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Kiev & RUS’ Chronology
Master Chronology Russia
Never say Ivan IV did this or did that, always say they did this or they did that – Boyar +
Concentric circles, and the cabal-Mafia of Government Organization. Even Charlemagne used this system.
Rus'-pronounced "Roose"-was the medieval name for the lands of the East Slavs, ancestors of
the Ukrainians and Belorussiansas well as the Russians.-
From the beginnings of the Russian Church until 1448, its head,
who was first the Metropolitan of Kiev and later the Metropolitan of
Moscow, was ordained by the Patriarch of Constantinople. After 1437,
the year the Byzantine Church concluded its union, of short duration,
with the Church of Rome, the Russian Church broke away and became
8th -9th Century, Kiev was an outpost of the Khazar empire.
880 to the middle of the 12th century, Kievan Rus' period, declined before Mongols came.
9th Century global warming melts artic ocean ice, Greenland is actually green.
9th Century, late, Vikings, called Varangians, come down from the North to trade, in corporation called the Rus, Khallman, “Nomads of the Sea” name of a Scandinavian warrior trading company and as well as called a trade federation, made up of many ethnicities of the many river ports and distribution regions.
Ryurik the Viking supposedly comes to Rus’
988 Prince Vladimir of Kiev begins conversion of Rus’ to Christianity. With Christianity comes architecture, and great construction. Basilica, first was a courthouse for the rulers or government, then it became synonymous with the Church.
980s From the beginnings of the Russian Church until 1448, its head, who was first the Metropolitan of Kiev and later the Metropolitan of Moscow, was ordained by the Patriarch of Constantinople. After 1437, the year the Byzantine Church concluded its union, of short duration, with the Church of Rome, the Russian Church broke away and became independent.
980s Greek architects come with Byzantine Princess Anna to Kiev. They build, and some Rus’ learn under them.
Churches were wooden structures. Vladimir first act, threw-out
Perun, Volos idols, Kiev, First church dedicated to St. Basil,
??? (emulation ‘contested’ of Justinian’s Hagia Sophia???
989 Novgorod, Holy Sophia Cathedral, first cathedral ordered built by Vladimir I (Kiev) in 989 of oak; 13 “tops1’ (verkhi); burned 1045, Vladimir’s son, Iaroslav the Wise (Prince of Novgorod, then Kiev), commissioned masonry cathedral, 5 domes over cathedral; plus one dome over staircase tower, 5, then 7 aisles; originally 3 apse projections, outer galleries at N & S raised and vaulted; quadrant (half-barrel) vaults, quadrant vaults buttress central core, material: outer added galleries of rubble (uncut stone in mortar, made pink by, addition of crushed brick, on original apses: more ordered layers of Byzantine opus mixtum, Sophia Cathedral the seat of the Novgorod bishop, then archbishop (1165).
990 ― 1500 architecture of Novgorod and Pskov; architecture of Novgorod in the first period derived from Kiev, and is to be understood in its history as provincial variant of the Kievo ― Byzantine style (Hamilton 37)
991 Vladimir founds Cathedral of St. Sophia, imposes Christianity on Novgorod. St. Sophia originally had thirteen copulas, signifying Christ and his twelve apostles. (1045 destroyed by fire, but the ‘tops’ (vierkhi) were recorded in the chronicles). Like its wooden predecessor in Novgorod, this church had a picturesque pyramidal silhouette. This is a distinct Russian departure from Byzantine principles. Vladimir sends for Greek artists from Byzantine, a key development in Russian architecture.
989 Vladimir returns from conquering Kherson.
1036 ― 54
reign of Yaroslav ‘the Wise’ as grand prince of Kiev
1103-1207, no fewer than 68 churches built, indicating great wealth of Novgorod, ‘Novgorod school,’ attribution of an artistic style.
