Russia -- Muscovite Synthesis


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Rus' Art And Architecture and Legitimacy

 
     

Art, Synthesis, Architecture, Muscovy

Consolidating Archaism

Muscovite Synthesis

*          Overview

*          “Muscovite Synthesis” in Architecture, Simplified developments.

*          Hamilton Art
              

I.  Background

 

A.  Kiev Holy Sophia Cathedral, 11th c. (Ham. 2-4, 7-8)

terms:  opus mixtum; nave, transept, crossing, apse

 

B.  Novgorod/Pskov

Holy Sophia Cathedral, Novgorod, 11th c. (Ham. 12-14)

Church of the Transfiguration of the Savior on Il'in Street, 1374, Novgorod, (Ham. 18) trefoil roof line

 

C.  Vladimir/Suzdal'

1.  Dormition/Assumption Cathedral (Uspenskii sobor), Vladimir, 12th c. (Ham  22-23); terms:  Romanesque; pilaster; blind arcading

2.  Church of the Intercession (Pokrov) on the River Nerl', near Vladimir, 12th c. (Ham. 24-25)

3.  Cathedral of St. Demetrius, 1194-97, Vladimir (Ham. 27-28)

 

D.  Wooden architecture

1.  Church of the Raising of Lazarus, late 14th c. (?), Island of Kizhi, Lake Onega  (Ham. 109-110)

2.  Church of St. Nicholas from the Village of Glotovo, 18th c., Suzdal' (Ham. 111)

3.  Church of the Transfiguration, 18th c., Island of Kizhi, Lake Onega (Ham.  124)

terms:  kokoshnik gable; octagon on a square; 20-walled log church plan

 

E.  Fortress architecture

limestone walls at Staryi Izborsk; Truvor, brother of semi-legendary Riurik

Moscow Kremlin:  white limestone walls of 14th c., Gr. Pr. Dmitrii Donskoi

red brick walls by northern Italians, late 15th-early 16th cc., Ivan III the Great

terms:  machicolation; embattlement; crenellation; swallowtail merlons

 

II.  Muscovite church architecture, 15th-16th cc.

 

A.  Dormition Cathedral, Kremlin, 1475-79, by Aristotele Rodolfo Fioravanti (Ham. 127-129); where tsars were crowned, and metropolitans/patriarchs buried;

            brick and limestone

 

B.  Archangel Michael Cathedral, Kremlin, 1505-09, by Alevisio the New (Ham. 130-131); royal male necropolis of Moscow ruling dynasty; brick

 

C.  Annunciation Cathedral, 1484-89 (Ham. 125-126); by architects from Pskov, built of

            brick

 

D.  Church of the Deposition of the Robe of the Mother of God, Kremlin, 1484-85; by

            architects from Pskov; built of brick

 

E.  [Tent] Church of the Ascension, Kolomenskoe, 1532 (Ham. 133-134); brick, with

            white stone trim

 

F.  [Tower] Church of the Decapitation of St. John the Baptist, D'iakovo (next to  Kolomenskoe), ca. 1547-54 (Ham. 136-137); brick

 

G.  Cathedral of the Intercession on the Moat, a.k.a. the Temple (khram) of Vasilii [Basil]  the Blessed [a popular Moscow holy fool]), 1555-60, with 17th-c. additions and

      alterations (Ham. 139-142); brick, with white stone trim

 

III.  Additional Italian contributions to the Kremlin

            A.  The Chamber of Facets (Granovitaia palata), early 16th c.; rustication (projecting

                        stone work) (Ham. 169-171)

            B.  The Bell Tower complex, 16th-17th cc. (Ham. 174)

 

IV.  Influence of Kremlin structures throughout Muscovite Russia

            imitations of Kremlin walls, Dormition Cathedral, scallop shells, faux rustication

 

“Muscovite Synthesis” in Architecture

 

Key developments

*          Dimitrii Donskoi Orders the wood contraction replaced with limestone ( look for date on test)

*          1470s, very important period: Ivan III's wife brings in foreigners, from Italy and abroad 1470-1500s cannon makers, and many western technology not seen in Russia.

*          Muscovite Synthesis can be described in the rulers bringing in architects from all Russian cities to claim they have a monopoly on style.

Kremlin, Ivan III, built, called Uspénskii Sabór

( Dormition/Assumption ( Aprochripha Mary’s role in bodily consumed into heaven)

Sabor, a Cathedral, parish churches owe some sort of allegiance, Ivan’s time processions to the sabor, icons and symbols. Kremlin 3 Cathedrals. Sabor comes form the verb ‘to gather,’ gathering of parish churches to the sabor.

  

Muscovite Church architecture, 15-16th Century.

Archangel Michael Cathedral Kremlin 1505-09

Royal male necropolis of Moscow ruling dynasty; brick

Very Italian style. Very beautiful , done by Italians  ( silver color domes) by Alevisio, after Fioravanti left. Reflect back to traditional construction, where one see irregularity, not the golden ratio-like symmetry.

 

Archangel Michael Cathedral & Dormition Cathedral, Kremlin become the two models of Muscovy large building techniques.

 

Muscovite Synthesis is the showing off of all the builders, Pskov, Lagimer, Novgorod and we are the king now.

 

This became a new models for all enlarge Muscovy buildings. These models could be studied and reproduced. Fioravanti really introduced brick making techniques.

 

Metropolitan Cathedral, called the Deposition of the Robe of the Mother of God ( Kremlin)  next to the Dormition was built bu Pskov architects, and this was done in brick, and they were introduced to brick.

 

 

Dormition Cathedral, Kremlin, 1475-79 ( main place)

 

 

16th cent. Illustrated Manuscripts of Ivan being crown, Yuri pouring gold coins on Ivan, seen in the Eisenstein movie.

 

 

Dimitrii Donskoi Orders the wood contraction replaced with limestone ( look for date on test)

 

1470s

                                                Dormition Cathedral

Ivan III wife brings in foreigners from Italy and abroad, 1470-1500s: cannon makers, and many western technology not seen in Russia.

Why are the 1470s important:, incorporated Novgorod incorporated.

Ivan III maries the  Niece of last Byzantine emperor was raised in Italy, and Pope helped engineered the marriage in hopes to Catholicize Russia, but nothing never happens.

Dimitrii replaced the walls around the Kremlin with white stone walls in place of wooden, a epithet carried till this day, “ Moscow the White Walled City” even though it is made mostly of brick. Metropolitan, 1320s Peter Metropolitan accidentally dies and Dorminiton was built in the 1470s,

Where to get the plans and idea to build the main church in the Kremlin?

To build the Dormition Cathedral, was put up a bidding war, they wanted the lowest bid. Where are they to get the notion of the purpose to build a large masonry structure? The Kiev Sofia Cathedral, they could have looked at, build long ago, but Kiev was in control of Lithuania to the east and steppe nomads to the west, so they couldn’t go there and get plans.

1474 walls came cashing down, claimed an earthquake, but no other buildings fell, so this proved an attempt to build a large cathedral was tough, so they looked to Italy. Competition for buildings were normal, such in Italy competitions to build great structures was also a competitive thing. So the gov. sends an agent into Italy. He says anyone here work cheap and is an architect? So that is how one got the word out. Aristotole Rodolfo Fioravanti ( he teaches Muscovite how to cut stone, but what he really teachers them is to use brick in structure, and this was innovating for Russia) The golden ratio ( Kokóshnik), was used in the Dormition, Much of this was Classical Greek understanding back in Italy, and this was brought to Moscow. Fioravanti showed them compus ?, rule, mathematical measurements such as the golden ratio to use for making structure, to show you how primitive Muscovy architects were, and he showed them how to make stronger mortar and stronger brick. And when he left these techniques were forgotten, and this didn’t last. The Cathedral was a large cube-like structure. Five domes, done in limestone, and brick on the inside, and in the drums done in brick, strong but lighter than using limestone. 500 people can fit inside, and this is where the coronations took place.

Byzantine opus mixum [?], the brick, motor, crushed brick layer method.

Novgorod churches mainly had single domes and one east aspe. Rubble stone construction, today most stuccoed over.

Great Cathedral of Legimer, represented the capital Vladimir-Suzdal prominence. French artistic work, and Novgorod and Lagimer had foreign contact.

Wood architecture

Small village churches or personal church, simple, construction, same basic floor plan of a house: Post and grove slat work was rare, mostly basic log buildings, a type of cabin like we understand. Politsa ( to police the water away from the structure was also needed to get the snow melt off away from the structure). Poval under it, shows where the curve is. .

  1. Structure designs, some  and Octagon on a square.
  2. Techniques, overlap, notch logging. Notching the underneath notch corners, to keep the rain and water out.
  3. types of wood most used: Fir, pine or spruce, were the main logs used.
  4. These buildings were not made with saws, not until the 19th century, but the made them with axes.
  5. Tree stump with a root left on it was a gutter board, and simple gravity kept it on, root holds the gutter board by gravity , no nails. Spruce was flammable , but available and easy to work with. This is why many fires reported in the chronicles.
  6. Basic church structure: Central square and four square side structures, an octagon.
  7.  Bochka: Pointed gable, origins possible to due with o-g is the same as a cross-section of an ‘onion’ dome.
  8.  Also storied churches of raised octagons, and all rest on squared base.

 

Church of the transfiguration, Island of Kishi, Lake Onega, 1776 c.

20 walled church plan - (1776) 22 domes in tears in pyramidal silhouette, and hard to see floor plan from out side observance, it was a central Octagon to the ground level. with four projecting squared side-arms, tops recessed. Many o-gs and pointed gables, and medium onion domes.

Fortress Walled Construction

Fortress Walled Construction, mainly local limestone, and 14-15th century, mainly white walls made in the Kremlin, toady red and brick. Limestone still in the foundation of the river sides. Tartars arrived on the south side, of the Kremlin.

Slots leads from holes in the parapet on the towers and holes are functional if anyone attacks you pour molten metal, throw rocks out these holes, and this design was common around Italy. These were features of fortress walls.Merlons, outer wall area, were the groves in the wall, where you poke a musket out or a cannon  out at the enemy.

Kremlin roughly 70 acres triangle shaped. Mote surrounded the Kremlin walls. And the one area in the Kremlin was dedicated for foreign commerce. Commerce came here first, so the leaders take the spoils of the best and also sellers sell and give tax to the government.

Wood

  1. Houses, rectangular units, added on with extensions of families. Live in the stove room in the winter. Carbon monoxide problems: no chimneys, only louvers holes.  Wax was expensive, inexpensive pitch-pine; it is a crude method of lighting. Soup bowels carved out a single piece of wood. In the north animals were kept inside for the winter, so many barns rooms connected a peasant house. All pitched roofs in the north. One way to distinguish a church’s floor plan is to determine if the base is octagonal or square. 20 walled-log plan, a much used planned and is referenced in 17th century chronicles is referred too and considered as a traditional shaped.
  1. Look to a Squint roof ( at a raised level off the ground) in complex churches to determine if the floor plan is square ( look to nave)  determining the base to hold the octagon rise.
  2. Nikon it is unfit to have only one top on God’s church, must have three or five atop God’s churches ( see 17th cent.).
  3. Overlapping technique: wood then brick overlap called corbelling, bricks overlaying.
  4. Fioravanti did not affect Russian style; but his teaching of brick and structure-techniques is what dramatically affects Russian architecture after. Wider transept, cross-isle was a Russian tradition, and after Fioravanti, Alevisio returned to the Russian tradition in the building of Archangel Michael Cathedral with the uneven plan with a wider cross-isle. Structural debt to the Italian was the brick building technique, mainly headed by the inspiration of Fioravanti. The great 16th century buildings in the Kremlin and Moscow were now built in brick, instead of stone.  Stone was hard work, and difficult. Faux rusitfication an aesthetic, deliberately barrowed form the cathedral churches in Red Square.  
  5. Centrally planned churches: Sudal, Italy, Novgorod:  Basil, St. John, and Ascension, were different ideas, centrally planned church, and the symbol of a central state, and the capture of Kazan.
  6. Moscow’s Synthesis: Palaeologus Renaissance.

Manuel II was the father of John VIII Palaeologus and Constantine XI, the last Byzantine emperor (Constantine XI Palaeologus), as well as the despots of Morea Demetrius Palaeologus and Thomas Palaeologus.

Thomas Palaiologos or Palaeologus (Greek: Θωμάς Παλαιολόγος, Thōmas Palaiologos) (1409– May 12, 1465) was Despot in Morea from 1428 until the Ottoman conquest in 1460. After the desertion of his older brother to the Turks in 1460, Thomas Palaiologos became the most legitimate claimant to the Byzantine throne.

The Palaiologos or Palaeologus (Greek: Παλαιολόγος, pl. Παλαιολόγοι) family was the last dynasty ruling the Byzantine Empire.

Thomas' daughter Zoe married Ivan III of Russia and, on rejoining the Orthodox faith, returned to her earlier name Sophia. Her influence on the court curtailed the power of the boyars and eventually led to the proclamation of the lord of Muscovy as the Tsar of all the Russias. Thomas's male-line descendants soon went extinct, and his descent lives on through a daughter and the family of Castriota Dukes of san Pietro di Galatina in south-Italian aristocracy. (wiki, unsourced editing)

Palaeologus renaissance in Art.

Thomas Palaiologos daughter Zoe married Ivan III of Russia, she returned to her earlier name Sophia. The Palaiologos family had escaped to Venice after the Ottoman’s began to take control of Anatolia. At this time Italy was going through a renaissance. Sophia a niece of last Byzantine emperor was raised in Italy. The Pope engineered the marriage in hopes to Catholicize Russia.  She brought with her cannon makers, and many western technologies never seen in Russia.

Many fires had ravaged Moscow between 1380 and 1547 and the damage was so intense that Metropolitan brought icon painters from Novgorod.

Feofan Grek left Novgorod for Moscow, painted Interior of Church of the Nativity of the Virgin in Moscow with Semen Cherny and his pupils in 1395: In 1399 continued working with pupils in the Cathedral of St. Michael in the Kremlin. Archangel Michael Cathedral, Kremlin, 1505-09, was built by Alevisio. This was a new royal male necropolis of Moscow ruling dynasty; brickwork became the lasting contribution of Aristotele Rodolfo Fioravanti. His use of the Greek golden ratio, which appears (where) on the Dormition in the Kremlin, was not adopted by later Muscovy architects. Pskov architect helped built the Metropolitan’s church in the Kremlin.

