rewards after he becomes official; the others are left out, like in Togugawa, after Shingahara battle spoils.

53.            Was this a closed elite, that no knew families could join the elite, this is no and this is  a reasons for Moscow’s success, and the rise of new noble families provided a reaching network of peoples who now identified themselves as Russians. Hereditary elites in European history observance is that families die off in 200 years so they need to bring new people in so keep it inclusive but provide new ones to keep the numbers up. 14-15 families eligible, and at court about only 7-8 families werer present.

54.            So power structure was not grand prince, boyars, and peasants, it presents it image, but it was more in concentric circles, the agreed upon locus of power, two or three boyars in inner circles then 5-6 in next concentric circles and so on.

55.            So why only 7-8 families in power during a period, so concentric circles was a key,

56.            Ivan raised to 24 eligible, in ’55 about 40 eligible families, and they all knew each other, the boyars, were supposed to live in harmony but not always as in the civil war.

57.            17th century, the number of boyar clans, into the 100s, meaning it was deluding itself. Mechanisms for continuity, was the primogenitor and boyar system – both supply stability for both, a support system.

58.            Made it known who was the known prince so no need for civil war and wars of succession. But who do you want to marry your daughter too? The oldest son. A grand price would remain prince unless certain factors of mental and physical health, it didn’t matter, just the eldest son of the last grand prince.

59.            Princes died on  three occasions, leaving only children to the throne. Ivan IV was one of the three.

60.            Theodore , Ivan’s sons in 1598 when he dies out the period of Times of Troubles.

61.            He was not qualified to command.

62.            So 14-16th century period, ruler ship, arguably half the time the princes were too old, too young or too incompetent, so who was running the show,

63.            Prime Sources: grand prince of this writes well at four years old, so we know people were doing government policy, fought the wars, and helped arrange the grand prince’s power, so they could pass on power and wealth to their sons, so before Ivan there was no standing army ( meaning year around), but collateral or lateral heritage rule of the boyar, so it diluted the clan. That was weakness in a clan.

64.            Tossed out, you could not become a boyar if your family was cast out even if you had bloodline, as patrimonial clans, each of these clans had a boyar represent them at court. To maintain small workable clans in working and living conditions, a representation to the whole of the regions.

65.            Conflict and outsiders coming in: political crisis was not based upon ideological lines, but rather who was going to marry their daughter to the throne, and most marriages, in general, Boyar clans were the heart of marriage order, and the inner circles of boyars, 2-5 clans, and this is part of the 1545-57 only 4-5 identifiable cliques, consistently in the inner circles, part of concentric circles.

66.            Tension of political was marriage; this was the only rout because one could not vote, so marriage equals politics. No ideology. Kinship and marriage the making of the Muscovite Political system.

67.            Certain rules of un written culture, so the tensions would not arise in the future by writing down the fights and struggles to get power by marriage.

68.            Ivan IV ‘40s minority, had been worked out to everyone’s agreement not everyone’s satisfaction. Rules of court poltics no written was no killing themselves, no chain of violence, no long standing feuds, so the next result would be this top-of-the-pile elite would not kill eachother, but only stuff like exile, punishment, and also used mercy and not killing. And Sometime rewards and compensating losers so we all can preserve the status quo, so the 1530-40s struggles were resolved. So big clan winners won, but the loser clan got compensation, a marriage deal and got a place, a seat of authority. So compensation, a public form of litigation at the court, whose grandfather was more important do who got the better seat at the celebrations and events were public’s eyes matter. The vanity of rule.

69.            A litigant rejected the courts rule, he was subject to humiliation in the public, sounds like the Puritans, then the goal of harmony by giving him awards later on to provide harmony. Not a meritocracy.

Each Week, reading assignments, fragments.

Rough notes, sentence fragments3-4 questions, some about facts, and some opening up discussion questions, that open up.

Ivan IV, 1561 takes a second wife, near the caucuses, a Circassian Princess wife,

Livonian not good, costly (prof.)

(pronounced Oprich ni na  | Oh pree sch nee ya).

6000 army is Ivan own body guard,

Lands covered 1/3 of Muscovy is Oprichnina, lucrative trading grounds, hereditary estates get confiscated given out to servitors, everyone suffers, boyars, land holderns, gentry, ordinary folk, peasants, everyone suffers, huge fines and taxes, anyone spoke up dies,

All of Legimars clan killed and land taken away to destroy their heritage and memory.

Crimea takes Moscow because it was planned because of weakness.

Like Stalin, turned on his leaders of the Oprichnina, and are executed, and old Boyars, most went back to the Kremlin, in essence

Ivan refuses the word Oprichnina to by used after 1572, but never really ended.

Pseudo monks, Oprichniki, severed dogs heads on their horses to sniff out, vigilante justice, pillaging, no control,

Appointed two boyars, one to kill the other and Ivan participated in torture and killing.

The role of carnival, to turn the world upside down to, like iki, let the commoners take controls, a mocking of the establishment, like the liberals that want the commoner to take over, or like the Marxist.

 

It is hard to find a rational explanation of this, and our enlightenment to try to serch out the rational.

Man acts in his best own interest,

You cannot pick out a particular victim and point it out why it happened, because everyone sufferered.

Another Baktinian, carnavalesque move, appoints a Tartar prince on the Moscow throne.

Executed after 4 th marriage, Ivan marries at least 7 time.

Ivan allegedly kills his son and heir Tsarevich Ivan Ivanovich.

Common myth, as fact, the Italian visitor makes this account, it is the most common.

Letter from Ivan suggests his son was ill, and the mystery was this went on in the Kremlin, and no one saw what transpired. The Inner palace, the private rooms and we can say little about what happens. In 1581 dies.

What to do about and heri, and marries a Tartar princes, #7 Mariia Nogaia bears son Dimirti 1582 (d.1591)

Gerome Horsey, a scalowaty, reports he knew Ivan in his last years, and (balls) swollen in the cods in which he had deflowered the maidens. Big genitals.

What is the Tsar’s two bodies? He is a human being and he is an official: The Tsars two bodies.

From father and mother sources talks about Ivan, and talks about growth. Chronicles are poor source because his name is own them, but were they really him speaking, high-flown formalistic language, could he been such a scholar? Chronicles are formulaic, and things are always done in the name of the grand prince.

ILL: Early in his life he rides on horseback to monasteries, but later he rides only in carriages and sleds.

Carried in chair from room to room, the foreigners recorded later in Ivan’s life, but was this an honorific ceremonial, or was he sick?