1018 ― 37 Kiev, Cathedral of St. Sophia (emulation ‘contested’ of Justinian’s Hagia Sophia)
1045 ― 57 Novgorod Saint Sophia Cathedral; foundations, and structure, no interior decoration at this point.
wooden church destroyed by fire and chronicles say it was thirteen ‘tops;’ silhouette pyramid appearance, its predecessor from Novgorod, Russian departure from Byzantine principles, so it marked the beginning of native tradition in masonry construction; cross-plan, three bays of the nave to the north and south of the space beneath the central dome. The five-domed stone cathedral was built by Vladimir of Novgorod on behest of his father, Yaroslav the Wise, as a sign of gratitude to Novgorodians for their support of Yaroslav's struggle for Kiev. The oldest Church ?; Onion shaped domes or onion-like cupolas were a design for the cold weather, unique for Russia, too much snow collecting on roofs caused them to cave in. ?????
Schism’ of eastern and western Christianity
1113 ― 25
reign of Vladimir Monomakh as grand prince of Kiev
1125 – 1152 no church building projects in Suzdal.
1147 the town
of Moscow is first mentioned in a chronicle
Physiologus, popular medieval bestiary , sources of ornamentation?: Byzantium; German Romanesque, door surrounds: repetitive leaf, vine and tree designs ,
possible influence from Armenia and Georgia , Iurii, son of Andrei Bogoliubskii of Vladimir, married Queen Tamara, of Georgia in 1185.
1152-1158 Cathedral of the Transfiguration, Pereiaslavl-Zalesskii, Prince Iurii Dolgorukii.
1158-61; rebuilt 1185-89 Vladimir-Suzdal’ Cathedral of the Dormition (or Assumption) (Uspenskii sobor) Kliazma River, one dome, then 5 domes, helmet shaped, 3 aisles, then 5 aisles; 3 apses projections, dressed/cut limestone, facade ornamentation similar to Nerl’ church.
1190s Cathedral of St. Dmitrii, 11 90s (Demetrius of Salonika, 3rd-4th cc,) I dome, 4 piers, 3 apses surface bas-relief sculpture: beasts, real and mythical; King David; Alexander the Great; Vsevolod III Big Nest; St. Theodore Stratilates St. George Sts. Boris & Gleb upper register: 566 sculptured items -- 470 beasts and plants, 46 saints interior frescoes: apostles.
1198 The Church of the Savior at Nereditsa (until WWII) contained the earliest complete ensemble of wall paintings. Built by prince Novgorod, Yaroslav Vladimirovich, painting the following year.
1212 east slavs no longer in communication with Byzantiim they were cut-off – no communication, no longer trade Dnieper, and so in 13th people pushed back and north, by increasing Mongol incursions and threats.
1229-34; 1470s Vladimir-Suzdal’ Iur’ev-Pol’skii (or Yuriev-Polsky), Cathedral of St. George, collapsed, reassembled in 1470s by Ermolin (from Moscow) rich facade ornamentation (as in Vladimir Dmitrii Cathedral) rarity of sculpture in Russian lands, discouraged by Church.
1237 ― 40
Mongol invasion of Rus’
Metropolitan Maksim, moves from Kiev to Vladimir. School merged
into the Moscow school in the 15th century.
1314 Birth of St. Sergius of Radonezh; Theodore was the son of Sergius' brother, Stephen. He later became the bishop of Rostov; Did Sergius rally the Russians under Dimitrii to give the Tartars their first major defeat in 1378?
Ivan Daniilovich of Moscow (Ivan I Kalita) becomes grand
1378 Church of the Transfiguration of the Savior in Ilin (Elijah) Street, 1378 , frescoes by Feofan Grek (Theophanes the Greek): Old Testament Trinity, Noah; Abel; Makarii, stylite saints. Finish Novgorod frescoes of the 14th c. Church of the Transfiguration of the Savior in Il’in (Elijah) Street, 1378 , frescoes by Feofan Grek (Theophanes the Greek) stylite saints, Abel; Makarii (4th-c. Egyptian desert father) Old Testament Trinity Church of the Dormition in Volotovo Field, 1352, frescoes 1380s (not extant).