Feofan Grek continued, according to a chronicle to decoration of the Cathedral of the Annunciation in the Kremlin. Here, in the chronically, Andrey, Rublev appears for this first time (ham. 133).  In 1482, masters from Pskov came to Moscow and helped with the new structure of the Annunciation. Rublev and Feofan Grek worked together in the Cathedral in 1405, both demonstrating Byzantine impressionism. The Dormition Cathedral in Moscow can be attributed to Theophane’ school with its technical resemblance to his Novgorod work (Ham. 136) Here Rublev accompanied Feofan Grek and Prokhor of Gorodets.

The icon of the Old Testament Trinity (ca 1410), Trinity Cathedral in the Troitse-Sergiev Monastery in Zagorsk ,  is considered Rublev’s masterpiece.

The Influence of Kremlin structures throughout Muscovite Russia became a standard contribution from later Muscovy architects. The Italian style signified one of the foreign synthesis styles with contributions of scallop shells and faux rustication. Later architects directly imitated the Kremlin walls and the Dormition Cathedral which employed these styles.

Rublev: 1425–1427 the Cathedral of St. Trinity in the Troitse-Sergiyeva Lavra.

Rublev accredited with thousands of works of art. Attribution to his extensive work in the Dormition in Vladimir: His theme was a long reawakening of Moscow and Suzdal after the Tartar Yoke?  Rublev introduced a new spirit of gentleness, dignity and compassion, a characteristic which became synonymous of Russian church art. He also introduced a masterful technique which depicted individual craftsmanship. Rublev studied at fourteenth century monastery art schools. This impressed the Grand Princes who promoted a monastic art-school partnership. The Metropolitan and Tsar conflicts in the sixteenth century brought an end to this partnership. Moscow’s indebtedness to Novgorod icon-painting can be seen through Rublev’s migration to Moscow after Daniil’s death. He lived at the Moscow's Andronikov Monastery where he painted his last work, frescoes of the Savior Cathedral.

Possibility of Movement and Depth:  Painting in Moscow in the Later Fifteenth and Sixteenth Century. Change occurred in the sixteenth century art. Dionisy and his sons: The Parable of the Widow’s mite, Frescos in the Church of the Nativity of the Virgin, Ferapontov monastery: proportionally,  Symmetry, overall unity in composition, equilibrium, naturalism, illusion to motion. Dionisy and his sons: Christ Enthroned with the Virgin and St. John the Babtustm fom the Last Judgment , fresco in the Church of the Nativity of the Virgin, Ferapontov monastery, 1500-2. the style:  discursive and disparate, stressing the spiritual concepts, yet with exalted emotion and natural expressive interchange ; narrative. 1484, Venerable Paissi and his sons Feodosy ( Theodosius) and Vladimir painted  an extensive series of icons for the monastery of Volokolamsk: More than 100 icons were attributed to the family. Regarded as great by Bishop Vassian of Rostov, none of their work survived but their influence in this stage of Russian art survived in Vassian’s St. Paphnutius Borovshy, and affected later panel-painting , and the school of Dionisy, more closely allied with the Ferapontov Monastery associated with Moscow. (Ham. 155). Considerable influence. Legacy, this style was too refined to serve as a basis for a new school. Sixteenth century Muscovy entitled concentration of artistic effort at the capital. After a fire in 1547, Metropolitan Macarius, former Novgorod Archbishop, ordered icons from Novgorod ( and later Pskov) and with their workshops. The Characteristic of the Novgorod school would be transformed into a Moscow Synthesis along with other regions and foreign influence.

Italian architects and craftsman came to Moscow after 1470. Spatial inter-relations between subjects appearance of new subject mater,  appeared in part of Moscow’s theory of the “third Rome.” Italian architects and craftsman came to Moscow after 1470.

Moscow: The Entry into Jerusalem, late sixteenth century, represented a new form of decorative elegance; this time with a mountain and architecture in the background, creating two distinct spaces in depth. (Ham. 159). The Incredulity of St. Thomas, c. 1500, and The Vision of St. Eulogius, c. 1530-40, in Moscow, also exhibited this new spatial depth.

  • Novgorod school: pragmatic naturalism.
  • Rublev: elegance, softness, refined, subtle /emotional.
  • Dionisy: Spiritually.

Consequences: Greek symmetry was not copied by the Russian followers. (159). Moscow: SS. Zosima and Savva at the Solovetsky Monastary in the White Sea, later sixteenth century shows a close observation of nature. Decorative aspect overruled the artist’s exact appearance of the location.

In the 1551 Stoglav council, issues of icon production to notice, and a new rule that Priests would over see icon style possibly halted the naturalistic expressions that were developing. Artist were to obverse a set of rules “ according to the consecrated type.” (ham. 161). Andrei Rublev’s style after the meeting was condemned. The regulations placed restrictions mediocre work. However, it is arguable if this threat was enforced, and not “ intended to annoy the priest Sylverter of the Cathedral of the Annunciation, because of his relationship to Ivan.(ham 162).  Viskovaty, a secretary,  supported novelty- artistic tastes in a case of a four-part icon in the Cathedral of the Annunciation, but was later in 1554, obliged to retract his assessments of an objectionable material. Viskovaty noted novelties in a western influence in the Pskov school, but a final rejection came to mean a return to following codification and regularization of artistic endeavors, henceforth.

Wooden Church architecture: Masonry structures in Moscow influenced, rather than followed, wooden church architecture. “ Wood buildings are then described as imitations of the forms of Court architecture.” (Ham. 164). How did Moscow architecture influence the provinces? Novgorod churches mainly had single domes and one east apse. Rubble stone construction, today most stuccoed over. Russian Churches over time became more complex. First, Tiny Church: Olonets, St. Lazarus, before 1391, represented a basic exterior of a three rectangular floor plan. The nave constituted the largest rectangle, and east the apse. Suzdal, St. Nicholas from Glotovo, 1766, represented the three interior spaces of the tiny church plan had expanded. Tent churches: Nizhny Uftiug, Church of the Dormition, octagon is adjoined by a square apse.  Five-sided Apse churches: Nicholas Church at Lyavla (1589), Church of the Virgin of Vladimir at Belaya Sluda (1642), and St. George at Vershino on the Toima (1672). More complex churches added east sides of the north and south additions to the octagon, as represented in SS. Florus and Laurus (1755) at Rostovskoe. Five tent roof: Church of the Trinity, 1727, of Nenoska was a combination of pyramidal, octagon and cube construction and were the most widespread in the seventeenth century. These Gothic Churches of the north could be possibly influenced by “European Gothic in its verticality or Gregorian in the articulation of its parts.” ( Ham. 177). Berezovets, St. Nicholas, early eighteenth century, is a “cross composed of an octagon with equilateral arms roofed with large bochki.” ( Ham. 181). Church of the Transfiguration, 18th c., Island of Kizhi, Lake Onega. Octagon with cross-arms plan. Nickname - a wooden St. Basil.  This is a silhouette of the church pyramidal tradition (Ham. 183).

terms:  kokoshnik gable; octagon on a square; 20-walled log church plan

Architecture in Moscow.

Moscow’s Synthesis  c. 1300-1600

Masonry: Ideology: Ivan III, Vasily III, and Ivan IV Russian nationality: Here nationality identifies the correct meaning of the mental process of the mind, and not defining a state, with borders or an army. Cathedrals of the Kremlin represent the close association with the dynasty, and as a center of the Orthodox faith, with the Chief metropolitan churches built in the capital.

Influence after arrival of the Italian architects’: Italian, Byzantine on Moscow.

St. Basil's Cathedral (1555-1560) Masonry: Originally called, Cathedral of Protection and  Intercession of the Virgin. St. Basil's Cathedral is positioned just outside the savior gate at the entrance to the Kremlin, dominating the southern side of Red Square. The plans were drawn by Leonardo De Vinci, but were loosely followed, and represented the Italian influence Muscovy has ordered. It was ordered and completed by Ivan IV. The carnival-like decorate of the onion domes express a three- dimensional expression. It was to honor Russia's victory over the Tatars khanates of Kazan and Astrakhan. The principle symbolized a unity by maintaining a central chapel with eight circumference chapels. It was a myth, still purported today, that Ivan had the architect’s eyes put out.

Kolomenskoe, Church of the Ascension, probably 1530-2, ordered possibly by Vasily III in commemoration of his new son Ivan Vasileovich. This church was without precedence, a vanguard and harbinger of what was to come? Dynastic estate, not public.

Ostrov, Church of the Transfiguration, lower part of sixteenth century.

Zagorsk, Cathedral of the Dormition in the trinity-Sergius Monastery, 1559-85. This represented and symbolized Nikon’s insistence of Orthodox style. Dormitions were usually monastic or cathedral structures. Cube churches were also a reflection of the reforms of Nikon ( Ham. 181).

Cathedral of the Annunciation, Moscow, in the Kremlin, 1484-9. ( and  Ferapont Monastery near the White Lake both were of Novgorodian origin. The Cathedral of the Annunciation was built by masters summoned from Pskov, who used a Vladimir model (ham. 190).. This church is where the tsars were christened and married. It was the second major work undertaken by Ivan III. Ivan IV later added additions. ….focus on octagon and square base wooden architecture.

Red Square: originally Red Square was covered with wooden buildings, with concerns for damage by periodic fires, in 1493  Ivan III by edict, ordered masonry to replace all wood structures in the district. The name of the Red Square derives from the color red from the Communist era or color of the bricks, and possibly from the connotation of the color red “beautiful,” in Russian lexigraphy. Dimitrii Donskoi ordered the wood construction be replaced with limestone in the fifteenth century. Dimitrii replaced the walls around the Kremlin with white stone walls in place of wooden, a epithet carried till this day, “ Moscow the White Walled City,” even though it is made mostly of brick. Preference for limestone was changed after the arrival of Aristotele Rodolfo Fioravanti who promoted brick as a structural enforcement in construction in the sixteenth century.

Outskirts of Moscow in the seventeenth century contained wooden buildings enclosed in a tilled area. The tilled land also doubled as a fire-break. Moscow still consisted of wooden walls, but later brickwork would form the outside foundation of the wood?

The golden ratio ( Kokóshnik), was used in the Dormition Cathedral, Kremlin, 1475-79, by Aristotele Rodolfo Fioravanti (; where tsars were crowned, and metropolitans/patriarchs buried;brick and limestone.

Fioravanti showed them compus ?, strait-edge rule, mathematical measurements such as the golden ratio to use for symmetry. To show you how primitive Muscovy architects were, and he showed them how to make stronger mortar and stronger brick. His brick work made a lasting impression on Russia. And when he left most these techniques were forgotten. The Cathedral was a large cube-like structure: five domes, done in limestone, and brick on the inside, and in the drums done in brick, strong but lighter than using limestone. 500 people can fit inside, and this is where the coronations took place. pp. 226-240

Secular Art: Fortress walls and towers.

Fortress architecture

limestone walls at Staryi Izborsk; Truvor, brother of semi-legendary Riurik Moscow Kremlin:  white limestone walls of 14th c., Gr. Pr. Dmitrii Donskoi red brick walls by northern Italians, late 15th-early 16th cc., Ivan III the Great terms:  machicolation; embattlement; crenellation; swallowtail merlons

Pslov characteristic of stout walls unadorned, irregular windows placed according to interior arrangements is represented in the Pogankin House, late sixteenth century or early seventeenth century.

Kremlin fires of 1547 and 1571 rebuilding was understood, even by the foreigners to be something of a periodic challenge. Kremlin, although not touched in 1571, bears influences of changing tastes during the Polish and French occupations of 1611. Wooden walls around Moscow could be seen as late as 1661 in the foreground of Meyerberg’s drawing. In 1451 the Tartars enter through the wooden barriers. Ivan III rebuilt the walls around the Kremlin in red brick beginning work in 1485, under the direction of Italian architect Pietro Antonio Solari, and was largely completed by 1516. Fioravanti influence and Italian artists help us to assume the towers were remarkably Italianate. Hydraulic engineer, Aloisio de Carcano, redirected the stream along the western side of the Kremlin, and Solari created a system of motes and double and triple walls. 1624-5, English architect Christiopher Galloway, designed the upper part of the Gate of the Redeemer (Spasskia Vorota) opposite of St. Basil on Red Square, and still the principle entrance to the Kremlin. ( ham. 227) He combined Gothic, Renaissance and old Russian motifs. He also inserted a clock that was destroyed in 1654. The Borovitsky Tower was rebuilt as a series of diminishing square storeys in imitation of the Syumbeky Tower ( stonework on the upper stories added in 1685) in Kazan, which was ruined in 1552, was rebuilt in the seventeenth century. ( ham. 227)

Dormition and the upper stories.

Ivan III & Sophia Palaeologa time the palace was not a single building, but a group of small structures, principally of wood, although in some cases the foundations were of stone. This is where the Grand Prince and his family lived with his principle courtiers, all were part of the upper stories. The gradual replacement of wood to brink was accomplished over a long period of time.

The State Building:

The Faceted Palace displaced a rusticated façade , which was built by Solari and Marco Ruffo between 1487 and 1491. This was a simple stone building, contenting the second story a large rectangular hall, with a groined vault supported b a huge pier in the center. ( ham 229) The design was like the earlier renaissance Italian palaces.

Faceted Palace in the Granovitaya during an audience held by the false Dmitry, early seventeenth century and shows the floor covered in oriental rugs. The vaulted hall is where the tsar sat during state occasions.  Wooden benches line the outskirts of the floor space, this was where the boyars and councilmen would sit, usually in a ranking order, most seated on the right of the Tsar and some to the left. All bowed in honor at certain times, and the tsar sat on a silver-gilt throne. This throne was raised three steeps above the benches. When everyone was inside the it could seem narrow. This building was damaged in fires of 1547 and 1571 ( tartar attacks) and total devastation during the Polish occupation. The replacement was the Terem Palace in the Kremlin, 1635-6.  This was a two story Italianate design, resting on the base of an earlier buildings and crowned with a pavilion. It was built under the directions of  Tsars  Mikhail Feodorovich and Alexey Mikhailovich. In 1661 von Meryerburg noticed the Flemish and Persian tapestries which covered the walls of the state apartments, so completely that the rooms, floors and walls were barely noticeable. A painting decorated with “astronomical accuracy of the solar system and the fixed starts, an indication of modern science. Samuel Collins and English traveler remarked a Polish influence on the current Tsar.