Many foreigner accounts were 3-4 hand accounts and were written to sell back in in their lands. And Grozny, was not used at the time, his power was described as Grozny, as with Ivan III and Vasilli to mean powerful, but later an epitaph was applied Gorzny, meaning terrible. It was not a thing he was called at the time.

Kurbski correspondence: argues Ivan is for absolute authority,

Ivan. Evil in youth, but redeemed with good people around him.

Then Ivan turns evil when Anastasiia dies.

Forgeries of the 17th centuries, Keenan, (prof. I cannot argue that charge, or know if it is false or ) In Lithuania, Kurbskii signs an ‘X’ in a court, meaning he was possibly not literate. Were these forgeries? But how do we know all the inside information? If Ivan is education, capable of writing that correspondence, how do you explain the oprichnina? He went mad? If he was smart, why go insane?


During Boyar unrest, no one harmed the kid, and no one blinded him, and they could have, because they didn’t that would have incited further chaos.  This was not boyars verses tsar, where one implies the boyars verses the central authority, this was not about tearing down the establishment.

Was Ivan in charge in the coronation with Anastassiia? We do not know. “ A royal He” meaning the office of the tsar, marriage was not for love in 1547.

Good Period of Ivan’s reign: 1574-1560 she dies is romanticized. Originates in historiography in 17th century, because grand nephew brings back legend of Ivan and says he ruled good when with Anastassiia and after she dies everything went bad – “ we will resurrect everything that was good before Anastasiia died”

Political elite, the tsar facilitates retribution, and it is political elite trying to show how to achieve a balance of power. Not madmen, but for some of the lured accounts, not all.

What happen after Ivan, 1963 a chance for new evidence. Effort to renovate the Cathedral Archangel Michael, where the tsars and leaders are entombed. Autopsy. Everyone agreed this was Ivan, his favorite drinking cup, and artifacts dating to his period, and the monk cloth that he wore, evidence of the practice of the tsars to be buried in monastic habit when they died, to appeal to the Lord for their souls. 

We read of pots of mercury bubbling in his room when he was sleeping. Rumors of hard drinking. Spine fused rigid in a stooping position. Given to Harvard, unnamed, the diagnosis was severe, his life was in pain. Heavy drinking to off-set the pain. Foreigners never saw him walk into the throne, room, he already there, was he in fact unable to walk, and ride horseback in his remaining years.

Bizarre and irrational behavior.

But you didn’t ask for the job, you got it because of primogeniture. No provision for a tsar to resign.

What was he doing marrying a tartar wife after Anastassiia dies? What was that about?

Oprichnina, a separate kingdom.

Ivan wanted to abdicate, and no rational observation for Oprichnina, no one group focuses on he hated everyone. The system was absolute stupid system would not allow him to step down. Why didn’t he commit suicide? That would have been a valid get out of his position and his pain, and people commit suicide for less.

Professor: new interpretation, rather than dismiss his actions, it was a record of dramatic attempts to abdicate and not a bizarre set of circumstance, he was making war on the system, especially the opirchnina period, was he really terrible, he may have been Ivan the stooped, hardly the terrible awesome person his epithet created in 17-18 cent, and maybe we need to separate Ivan’s two bodies, we do not know his personal life.

After the Orpich, all previous power boyars return to control, so Ivan didn’t change anything, but only added on territory.

 

1598 a turning point, dynasty dies and this is a huge turning point for Russia, no heir and

Historiography, Ivan squished feudalism, and ……..

Cast as a national hero in Stalin’s period , especially in WWII, and took stern measures because he had too.  And Livonian order, Ivan had squashed. So he was a hero.

In reality there were a system that the tsar didn’t need to control and it took a care of itself and that was imperialism, and notion of the gathering of lands had continued par the course, not attributed to Ivan’s actions of Imperialism but a general consensus of Russia forward momentum after fighting back at the Tartar domination.

 Ivan IV

  1. Why did Ivan IV expand the number of boyars, and dilute the power of the c. 1547 when Ivan was crowned tsar? Was this Ivan, or the boyars were expanding themselves.

  2. Keenan’s two bodies, something is done in the name of the tsar, like Ivan ordering the cupolas to be gilded in Gold in the Dormition in Kremlin. Was it really him? When he is 17 years old, the expansion of the boyars, it is the political elite.

  3. Byzantine formula Ivan IV marriage, what was the message of this, increasing the boyars, what did this mean, expanding the unity and harmony, and getting people to buy into the system then secluding them. Getting support of the people.

  4. Character of this elite can tolerate an expansion, but later in 17th century, Peter’s half sister Sofia, the number of boyars expand to 150 – it is a sing of weakness, the political elite are becoming diluted, at least from autocracy, no longer face-to-face government. This is when Peter the Great steps in.

  5. 4 ranks of Duma status, and boyars are tops. State secretaries do not become military, but Boyars are elite military leaders or must send representatives to the field.

  6. 1550 reforms: before namestniki, and voevody, regional military officer – state appointed, no salary, lived by kormlemie, lived off the local people. Popular dissatisfaction ended this.

  7. 1550 reforms turned to a local officer, no pay, no state appointed.

  8. Onus on a local person, local community choices, the community if forced to chose somebody. Coerced representative of the central authority, a thankless job.  

  9. Was zemskie sabor a powerbase or not, it was held possibly twice to seven times in the 16th century.

  10. Replace voveody state elected officials, by salary free local representatives.

  11. 1613 zemskie sabor, what decision does it ratify, Michael Romanov, 16 years-old, father is prisoner in Poland, forced to tonsure. It is a boyar clan so the kid doesn’t pose a political threat. No strong tradition of people having a voice, this was a meeting to tell the provinces what is happening what it taking place.  Michael was living in a monastery palace in remote location and modest well-off family.

  12. Keen Ivan struggling against the new upstart state secretaries, who were fighting over and over who going to control.

  13. EACH  BOYAR CLAN FAMILY HAVE AN ARMY – tsar cannot say get out of my life and Russia.

  14. Difficult to build new powerbase with new families.

  15. Russia: In contact, but not in open contact with Europe.

  16. 1551 Stovglav, do not associate with foreingers, do not get too close to them. – IMPORTANT ( DOOR TO THE WEST)

  17. DOORS TO THE WEST- Balloons in the 17th century. We need the skills of the foreigners.

  18. 1470s – 1530s Italian architects come to Russia a window that closes, and affects architecture dramatically.