―battle of Kulikovo: Grand Prince Dmitrii Ivanovich (Donskoi)
1389 The Passing of Grand Prince Dmitrii Ivanovich (d. 1389)(r. twenty-seven years and six months), in The Nikonian Chronicle. He lived forty-years. He lived with his Princess Evdokia and her mother Grand Princes Anna. He had sons and daughters: Addressing the children, key Chronicle sentences attributed to him: 'Trespassing the father's will will destroy the children's home and put an end to the mother's life.' […] Love your boyars, render them the honor they deserve according to the deeds of each, and do nothing without their counsel. Primogenture, as he gives Vasilii his Grand Principality. Theme to sons: to sons to serve the boyars, and kinsmen. (note: deathbed scene, Vasilii III in (r. 1505-’33) 1533 theme to boyars: serve my sons, he said to the boyar/princes).
1425 — reign of Grand Prince Vasilii I
Patrikeev (Vassian, after his tonsure) was in fact the great-
grandson of Patriky Narimuntovich, the Lithuanian prince who
entered the service of Vasily I in 1408. His grandmother Maria
was Vasily II’s sister and Ivan III’s aunt (his mother Evdokia
Vladimirovna Khovrin was not related to the grand princely
family). After a distinguished career in the service of Ivan
III, Vasily Patrikeev fell from favour in 1499 together
with his father Ivan Yur’evich, his brother Ivan Mynin Patrikeev
and his brother-in-law Semen Ivanovich Ryapolovsky. The reasons
for his disgrace are not known; “treason” is mentioned by one
source. It may be that all four were involved in the dynastic
crisis of 1497—9. Ryapolovsky was executed, but the three
Patrikeevs, thanks to the intervention of the senior clergy,
were spared. Vasily/Vassian was sent to the monastery of St
Kirill in Beloozcro; he was later allowed to move to the
hermitage of Nil Sorsky, and eventually to the Simonov monastery
in Moscow where he evidently lived until his trial in 1531.
― reign of Grand Prince Vasilii II
1448 Russian bishops names Bishop lona of Ryazan’ as metropolitan
1451 Ahmad Khan #1 attempts at Moscow, unsuccessful.
1452 Vernadsky’s period of end of Mongol Yoke. Moscow gives descendant of Chinggis Khan the principality of Kasimov, in recognition of Moscow suzerainty.
Constantinople falls to the Ottomans
Russians cut of from Western knowledge and culture ( however,
Constantinople had been in decline for some time).
1458 Final break with Lithuania, separate break, separate Orthodox metropolitanate for Lithuanian state.
1461 Ahmad Khan #3 attempts at Moscow, unsuccessful.
1462—1505 — reign of Grand Prince Ivan III
(Sofiya) Paleologue becomes second wife of Ivan III.
Khan becomes vassal of the Ottoman Empire
1478 Moscow annexes Novgorod
establish Magmet- Amin’ as khan of Kazan’
1498 Ivan III
crowns his grandson Dmitii as his co- ruler and heir
destruction of the Great Horde by the Crimean Tatars
Safa-Girei becomes khan of Kazan’
1525 First Court trial of Maksim the Greek who was born in Italy in about 1475. After spending ten years in the Vatopedi monastery on Mount Athos he was invited to Moscow by Vasily III in order to help with the translation of sacred books. He remained in Moscow for the rest of his life, interesting himself in such controversial questions as monastic landownership and the position of the Church vis-a-vis the State. He was put on trial (1525 and 1531) for his ecclesiastical views, which ran counter to those of the Josephian hierarchy, for “heretical” opinions and for treacherously conspiring with one Skinder, the sultan’s ambassador in Moscow. From 1525 to 1531 he was imprisoned in the Josephian monastery of Volokolamsk; after his second trial in I531 he was sent to the Tver’ Otroch’ monastery; in 1551 he was allowed to move to the Trinity monastery of St Sergy where he died in 1556. (J.L.I. Fenne History of Grand Princes, foot 2, p.76-7).