Another fire in 1682 caused a redecoration project under Sophia, Peter the Great’s sister (1682-9) who used her favorite Prince Golitsyn, and used quite amount of gold and silver. With the removal of the seat of Government to St. Petersburg, the palace was allowed to deteriorate to a shocking degree ( ham. 234). Catherin II who had a stronger sense of Russian tradition than any of the lineal heirs of Peter the Great, ordered the palace to be kept in better repair, and even proposed transforming the Kremlin into a national shrine. ( ham. 234).   Model of the 1760s of the wooden palace at Kolomenskoe, built in 1667-81.  this was like a giant dictionary, a preservation of all the historic archtiectual models on the Russia architecture. Bochki, kokoshniki, tent roofs, bulbous domes, and a variety of carved woodwork had been preserved in this model 

The Tower of Ivan Veliky (“ John the Great”) in the Kremlin, late sixteenth century: This building contains a tall belfry above the church, and was begun under Tsar Feoder Ivanovich and completed in 1600 by Boris Goudunov. The height of the tower and cupola  form the highest point from the ground in Moscow.

Kolomenskoe wooden palace, 1667-81 ( and the engraving, eighteenth century). Rectangles situated at angles presenting a constantly shifting arrangement. There was no precedence for this type of liberal floor plan. This was not tradition or an accident.

Moscow, the Ambassador’s Palace in 1661. From a drawing by Augustin von Meyerberg: Wooden chambers and tent roofs, elements of tradition. A ground floor arcade reminiscence of Italian tastes. State Pharmacy ( now demolished), late seventeenth century. Predecessor  Posolsky Prikaz ( foreign office) 1591, in Kremlin possibly inspired this building. This palace was an early example of the direction which Russia architecture was to take. Peter I devoted the building to new scientific programs.

School of Navigation, First Russian cartography school, an an astronomical center.

Building the German district.

(Nemetskaya Sloboda) German Suburb, on the eastern outskirts of Moscow. At end of centiry, the space was filled with foreign diplomats and merchants indicating wide economical and political contact with the west. The Tsars thought to close-off the Germans ( Protestants)  into a district to keep their culture in and away from the Russians, but it proved to be a fascination of the higher nobility and younger generation.

 

I.  Background

 

A.  Kiev Holy Sophia Cathedral, 11th c. (Ham. 2-4, 7-8)

terms:  opus mixtum; nave, transept, crossing, apse

 

B.  Novgorod/Pskov

Holy Sophia Cathedral, Novgorod, 11th c. (Ham. 12-14)

Church of the Transfiguration of the Savior on Il'in Street, 1374, Novgorod, (Ham. 18) trefoil roof line

 

C.  Vladimir/Suzdal'

1.  Dormition/Assumption Cathedral (Uspenskii sobor), Vladimir, 12th c. (Ham  22-23); terms:  Romanesque; pilaster; blind arcading

2.  Church of the Intercession (Pokrov) on the River Nerl', near Vladimir, 12th c. (Ham. 24-25)

3.  Cathedral of St. Demetrius, 1194-97, Vladimir (Ham. 27-28)

 

D.  Wooden architecture

1.  Church of the Raising of Lazarus, late 14th c. (?), Island of Kizhi, Lake Onega  (Ham. 109-110)

2.  Church of St. Nicholas from the Village of Glotovo, 18th c., Suzdal' (Ham. 111)

3.  Church of the Transfiguration, 18th c., Island of Kizhi, Lake Onega (Ham.  124)

terms:  kokoshnik gable; octagon on a square; 20-walled log church plan

 

E.  Fortress architecture

limestone walls at Staryi Izborsk; Truvor, brother of semi-legendary Riurik

Moscow Kremlin:  white limestone walls of 14th c., Gr. Pr. Dmitrii Donskoi

red brick walls by northern Italians, late 15th-early 16th cc., Ivan III the Great

terms:  machicolation; embattlement; crenellation; swallowtail merlons

 

 

 

II.  Muscovite church architecture, 15th-16th cc.

 

A.  Dormition Cathedral, Kremlin, 1475-79, by Aristotele Rodolfo Fioravanti (Ham. 127-129); where tsars were crowned, and metropolitans/patriarchs buried;

            brick and limestone

 

B.  Archangel Michael Cathedral, Kremlin, 1505-09, by Alevisio the New (Ham. 130-131); royal male necropolis of Moscow ruling dynasty; brick

 

C.  Annunciation Cathedral, 1484-89 (Ham. 125-126); by architects from Pskov, built of

            brick

 

D.  Church of the Deposition of the Robe of the Mother of God, Kremlin, 1484-85; by

            architects from Pskov; built of brick

 

E.  [Tent] Church of the Ascension, Kolomenskoe, 1532 (Ham. 133-134); brick, with

            white stone trim

 

F.  [Tower] Church of the Decapitation of St. John the Baptist, D'iakovo (next to  Kolomenskoe), ca. 1547-54 (Ham. 136-137); brick

 

G.  Cathedral of the Intercession on the Moat, a.k.a. the Temple (khram) of Vasilii [Basil]  the Blessed [a popular Moscow holy fool]), 1555-60, with 17th-c. additions and

      alterations (Ham. 139-142); brick, with white stone trim

 

 

III.  Additional Italian contributions to the Kremlin

            A.  The Chamber of Facets (Granovitaia palata), early 16th c.; rustication (projecting

                        stone work) (Ham. 169-171)

            B.  The Bell Tower complex, 16th-17th cc. (Ham. 174)

 

IV.  Influence of Kremlin structures throughout Muscovite Russia

            imitations of Kremlin walls, Dormition Cathedral, scallop shells, faux rustication

 

 

“Muscovite Synthesis” in Architecture

 

Key developments

*          Dimitrii Donskoi Orders the wood contraction replaced with limestone ( look for date on test)

*          1470s, very important period: Ivan III's wife brings in foreigners, from Italy and abroad 1470-1500s cannon makers, and many western technology not seen in Russia.

*          Muscovite Synthesis can be described in the rulers bringing in architects from all Russian cities to claim they have a monopoly on style.

Muscovite Church architecture, 15-16th cent.

  1. Archangel Michael Cathedral Kremlin 1505-09

  2. Royal male necropolis of Moscow ruling dynasty; brick

  3. Very Italian style. Very beautiful , done by Italians  ( silver color domes) by Alevisio, after Fioravanti left. Reflect back to traditional construction, where one see irregularity, not the golden ratio-like symmetry.

 

  1. Archangel Michael Cathedral & Dormition Cathedral, Kremlin become the two models of Muscovy large building techniques.

 

  1. Muscovite Synthesis is the showing off of all the builders, Pskov, Lagimer, Novgorod and we are the king now.

 

  1. This became a new models for all enlarge Muscovy buildings. These models could be studied and reproduced. Fioravanti really introduced brick making techniques.

 

  1. Metropolitan Cathedral, called the Deposition of the Robe of the Mother of God ( Kremlin)  next to the Dormition was built bu Pskov architects, and this was done in brick, and they were introduced to brick.

 

  1. Dormition Cathedral, Kremlin, 1475-79 ( main place)

 

  1. 16th cent. Illustrated Manuscripts of Ivan being crown, Yuri pouring gold coins on Ivan, seen in the Eisenstein movie.

 

  1. Dimitrii Donskoi Orders the wood contraction replaced with limestone ( look for date on test)

  2. 1470s

                                                Dormition Cathedral

 

Ivan III wife brings in foreigners, from Italy and abroad 1470-1500s cannon makers, and many western technology not seen in Russia.

Why are the 1470s important?: incorporated Novgorod – the began an incorporating of other towns, districts and cities by the following leaders and Muscovite government officals.

Ivan III maries the  Niece of last Byzantine emperor was raised in Italy, and Pope helped engineered the marriage in hopes to Catholicize Russia, but nothing never happens.

Dimitrii replaced the walls around the Kremlin with white stone walls in place of wooden, a epithet carried till this day, “ Moscow the White Walled City” even though it is made mostly of brick. Metropolitan, 1320s Peter Metropolitan accidentally dies and Dorminiton was built in the 1470s,

Where to get the plans and idea to build the main church in the Kremlin?

To build the Dormition Cathedral, was put up a bidding war, they wanted the lowest bid. Where are they to get the notion of the purpose to build a large masonry structure? The Kiev Sofia Cathedral, they could have looked at, build long ago, but Kiev was in control of Lithuania to the east and steppe nomads to the west, so they couldn’t go there and get plans.

1474 walls came cashing down, claimed an earthquake, but no other buildings fell, so this proved an attempt to build a large cathedral was tough, so they looked to Italy. Competition for buildings were normal, such in Italy competitions to build great structures was also a competitive thing. So the gov. sends an agent into Italy. He says anyone here work cheap and is an architect? So that is how one got the word out. Aristotole Rodolfo Fioravanti ( he teaches Muscovite how to cut stone, but what he really teachers them is to use brick in structure, and this was innovating for Russia) The golden ratio ( Kokóshnik), was used in the Dormition, Much of this was Classical Greek understanding back in Italy, and this was brought to Moscow. Fioravanti showed them compus ?, rule, mathematical measurements such as the golden ratio to use for making structure, to show you how primitive Muscovy architects were, and he showed them how to make stronger mortar and stronger brick. And when he left these techniques were forgotten, and this didn’t last. The Cathedral was a large cube-like structure. Five domes, done in limestone, and brick on the inside, and in the drums done in brick, strong but lighter than using limestone. 500 people can fit inside, and this is where the coronations took place.

Byzantine opus mixum [?], the brick, motor, crushed brick layer method.

Novgorod churches mainly had single domes and one east aspe. Rubble stone construction, today most stuccoed over.

Great Cathedral of Legimer, represented the capital Vladimir-Suzdal prominence. French artistic work, and Novgorod and Lagimer had foreign contact.

Wood architecture

Small village churches or personal church, simple, construction, same basic floor plan of a house: Post and grove slat work was rare, mostly basic log buildings, a type of cabin like we understand. Politsa ( to police the water away from the structure was also needed to get the snow melt off away from the structure). Poval under it, shows where the curve is. .

1.        Structure designs, some  and Octagon on a square.

2.        Techniques, overlap, notch logging. Notching the underneath notch corners, to keep the rain and water out.

3.        types of wood most used: Fir, pine or spruce, were the main logs used.

4.        These buildings were not made with saws, not until the 19th centry, but the made them with axes.

5.        Tree stump with a root left on it was a gutter board, and simple gravity kept it on, root holds the gutter board by gravity , no nails. Spruce was flammable , but available and easy to work with. This is why many fires reported in the chronicles.

6.        Basic church structure: Central square and four square side structures, an octagon.

7.         Bochka: Pointed gable, origins possible to due with o-g is the same as a cross-section of an ‘onion’ dome.

8.         Also storied churches of raised octagons, and all rest on squared base.

 

Church of the transfiguration, Island of Kishi, Lake Onega, 1776 c.

20 walled church plan - (1776) 22 domes in tears in pyramidal silhouette, and hard to see floor plan from out side observance, it was a central Octagon to the ground level. with four projecting squared side-arms, tops recessed. Many o-gs and pointed gables, and medium onion domes.

Fortress Walled Construction

Fortress Walled Construction, mainly local limestone, and 14-15th century, mainly white walls made in the Kremlin, toady red and brick. Limestone still in the foundation of the river sides. Tartars arrived on the south side, of the Kremlin. 

Slots leads from holes in the parapet on the towers and holes are functional if anyone attacks you pour molten metal, throw rocks out these holes, and this design was common around italy. These were features of fortress walls.

Merlons, outer wall area, were the groves in the wall, where you poke a musket out or a cannon  out at the enemy.

Kremlin roughly 70 acres triangle shaped. Mote surrounded the Kremlin walls. And the one area in the Kremlin was dedicated for foreign commerce. Commerce came here first, so the leaders take the spoils of the best and also sellers sell and give tax to the government.

Wood

Houses, rectangular units, added on with extensions of families. Live in the stove room in the winter. Carbon monoxide problems: no chimneys, only louvers holes.  Wax was expensive, inexpensive pitch-pine; it is a crude method of lighting. Soup bowels carved out a single piece of wood. In the north animals were kept inside for the winter, so many barns rooms connected a peasant house. All pitched roofs in the north. One way to distinguish a church’s floor plan is to determine if the base is octagonal or square. 20 walled-log plan, a much used planned and is referenced in 17th century chronicles is referred too and considered as a traditional shaped.

Look to a Squint roof ( at a raised level off the ground) in complex churches to determine if the floor plan is square ( look to nave)  determining the base to hold the octagon rise 

Nikon it is unfit to have only one top on God’s church, must have three or five atop God’s churches ( see 17. cent.).

Overlapping technique: wood then brick overlap called corbelling, bricks overlaying.
Fioravanti did not affect Russian style; but his teaching of brick and structure-techniques is what dramatically affects Russian architecture after. Wider transept, cross-isle was a Russian tradition, and after Fioravanti, Alevisio returned to the Russian tradition in the building of Archangel Michael Cathedral with the uneven plan with a wider cross-isle. Structural debt to the Italian was the brick building technique, mainly headed by the inspiration of Fioravanti. The great 16th century buildings in the Kremlin and Moscow were now built in brick, instead of stone.  Stone was hard work, and difficult. Faux rusitfication an asthetic, deliberately barrowed form the cathedral churches in Red Squar.  

Centrally planned churches: Sudal, Italy, Novgorod:  Basil, St. John, and Ascension, were different ideas, centrally planned church, and the symbol of a central state, and the capture of Kazan.

1543 – Ivan IV buildings.

Missile looking dome, a on royal estate outside of Moscow, commissioned with the birth of the son and heir. It is brick, but in chronicles said, it was stone, Style a cut-away square, and an octagon resting on a square base. 

Missile Church

Church of the Ascension, built in commemoration of Ivan IV in 1530. Nothing like this built in stone, and nothing like this was ever built before the Chronicle bemoaned. The walls were thick, and this squared floor planned with double recessed corners. One feels the ascension, the height. It was derived from wooden architecture. Interior space is rather quite small, but it was built for its visual ascetics, and didn’t need to hold large crowds.

Red Square

St. Basil.

9 dedicated chapels, very reminiscent of the 20 walled plan, and other influences.