  19. 1613: Finally open new contacts with Europe. ( dichotomy: conserve back to Ivan III, and on the other hand, Times of Troubles that Muscovy is vulnerably, Poland and Livonia just march around like they want.   

  20. Want the foreign skills, but we need to lock you up and the district, Peter discovers the tools of the scientific revolution.

  21. Gathering the lands is also seen as gathering of the architecture, the building of the Kremlin. Expressing of the conquered lands we know own.

  22. Why does it sort of end, 7 years later Oprichnina, but Ivan still has his private own court. He just ran out of bodies, and the out of control oprichniki should be stopped and he could look as a hero, so if rabble control army raping and pillaging, but now you are out of hand, no stop , but this is still speculating. To what extent is someone influencing him, his wife, is he also ill and deranged, and all the above, no simple explanation why it started or why things happened the way it did or why it ended.

Why No Records on Peasant Life?

NOT SELF REFLECTIVE SELF or SERVING SOCIETY: so no peasant life can be taught in Russia until the 19th century, this was a illiterate society. No parish records until 18th cent. So what we have?

Prescriptive diadacic script, was the Domostrio! A prescriptive on how people should run their life, but we do not know.  

 Discussion

 

Edward L. Keenan The Tsar’s Two Bodies: Thesis: need to separate a leader’s two bodies, we do not know his personal Ivan’s life, he is presented in his public persona – How to present a real picture to the public? d' iaki and members of the dvorianstvo were in a epochmaking struggle between the king's two bodies (25) . Adashev intended conquest of Kazan: does this mean it could not have been Ivan's idea as Soviet historians believed? (20) the Shuiskiis and Belskiis and Glinskiis: Zemin argues there motives for control over mechanism of nobility, not feudal rights, now become control of their own power under the king (tsar). (17): there are just fighting for their own self preservation? d' iaki out of loop, excluded from intermarriage with G.P. family, excluded from nobility by low birth: Could the d' iaki created the historiography of the body of Ivan the public and forgone the personal? This is Keenan’s fiction-to-reality argument (18): Does this mean Tatars and Lithuanians sources indicate Adashev made the decisions for Ivan’s gov. in 1550s? If so how does this reflect on Ivan as an autocrat? Do we know the truth if Keenan’s argument is d’ iaki were out of the loop so they created some fiction, possibly to please of gain influence? Oprichnina most fateful for Muscovy was the systematic destruction of the d' iacheskii apparat – the King's body politic (see summary 25). (23): this meant in personal, Ivan’s body was not fit to be a king. He was in pain. Kurbskii' s History (Forgeries of the 17th  cent.) written about 1675 by author interested in Russian shliakhetstvo.(1): If Ivan is educated, capable of writing that correspondence, how does one explain the oprichnina? Since this was the first source looking specifically at Ivan, many historians have used it, quoted from it: how does that affect historiography? non-Muscovite boiarstvo, recently emigrated Lithuania aristocracy , including some of Ivan's relatives on his mother's side, Glinskiis -had no love for the generally centralizinng and modernizing policies of the Adashev-Zakhar’: What is the argument on Ivan’s side to imperialize the east instead of the west ‘ initially’?(21) Ivan presented in Eizenshtein’s film (& Kozintsev) with a Freudian superego. Also Karamzin too got information from Correspondence – Kurbskii.(3): No significant and reliable eye-witness accounts of his personal behavior or character: (4) Keenan doesn’t trust Horsey’s account? Grosna (25) summery: Ivan destroyed the developing prikaz bureaucracy which damaged his body politic: He is speaking specifically in the case to the Oprichnina period? Ultimately he did not change institution development?  Death Bed Scene of Vasilii IIIfor you are not called my boyars, but the princes of my land…With you [ boyars] I ruled: The Tsar doesn’t act alone on gov. decisions, he seeks council from his boyars? serve my sons, he said to the boyar/princes: clear line of authority expressed to keep the tradition of the GP in primogeniture keeping the peace? Fletcher, Giles Of the Russe Commonwealth, Lloyd E. Berry & Robert O. Crummy eds. “Rude and Barbarous Kingdom: Russia in the Accounts of the Sixteenth-Century English Voyagers” (Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press, 1994). (133- 146) Fletcher sees oligarchy - boyars and tsar together control (133). No hereditary gov. positions (134), accept for primo. GP? : Tsar Boris controls d’aiki: controlled historical records? Parliament: boyar, Clergy, tsar, no merchant or commoner representatives. (ch.8 135). Stolovaia palata, a reception room in the Kremlin palaces, tsar sometimes received duma, clergy, foreign emissaries of relatively low rank. (136): seating by order/degree? Tsar takes clergy opinions | approve propositions (137) Clergy give consent without pausing: this is rubber stamping? Yet, 1580, rejected tsar’s asking for war funds to recruit western tech| officers.  Fletcher’s break down of classes/estates: Udel’nye Knaiz’ia: 1st. degree, chief houses, Glinskii, etc: Boyars: 2nd. degree,  Volevody: 3d. Degree, Nobles, The volevody did not constitute a separate rank of the nobility but were simply military commanders appointed for a particular campaign or provincial governors?  Knias’ia: 4th. Degree, Dukes, lowest degree of nobility, younger brothers of those chief houses (1st. degree), may not have served in the military. There were no estates? (pages 205-229) Orthodox and gov. one ideological body - Greek. ecclesiastical issue: Russia never acknowledge the Latin Church|or Pope (205): Possibly geographic? Constantinople’s (Eastern Rome) proximity closer than Italy and Europe in general?  Or During the 10th century (The adoption), the Latin Church had fell on hard times, and the Eastern Roman Church, Orthodox was going strong? Began. Marriage EO daughter Vladimi-Fletcher confused: He knew Horsey who claimed to read the chronicles?| Doctrine: opus operatum philosophy (227): not by faith, but also by works;  Psalms part of litany, the prophet books not used, Fletcher see this as errors, “Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy, which they say are all made disauthentic and put out of use by the coming of Christ”(226): Why? zautrenia, that is, matins: What about rural areas, were there services? (221) 9:00 am obednia etc… similar information in The Domostroi. Fletcher’s analysis of services based mainly on hearsay (foot 1 p. 221); baptism very important; Fletcher from perspective of pope’s importance: To Fletcher, the Church had considerable daily & life influence of Russians? Popy/preists. 