1526 Vasilii III marries Elena Glinskaya
reign of Ivan IV
1534-1547 feuding clans period: Power struggles- Glinskiis and Belskiis, Ivan’s relatives through his mother and the Shuiskiis, princes from Suzdal who dominated the Boyar Duma at the time of Vasilii’s death.
regency of Elena Glinskaya 1535 Safa-Girei is restored as
1536 death of Prince Yurii of Dimitrov
1537 death of Prince Andiei of Staritsa. Elena Glinskaia’s government goaded Andrew of Staritsa into a revolt, he was the last remaining brother of Vasilii III, and he also dies arrested and thrown in prison.
1537 Ivan IV’s uncle, Prince Andrey of Staritsa, frightened by current rumours of impending arrest, fled to Novgorod, notwithstanding various assurances and admonitions of the Metropolitan Daniel and the senior clergy. His sister-in-law, Elena, dispatched her lover and favourite, Prince Telepnev-Obolensky, to Novgorod, where, according to the most probable of the two versions of the story, he succeeded in persuading Andrcy to return to Moscow. ‘ihere Andrey was perjurously arrested and thrown into prison where lie died in the same year. Prince Ivan Lvov, a distant cousin of Kurbsky, is not mentioned in the chronicles as a partisan of Andrey Staritsky (J.L.I. Fennel).
1538 death of Elena Glinskaya, Muscovite court lost all coherence.
period of ‘boyar rule’ ( For what?, Succession void?)
1539 Gugy, mostly northern Russia policy, government instructed to select starsoty to assemble autonomous posses to battle brigandage, and report directly to officials in Moscow, not local provincial governors.
1540 Metropolitan loasaf (Metropolitan Daniel’s successor) succeeded in interceding for the release of I. F. Bel’sky from prison (see J.L.I. Fennel, Ivan/ Kurbsky correspondence, p. 75, n. 4). The power then passed from the Shuiskys to Bel’sky, who appears to have run the State together with the aid of the metropolitan and the approval of the young tsar. Towards the end of 1541 (when Ivan was a mere ii years old), Ivan Shuisky was temporarily removed from the scene, having been dcspatched to Vladimir to defend the eastern districts against the Tatars of Kazan.’ Of “the other boyars”, Prince Petr Mikhailovich Shchenyatev, was banished to Yaroslavi’ and Ivan Khabarov to Tver’. Alone Bel’sky was sent to the monastery of St Cyril at Beloozero, where 4 months later he was murdered. The coup d’etat took place on 3 January 1542 (see Tsarslvennaya Kniga, PSRL, XIII, pp. 439, 440). loasaf was saved from murder by Alcksey, abbot of the Trinity monastery, and by Prince Dimitry Paletsky. See Tsarstz’ennaya Kniga, J1SRL, xin, (see Tsarstvennaya Kniga, PSRL, xiii, p. 439). (J.L.I. Fennel ,foot, 1,2,3, p. 78).
1542 Makarii becomes metropolitan.
(Was it him or them?) as a result of the boyars’ behavior had
Andrey Mikhailovich Shuisky killed at the end of 1543. This
marked the end of the influence of the Shuiskys. 1545 ca.
Heinrich Von Staden, born in Ahlen, Westphalia ( First hand
accounts of the Oprichnina, in The Land and Government of
Muscovy, not found and published in modern times until
trans., I.I. Polosin, 1925, then published with research by
Fritz Epstein in 1930, second edition, 1964.
1547 (February) Ivan’s marriage to Anastasiya Romanovna (Political reasons) Beginning of the famous Romanov dynasty.
Vestibule, Ivan IV excommunicated after 4th marriage.
Must stand in isle church.
Ivan heads an expedition against Kazan’
(January-February) Council of a Hundred Chapters’ convenes
(Stovglov, Put words into Ivan’s mouth), issues of landholding,
the church lands, the monastery incomes.
(October) conquest of Kazan’
Edigei, last Khan of Kazan, given Kasimov.
birth of Tsarevich Dmitrii
1553 (March) Ivan’s illness and disputes about the
ill, and the source is a hand written note ten years later,
written in the margins of the Chronicals.