Fabulous lowing Fruit Basket. Tales of blinding the architects so they wouldn’t build another is a myth and in many cultures in this theme. Eight precisely located chapels around the central chapel.  Ward pointing triangles, false fortress towars, a combination both native and Italian in St. Basils, Built after the popular Holy Fool who died in Moscow. In honor of the victory over Kasan in the 16th century and dedicated to Ivan IV.

Who drew the four plan, Leonardo Da Vinchi, and there was Italian influence.  Da Vinci drawing was a tad different, but the 8 chapels surrounded by the central was the same type of plan.

Projecting stone work that was popular in Italy became also adopted in Russia. So diamond shaped projections, and changing shadow patters that Russians liked.

Swan Lake: in Moscow and Merlin tale swallow tales on fortress structure

THE "MUSCOVITE SYNTHESIS" IN ART

I.  Finish Muscovite architecture

II.  The Moscow School of icon painting

            Theophanes the Greek (Feofan Grek) (Novgorod and Moscow)

                        Dormition (Uspenie) of the Mother of God (Ham. 76)

            The Don Mother of God (Ham. 75)

                 cf. Vladimir Mother of God (Ham. 54)

            Icons attributed to Andrei Rublev (ca. 1370-1430)

 

Icons:

Multiple perspectives cannot discriminate must show all sides of things so no part is left out.

 

Rublev: Circular Icon schema, representing the trinity, the endless mystery this hard to understand but very important eternal trinity concept. Roublev imitate him, but no one ever succeeds him.

 

Any old Icon is usually dedicated to Rublev, so thousands of Icons are attributed to him. Do we really know?  

 

                 The Zvenigorod icons

                        Savior (Ham. 71)

                             cf. Mosaic of Christ in Kiev Sophia Cathedral (Ham 31)

                        Archangel Michael (Ham78)

                        Apostle Paul (Ham 79)

                 Old Testament Trinity (Ham 77)

                        cf. Novgorod O.T. Trinity (Ham. 83)

                        cf. Novgorod fresco attributed to Feofan Grek, Ch. of Transfig. on Il'in St.

 

            School of Dionisii (ca. 1440-1503)

                        Frescoes at Ferapontovo (Ham. 94-95)

                        Incredulity of Thomas (Ham. 96)

 

            Vision of St. Eulogii, mid-16th c. (Ham. 97)

            St. Zosima and St. Savva at the Solovetsky Monastery, late 16th c. (Ham. 99)

 

III.  The iconostasis

            1st row, or tier (chin, or riad) = veneration, or local row

            royal doors = tsarskie vrata = tsar gates (this tsar = God)

            2nd & 3rd rows (interchangeable)

                        deesis row, Christ in middle

                        festival row, major holidays in the church calendar

            4th & 5th rows:  prophets, early Church Fathers, Patriarchs of O.T.

            Iconostasis of Annunciation Cathedral, Moscow Kremlin (Feofan Grek, et al.)

            Iconostasis of the Holy Trinity Cathedral, Trinity-St. Sergii Monastery

 

IV.  The politicization of Muscovite art

            cf. "Praying Novgorodians", "Battle Icon" of Novgorod (Ham. 84)

            Icons of Dionisii School:  Metropolitan Peter and Metropolitan Aleksii

            Border scenes of St. Metropolitan Aleksii icon illustrating his Vita

            Tombs and frescoes of princes of Moscow dynasty, Archangel Michael

                        Cathedral, Kremlin

            Church Militant, or Heavenly Forces icon

 

Paleologos was the name of the dynasty, Zoia, the niece of the last Byzantine emperor who married Ivan III. The icon revolution was attributed to the artists that came with her betrothal.

 

1543 – Ivan IV buildings.

 

Missile looking dome, a on royal estate outside of Moscow, commissioned with the birth of the son and heir. It is brick, but in chronicles said, it was stone, Style a cut-away square, and an octagon resting on a square base. 

 

Missile Church

Church of the Ascension, built in commemoration of Ivan IV in 1530. Nothing like this built in stone, and nothing like this was ever built before the Chronicle bemoaned. The walls were thick, and this squared floor planned with double recessed corners. One feels the ascension, the height. It was derived from wooden architecture. Interior space is rather quite small, but it was built for its visual ascetics, and didn’t need to hold large crowds.

 

Red Square

St. Basil.

9 dedicated chapels, very reminiscent of the 20 walled plan, and other influences.

Fabulous lowing Fruit Basket. Tales of blinding the architects so they wouldn’t build another is a myth and in many cultures in this theme. Eight precisely located chapels around the central chapel.  Ward pointing triangles, false fortress towars, a combination both native and Italian in St. Basils, Built after the popular Holy Fool who died in Moscow. In honor of the victory over Kasan in the 16th century and dedicated to Ivan IV.

 

Who drew the four plan, Leonardo Da Vinchi, and there was Italian influence.  Da Vinci drawing was a tad different, but the 8 chapels surrounded by the central was the same type of plan.

 

Projecting stone work that was popular in Italy became also adopted in Russia. So diamond shaped projections, and changing shadow patters that Russians liked.

 

Swan Lake: in Moscow and Merlin tale swallow tales on fortress structure

 

THE "MUSCOVITE SYNTHESIS" IN ART

 

I.  Finish Muscovite architecture

 

II.  The Moscow School of icon painting

            Theophanes the Greek (Feofan Grek) (Novgorod and Moscow)

                        Dormition (Uspenie) of the Mother of God (Ham. 76)

            The Don Mother of God (Ham. 75)

                 cf. Vladimir Mother of God (Ham. 54)

            Icons attributed to Andrei Rublev (ca. 1370-1430)

 

Icons:

Multiple perspectives cannot discriminate must show all sides of things so no part is left out.

 

Rublev: Circular Icon schema, representing the trinity, the endless mystery this hard to understand but very important eternal trinity concept. Roublev imitate him, but no one ever succeeds him.

 

Any old Icon is usually dedicated to Rublev, so thousands of Icons are attributed to him. Do we really know?  

 

                 The Zvenigorod icons

                        Savior (Ham. 71)

                             cf. Mosaic of Christ in Kiev Sophia Cathedral (Ham 31)

                        Archangel Michael (Ham78)

                        Apostle Paul (Ham 79)

                 Old Testament Trinity (Ham 77)

                        cf. Novgorod O.T. Trinity (Ham. 83)

                        cf. Novgorod fresco attributed to Feofan Grek, Ch. of Transfig. on Il'in St.

 

            School of Dionisii (ca. 1440-1503)

                        Frescoes at Ferapontovo (Ham. 94-95)

                        Incredulity of Thomas (Ham. 96)

 

            Vision of St. Eulogii, mid-16th c. (Ham. 97)

            St. Zosima and St. Savva at the Solovetsky Monastery, late 16th c. (Ham. 99)

 

III.  The iconostasis

            1st row, or tier (chin, or riad) = veneration, or local row

            royal doors = tsarskie vrata = tsar gates (this tsar = God)

            2nd & 3rd rows (interchangeable)

                        deesis row, Christ in middle

                        festival row, major holidays in the church calendar

            4th & 5th rows:  prophets, early Church Fathers, Patriarchs of O.T.

            Iconostasis of Annunciation Cathedral, Moscow Kremlin (Feofan Grek, et al.)

            Iconostasis of the Holy Trinity Cathedral, Trinity-St. Sergii Monastery

 

IV.  The politicization of Muscovite art

            cf. "Praying Novgorodians", "Battle Icon" of Novgorod (Ham. 84)

            Icons of Dionisii School:  Metropolitan Peter and Metropolitan Aleksii

            Border scenes of St. Metropolitan Aleksii icon illustrating his Vita

            Tombs and frescoes of princes of Moscow dynasty, Archangel Michael

                        Cathedral, Kremlin

            Church Militant, or Heavenly Forces icon

 

Paleologos was the name of the dynasty, Zoia, the niece of the last Byzantine emperor who married Ivan III. The icon revolution was attributed to the artists that came with her betrothal.

 Moscow’s Synthesis: Palaeologus Renaissance.
Manuel II was the father of John VIII Palaeologus and Constantine XI, the last Byzantine emperor (Constantine XI Palaeologus), as well as the despots of Morea Demetrius Palaeologus and Thomas Palaeologus.Thomas Palaiologos or Palaeologus (Greek: Θωμάς Παλαιολόγος, Thōmas Palaiologos) (1409– May 12, 1465) was Despot in Morea from 1428 until the Ottoman conquest in 1460. After the desertion of his older brother to the Turks in 1460, Thomas Palaiologos became the most legitimate claimant to the Byzantine throne.The Palaiologos or Palaeologus (Greek: Παλαιολόγος, pl. Παλαιολόγοι) family was the last dynasty ruling the Byzantine Empire.Thomas' daughter Zoe married Ivan III of Russia and, on rejoining the Orthodox faith, returned to her earlier name Sophia. Her influence on the court curtailed the power of the boyars and eventually led to the proclamation of the lord of Muscovy as the Tsar of all the Russias. Thomas's male-line descendants soon went extinct, and his descent lives on through a daughter and the family of Castriota Dukes of san Pietro di Galatina in south-Italian aristocracy. (wiki)

Palaeologus renaissance in Art

Thomas Palaiologos daughter Zoe married Ivan III of Russia, she returned to her earlier name Sophia. The Palaiologos family had escaped to Venice after the Ottoman’s began to take control of Anatolia. At this time Italy was going through a renaissance. Sophia a niece of last Byzantine emperor was raised in Italy. The Pope engineered the marriage in hopes to Catholicize Russia. She brought with her cannon makers, and many western technologies never seen in Russia.
Many fires had ravaged Moscow between 1380 and 1547 and the damage was so intense that Metropolitan brought icon painters from Novgorod. Most Rus homes were build with “soft wood” which deteriorated and burned easily.
Feofan Grek left Novgorod for Moscow, painted Interior of Church of the Nativity of the Virgin in Moscow with Semen Cherny and his pupils in 1395: In 1399 continued working with pupils in the Cathedral of St. Michael in the Kremlin. Archangel Michael Cathedral, Kremlin, 1505-09, was built by Alevisio. This was a new royal male necropolis of Moscow ruling dynasty; brickwork became the lasting contribution of Aristotele Rodolfo Fioravanti. His use of the Greek golden ratio, which appears on the Dormition in the Kremlin, was not adopted by later Muscovy architects. Pskov architect helped built the Metropolitan’s church in the Kremlin.

Feofan Grek continued, according to a chronicle to decoration of the Cathedral of the Annunciation in the Kremlin. Here, in the chronically, Andrey, Rublev appears for this first time (ham. 133). In 1482, masters from Pskov came to Moscow and helped with the new structure of the Annunciation. Rublev and Feofan Grek worked together in the Cathedral in 1405, both demonstrating Byzantine impressionism. The Dormition Cathedral in Moscow can be attributed to Theophane’ school with its technical resemblance to his Novgorod work (Ham. 136) Here Rublev accompanied Feofan Grek and Prokhor of Gorodets.

The icon of the Old Testament Trinity (ca 1410), Trinity Cathedral in the Troitse-Sergiev Monastery in Zagorsk , is considered Rublev’s masterpiece.

The Influence of Kremlin structures throughout Muscovite Russia became a standard contribution from later Muscovy architects. The Italian style signified one of the foreign synthesis styles with contributions of scallop shells and faux rustication. Later architects directly imitated the Kremlin walls and the Dormition Cathedral which employed these styles.

Rublev: 1425–1427 the Cathedral of St. Trinity in the Troitse-Sergiyeva Lavra.

Rublev accredited with thousands of works of art. Attribution to his extensive work in the Dormition in Vladimir: His theme was a long reawakening of Moscow and Suzdal after the Tartar Yoke? Rublev introduced a new spirit of gentleness, dignity and compassion, a characteristic which became synonymous of Russian church art. He also introduced a masterful technique which depicted individual craftsmanship. Rublev studied at fourteenth century monastery art schools. This impressed the Grand Princes who promoted a monastic art-school partnership. The Metropolitan and Tsar conflicts in the sixteenth century brought an end to this partnership. Moscow’s indebtedness to Novgorod icon-painting can be seen through Rublev’s migration to Moscow after Daniil’s death. He lived at the Moscow's Andronikov Monastery where he painted his last work, frescoes of the Savior Cathedral.

Possibility of Movement and Depth: Painting in Moscow in the Later Fifteenth and Sixteenth Century. Change occurred in the sixteenth century art. Dionisy and his sons: The Parable of the Widow’s mite, Frescos in the Church of the Nativity of the Virgin, Ferapontov monastery: proportionally, Symmetry, overall unity in composition, equilibrium, naturalism, illusion to motion. Dionisy and his sons: Christ Enthroned with the Virgin and St. John the Babtustm fom the Last Judgment , fresco in the Church of the Nativity of the Virgin, Ferapontov monastery, 1500-2. the style: discursive and disparate, stressing the spiritual concepts, yet with exalted emotion and natural exspressive interchange ; narrative. 1484, Venerable Paissi and his sons Feodosy ( Theodosius) and Vladimir painted an extensive series of icons for the monastery of Volokolamsk: More than 100 icons were attributed to the family. Regarded as great by Bishop Vassian of Rostov, none of their work survived but their influence in this stage of Russian art survived in Vassian’s St. Paphnutius Borovshy, and affected later panel-painting , and the school of Dionisy, more closely allied with the Ferapontov Monastery associated with Moscow. (Ham. 155). Considerable influence. Legacy, this style was too refined to serve as a basis for a new school. Sixteenth century Muscovy entitled concentration of artistic effort at the capital. After a fire in 1547, Metropolitan Macarius, former Novgorod Archbishop, ordered icons from Novgorod ( and later Pskov) and with their workshops. The Characteristic of the Novgorod school would be transformed into a Moscow Synthesis along with other regions and foreign influence.

Italian architects and craftsman came to Moscow after 1470. Spatial inter-relations between subjects appearance of new subject mater, appeared in part of Moscow’s theory of the “third Rome.” Italian architects and craftsman came to Moscow after 1470.
Moscow: The Entry into Jerusalem, late sixteenth century, represented a new form of decorative elegance; this time with a mountain and architecture in the background, creating two distinct spaces in depth. (Ham. 159). The Incredulity of St. Thomas, c. 1500, and The Vision of St. Eulogius, c. 1530-40, in Moscow, also exhibited this new spatial depth.

Novgorod school: pragmatic naturalism.
Rublev: elegance, softness, refined, subtle /emotional.
Dionisy: Spiritually.