1533 printing press, intod. Federov Flethcer sees no inquisition, a reference to the Catholic Monarchs of Spain’s institution (229). Errors -redemption but not of intercession | preference to Virgin Mary and other saints|Fl calls this idolitry (226-7) Medieval Russia’s Epics, Chronicles, and Tales, Serge A. Zenkovsky, ed., trans., 2nd. ed. (New York: Dutton, 1974). (Epiphanius The Wise: Panegyric to St. Stephen of Perm) (260-290)Thesis: The names of Epiphanius the Wise, St. Stephen of Perm, St. Sergius of Radonezh, and the great painter Andrey Rublev ( both became saints) signify the Russian spiritual and cultural revival of the late fourteenth and early fifteenth centuries (259). Sergius starts out as monk in forest, then becomes recognized spiritual leader. Blessing added strength to Dimitrii.  St. Sergius inspired Russian people and introduce a more disciplined and strictly enforced communal life in the monastery(281). St. Sergius (1314-1392), patron saint of Russia: born near Moscow at period of civil unrest; Supported Dimitrii Donskoi against the Tartars. Also, extent St. Stephen;  Both men gave a new impetus to Russian monasticism.; icons and frescoes by Andrey Rublev became finest achievement of Russia art, exhibited Russian Spiritualism: Did Sergius rally the Russians under Dimitrii to give the Tartars their first major defeat in 1378?; Did this symbolize God was on the Russian’s side?  “The literary style that Epiphanius the Wise perfected was termed "weaving of words" (pletenie sloves, in Russian). In this style sentences are nearly deprived of verbs, consisting almost entirely of the adjectives and nouns that characterize the deeds and humility of' the saints.”(259) Another feature of Epiphanius  "word-weaving" is the abundance of neologisms formed by nouns or combinations of nouns and adjectives, such as "songbeautifier," rather than "beautifier of songs. (259): vitae, these tw obios  were for ideal type of sanctified life model.   Were these panegyrics for memorization, were they apart of the liturgy? Sergius, passion for learning to read: The theme linked to knowledge, so reading and writing - important? Monks in society were key to literary education? His father, Cyril, a renounced/wealthy boyar, after the Tartar invasion became poor: Did this happen to most boyars? (265). Grand. Duke Ivan Danilovich of Moscow (1301-1341), called Kalita ("Moneybag"), was the actual founder of the Muscovite state. He spread his reign over a considerable part of the land between the Oka and Volga rivers. Rostov was an important city of the Volga (foot 2 p. 265). Danilovich took over control of Rostov, not fortunate for Stephen’ family? Father moved family to Radonezh, where the city became known for him. Medieval lit. Peter and Fevronia Folklore; Stephan, Permian written tradition, 14th cent. Missionary, converts Finnic tribe Permians to Chirs. Period, abbot, built monastery (1of 4 main central R M. 279), influential (274): Christians arrived from all parts? Austere living (276) Metropolitans Peter and Theognost support. Moscow, center for political/religious (280).  Theodore was the son of Sergius' brother, Stephen. He later became the bishop of Rostov (283): Supports of Russian defense? If victory on field GP Dimitrii will build Mon: (285) Prayers used for victory on the field against enemies?  (285) Sergius honored by Dimitrii for succ. Prayer: Church important symbol in rising statecraft?   Translated by Diahanna Lynch for Valerie Kievlson. Aleksandro-Nevskaia Letopis', Po1noe Sobranie Russskikh Letopisei, vo1.29, (Moscow: Nauka, 1965) 211-214;  Tak Nazyvaemaia Tsarstvennaia  Kniga, Polnoe Sobranie Russskikh  Letopisei, vo1.13, (St. Petersburg: Imperatorskaia Arkheograficheskaia Kommissiia, 1906) 525-526. Ivan’s IV Illness. (1552, vo1.29): Theme, young child verses older capable prince and primogeniture custom. Ivan close to death, suggested review of will, order that Prince Vladimir Andreevich and the boyars be brought to swear [ loyalty] Tsarevich Prince's Dmitrii's name. Most Boyars swear. Would not swear:  Prince Dmitrii Ivanovich Kurliatev, treasurer Nikita Funikov, why? Princess Ofrosinia and with her son, Prince Vladimir Ondreevich, and they wanted him to rule, and did not want Tsarevich Prince Dmitrii to rule because he was in his minority: Did they believe that a child would bring boyar unrest, so they wanted someone older that could begin to make G.P. decisions? Tsra's favorite, Novgorodian, Silvestr, much influence at court, he became acting interim-ruler as Ivan lay sick, his advisors ruled everything (3). Silvestr, great favor with Prince Vladimir Andreevich and his mother Princess Efrosinia, released them from prison, schism at court because he supported their possible rule of Prince Vladimir. "Why do you not' allow Prince Vladimir ( he was an older prince) to go to the sovereign? - Silvestr (3). Now enmity of boyars against Silvestr ( Priest). Ivan predicts Zakhariny death will be first by the boyars. Ivan makes a case about serving his son, if not know then will they ever? (5) Good point?: the system was primogeniture so why change it? Wife brought in the argument to honor. This scares some boyars to swear: Did many boyars truly believe Ivan could pull through? This would have affected their decision, if they supported breaking custom? Finally Prince Vladimir still doesn’t want to swear an oath, spoken too, then coerced: Did Vladimir actually think about his future, what if Ivan recovered? How would he be seen then? (7) record of allegiances, placed with a seal called a ‘bond’ done by The Princess: this was for authoritative records? (1564, vo1.13) 1564 December 21: Ivan’s departure from Moscow for Aleksandrova Sloboda, takes wife, children, entourage, furniture, possession, courtiers, treasurer and men.  1565  January 3, the Tsar and Grand Prince sent a list from Sloboda with Konstantin Dmitreev's son, Polivanov, [check this] and his friends, to his spiritual father, Afanasii Metropolitan of all Russia, and in the list were written the treacheries of the boyars, of the military commanders, and of all the chancellery staff which had committed treason and damages to his rule during his minority after [the death of] his father, of blessed memory, the great" Sovereign, Tsar, and Grand Prince Vasilii Ivanovich of all Russia. Military commanders held great estates, and votchiny, and they were taking the sovereign’s income away, collecting great riches. Accusations by Ivan that they didn’t care for Christianity, or cared to fight the Crimeans, Lithuanians or Germans: Issues Muslims, Latins against Orthodoxy: How serious were these threats then?  Some d’iaki read a decree that Ivan supposedly left because of their sins, and didn’t want to rule any longer ― this was read to all the people. Ivan upset at boyars in childhood. People lamented, “who will save us from the foreigners?” This was Ivan’s plan to garner sentiment from the common people? “When wolves see a sheep without a shepherd, and the wolves seize the sheep, who 'will defend us from them?” . The people asked Ivan back: Was this a ploy from Ivan to get the people to understand the future ‘reign of terror?’: Could Ivan be so smart to have calculated this entire plan methodically? Even the merchants sided with Ivan’s sentiments. Atanasii, Metropolitan of all Russia is asked to petition Ivan, by the people, to come back: Is this when Ivan formulates demands for his return to power, part of his grand scheme? Final outcome as worded, “a Sovereign: and for those who are traitors and evildoers to him, the Sovereign, and to his rule, let his Sovereign will be their life and punishment.” (4): Does this guarantee some sort of Autocracy?  