Richard Chancellor comes to Moscow from England by the
White Sea route, opens direct commercial and diplomatic ties
with England and Russia. White sea rout mostly frozen throughout
the year, Norway waters treacherous. He goes to Moscow and
established England and Russian most favored nation status.
birth of Tsarevich Ivan
1555 English Captain, Richard Chancellor, in search of new trade rout, reached Northern Dvina, at the mouth of the White Sea in 1553, and then goes to Moscow to establish England as most favored nation status in trading in 1555.
zemstvo reform; Code on Service’
1556 annexation of Astrakhan’ Derbysh-Alei learned of the ‘wet feet,’ fled to Khan of Crimea, ( Policy of gathering the eastern lands), inaugurating Russia’s eastward expansion.
Now control of the middle Volga region, with a chain of fortresses. Energetic colonization begins.
birth of Tsarovich Fedor
Russian invasion of Livonia. Weakened but rapacious neighbors,
Poland, Sweden, Denmark and soon Poland-Lithuania as
among the boyars if Crimea was more a threat than Livonia- what
to do about the war? Disorder in the government. Many people
cried to the boyars that a protracted war against Livonia was
not in their interests.
1560s Ivan IV simultaneously underwent a change of political direction and a serious personal crisis. Destroys his two main advisors, Adashev and Sylvester, Assigned Aleksie Adashev and his brother, Daniil, to command posts in the army in Livonia, then later confiscated their estates and disgraced them.
(August) death of
Tsaritsa Anastasiva (When the Tsarina died in 1560 Ivan
suspected poison). Ivan has an abrupt change in female
relationships from now on.
1561 Livonian Order disbanded, territories secularized, Gothard Kettler becomes hereditary Duke of Courland and vassal of the Polish King.
1562 — Russia
goes to war with Lithuania
boiar in 1571 (Zimin, "Sostav boiarskoi dumy," p. 76). In 1573 he took part in the capture of Weissenstein. He became a national hero when he commanded the Russian troops that successfully held Pskov against the Polish attack of 1581.
As a reward for his exploits he was granted all of the revenues of the Pskov
district beginning in 1585. His triumph was short-lived. In 1586 one of his servitors denounced him for treason, and Boris Godunov had him exiled to Beloozero where he was murdered in the following year (RBS).
(February) — Russians capture Polotsk
1564 Moscow seven-year truce with Sweden, strengthening Moscow’s hand in dealing with Poland.
(January) — Russians are defeated by Lithuanians on River Ula
1564 (December) — Ivan’s departure from Moscow for Aleksandrova Sloboda, takes wife, children, entourage, furniture, possession, courtiers, treasurer and men.
1564 December 21, [Ivan Vasi'evich] celebrated in the Trinity -St. Sergei,and from the Trinity - St. Sergei, he went to Sloboda. At that time Afanasii, Metropolitan of all Russia,was in Moscow, as were Pimin, Archbishop of Novgorod the Great and Pskov, Nikandr, Archbishop of Rostov and Iaroslavl’, and other bishops and archmandrites and abbots, and the boyars and okolnichi and the chancellery staff of the Tsar.
1565 January 3, the Tsar and Grand Prince sent a list from Sloboda with
Konstantin Dmitreev's son, Polivanov, [check this] and his friends, to his
spiritual father, Afanasii Metropolitan of all Russia, and in the list were
written the treacheries of the boyars, of the military commanders, and of all
the chancellery staff which had committed treason and damages to his rule during his minority after (the death of] his father, of blessed memory, the great" Sovereign, Tsar, and Grand Prince Vasilii Ivanovich of all Russia. (Aleksandro-Nevskaia Letopis' Diahanna Lynch, trans.)Military commanders held great estates, and votchiny, and they were taking the sovereign’s income away, collecting great riches. Accusations by Ivan that they didn’t care for Christianity, or cared to fight the Crimiens, Lithuanians or Germans: Issues Muslims, Latins againt Orthodoxy. Some d’iaki read a decree that Ivan supposedly left because of their sins, and didn’t want to rule any longer ― this was read to all the people. Popele lamented, “ who will save us from the foreigners?” This was Ivan’s plan to garner sentiment from the common people. “When wolves see a sheep without a shepherd, and the wolves seize the sheep, who 'will defend us from them?” . (Aleksandro-Nevskaia Letopis' Diahanna Lynch, trans.) The people asked Ivan back: Was this a ploy from Ivan to get the people to understand the future ‘ reign of terror?’: Could Ivan be so smart to have calculated this entire plan methodically? Even the merchants sided with Ivan’s sentiments. Atanasii, Metropolitan of all Russia is asked to petition Ivan to come back: Is this when Ivan formulates demands for his return to power, part of his grand scheme? Final outcome, “a Sovereign: and for those who are traitors and evildoers to him, the Sovereign, and to his rule, let his Sovereign will be their life and punishment.” (4)
1565 January 5th, Commoners, merchants, boyars, clergy arrive in Sloboda to have an audience with the former tsar Ivan IV. Ivan takes some boyars and sends others back to rule Moscow, he thus splits up Russia in what is called Oprichnina ( from Oprich literate word ‘separate’ or ‘divide’). Ivan makes his own court and possessions.