Consequences: Greek symmetry was not copied by the Russian followers. (159). Moscow: SS. Zosima and Savva at the Solovetsky Monastary in the White Sea, later sixteenth century shows a close observation of nature. Decorative aspect overruled the artist’s exact appearance of the location.

In the 1551 Stoglav council, issues of icon production to notice, and a new rule that Priests would over see icon style possibly halted the naturalistic expressions that were developing. Artist were to obverse a set of rules “ according to the consecrated type.” (ham. 161). Andrei Rublev’s style after the meeting was condemned. The regulations placed restrictions mediocre work. However, it is arguable if this threat was enforced, and not “ intended to annoy the priest Sylverter of the Cathedral of the Annunciation, because of his relationship to Ivan.(ham 162). Viskovaty, a secretary, supported novelty- artistic tastes in a case of a four-part icon in the Cathedral of the Annunciation, but was later in 1554, obliged to retract his assessments of an objectionable material. Viskovaty noted novelties in a western influence in the Pskov school, but a final rejection came to mean a return to following codification and regularization of artistic endeavors, henceforth.

Wooden Church architecture: Masonry structures in Moscow influenced, rather than followed, wooden church architecture. “ Wood buildings are then described as imitations of the forms of Court architecture.” (Ham. 164). How did Moscow architecture influence the provinces? Novgorod churches mainly had single domes and one east apse. Rubble stone construction, today most stuccoed over. Russian Churches over time became more complex. First, Tiny Church: Olonets, St. Lazarus, before 1391, represented a basic exterior of a three rectangular floor plan. The nave constituted the largest rectangle, and east the apse. Suzdal, St. Nicholas from Glotovo, 1766, represented the three interior spaces of the tiny church plan had expanded. Tent churches: Nizhny Uftiug, Church of the Dormition, octagon is adjoined by a square apse. Five-sided Apse churches: Nicholas Church at Lyavla (1589), Church of the Virgin of Vladimir at Belaya Sluda (1642), and St. George at Vershino on the Toima (1672). More complex churches added east sides of the north and south additions to the octagon, as represented in SS. Florus and Laurus (1755) at Rostovskoe. Five tent roof: Church of the Trinity, 1727, of Nenoska was a combination of pyramidal, octagon and cube construction and were the most widespread in the seventeenth century. These Gothic Churches of the north could be possibly influenced by “European Gothic in its verticality or Gregorian in the articulation of its parts.” ( Ham. 177). Berezovets, St. Nicholas, early eighteenth century, is a “cross composed of an octagon with equilateral arms roofed with large bochki.” ( Ham. 181). Church of the Transfiguration, 18th c., Island of Kizhi, Lake Onega. Octagon with cross-arms plan. Nickname - a wooden St. Basil. This is a silhouette of the church pyramidal tradition (Ham. 183).

terms: kokoshnik gable; octagon on a square; 20-walled log church plan
Architecture in Moscow.
Moscow’s Synthesis c. 1300-1600
Masonry:

Ideology: Ivan III, Vasily III, and Ivan IV Russian nationality: Here nationality identifies the correct meaning of the mental process of the mind, and not defining a state, with borders or an army. Cathedrals of the Kremlin represent the close association with the dynasty, and as a center of the Orthodox faith, with the Chief metropolitan churches built in the capital.

Influence after arrival of the Italian architects’: Italian, Byzantine on Moscow.
St. Basil's Cathedral (1555-1560) Masonry: Originally called, Cathedral of Protection and Intercession of the Virgin. St. Basil's Cathedral is positioned just outside the savior gate at the entrance to the Kremlin, dominating the southern side of Red Square. The plans were drawn by Leonardo De Vinci, but were loosely followed, and represented the Italian influence Muscovy has ordered. It was ordered and completed by Ivan IV. The carnival-like decorate of the onion domes express a three- dimensional expression. It was to honor Russia's victory over the Tatars khanates of Kazan and Astrakhan. The principle symbolized a unity by maintaining a central chapel with eight circumference chapels. It was a myth, still purported today, that Ivan had the architect’s eyes put out.

Kolomenskoe, Church of the Ascension, probably 1530-2, ordered possibly by Vasily III in commemoration of his new son Ivan Vasileovich. This church was without precedence, a vanguard and harbinger of what was to come? Dynastic estate, not public.

Ostrov, Church of the Transfiguration, lower part of sixteenth century.
Zagorsk, Cathedral of the Dormition in the trinity-Sergius Monastery, 1559-85. This represented and symbolized Nikon’s insistence of Orthodox style. Dormitions were usually monastic or cathedral structures. Cube churches were also a reflection of the reforms of Nikon ( Ham. 181).

Cathedral of the Annunciation, Moscow, in the Kremlin, 1484-9. ( and Ferapont Monastery near the White Lake both were of Novgorodian origin. The Cathedral of the Annunciation was built by masters summoned from Pskov, who used a Vladimir model (ham. 190).. This church is where the tsars were christened and married. It was the second major work undertaken by Ivan III. Ivan IV later added additions.

Red Square: originally Red Square was covered with wooden buildings, with concerns for damage by periodic fires, in 1493 Ivan III by edict, ordered masonry to replace all wood structures in the district. The name of the Red Square derives from the color red from the Communist era or color of the bricks, and possibly from the connotation of the color red “beautiful,” in Russian lexigraphy. Dimitrii Donskoi ordered the wood construction be replaced with limestone in the fifteenth century. Dimitrii replaced the walls around the Kremlin with white stone walls in place of wooden, a epithet carried till this day, “ Moscow the White Walled City,” even though it is made mostly of brick. Preference for limestone was changed after the arrival of Aristotele Rodolfo Fioravanti who promoted brick as a structural enforcement in construction in the sixteenth century.
Outskirts of Moscow in the seventeenth century contained wooden buildings enclosed in a tilled area. The tilled land also doubled as a fire-break. Moscow still consisted of wooden walls, but later brickwork would form the outside foundation of the wood?
The golden ratio ( Kokóshnik), was used in the Dormition Cathedral, Kremlin, 1475-79, by Aristotele Rodolfo Fioravanti (; where tsars were crowned, and metropolitans/patriarchs buried;brick and limestone.
Fioravanti showed them compus ?, strait-edge rule, mathematical measurements such as the golden ratio to use for symmetry. To show you how primitive Muscovy architects were, and he showed them how to make stronger mortar and stronger brick. His brick work made a lasting impression on Russia. And when he left most these techniques were forgotten. The Cathedral was a large cube-like structure: five domes, done in limestone, and brick on the inside, and in the drums done in brick, strong but lighter than using limestone. 500 people can fit inside, and this is where the coronations took place.
226-240
Secular Art: Fortress walls and towers.
Fortress architecture
limestone walls at Staryi Izborsk; Truvor, brother of semi-legendary Riurik Moscow Kremlin: white limestone walls of 14th c., Gr. Pr. Dmitrii Donskoi red brick walls by northern Italians, late 15th-early 16th cc., Ivan III the Great
terms: machicolation; embattlement; crenellation; swallowtail merlons

Pslov characteristic of stout walls unadorned, irregular windows placed according to interior arrangements is represented in the Pogankin House, late sixteenth century or early seventeenth century.

Kremlin fires of 1547 and 1571 rebuilding was understood, even by the foreigners to be something of a periodic challenge. Kremlin, although not touched in 1571, bears influences of changing tastes during the Polish and French occupations of 1611. Wooden walls around Moscow could be seen as late as 1661 in the foreground of Meyerberg’s drawing. In 1451 the Tartars enter through the wooden barriers. Ivan III rebuilt the walls around the Kremlin in red brick beginning work in 1485, under the direction of Italian architect Pietro Antonio Solari, and was largely completed by 1516. Fioravanti influence and Italian artists help us to assume the towers were remarkably Italianate. Hydraulic engineer, Aloisio de Carcano, redirected the stream along the western side of the Kremlin, and Solari created a system of motes and double and triple walls. 1624-5, English architect Christiopher Galloway, designed the upper part of the Gate of the Redeemer (Spasskia Vorota) opposite of St. Basil on Red Square, and still the principle entrance to the Kremlin. ( ham. 227) He combined Gothic, Renaissance and old Russian motifs. He also inserted a clock that was destroyed in 1654. The Borovitsky Tower was rebuilt as a series of diminishing square storeys in imitation of the Syumbeky Tower ( stonework on the upper stories added in 1685) in Kazan, which was ruined in 1552, was rebuilt in the seventeenth century. ( ham. 227)

Dormition and the upper stories.
Ivan III & Sophia Palaeologa time the palace was not a single building, but a group of small structures, principally of wood, although in some cases the foundations were of stone. This is where the Grand Prince and his family lived with his principle courtiers, all were part of the upper stories. The gradual replacement of wood to brink was accomplished over a long period of time.

The State Building:

The Faceted Palace displaced a rusticated façade , which was built by Solari and Marco Ruffo between 1487 and 1491. This was a simple stone building, contenting the second story a large rectangular hall, with a groined vault supported by a huge pier in the center. ( ham 229) The design was like the earlier renaissance Italian palaces.
Faceted Palace in the Granovitaya during an audience held by the false Dmitry, early seventeenth century and shows the floor covered in oriental rugs. The vaulted hall is where the tsar sat during state occasions. Wooden benches line the outskirts of the floor space, this was where the boyars and councilmen would sit, usually in a ranking order, most seated on the right of the Tsar and some to the left. All bowed in honor at certain times, and the tsar sat on a silver-gilt throne. This throne was raised three steeps above the benches. When everyone was inside the it could seem narrow. This building was damaged in fires of 1547 and 1571 ( tartar attacks) and total devastation during the Polish occupation. The replacement was the Terem Palace in the Kremlin, 1635-6. This was a two story Italianate design, resting on the base of an earlier buildings and crowned with a pavilion. It was built under the directions of Tsars Mikhail Feodorovich and Alexey Mikhailovich. In 1661 von Meryerburg noticed the Flemish and Persian tapestries which covered the walls of the state apartments, so completely that the rooms, floors and walls were barely noticeable. A painting decorated with “astronomical accuracy of the solar system and the fixed starts, an indication of modern science. Samuel Collins and English traveler remarked a Polish influence on the current Tsar.

Another fire in 1682 caused a redecoration project under Sophia, Peter the Great’s sister (1682-9) who used her favorite Prince Golitsyn, and used quite amount of gold and silver. With the removal of the seat of Government to St. Petersburg, the palace was allowed to deteriorate to a shocking degree ( ham. 234). Catherin II who had a stronger sense of Russian tradition than any of the lineal heirs of Peter the Great, ordered the palace to be kept in better repair, and even proposed transforming the Kremlin into a national shrine. ( ham. 234). Model of the 1760s of the wooden palace at Kolomenskoe, built in 1667-81. this was like a giant dictionary, a preservation of all the historic architectural models on the Russia architecture. Bochki, kokoshniki, tent roofs, bulbous domes, and a variety of carved woodwork had been preserved in this model.

The Tower of Ivan Veliky (“ John the Great”) in the Kremlin, late sixteenth century: This building contains a tall belfry above the church, and was begun under Tsar Feoder Ivanovich and completed in 1600 by Boris Goudunov. The height of the tower and cupola form the highest point from the ground in Moscow.

Kolomenskoe wooden palace, 1667-81 ( and the engraving, eighteenth century). Rectangles situated at angles presenting a constantly shifting arrangement. There was no precedence for this type of liberal floor plan. This was not tradition or an accident.

Moscow, the Ambassador’s Palace in 1661. From a drawing by Augustin von Meyerberg: Wooden chambers and tent roofs, elements of tradition. A ground floor arcade reminiscence of Italian tastes. State Pharmacy ( now demolished), late seventeenth century. Predecessor Posolsky Prikaz ( foreign office) 1591, in Kremlin possibly inspired this building. This palace was an early example of the direction which Russia architecture was to take. Peter I devoted the building to new scientific programs.
School of Navigation, First Russian cartography school, an an astronomical center.

Building the German district.
(Nemetskaya Sloboda) German Suburb, on the eastern outskirts of Moscow. At end of centiry, the space was filled with foreign diplomats and merchants indicating wide economical and political contact with the west. The Tsars thought to close-off the Germans ( Protestants) into a district to keep their culture in and away from the Russians, but it proved to be a fascination of the higher nobility and younger generation.

I. Background
A. Kiev Holy Sophia Cathedral, 11th c. (Ham. 2-4, 7-8)
terms: opus mixtum; nave, transept, crossing, apse

B. Novgorod/Pskov
Holy Sophia Cathedral, Novgorod, 11th c. (Ham. 12-14)
Church of the Transfiguration of the Savior on Il'in Street, 1374, Novgorod, (Ham. 18) trefoil roof line

C. Vladimir/Suzdal'
1. Dormition/Assumption Cathedral (Uspenskii sobor), Vladimir, 12th c. (Ham 22-23); terms: Romanesque; pilaster; blind arcading
2. Church of the Intercession (Pokrov) on the River Nerl', near Vladimir, 12th c. (Ham. 24-25)
3. Cathedral of St. Demetrius, 1194-97, Vladimir (Ham. 27-28)

D. Wooden architecture
1. Church of the Raising of Lazarus, late 14th c. (?), Island of Kizhi, Lake Onega (Ham. 109-110)
2. Church of St. Nicholas from the Village of Glotovo, 18th c., Suzdal' (Ham. 111)
3. Church of the Transfiguration, 18th c., Island of Kizhi, Lake Onega (Ham. 124)
terms: kokoshnik gable; octagon on a square; 20-walled log church plan

E. Fortress architecture
limestone walls at Staryi Izborsk; Truvor, brother of semi-legendary Riurik
Moscow Kremlin: white limestone walls of 14th c., Gr. Pr. Dmitrii Donskoi
red brick walls by northern Italians, late 15th-early 16th cc., Ivan III the Great
terms: machicolation; embattlement; crenellation; swallowtail merlon
II. Muscovite church architecture, 15th-16th cc.
A. Dormition Cathedral, Kremlin, 1475-79, by Aristotele Rodolfo Fioravanti (Ham. 127-129); where tsars were crowned, and metropolitans/patriarchs buried;
brick and limestone

B. Archangel Michael Cathedral, Kremlin, 1505-09, by Alevisio the New (Ham. 130-131); royal male necropolis of Moscow ruling dynasty; brick

C. Annunciation Cathedral, 1484-89 (Ham. 125-126); by architects from Pskov, built of
brick

D. Church of the Deposition of the Robe of the Mother of God, Kremlin, 1484-85; by
architects from Pskov; built of brick

E. [Tent] Church of the Ascension, Kolomenskoe, 1532 (Ham. 133-134); brick, with
white stone trim

F. [Tower] Church of the Decapitation of St. John the Baptist, D'iakovo (next to Kolomenskoe), ca. 1547-54 (Ham. 136-137); brick

G. Cathedral of the Intercession on the Moat, a.k.a. the Temple (khram) of Vasilii [Basil] the Blessed [a popular Moscow holy fool]), 1555-60, with 17th-c. additions and
alterations (Ham. 139-142); brick, with white stone trim


III. Additional Italian contributions to the Kremlin
A. The Chamber of Facets (Granovitaia palata), early 16th c.; rustication (projecting
stone work) (Ham. 169-171)
B. The Bell Tower complex, 16th-17th cc. (Ham. 174)

IV. Influence of Kremlin structures throughout Muscovite Russia
imitations of Kremlin walls, Dormition Cathedral, scallop shells, faux rustication
“Muscovite Synthesis” in Architecture

Key developments
• Dimitrii Donskoi Orders the wood contraction replaced with limestone ( look for date on test)
• 1470s, very important period: Ivan III's wife brings in foreigners, from Italy and abroad 1470-1500s cannon makers, and many western technology not seen in Russia.
• Muscovite Synthesis can be described in the rulers bringing in architects from all Russian cities to claim they have a monopoly on style.