1565 January 5th, Commoners, merchants, boyars, clergy arrive in Sloboda to have an audience with the former tsar Ivan IV. Ivan takes some boyars and sends others back to rule Moscow, he thus splits up Russia in what is called Oprichnina ( from Oprich generic word ‘separate’ contemp. ‘widows mite’). Ivan makes his own court and possessions. The Domostroi: Rules for Russian Households in the Time of Ivan the Terrible, Carolyn Johnston Pouncy, ed., trans. ( Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 1994). (page 85- Prescriptive Rigorous religious rituals. If a man can read then sing vespers to wife and children, bow head three times to ground before sleep, wake up at midnight, compunction & prayer. Pray for absolution, pray & sing in the morning; on Sundays hold service, men attend church services everyday, women and servants should go when they can, or can be spared [ from duty]. prime (around sunrise), terce, sext, none! vespers, compline, and the midnight service (sometimes called nocturns) (foot 1). a pregnant woman should not try to prostrate herself on the ground.(foot3); Edinoglasno' changed at the 1551 Stoglov Church Council (foot 2): this was for not breaking the rites in part? Church Service decorum: stand in service, pray silently, women must have consent to go to church: by the husband? No talking in church; stand still, no looking around; do not distract; form cross on chest with arms, then pray; do not leave church until end of service; during Wed.,& Fri., Lent/ Feast of the Virgin, live in chastity. General formalities: No association with un/sinning-Christians; always carry rosary; Important Orthodox Spirituality, the Jesus Prayer: Lord Jesus Christ, Son of God, have mercy on me, a sinner. Say this prayer six hundred times. For the seventh hundred, pray to the Immaculate Virgin: My Lady, Most Holy Mother of God, intercede for me, a sinner. Intercession is, however, Mary's primary role: How long did this take? Two-finger sign of the cross, replaced with three-finger. 17th cent. Old Ritualists fought to prohibit changes introduced from Greece by Patriarch Nikon of Moscow: Was the two-finger part of early Russian tradition? This was to shew away bad spirits? (from SS. Athanasius and Peter the Damascene; Athanasius (298-373), bishop of Alexandria and opponent of Arianism. His works [...] the source of this particular quotation remains unidentified.] (foot 14 p. 91). On Children: obeisance to parents: this was importance for the structure of family? (99) Before work/crafts/duty bow to saints to ground/ three times/+ sign of cross. At work keep mind on ‘pure thoughts’: Was this really socially enforced? Women’s sacred roles in society (102); husband must teach family morality. The domestic servants discussed in the Domostroiare full, hereditary slaves (foot 1b p.104) there is a difference between indentured servants and hereditary slaves? General slaves/servants: “Teach them by imposing limits on them, using terror” (105): groza in this case has a more specified meaning?  A slave could have property, including some land given to them by their masters, but only as a grant? Litany of slave codes, slaves must also go to church when allowed, or at least participate in some type of religious functionality on Sunday/or days; arrange marriages for slaves; slaves should not fornicate out of wedlock: did this dishonor the master’s house?  This was intended that everyone should observe clerical prohibitions against intercourse, including slaves? Old Women: must think about them:  where old women a problem in Russian society? How so? Was this because she had more free time? She was too old to toil? Gossip is a problem, can incite division/problems. Finally, masters and mistresses should bestow good toward their slaves (110): Did this off-set problems cited above, i.e. treat them well for a more harmonious relationship? The Nikonian Chronicle, Serge A. Zenkovsky, ed., trans., vol. 3 ( Princeton, New jersey: The Kingston Press, 1988). (Readings pages 60-61) Nikonian Chronicle blesses the Annexation of Novgorod, the princes unifications of Muscovy, adopts a saintly metaphor for Muscovite unification, depicts Vasillii and Boyars ruled, not just autocracy, loyalty by kissing of cross (deathbed: Dmitrii’s way to halt discord?), St. Michael Archangel Cathedral, royalty tomb representing Moscow as center for Russia.  Khan Tokhtamysh | Timur Aksak (Tamerlane) struggle, Vasilii Dmitrievich, allowed GP of Vladimir: Why did Timur not take Moscow? Forest issue? Grand Prince Gleb Vasil'kovich of Rostov sent his son Mikhail, to aid the Tatars. (60): relations were complex during this time, prince fighting prince with both sides using Tartars? (61) Often, Princes served the Tartars to protect the Christians?  Lauding Prince Prince Gleb Vasil'kovich, This vita is a eulogistic work embellished with repetitious rhetorical praises of the Grand Prince. Motive:  not historical or biographical but to praise him and depict him as an exemplary, almost saintly, ruler and Christian man. (foot 55, p.61): Were Chronicles for national mythmaking? Did Bulgarian Patriarch Calliste (1363) have an influence on later chronicle writing, stressing the immaterial life and salvation of the soul, instead of the details of a G.P. life? The Nikonian Chronicle, Serge A. Zenkovsky, ed., trans., vol. 4 ( Princeton, New jersey: The Kingston Press, 1988). (Readings pages 34-41) The Passing of Grand Prince Dmitrii Ivanovich (d. 1389), promoted as tireless church advocate and activist, saintly attributions; He ruled twenty-seven years and six months, He lived forty-years. He lived with his Princess Evdokia and her mother Grand Princes Anna. He had sons and daughters: Addressing the children,  key Chronicle sentences attributed to him: 'Trespassing the father's will will destroy the children's home and put an end to the mother's life.' […] Love your boyars, render them the honor they deserve according to the deeds of each, and do nothing without their counsel: A major theme in Russian chronicles is for potential G.Ps, when they are in the minority is to listen to the advice of the boyars? ( Also similar passage: See Two Sixteenth-Century Chronicle Accounts of Deathbed Scenes of Grand Princes, trans. by Allison Katsev “Obey your kinsmen, keep peace & love among you, love your boyars. , do nothing without their [boyars] advice.” Refer,  G.P  Dmitrii Donskoi’s deathbed scene): Is this a different wording/translation of the same text? Then he summoned, first of all, his eldest son, Prince Vasilii, to whom he gave the Grand Principality, his patrimony: This is primogeniture? “with the latter's settlement, which Princess Feodosia gave me out of her estate, will become my Princess's property after [Feodosia's] passing. All these income estates will become the properties of my wife-Princess with my blessing, and my wife-Princess may do whatsoever she wishes with all these income estates” (page 40): This is Oprich? Nancy Kollmann, Dishonor (Honor) Cases. Theme: Honor cases involved lawsuits over insults, heritage disputes, physical fights, theft & respect issues, some time people just recorded incidents for the record. 7118-1609-10-26 Plaintiff: record 19)  plaintiff, slave; Defendant: scribe Vasilii Semenov who allegedly allies with accused Baim Kalzakov.  