1565 (January 3) Ivan pronounces in epistle to Metropolitan Athanasius, head of the church that he left Moscow out of anger at the boyars and chancery officials and the leaders of the church. Since his childhood, he alleged, the boyars had not fought to defend their country and had oppressed the rest of the population. The Church had angered him by interceding for those who had fallen into his disfavour. Since he culd not tolerate and more of their treasonous deeds, the tsar intended to abdicate the throne and go where “ God Directed him.’ (Crummy 161-2)
1565 (January 4?) Within hours the royal administration and the church appealed to the metropolitan to intercede with Ivan and, within hours, a delegation set out for Aleksandrova Sloboda bearing petitions begging the tsar to remain on the throne and deal with traitors as he wished. (Crummy 162) In effort for the tsar to rationalize and solve the solution he created for himself an oprichnina’ a separate administration and court to do his bidding.
(February) — Ivan returns to Moscow, issues decree on
1566 (June) — the
first Assembly of the Land’ convenes
1566 (June) zemskii sobor which supported the government's decision to reject Polish offers of a truce and to continue the war was distinguished by the unusual diversity of its delegates. Besides the members of the boiar duma and the sacred council, the delegates included 204 members of the service nobility and 75 representatives of the merchant class (Zimin,Oprichnina,p. 167). (next zemskii sobor is in 1584)
1566 (July) —
Filipp Kolychev becomes metropolitan
by a zemskii sobor and reigned until 1605. Became effective ruler quickly.
investigation of treason charges against LP. Fedorov and others
Ottoman attempt to take Astrakhan’ with alliance of the Crimean
Tartar. Tartar was a generic usage for some nomadic steppe
tribes who incorporated Islam into their system of government.
Zemshchina & Oprichnina forces combined. Tsar
leading the Oprichnina (supposedly) retreated past Moscow, and
went to the Oprichnina capital Aleksandrova Sloboda, then to
Yaroslavl’. Zemshchina forces went to the defense of
Moscow, and the Khan didn’t want to wage a pitched battle.
1570-1 plague, policy of no mobility, Moscow hit hard, starvation & death
1570 (July 25) — Oprichniki, public executions in Moscow. 300 led, prepped [the future cite of red square] with torture instruments.
1570 Oprichnina devoured its own people, Ivan turns against many of them. This creates instability, the Kyrm Khan takes notice and understand now is the time to act.
1571 (May) —
Moscow is burned by the Crimean Tatars. Ivan sees that
oprichnina are not well fit for fighting foreign armies. Khan
Davlet-Geray could not take the Kremlin, but took 100,000
Russians as slaves and enormous booty. Was this the emphasis to
put an end to Astrakhan for good, and not seen as imperialism,
but a safeguard of the surrounding boarders of Russian
territory. Note, China built the great wall to keep out the
northern nomadic tribes that endlessly for centuries descended
on Chinese cities and devastated them.
— Crimean Tatars are defeated at battle of Molodi
— semi- abolition of oprichnina (actually many policies
were not fully abolished until after Ivan’s death).
retained his personal court, and private property, which meant
it was not totally abolished.