Muscovite Church architecture, 15th-16th cent.
Archangel Michael Cathedral Kremlin 1505-09
Royal male necropolis of Moscow ruling dynasty; brick
Very Italian style. Very beautiful , done by Italians ( silver color domes) by Alevisio, after Fioravanti left. Reflect back to traditional construction, where one see irregularity, not the golden ratio-like symmetry.

Archangel Michael Cathedral & Dormition Cathedral, Kremlin become the two models of Muscovy large building techniques.

Muscovite Synthesis is the showing off of all the builders, Pskov, Lagimer, Novgorod and we are the king now.

This became a new models for all enlarge Muscovy buildings. These models could be studied and reproduced. Fioravanti really introduced brick making techniques.

Metropolitan Cathedral, called the Deposition of the Robe of the Mother of God ( Kremlin) next to the Dormition was built bu Pskov architects, and this was done in brick, and they were introduced to brick.
Dormition Cathedral, Kremlin, 1475-79 ( main place)
16th cent. Illustrated Manuscripts of Ivan being crown, Yuri pouring gold coins on Ivan, seen in the Eisenstein movie.
Dimitrii Donskoi Orders the wood contraction replaced with limestone.
1470s
Dormition Cathedral

Ivan III wife brings in foreigners, from Italy and abroad 1470-1500s cannon makers, and many western technology not seen in Russia.
Why are the 1470s important:, incorporated Novgorod incorporated.
Ivan III maries the Niece of last Byzantine emperor was raised in Italy, and Pope helped engineered the marriage in hopes to Catholicize Russia, but nothing never happens.
Dimitrii replaced the walls around the Kremlin with white stone walls in place of wooden, a epithet carried till this day, “ Moscow the White Walled City” even though it is made mostly of brick. Metropolitan, 1320s Peter Metropolitan accidentally dies and Dorminiton was built in the 1470s,

Where to get the plans and idea to build the main church in the Kremlin?

To build the Dormition Cathedral, was put up a bidding war, they wanted the lowest bid. Where are they to get the notion of the purpose to build a large masonry structure? The Kiev Sofia Cathedral, they could have looked at, build long ago, but Kiev was in control of Lithuania to the east and steppe nomads to the west, so they couldn’t go there and get plans.

1474 walls came cashing down, claimed an earthquake, but no other buildings fell, so this proved an attempt to build a large cathedral was tough, so they looked to Italy. Competition for buildings were normal, such in Italy competitions to build great structures was also a competitive thing. So the gov. sends an agent into Italy. He says anyone here work cheap and is an architect? So that is how one got the word out. Aristotole Rodolfo Fioravanti ( he teaches Muscovite how to cut stone, but what he really teachers them is to use brick in structure, and this was innovating for Russia) The golden ratio ( Kokóshnik), was used in the Dormition, Much of this was Classical Greek understanding back in Italy, and this was brought to Moscow. Fioravanti showed them compus ?, rule, mathematical measurements such as the golden ratio to use for making structure, to show you how primitive Muscovy architects were, and he showed them how to make stronger mortar and stronger brick. And when he left these techniques were forgotten, and this didn’t last. The Cathedral was a large cube-like structure. Five domes, done in limestone, and brick on the inside, and in the drums done in brick, strong but lighter than using limestone. 500 people can fit inside, and this is where the coronations took place.


Byzantine opus mixum [?], the brick, motor, crushed brick layer method.


Novgorod churches mainly had single domes and one east aspe. Rubble stone construction, today most stuccoed over.

Great Cathedral of Legimer, represented the capital Vladimir-Suzdal prominence. French artistic work, and Novgorod and Lagimer had foreign contact.


Wood architecture
Small village churches or personal church, simple, construction, same basic floor plan of a house: Post and grove slat work was rare, mostly basic log buildings, a type of cabin like we understand. Politsa ( to police the water away from the structure was also needed to get the snow melt off away from the structure). Poval under it, shows where the curve is. .

1. Structure designs, some and Octagon on a square.
2. Techniques, overlap, notch logging. Notching the underneath notch corners, to keep the rain and water out.
3. types of wood most used: Fir, pine or spruce, were the main logs used.
4. These buildings were not made with saws, not until the 19th centry, but the made them with axes.
5. Tree stump with a root left on it was a gutter board, and simple gravity kept it on, root holds the gutter board by gravity , no nails. Spruce was flammable , but available and easy to work with. This is why many fires reported in the chronicles.
6. Basic church structure: Central square and four square side structures, an octagon.
7. Bochka: Pointed gable, origins possible to due with o-g is the same as a cross-section of an ‘onion’ dome.
8. Also storied churches of raised octagons, and all rest on squared base.

Church of the transfiguration, Island of Kishi, Lake Onega, 1776 c.
20 walled church plan - (1776) 22 domes in tears in pyramidal silhouette, and hard to see floor plan from out side observance, it was a central Octagon to the ground level. with four projecting squared side-arms, tops recessed. Many o-gs and pointed gables, and medium onion domes.

Fortress Walled Construction

Fortress Walled Construction, mainly local limestone, and 14-15th century, mainly white walls made in the Kremlin, toady red and brick. Limestone still in the foundation of the river sides. Tartars arrived on the south side, of the Kremlin.

Slots leads from holes in the parapet on the towers and holes are functional if anyone attacks you pour molten metal, throw rocks out these holes, and this design was common around italy. These were features of fortress walls.
Merlons, outer wall area, were the groves in the wall, where you poke a musket out or a cannon out at the enemy.

Kremlin roughly 70 acres triangle shaped. Mote surrounded the Kremlin walls. And the one area in the Kremlin was dedicated for foreign commerce. Commerce came here first, so the leaders take the spoils of the best and also sellers sell and give tax to the government.

Wood
Houses, rectangular units, added on with extensions of families. Live in the stove room in the winter. Carbon monoxide problems: no chimneys, only louvers holes. Wax was expensive, inexpensive pitch-pine; it is a crude method of lighting. Soup bowels carved out a single piece of wood. In the north animals were kept inside for the winter, so many barns rooms connected a peasant house. All pitched roofs in the north. One way to distinguish a church’s floor plan is to determine if the base is octagonal or square. 20 walled-log plan, a much used planned and is referenced in 17th century chronicles is referred too and considered as a traditional shaped.

Look to a Squint roof ( at a raised level off the ground) in complex churches to determine if the floor plan is square ( look to nave) determining the base to hold the octagon rise.

Nikon it is unfit to have only one top on God’s church, must have three or five atop God’s churches ( see 17th cent.).

Overlapping technique: wood then brick overlap called corbelling, bricks overlaying.

Fioravanti did not affect Russian style; but his teaching of brick and structure-techniques is what dramatically affects Russian architecture after. Wider transept, cross-isle was a Russian tradition, and after Fioravanti, Alevisio returned to the Russian tradition in the building of Archangel Michael Cathedral with the uneven plan with a wider cross-isle. Structural debt to the Italian was the brick building technique, mainly headed by the inspiration of Fioravanti. The great 16th century buildings in the Kremlin and Moscow were now built in brick, instead of stone. Stone was hard work, and difficult. Faux rusitfication an asthetic, deliberately barrowed form the cathederal churches in Red Squar.


Centrally planned churches: Sudal, Italy, Novgorod: Basil, St. John, and Ascension, were different ideas, centrally planned church, and the symbol of a central state, and the capture of Kazan.


1543 – Ivan IV buildings.

Missile looking dome, a on royal estate outside of Moscow, commissioned with the birth of the son and heir. It is brick, but in chronicles said, it was stone, Style a cut-away square, and an octagon resting on a square base.

Missile Church
Church of the Ascension, built in commemoration of Ivan IV in 1530. Nothing like this built in stone, and nothing like this was ever built before the Chronicle bemoaned. The walls were thick, and this squared floor planned with double recessed corners. One feels the ascension, the height. It was derived from wooden architecture. Interior space is rather quite small, but it was built for its visual ascetics, and didn’t need to hold large crowds.

Red Square
St. Basil.
9 dedicated chapels, very reminiscent of the 20 walled plan, and other influences.
Fabulous lowing Fruit Basket. Tales of blinding the architects so they wouldn’t build another is a myth and in many cultures in this theme. Eight precisely located chapels around the central chapel. Ward pointing triangles, false fortress towars, a combination both native and Italian in St. Basils, Built after the popular Holy Fool who died in Moscow. In honor of the victory over Kasan in the 16th century and dedicated to Ivan IV.

Who drew the four plan, Leonardo Da Vinchi, and there was Italian influence. Da Vinci drawing was a tad different, but the 8 chapels surrounded by the central was the same type of plan.

Projecting stone work that was popular in Italy became also adopted in Russia. So diamond shaped projections, and changing shadow patters that Russians liked.

Swan Lake: in Moscow and Merlin tale swallow tales on fortress structure


THE "MUSCOVITE SYNTHESIS" IN ART

I. Finish Muscovite architecture

II. The Moscow School of icon painting
Theophanes the Greek (Feofan Grek) (Novgorod and Moscow)
Dormition (Uspenie) of the Mother of God (Ham. 76)
The Don Mother of God (Ham. 75)
cf. Vladimir Mother of God (Ham. 54)
Icons attributed to Andrei Rublev (ca. 1370-1430)

Icons:
Multiple perspectives cannot discriminate must show all sides of things so no part is left out.

Rublev: Circular Icon schema, representing the trinity, the endless mystery this hard to understand but very important eternal trinity concept. Roublev imitate him, but no one ever succeeds him.

Any old Icon is usually dedicated to Rublev, so thousands of Icons are attributed to him. Do we really know?

The Zvenigorod icons
Savior (Ham. 71)
cf. Mosaic of Christ in Kiev Sophia Cathedral (Ham 31)
Archangel Michael (Ham78)
Apostle Paul (Ham 79)
Old Testament Trinity (Ham 77)
cf. Novgorod O.T. Trinity (Ham. 83)
cf. Novgorod fresco attributed to Feofan Grek, Ch. of Transfig. on Il'in St.

School of Dionisii (ca. 1440-1503)
Frescoes at Ferapontovo (Ham. 94-95)
Incredulity of Thomas (Ham. 96)

Vision of St. Eulogii, mid-16th c. (Ham. 97)
St. Zosima and St. Savva at the Solovetsky Monastery, late 16th c. (Ham. 99)

III. The iconostasis
1st row, or tier (chin, or riad) = veneration, or local row
royal doors = tsarskie vrata = tsar gates (this tsar = God)
2nd & 3rd rows (interchangeable)
deesis row, Christ in middle
festival row, major holidays in the church calendar
4th & 5th rows: prophets, early Church Fathers, Patriarchs of O.T.
Iconostasis of Annunciation Cathedral, Moscow Kremlin (Feofan Grek, et al.)
Iconostasis of the Holy Trinity Cathedral, Trinity-St. Sergii Monastery

IV. The politicization of Muscovite art
cf. "Praying Novgorodians", "Battle Icon" of Novgorod (Ham. 84)
Icons of Dionisii School: Metropolitan Peter and Metropolitan Aleksii
Border scenes of St. Metropolitan Aleksii icon illustrating his Vita
Tombs and frescoes of princes of Moscow dynasty, Archangel Michael
Cathedral, Kremlin
Church Militant, or Heavenly Forces icon

Paleologos was the name of the dynasty, Zoia, the niece of the last Byzantine emperor who married Ivan III. The icon revolution was attributed to the artists that came with her betrothal.
 

 Art And Architecture Hamilton: Art & Architecture of Muscovy & Russia

Kiev brick cement. Pinkish, crushed brick, mixed into motor, highlights the Byzantine style.

Suzdalia white limestone, available locally.

Muscow, Cinnabar available.

  Vladimir’s second is the church the Cathedral of the Dormition of the Virgin (Uspensky Sober), known as the Desyatinnaya or Church of the (Virgin of the ) Tithe 989

  1. Subject: Iconography, meaning the writing of the word in pictures.
  2. Mosaic, pieces of glass, most of it is pieces of glass, some of it is natural stone. Dedicated to Archangel Michael, these Greek artists were more skillful, in figure making. Than haigia sofia.
  3. Elongation of the figures bodies becomes a iconographic motif. 
  4. Cannon, also mean writings.
  5. 4th century, is how old Christian Church services go back too in time.

 

Ch2 Architecture of Kiev

Vladimir returns from conquering Kherson 989 and imposed conversion. Chronicles of 822 record church of St. Nicholas built by Olma.  Vladimir’s first endeavor, St. Basil. First churches were wooden. Vladimir’s second is the  church the Cathedral of the Dormition of the Virgin (Uspensky Sober), known as the Desyatinnaya or Church of the (Virgin of the ) Tithe 989. This church represented the tithe instituted by Vladimir.  Also used as a palace chaple. It was a basilica with a nave and aisles ending in three semicircles apses and a wooden roof. Possibly a three apse basilica without a dome. Cathedral of St. Sophia, wooden church destroyed by fire in 1045, but chronicles say it was thirteen ‘ tops;’ silhouette pyramid appearance, its predecessor from Novgorod, Russian departure from Byzantine principles, so it marked the beginning of native tradition in masonry construction;  cross-plan, three bays of the nave to the north and south of the space beneath the central dome.