Issue, alleged, Two coats stolen by, Baim’s unit/ countersuit by Baim, scribe: alleged conversations – Insults: ‘son of a whore, this field worker.’: hearsay, Vasilii insults in cathedral: Insults in cathedral carry an extra penalty?  Baim’s alleged physical threats to Indrinko’s people. Judgment: no resolution, just a record incase of future physical action stressed by plaintiff’s fear of future action. Record:141) Description: March 29 1640 boyar Fedor Ivanovich Sheremetev sued Mikahil Eropkin for dishonor and recompense (p3). Issue of validation in official genealogy books cited: Issue of a  different noble of ranks, insult led supposedly to imprisonment, word usage of “exceptionally noble” is different that rodoslovnye (3): Insults below said class- station is a ground for suits? Arguments over politeness or threats:  Result, Sheremetev wins, tsar claims all boyars cast judgment in other Eropkin, not just Sheremetev; Mikahil Eropkin is sent to prison: How long were insult sentences? What about falsely accused? How wide spread were these? Note that case record 19, the said scribe had judicial authority and sided with one party, allegedly, out of friendship, does friendship matter more than justice?   Record 253) 1656-08-07, insults, "s urna soshol": What does this mean?  Fight between a (supposedly impoverished) prince and peasant. No outcome, too many different stories.  P. M. Saltykov sues Tsar Aleksei Mikhailovich: This year 1656 August 7: Mother Oath was a popular device for insults?: What did this entail?  “Tsar ordered a high-ranking scribe to investigate.” (5): These scribes were trusted, or because they could record interviews of witnesses? Many people were witness, but none tell the same story. No- resolution. This showed honor was important and how many witnesses are called in to testify. alleged Insults, “impoverished prince”, ‘drunkard,” field worker,” “testified on the Gospel,”  Record 313) 179-1671-05-09, suit over family name, prestige and consequences to surname:  plaintiff, Otrep’ev clan, high ranking attend at court; defendant, Otrep’ev, Grishka, defrocked monk,  a slightly less high rank in court attendant.  Members of the otrep'ev clan/and others sue Aleksei Mikhailovich; Otrep’ev, Grishka accused of theft and imposter; falsely claimed son of Ivan IV…‘First false Dimitrii’, he exhaled many Otrep’ev clan, did much harm – caused great shame to name. Tsar Vasilli Shuiskii ordered their return: Were imposters a problem in the Medieval Ages? Verdict of heritage, to be re-introduced in official military records: Military records were important for family prestige and mestnichestvo (precedence ranking).  Record 322)  Plaintiff: Mashkin, Merkul Stepanov syn; Defendant: Boiarintsov, Levontii Ivanov syn; case: hearing to see if case can go to court.  plaintiff states Boiarintsov stole his horse from his brother on a road to Moscow. Boiarintsov said it was his horse.  This was seen also as a dishonor, because of name calling. Boiarintsov suid, said Mashkin called him a thief, criminal and highwayman, Mashkin admits this in court: witness brought forth and both agree to abide by their testimony: So witnesses were often the only key to proof?  Witnesses are important factor in Russian legal sense? ”Nancy Shields Kollmann, The seclusion of Muscovite Women (Stanford, Calif., U.S.A.) Thesis: Nancy Kollmann argues origins of seclusion came from elite women’s position in Muscovy which had several characteristics: men and women lived separately in different rooms with children, marriage within the social strata, considered ‘valued’ property (marriage pawns), because highest echelons of women were  to be  considered as marriage prospects with the tsar or boyar, issues of ‘clan purity,’: protect women form shame in public?  Women equaled politics? this seen as properly functioning system, pertains to Muscovy period only (begun, c. 14th-15th), they were sheltered/separated from men in quarters called pokoi; in Muscovite sources, 19th cent. Sources called it terem: N.K argues that a strict regime was a native response to the development of elite society (177).  Comparative: French society lived in different quarters, as do some Middle Eastern Women today (173). Note,  Classical Greeks also isolated their women, they believed women could be shamed out in public unsupervised, this supposedly brought dishonor in the community or ranking (See politics of the symposium): Was this no different in concept? Analysis, comparative of later development on social: Medieval Europe had a different situation, a broader female social opportunity; Later dev. on Russia: Peter the Great fundamentally changed the role of Women in Russian society, gave the elite new relationship and attitudes toward women’s role: Did women hesitate knowing tradition? Did Russian women understand Europe’s a broader female social opportunity happening at that time? Peter’s reforms: ideas about love, marriage, and individuality – new values (187).   General Muscovy exceptions: Keenan, widows roles could be political, enjoy particular respect in Muscovite politics: Widows could be the only one’s holding the clan together indicating their importance? Misogynistic: Kotoshikhin’s dictum ‘women secluded because they were stupid;’ Other historians blame Muscovy’s barbarous social mores, i.e. women’s seclusion is linked to the degradation of Russian morals. Historiography, women seen too broadly from pagan time to Muscovy: This means painting with a broad brush? Different with peasant and town women: moved freely, (174); elite women rarely appeared in public, only to visit kinsman, if so some veiled, or in sealed carriage. Elite could hold property, freedom of activity if in convent: however the state could place her in there for economic or political reasons? Contemporary observers: strict control was limited to the elite: this is a sober view? Peasant women had to work, no? That meant visibility, therefore different controls on free movement?  Strictness increased during Muscovy (176) N. Kollmann uses sources to verify this? No way to know if Muscovy barrowed theses attitudes and strictness (177), if so it was only the elite model? Mongol women no seclusion (177, see foot 31). 1724 crowning of wife, Russian public-acknowledgement of women’s political role (187). Summary: Seclusion of Muscovite women, intermarriage in the political elite is key increasing a man’s power; women are pawns in a chess game. Stoglov Council in 1551, Jack Kollmann, trans., ch 3 [ unpublished]. Stovglov (1551): Issues of reforming chiny. One Hundred Chapters’ Did Ivan have a speech writer? Were words placed in his mouth?  Ivan’s thesis for calling the meeting other than (topics addressed) was for everyone’s help in unanimity and harmony. How does this reflect on the argument that Muscovy was an autocracy? ( See N. Kollmann’s MPITHOIR) Previous council 1503: does this mean these are not often held? This was a rubber stamp council, where the people came to hear the decision of them?  