1575 Crummy: oprichnina revival seemed eminent, more purges.
1575 poss. Zemskii sobor V. I. Koretskii and'M. N. Tikhomirov have suggested that sobors also met in 1575 and 1580 respectively (Y. I. Koretskii, "Zemskii sobor 1575 g. I postavlenie Simeona Bekbulatovicha 'velikim kniazem vseia Rusi'," Istoricheskii arkhiv, 1959; No.2, pp. 148-56; M. N. Tikhomirov, "Soslovno-predstavitel'nye uchrezhdeniia (zemskie sobory) v Rossii v XVI v.," Voprosy istorii, 1958, No.5, pp. 3-23, esp. pp. 15-17).
1575/6 — Simeon Bekbulatovich is given the title of ‘Grand Prince of All Rus”
Stephen Bathory becomes King of Poland-Lithuania. Hungarian
prince of Transylvania, Bathory takes over after Henry of Valois
leaves the country to take over the French throne of his
deceased brother in 1574. Poland becomes united under Bathory.
1579 — Poles
1581/82 Andrei Ivanovich Shuiskii commanded an expedition against the
Swedes and raised the siege of Oreshek. At the time of Fedor's coronation in
1584 he became a boiar and subsequently commanded forces on the southern
and Swedish frontiers. He was a victim of Godunov's struggle for power with the
Shuiskii family; he was arrested in 1587 and exiled to Kargopol' where he died
1581 — introduction of ‘forbidden years’, restricting peasants’ freedom of
compilation of ‘Memorial List’ of Ivan’s Victims
Tsarevich Dmitrii ( end of dynastic line)
1605 May 19, Vasilii Shuiskii ascended to the Russian Throne.” First thing he did was to make a public declaration in the cathedral Church of the Holy Virgin: “ I kiss the cross before the whole world that I will not take no action against anyone without the approval of the assembly: and that if the father is guilty,I will take noaction against the son: and if the son is guilty. No action against the father” One only needs to remember the Sinodik of Tsar Ivan, with its request to remember the soul of so-and-so, killed “along with his mother, and his wife, and his sons and his daughters,” for it to become entirely clear what the new tsar is promising the people (Yanov The Origins of Autocracy: Ivan The Terrible In Russian History 275) Nikita Kliuchevskii at the 20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in 1956. Secret speech: “the Crowning of Prince Vasilli marked an epoch in our political history. On the ascending throne, he limited his power and officially set forth the conditions of this limitation in a document distributed to all the regions, on which he kissed the cross on being crowned.” ( Plantonov, in outlines of the History of the Rebellions in the Muscovite State of the Sixteenth Century and Seventeenth Centuries, inserted a subsection entitled “ The Cross Kissing Document is Not a Limitation.”) (Yanov TOOA 277):
1649 Vlozhenie, serfdom could be fully established in Muscovite state. Serfs described as tillers of the soil. Vlozhenie, in essence means, ‘once a serf always a serf.’
1893 Discovery of the Heinrich Van Staden Documents.
The term dvoryanzn implied in the sixteenth century a member of the new class of minor nobility (as opposed to the boyars, the hereditary aristocracy), the “Service People” (sluzhil(ye yudi), who acquired position and property by virtue alone of their service either in the armed forces or in the government. (78)
In the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries the term d’yak or “scribe” signified merely a personal servant who, by virtue of his ability to read and write, assisted his master in any matters connected with correspondence or finance. With the formation of Prikazy (ministries) and the centralization of the administration in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, however, the dyaki assumed a far more important role in society, becoming not only members of the various ministries, but even secretaries, ministers and Privy Councillors of the grand prince. (74-5 foot 3)
The ‘Ibrannaya Rada” or Chosen Council (the name given by Kurbsky in his History to Sylvester and his associates) on the tsar in matters of governmental policy” (87)
Prince A.M. Kurbsky’s Historuy of Ivan IV, trasn., J.L.I. Fennel (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1965).
The Russian mile is the equivalent of seven versts, or just under seven and a half kilometres.
Elaborate history, but be careful what sources these are. ( Originally Published 1908 ) BE CAREFUL
( version March 27th, 2007)
corrections and technical inquiries to