Ch4 Architecture of Vladimir-Suzdal:1100-1240; Slavs, early settlements,  forest lands between Oka & Volga rivers. Its cities commanded the headwaters of the Volga, control of trade routs in that region. Vladimir, Suzdal, Rostov the seat of the bishopric  - therefore, important,  increased in size. nomadic contact in the south – trade possibilities, sometimes strife; clearing forests for farming;  Pioneers from Kievan Russia; Ruling Princes Vladimir Monomakh (d. 1125) – Yury II defeated by Tartars 1238. Before Mongols, Suzdalia rivaled Kiev in masonry structures. Constantine founded school, monks, Latin & Greek, a library, 1000 Greek texts; before Monomakh most buildings wood; Novgorod, Kiev brick cement, Suzdalia white limestone, available locally. Kievan Paterik, source, build building like Pechersky church by measuring and copying in the city of Rostov during Vladimir Monomakh period. Vladimir’s son Yury I Dolgoruky ( George ‘Longarm’) built a similar church in the city of Suzdal. Suzdal Cathedral (1222-5). Between 1125 – 1152 no church building projects in Suzdal. Vladimir, Cathedral of the Dormitian, 1158-61, Churches of Vladimir represent a transplantation of the Kievan style of the second period (but not copyists). Andrey, Yury’s son, sacked Kiev in 1169. He was loyal to Suzdal. Yury & Andrey constructions reflected the struggle between boyars and prince. The churches Yuriev-Polsky and Pereyaslav were ‘garrison churches.’ Palace church were small, and they represent the masonry churches of ancient Russia. Possibly Galician builders were present in Suzdal. Yury founded at least five churches. Most important SS Boris and Gleb. With Andrey’s succession he began to build the Vladimir, Cathedral of the Dormitian, 1158-61, about ten miles away from Vladimir in the village of Bogoliubovo. At that time the church was known as Andrey Bogoliubsky.  Original- Six piers, three apses, and a single dome. Rebuilt in 1185-9

Andre assassinated in 1174, jealousy of aristocracy. Vesvolod III, Audrey’s younger brother continued building. First important endeavor was rebuilding the Dormition of Vladimir. In the new plan was similar to the multiple-celled, many piered style of St. Sophia in Kiev and Novgorod. It was the ‘ joy of Vladimir.’ Second project of Vesvolod, Church of St Dmitry, four-piered, single dome. Church of St. George (1229-34), Yury II’s brother, Svyatslav Vsevolodovich in the capital of his appanage; Yury II succeeded Vesvolod.  Period of increasing Mongol agitation. In 1471 the church collapsed, but it was resurrected at the command of Ivan III by the Moscow architect V.D. Ermolin. The end of architecture projects began around 1228 when the Mongols inflicted their first defeat on the Russians at the battle of Kalka. Nine years later, in the winter of 1237, they attacked Suzdalia. Vladimir was besieged, taken and burned. Best preserved old church, Pokrov, on the Nerl, near Vladimir.

Chapter 3 Hamilton

‘Novgorod school,’ attribution of an artistic style.

1103-1207, no fewer than 68 churches built, indicating great wealth of the city.

This is in contrast to Kiev where on ten churches were built in a century. In Kiev on princes built churches, whereas, in Novgorod, private citizens, groups and merchants built churches, indicating more economic freedom. Most small parish churches took three years to finish, whereas larger Sophias could take 20 years. Also, one can only produce the amount of churches when things become standardized. The six pier, five domed plan of Kiev and Vladimir were abandoned in favor of four pier supporting a single central dome (p39). Climate problems can possibly explain the onion or bulbous domes, where the snow needed to fall off the roofs or drainage from heavy rainfall. Kiev used masonry domes, whereas Novgorod used the onion style.

After the fall of Kiev under the Tartars Novgorod functioned as the main trade center. Pskov & Novgorod had close contact with the west, especially thought its contacts with German traders. West-to-east ( not n/s) Commercial quarters (Torgovaya Storona). Novgorod merchant family Stroganovs were instrumental in discovery and exploring the Siberia in 16 to early 17th centuries. Important factor in trade was being in good graces with the Posadnik ( Mayor). Alexander Nevsky received the title “of the river Neva” after he defeated the Swedes in 1236. In 1238 he won a victory stopping the Tartar advancements and he routed the German Knights on Lake Peipus in 1242 with skillful bargaining with the Tartars, to whom the court of Batu he visited no less than four times. (p37). 1475 Ivan III conquered Novgorod and its territory for control of Muscovy. Ivan IV.

Cathedral of Saint George’s -  architect ‘Master Peter,’ said to be the first truly native endeavor. Another differentiation than Bysantium architecture is that Russian architecture went away from the complex to the more practical and simple – toward simplification.  “ triple apses were almost submerged within the thick eastern wall.” (p44). One of the most significant is the sharper pitched roof plan, which differed from Bysantine and was do in large part because of the climate issues. Customary in Novgorod, each church had one apse and a single dome above a tall, gracefully proportioned drum (p47) .

“Pskov, the’ younger brother of Novgorod’, was also a free city during the earlier Middle Ages and just as jealous of its liberties, but it was less wealthy and its activities were more restricted by the pressure of its enemies, the Lithuanians to the west.” (47)

Ch7

  1. 1045-’57, Novgorod Cathedral of St. Sophia was decorated in 1108-1144 with frescos and not expensive mosaics. It was damaged by fire during WWII, so hardly anything survived. (p80).
  2.  

1169 Suzdalians attacked Novgorod.

1237 Mongols devastated Suzdalia.

Nogvgorod maintained the artistic endeavors after the Kievan state fell.

  1. Mjm- Greek master in Novgorod, and Valdimire-Suzdal principalities. At the end of the 10th century, an immediate need for religious objects brought creative influences into Rus’. Articles of Greek Manufacture and the arrival of Greek artisans were a part of Kievan movement of prestige and to fashion the city as the center of religious authority (p107).
  2. The refined Greek features…most delicate balance between supernatural and the human attributes. (p81). Byzantine art in examples consist of the real and ideal, a subtle equilibrium, the greatest and most characteristic. The Church of the Savior at Nereditsa (until WWII) contained the earliest complete ensemble of wall paintings. Built by prince Novgorod, Yaroslav Vladimirovich, in 1198 and painted the following year.
  3. Local Novgorod dialects, some signatures, indicate Russians learning and contributing under Greek masters. Russian apprentices focus more on lines than modeling. (p86-88). “ Human element,” influence of the west. In Frescos more complicated scenes can be depicted, in otherwise mosaic fashion.  
  4. Theophanes impressionism – chiaroscuro, shades of light.
  5. Ch8
  6. Russian art, far more personal icons, then Greek art- eastern art. (p97)
  7. Westerners have a negative view on Russian/Byzantine art because they don’t understand the regions’ history. Until the 17th century icons were used as religious communications. When people became widely literate, the need for them dwindled.
  8. Mind/emotions| nature/supernatural.
  9. Scenes often partake of Apocrypha, the books allegedly left out of the Bible. In these books the Virgin Mary is a key player in Christ’s life, or a more active member lets say. Russians also added local saints and interpretations of their own history in art.
  10. Virgin Mary: Bysantine Hodegetria (She who shows the way), the greatest popularity in Russia. Legend, Virgin Blacherniotissa (p101), apse of the church of the Blachemae in Constantinople.
  11. Virgin Platytera, enthroned as queen of heaven. Autocratic reserve, not tenderness.
  12. Frequently Old Testament scenes appear in Russian Art.
  13. There own slant, Church fathers between biblical figures, a unique thing. (p103).
  14. Earlier Icons were made of gold and silver and of Greek origin. In the 12th century ground white and yellow ochre substituted for these metals.
  15. Flax-seed and olive-oil were used to cover frescos and paintings. There was a vibrant trade for these products. Over time, these products in use darken the surface of the art-work, and later generations tried to copy exactly the colors, not understanding that such things darkened them. (104)
  16. Ch 9
  17. End of 10th century
  18. First icons were brought from Kherson to Kiev by Vladimir. 1155 Andrey Bogoliubsky took from the Kievan suburb of Vishgorod to Suzdalia, where he subsequently placed it in the Cathedral of The Dormition of Vladimir. This is regarded as the most venerated, and is called “Virgin of Vladimir”. (107).
  19. The second group of Greek artists arrived to Kiev around 1073. They came to decorate Pechersky Dormition. (1131-1136); two icons of the Virgin Mary. In 1395 transferred to Moscow to the right of the Royal Doors in the late 15th century of the Cathedral of the Dormition in the Kremlin.
  20. Russian masters worked under Greek supervision.
  21. Second group of Greek artists arrived in Kiev around 1037. They came to decorate the Pechersky Dormition.
  22. The spiritual energy of eastern, Syria religiosity was to find its parallel in Russia. Mystical energy, entering Russia through its many contacts with the east. (p114).
  23. “ A mood of contemplation rather than observation.”
  24. Ch10
  25. Fundamentally Chiaroscuro: where the contour line is most prominent. (119).
  26. Art: Palaeologos style mid-14th century revival of trade between Byzantine and Russia.
  27. The legend of St. George, victorious over a dragon, probably derived from a fresco of about 1167 of the same subject in the church of St. George in Staraya Lodoga. (119).
  28. Chiaroscuro is represented in Saint and Princess (p121), text (122)
  29.  
  30. Novgorod Currency in the 14th century: silver rods.
  31. “After 1350 the Russian version of Palaeologos impressionism completely transformed the earlier two-dimensional linearism into a technique capable of communicating a much wider range of special experience. “ (p 123)
  32. Only a few icons can be attributed to the 14th century.
  33. Early icons: Nativity of the Virgin (c. 1325)
  34. “ Accent of early severity can be found in many icons of the late 14th century, perhaps a refection of the life of the people during those difficult times and of the consciousness of the church.” (p127)
  35. “ the large icon of SS. Paraskeva, Gergory the theologian, John Chrysostom, and Basil the Great illustrates the independence won by the Russian artists in these years.” (127-8).
  36. Probably from the school of Pskov that utilized monochrome schemes. (p128). Russian artists reached a critical point in the development of a national style.
  37. Theophanes the Greek frescos in the church of the Transfiguration of Novgorod.
  38. Method of suggesting a three- dimensional forms; different from earlier 11-12th century where modeling in tomes and lines followed the curve of the plane – inseparable.
  39. Ch.12
  40. Moscow school, Rublev’s Trinity.
  41. Novgorod school, St. Elais c. 1400.
  42. Theophanes prophets, superhuman manifestations.
  43. Novgorod, staple was the Four-Part Icon system. This came from early Christian and Byzantine models. Many were narrative paintings. This was a line of communication, offered as a substitute for literacy. One example: Was the battle between Novgorod and Suzdal in 1169, when Novgorod was besieged by Suzdalians.  This was the earliest known icon to deal with Russian history. (p144). Novgorod painters achieved almost a monopoly in the production of large icons for iconostasis…” (p148). In the Moscow fire of 1547, Novgorodian artists were called up to repair the damaged icons and other works of art. Novgorod is known for the Four-Part icon production. However, when mentioning “mixed styles”, meaning two schools or two styles, this meant that a new national style particularly just for Russian was developing. Finally, Novgorod style was basically practical matters.

14th Century Frescos

(Frescos by Theophanes) 14th Century, Frescos in Novgorod: Church of the Transfiguration was built by the people living on the street. Rubble construction, brick, Church of the Savior on the main street,

Frescos the Greek master Theophanes,

Quick strokes of the brush, that suggest couture.  Sit on top of a column, a monk would sit for thirty years and people would lift up to them food, and, Theophanes painted from memory, and talking at the same time, he came north from Bysantine bring styles,

  1. Hermit Monk, to desert to escape the pleasures, ascetic departure from this world, the white beard picture no face,
  2. Most famous Fresco is the holy trinity, Abraham and Sarah, three angles, the elderly couple, ‘go get food we shale entertain these three strangers.’ This icon painting comes really important later on, a trefoil roofline, was used on this church.
  3. Frescos is done on wet plaster, so can only do small patches at a time. If dry, called Fresco Secco.
  4. (Different Church – no color Frescos in this one)
  5. Moses and Noah, and three apostles fall down the mountain blinded by the light, the Transfiguration , the manifestation of the light is one of the most important things in Orthodox church.
  1. Artists, nativity scene, Orthodox belief Christ was born in a cave. So these scenes are important in frescos in Russia. Medieval paintings were narrative, and renaissance were snapshots.
  2. Russia artists learned their iconography from their Greek masters, and from Books on iconography, and icon in Russia means ‘holy image’ plaster on wooden boards, and plaster is where the paint is laid. 6 feet tale is often a height so that many in Churches sitting far-off can see the iconic image. From portable icons, Russian learned their iconography too. Ikonopis’: To paint it  - is to write it.
  3. The Bible says no engraved images of this world, but the saints are argued are not of this world, and the 7th ecumenical council, this issue was dealt with; argue: in theory this is a window to heaven in which we worship. In sense, when Christ was sent to earth, they argue,  God sent the first icon. Some argued, so to say, this was still improper.
  4. Cross-boards on the back on the boards, and in a grove, the boards must be seasoned, or dried for a year or two, cannot use a green[wood].  Older boards styles had a raised edge, and typically a canvas is glued to the wood, and 7-10 layers of gypsum or plaster were laid, and these layers fill up to the raised edges, flush now, and now it is ready. So if well prepared the painting can last centuries.
  5. Oldest layers in the face of the famous virgin ( Mother and child) are supposed to be the originals, but artist found many layers of paint on her. The nose and eyebrows form a ‘T’ and, there is a suggestion of the three dimensional, but in reality most work is two dimensional in medieval style. Nose radii determine the proportions of the head, in figures. Circle, from the forehead to the bottom tip of the nose. Faces, were added only a little human touch, but tried to stick to the other worldly style. Most icons were painted from icon monastic schools. No true of three- dimensional illusionism in the medieval period. Our Lade of Legima ( The famous one) is the proto type of so many copied in the same style.
  6. What happened in Russia before the Greek masters? No monastic icon schools, no icon books, but some copied from texts that had illuminations.
  7. In general, icon painting, In practice no two icons are alike, even when copying from icon books. Local pigments, cinnabar pigment might not be available other places, some places yes. So these were hand works of art. And no two hand writing scripts for scribes were alike, so we see a comparison of similarity. 
  8. Patter books, only appear in Russia in the 17th century. In these patterns books instructions to mix gesso, and pin-pricks were used in outlining before beginning with paint.
  9. Wall of icons, the royal prayer-doors, where these were for confession. Lineseed oil, brightens when first put, but darkens over time, and so they put another layer and over time they paint over the darken layer – to brighten it up.
  10. A famous icon collector wrote a book called “ black-boards” indicating this darken appearance of linseed, or flaxseed oil used as a varnish darkened over time the icons reserved till today. Now many restore them. Use turpentine. We can see paint, of the icon, after our techniques of restoration began to be perfected in the 20th century, then let say a icon copyist of a few hundred years ago.
  1. So why dark skin or fleshtones? Because the copyist might have seen the darken varnish and thought that is how the flesh looked so needed to copy it as it looked. So they think the flesh is almost black.