Reinterpreting Russian History: Readings, 860-1860s. ed. Daniel H. Kiaser  Gary Marker (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994). (Minstrels 131-137) Skomorokhi, minstrels secular entertainment, not approved by many clergy, After Kiev, moved to Novgorod and Vladimir-Suzdal, banned by Aleksei in 1648: Was the reason political or religious? Clergy stated it was loud and boisterous: did it take people away from going to church? Tolerant of minstrels more in the northwest than northeast; gulsi changed over time, in 15th cent. It was a four-stringed harp, played by hand , accompanied by singer. (Readings 147-163) Historians view the dismantling of the Muscovite state by the foreigners and natives alike (148): What was the result of the line of Riurik dying out on heritage issues? Ivan plan was to gain access ‘directly’ to European trade: What did Mikhail Romanov (r. started 1613) do to see this plan through, if any? Argument, Russia rebounded quickly from the troubled time: by 1660s, Russia was already modernizing army?(149) Nancy Kollmann highlighted, lone view (151). Heinrich von Staden used.(151-54):We do not know if German Emperor Rudolf II saw the manuscript? Façade of Autocracy is discussed (154-158)(See other notes) various issues including collateral and primogeniture. Robert. O Crummy: Oprichnina, no rational end; a dismal failure (158| 163) Sack of Novgorod by Ivan led to its decline.(162) Crummy Doesn’t like Ivan much? Riasanovsky, Nicholas V. & Mark D. Steinberg, History of Russia, vol. I. 7th ed. (Oxford: Oxford Unity Press, 2005). (readings pages 131-143;161-180) pages131-143) Riasanovsky, Ivan learned to read, and read often (133): How does he know? 1547, 16 y-old, ‘started effective reign’: is 1565 seen as the not-effective period? 1553, Riasanovsky begins to link n.e. period to Ivan’s illness (137). Riasanovsky claims to know a lot of intimate things about young Ivan, where did he get this? War 1563 first phase success (135): How did this affect future decisions of war? The commandeering of scientists  by Ivan stopped by Hanseatic League is seen as a major impasse in peaceful relations to the west. Detour: Northern rout to west achieved, but hampering: How did this affect the economy? Riasanovsky  too general on role between boyars, rise of autocracy(137). Does show increase in boyar representation over the 16th century. Cites that Sylvester and Adashev were in plot to poison wife: Platonov (See gave up on rational for Oprichnina), reform of 1564, state has only one set of institutions, but two sets of officials (138) Oprichnina created Tartar opportunity? (139): Muscovy was fighting a two front war? Livonian and Crimean? Two front wars are difficult? Ivan’s eldest son, Theodore, or Fedor, gave Russia a measure of peace: what boyar clans controlled or had major influence besides Goudenov?  Did Boris Goudenov come from a Mongol gentry?(143) 1591 Prince Dimitrii of Uglich famous detective story: This sounds interesting. Platonov argues against Goudenov tsar aspirations theory. (161-180)Alexis’ son, Theodore, schooled with some Latin Church background, got  rid of the Mestnichestvo (168); Patriarch Nikon, extreme domineering character, from peasant background, rose to Metropolitan of Novgorod, in 1652, became patriarch, expressed Latin Church’s claim that the Church is stronger than the state: this was never a theme in the Orthodox world? Alexis gave Nikon the title of Great Sovereign: this was a lot of influential power?  Accusations of Papism; 1666-7, Eastern patriarchs participated, deposed and defrocked Nikon: Significance, people that deposed him, held up his reforms: Did this mean he personally had too much power but his ideas were good? Key to some measures that eventually allowed Peter the Great to reform government. (168). Feudalism: Liashchenko/ Marxist school ,sees everything as class struggle, French Annual school of look from the bottom to see how the top functions. Riasanovsky Mid-16th cent. Rural economy changed, transition form appanage to centralized state, based on gentry service and exploitation of peasants and to Ivan the Terrible’s Oprichnina (171):  N. Kollmann, how do we see a connection with the increase in women’s seclusion, and Riasanovsky’s argument that serfdom evolved from loans, servitude, in the 14.15th centuries to 16,17th peasant bondage? Predominate serfdom in southern, southeastern and west, not north. No law ever established serfdom. Barshchina, corvée labor, the quitrent, or obrak: did the landlords make it harder over time for peasants to pay off debts? How did this affect measures in the 17th century to limit servitude times? Vlozhenie 1649, serfdom could be fully established in Muscovite state: was this a hereditary serfdom law?  Serfs described as tillers of the soil. Riasanovsky see three separate lower classes: Slave, state peasant, and serf: Was this also Liashchenko model? Was a state peasant the commoner on church land, or lands given to military servitors? Moscow, Khan Davlet-Geray ,100,000 Russians as slaves| enormous booty 1571: How did this affect the people to stop once and for all this from happening? Can imperialism be a matter of self-preservation? ’72 Molodi. Major Problems in the History of Imperial Russia, Nancy Shields Kollmann, Muscovite Patrimonialism” in Carcraft. Nancy Kollmann, Muscovite Heritage, Ch.2. thesis: Muscovite autocracy, contrary to the traditional view, was in fact a "façade," the creation of religious-political ("theocratic") ideology and court ceremonial that vaunted the grand prince or tsar of Moscow as the sovereign head of God's family on earth: Support of thesis, Chronicles refer to tsar as sole decision maker (38): wasn’t it the boyars and the tsar that came to decisions? Sovereign the center of a theocratic vision of government: was this what Patriarch Nikon implied as the difference between Latin and Orthodoxy?  Unanimity (reference to Stovglov: this was a desire of harmony), Ivan even forgave past grievances to show good intentions, to implement this desire.(40). What could interrupt harmony? Wars, economy, hostile environment (41). How do we know tsars were not absolute monarchs? Examples, boyars criticizes for bad advice: If the tsar was sole decision maker, how can one blame a boyar?(40)  Good point. Prosopography, a good way to study characters within a historical, literary, or social context? “Such as patrimonial means of forming relationships” (42) Social classes existed in Muscovy but not politically potent(42). Things do change, patrimonial relationships formed outside of inner boyar influence: modifications in 17th century: marriage with “obscure families for their brides” (44): this reflected circumstances large Muscovite bureaucracy? “ NK argues, “A government must establish effective links”: this was a way to connect to the masses that contained different ethnicities, no? Other social Inputs on government: zemskie sober (45) social networking, servitor classes and urban estates cam communicate their desires to the government (45): this appears more of a collective ‘ideas’ input than one person at the top calling all the shots? How this of could happened? NK argues “no intermediary institutions between central gov. and society.” (45) So how did this work? Council of Lands, petitions often were used for family honor which expressed itself as a connecting point between the broader community and the court.(45) Muscovy was not “ a well ordered police state,” a bureaucracy organized commonwealth whose ruler and officials served  the public good. (46) Final word, Muscovy was a minimally governed society – everything relied on the charismatic leader to symbolically unify the Muscovy state.