Why repaint a Icon?

  1. Changing taste in appearance, is one reason for repainting. Icon boards were often repainted.
  2. All icons boards tend to bow-out. So steel frames, then the exploded, so cannot stop the bowing, just retard it. Cinnabar red, backgrounds.
  3. Hierarchy, of Novgorod, the patron saint, will have the tallest figure in a icon narrative. The semantics, the language of the icon, the prominent figure is the patron’s decision, or the patron saint of the city or the church or we do not know.
  4. Language of perspective or proportions, in medieval, inverse, or reverse perspective, instead of imaginary line in the distance where the perspective converges, it is opposite and sometimes multiple, the sides go outwards and not inwards, one might argue so that you see the both sides or from God’s eyes it is true perspective, especially multiple perspective. INVERSE PERSPECTIVE or MULTIPLE PERSPECTIVE.
  5. For example seeing the external scenery and internal scenery and doing are parts of multiple perspectives. Can God see like this, or superman? Medieval two dimensional artistry worked as such.
  6. Medieval Iconic narrative artistry: Intended to be vehicles for prayer, not to be put in museums where their was none back then.
  7. Russian Iconography to the (Russiatation do not use this word) of transformation from the Byzantine style to the Russian new style.
  8. Salonika Teacher Icon,  was standing and changed to be sitting, so looks odd.
  9. 8 pointed style of the Christian Cross. Not the western equal sided cross of the Middle Ages.
  10. In Novgorod, Two Nicholas’s, painted as the same time, but different in Hamilton, so two styles, one raised an eyebrow, a human feeling to make him more assessable, again, no two Icons are alike, the painters could have been looking at different models.
  11. Red Cinnabar was popular in Novgorod, important to note. There can be boarder scenes and a central icon figure in the center of a narrative board.
  12. General, no two figures overlap, not natural, often dynamic poses, but most formalistic.
  13. Vita: lives, Boris and Gleb, were warriors, early leaders in Rus’ history, and these 11th century Kiev and Rus’ saints, pop up in icons because in 989 is when Russian adopted Christianity, and these two martyrs were part of the first waves of early Russian Christians. So the reason these people are used in icons is cities tried to claim heritage to them.
  14. Crosses on the Robes of a Byzantine Bishop.
  15. Novgorod city-states trading with the west and thse Baltic ties,
  16. Cities of major heresies were Novgorod, or the boarder towns. Hansiatic league connections, the trade-town it was more influenced to more different types of people.
  17. Triangular proportions of God ( Novgorod), a formulations in later Icons. So when people pray, meditate they can envision the icon and concentrate on the picture to add a symbol of concentration.
  18. Purification of the Virgin, 40 days the women was unclean after the child, cannot come into the church until after the 40th day, this was invented by man, not God.
  19. Battle of Novgorod and Suzdal, a narrative in 15th century, threatened by Moscow, is a battle scene in the time of the 12th century, so the narrative, shown in three tears, and the army is coming from Suzdal, and the to protect the palladium, the first tier narrative; the second teir the three boyar princes from Suzdal come to negotiate peace, but Suzdal people from beyong shoot arrows at an icon of Novgorod; third tear, the Novgorod army  have three period saints, Boris, Gleb, St. George, (?and two others, making five). So they will win. So the narrative tells of a victory. So it this a image of a holy image or  a historical scene, if from ‘Novgorod the Great’ it is an Icon; it’s a miraculous tale if not from Novgorod.
  20. The Byzantine miracle the multi perspective one, The Novgorod building up top, while the interior scenes and a cloud, it is a Russian theme, with the onion domes,.

Miracle of Archangel Michael

Protector of cattle and horses, very important to flocks of these in Russian religious lore. 

When at Church, you learn to read and pray to the icon as there are the lessons in the church and can approach it in service and in church, so when illiterate you can read history and important things, but can be making more of this in modern history as icons are not important now that we all usually can read and write, so lessons are not necessary.

Before, icons were floating, some Novgorodian icons show saints on the grass, on the terra ferma.

Hamilton: Art & Architecture

36-50) Alexander Nevsky, protected Novgorod with politics against the Tartars ( Sees Batu four times, regular paid tribute). 1475, end of independence, Ivan III, patrimony. Republican mercantile character (37) wealthy patrons of art; art flourished because Novgorod remained unabated, continual contact with west, vibrant trade, wealthy patrons; trade to east post, Tmutarakan, Mstislav’s (d. 1034 or 36 | Mstislav of Tmutarakan, Prince of Chernigov, younger bother of Yaroslav) appanage, at the entrance at the Sea of Azov, into wich flows the Don, had long been a port of entry for trade between the East and Kievan Rus’.

80-96)

97-105)

106-118)

119-129)

141-151)

Icon of Metropolitan Aleksii (d.1378),
with Border Scenes of His j painted late 15th-early 16th
C.;
School of Dionisii; State Tret’iakov Gallery, Moscow
See: Mikhail V. Alpatov, Early Russian Icon Painting / Drevnerusskaia ikonopis’, Moscow, Iskusstvo, 1978, ills. 150-154 (currently on reserve in Art Library under “Kollmann”)
Sequence of border scenes:
1 2 3 4 5 6
7 8
9 10
11 12
13 14
15 16 17 18 19 20
Border scenes (slides will be shown of those marked with an asterisk *):
* 1. Nativity of Aleksii [model = Christ’s Nativity]
* 2. Presentation for instruction [model = Presentation of the Christ Child in the Temple]
3. In a dream, Aleksii hears the words, “Lo, I will make thee a fisher of men, a shepherd of souls” [cf. Matthew 4:19 & Mark 1:17, where Jesus says to the fishermen Simon/Peter and Andrew: “Come with me, and I will make you fishers of men.”]
* 4. Tonsuring of Aleksii (whose original name was Elevferii)
* 5. Installation of Aleksii as Bishop of the city of Vladimir
6. Aleksii, having become Metropolitan of Moscow, visits the Horde

* 7. Aleksii asks Sergii of Radonezh to release his disciple Andronik to become hegumen (abbot) of the Saviour Monastery near Moscow [note both Aleksii and Sergii have haloes]
* 8. Aleksii blesses Andronik as hegumen of the Saviour (Spasskii) Monastery [now called Spaso-Andronikov Monastery]
9. Aleksii prays at the tomb of Metropolitan Peter (d.1326) in the Kremlin Dormition Cathedral [first version] before departing again for the Horde
* 10. The khan, down on his knees in respect, greets Aleksii at the Horde. One of the khan’s courtier’s holds his hat and curved saber. Aleksii, accompanied by a monk and boyars, extends his hand to the khan.
* 1 1. Aleksii heals the Princess Taidula, who is reclining on her bed. Above her we see her white tent (background = inside). A youth holds a basin of holy water which Aleksii has brought from the Kremlin Dormition Cathedral; Aleksii sprinkles the princess with it.
* 12. Aleksii returns to Moscow from the Horde and is greeted by the Grand Prince, Dmitrii Donskoi (bareheaded), and the boyars (fur caps). Aleksii holds out a cross for the grand prince to kiss. Buildings of Moscow to right.
* 13. Aleksii, aware that death is approaching, proposes to Sergii of Radonezh that he become metropolitan (Sergii declined).
* 14. Aleksii prepares his tomb in the Kremlin Chudov (Miracles) Monastery, conversing with the stonemasons.
* 15. Aleksii is laid to rest in the Chudov Cathedral (background = inside). A bishop delivers the funeral mass, while the choir members, in white, and Grand Prince Dmitrii and his boyars, bareheaded, pay homage.
16. Discovery of the incorruptible remains of Aleksii by a subsequent metropolitan (lona) and grand prince (Vasilii lithe Blind; d.1462).
* 17/18. Miracle of the resurrection of a dead boy: Aleksii, emerging from the Chudov Cathedral, approaches the boy, wrapped in funeral cloth, and touches him. Note run-together scenes.
* 18/19. The mother of the resurrected boy presents an icon of Aleksii to the priest of the cathedral.
20. Miracle of the healing of Naum, monk of the Chudov Monastery.

Frescos Rublev

 

Riza chasuble

Basma

 

Oklad, a boarder, a metal overlay added, in the 17th become especially popular. Why, the medieval two dimensional style becomes obsolete, and 3 d becomes illusional dimensionality. Rublev's trinity. 2d, it dresses up the Icon, and added with jewels, wealthy contributors including the grand prince.

 

School and detail & west European tastes.

Nov. strong, blues and strong red and detail

Pskov. dark red and dark brown.

 

Dinosis & sons, next most famous icon painters. and his sons,

No boarders, and carpeting of narrative scenes It is new then to have new testament parables,

Distortion was a multiple perspective and composites view. ( The throne) Note the elongation. John the babtice on the right,

Diesis composition, Greek word for the prayer for the treaty - the intercession on behave of God. Dionisis schools, soft pastels

 

 

Novgorod and Moscow, and Moscow counters, offeres icon painters a to come to moscow, and later Pskov

the picture of the onion dome.

Bysantine holiday,

 

Russian Icon production after 1470 Muscovite was a  homogenation of all the schools together, a mix-style.

 

Last Judgment subject in art was attributed to Novgorod, and Novgorod's fondness to Red. Year would end in 1700 was in 1492, and it came and went and this was the time the Kremilin was being built on a grand scale.

Wood

Houses, rectangular units, added on with extensions of families. Live in the stove room in the winter. Carbon monoxide problems: no chimneys, only louvers holes.  Wax was expensive, inexpensive pitch-pine; it is a crude method of lighting. Soup bowels carved out a single piece of wood. In the north animals were kept inside for the winter, so many barns rooms connected a peasant house. All pitched roofs in the north. One way to distinguish a church’s floor plan is to determine if the base is octagonal or square. 20 walled-log plan, a much used planned and is referenced in 17th century chronicles is referred too and considered as a traditional shaped.

Look to a Squint roof ( at a raised level off the ground) in complex churches to determine if the floor plan is square ( look to nave)  determining the base to hold the octagon rise.

Nikon it is unfit to have only one top on God’s church, must have three or five atop God’s churches ( see 17th cent.).

Overlapping technique: wood then brick overlap called corbelling, bricks overlaying.
Fioravanti did not affect Russian style;
but his teaching of brick and structure-techniques is what dramatically affects Russian architecture after. Wider transept, cross-isle was a Russian tradition, and after Fioravanti, Alevisio returned to the Russian tradition in the building of Archangel Michael Cathedral with the uneven plan with a wider cross-isle. Structural debt to the Italian was the brick building technique, mainly headed by the inspiration of Fioravanti. The great 16th century buildings in the Kremlin and Moscow were now built in brick, instead of stone.  Stone was hard work, and difficult. Faux rusitfication an asthetic, deliberately barrowed form the cathederal churches in Red Squar.  

Centrally planned churches: Sudal, Italy, Novgorod:  Basil, St. John, and Ascension, were different ideas, centrally planned church, and the symbol of a central state, and the capture of Kazan.

 

Missile Church

Church of the Ascension, built in commemoration of Ivan IV in 1530. Nothing like this built in stone, and nothing like this was ever built before the Chronicle bemoaned. The walls were thick, and this squared floor planned with double recessed corners. One feels the ascension, the height. It was derived from wooden architecture. Interior space is rather quite small, but it was built for its visual ascetics, and didn’t need to hold large crowds.

St. Basil.

9 dedicated chapels, very reminiscent of the 20 walled plan, and other influences.

Fabulous lowing Fruit Basket. Tales of blinding the architects so they wouldn’t build another is a myth and in many cultures in this theme. Eight precisely located chapels around the central chapel.  Ward pointing triangles, false fortress towars, a combination both native and Italian in St. Basils, Built after the popular Holy Fool who died in Moscow. In honor of the victory over Kasan in the 16th century and dedicated to Ivan IV 

Who drew the four plan, Leonardo Da Vinci, and there was Italian influence.  Da Vinci drawing was a tad different, but the 8 chapels surrounded by the central was the same type of plan. 

Projecting stone work that was popular in Italy became also adopted in Russia. So diamond shaped projections, and changing shadow patters that Russians liked.

Swan Lake: in Moscow and Merlin tale swallow tales on fortress structure

Icons:

Multiple perspectives cannot discriminate must show all sides of things so no part is left out.

Roublev: Circular Icon schema, representing the trinity, the endless mystery this hard to understand but very important eternal trinity concept. Roublev imitate him, but no one ever succeeds him.

 Work Cited and Readings:

References to "Ham." = George H. Hamilton, The Art and Architecture of Russia, 3rd, "integrated" edition, illustration numbers

Riasanovsky, Nicholas V. & Mark D. Steinberg, History of Russia, vol. I. ed. 7th, (Oxford: Oxford Unity Press, 2005).

Bibliography:

David Mackenzie & Michael W. Curran, “A History of Russia, the Soviet Union and Beyond,” 6th ed. (Belmont, California: Wadsworth Publishing Company, 1993).

Nicholas V. Riasanovsky & Mark D. Steinberg, “History of Russia,” vol. I.,  7th ed. (Oxford: Oxford Unity Press, 2005).

Nikolai Sergeevich Trubetzkoy,  “The Legacy of Genghis Khan and Other Essays on Russia’s Identity” , ed. Anatoly Liberman, trans. Kenneth Brostrom ( Ann Arbor : Michigan Slavic Publications, 1991). 

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