GLOSSARY OF FREQUENTLY ENCOUNTERED WORDS IN THE TEXTS

alodial estate = votchina. A landed estate held in absolute ownership, and thus heritable within a family, as opposed to the lands given to cavalrymen in exchange for service. Those service— tenure lands were technically not owned by the cavalrymen they were granted to, but by the state; they were given in usufruct, or use. 

appanage = udel. Separate principality within the grand principality given by the sovereign to his collateral kinsmen—— uncles, cousins, nephews or brothers——to provide them income through their lives. These princes were sovereign in these areas locally (collected taxes, administered justice, had their own boyars and political administration), but they had no right to conduct independent foreign policy or to aspire to the grand- princely throne.

boyar = boiarin. The highest political rank at the Kremlin court; an advisor to the grand prince.

cavalryman = syn boiarskii, deti boiarskie. Members of the grand- prince’s cavalry army, generally given lands by the grand prince for their support, in return for which they had to serve in the army in each year’s annual campaign. They also could own alodial land.

equerry = koniushjj. Literally, keeper of the horses. In the sixteenth century an honorific office at the Kremlin court, based

on the historical importance of the cavalry in the state’s power. Said to have been the most powerful of the boyars.

Great Novgorod. A city that had as its official name “Lord Novgorod the Great.” A major trading center linked by river to the Baltic; conquered by  Muscovy in 1478.

 

kiss the cross. A ritual of oath—taking used in Orthodox Muscovy whereby the person taking the oath swore a religious vow and kissed the cross in witness of his loyalty.

 

majordomo = dvoretskii. Steward of the grand prince’s estate, or some regional division of it; a chief administrator of the  grand prince’s entire financial and territorial apparatus. A reflection of how much the administration of the state was  regarded as a private possession of the grand prince and his family. A post, generally honorific by the sixteenth century, for  an important boyar.

 

metropolitan = mitropolitan. The chief religious official of the Russian Orthodox church, based in Moscow; he had authority over the hierarchy beneath  him of archbishops, bishops and the parish network. In the sixteenth century he was elected by  bishops and archbishops with some oversight by the grand  prince; his palace was in the Kremlin.

 

okol’nichii. The second level (below boyar) of political counselor at the Kremlin court; often but not always a stepping stone  for men before boyar rank. = a unit of weight ca. 36 pounds. verst = a unit of linear measure of about .66 miles or 1.067  kilometers. vicegerent = namestnik. Governor general appointed to a particular city and its region, to collect taxes, keep the  peace and administer justice on behalf of the grand prince.

 

DATES: The Muscovites used a calendar calculated from the creation of the world, rather  than the birth of Christ as is our  custom. They considered that the earth was created  about 5509 years before the birth of Christ. They used the same months we do, which we and they derived from Roman practice. But in sixteenth—century accounts the Muscovites began their year  in September, rather than in January as we do. Thus, these chronicles are dated according to a year which is 5508 or 5509 years off from our reckoning depending upon which month you are talking about. For example, the year 7042 went from  September 1, 1533 to August 31, 1534.

 

 Questions:

 

1) 1547 Ivan sends for teachers, doctors and artists from Germany, he sends Saxon Slitte to gather them, they are stopped by the Livonians and Hanseatic League,  and only  a few make it. What were Ivan’s social motives? Was this Ivan’s idea only or also the boyars and Clergy? How does the lack of teachers help us to understand literacy rates in Russia at this time?

 

2) What is the rough estimate of the Russian Population during the 16th century? 1571, Davlet-Geray takes 100,000 Russians as slaves – even in today’s standards, this is considered a lot of people. Where these people all from Moscow?

 

3) Edinoglasno' changed at the 1551 Stoglov Church Council. Prior to this were people in rush to get back to work and that is why they sang all the hymns and songs together at the same time claiming God could sort it out?  (foot 2) (The Domostroi)

  

 

1) Nancy Kollmann’s theme of Muscovy ideology put out into the public to fashion a façade of autocracy is brilliant. Muscovy was a minimally governed society? How does a minimally governed society hold its self together, or does this mean it didn’t and the Times of Troubles will reveal the answers?

 

2) Mother Oath was a popular device for insults? What was this? (see: Nancy Kollmann, Honor Cases)

 

3) Edinoglasno' changed at the 1551 Stoglov Church Council. Prior to this were people in rush to get back to work and that is why they sang all the hymns and songs together at the same time claiming God could sort it out?  (foot 2) (The Domostroi)

 

4) Can we see Astrakhan, Kazan, Siberia, and other Russian expansions not as imperialism, but as self – preservation from fear of regrouping of nomadic conquerors for the future?  Why were Russian fortresses later built along a line of Siberia –the same concept of the Chinese Great Wall which acted as a safety boundary, and alert station, for possible future threats from the northeast Mongolia region?

 

 

Notes: panegyrics:  A formal eulogistic composition intended as a public compliment.

 

Prosopography: a study of a collection of persons or characters, esp. their appearances, careers, personalities, etc., within a historical, literary, or social context.

 

 

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