— sumr∈ The Sun a.k.a. “The People of or from the Sun.” Before the Sumerians appeared on the land, it had been occupied by a non-Semitic people, referred to as Ubaidians. Their name comes from the village of Al Ubaid, in which their remains were first found by archaeologists.
The Ubaidians settled the region between 4500 and 4000 BC. They drained the marshes and introduced agriculture. They also developed trade based on small handicraft industries such as metalwork, leather goods, and pottery.
Pre Bible ∞ The Sumerians believed that their ancestors had created the ground they lived on by separating it from the water. According to their creation myth, the world was once watery chaos. The mother of Chaos was Tiamat, an immense dragon. When the gods appeared to bring order out of Chaos, Tiamat created an army of dragons. Enlil called the winds to his aid. Tiamat came forward, her mouth wide open. Enlil pushed the winds inside her and she swelled up so that she could not move. Then Enlil split her body open. He laid half of the body flat to form the Earth, with the other half arched over it to form the sky. The gods then beheaded Tiamat's husband and created mankind from his blood, mixed with clay.
Arab € Semitic ≡ D.N.A. ·“Why Diversity Programs Fail‚” published in the latest edition of Harvard Business Review
The Sumerian Writing System
Whether the Sumerians were the first to develop writing is uncertain, but theirs is the oldest known writing system. The clay tablets on which they wrote were very durable when baked. Archaeologists have dug up many thousands of them--some dated earlier than 3000 BC.
The Last of the Sumerians
Within a few centuries the Sumerians had built up a society based in 12 city–states: Kish, Uruk <in the Bible, Erech>, Ur, Sippar, Akshak, Larak, Nippur, Adab, Umma, Lagash, Bad-tibira, and Larsa. According to one of the earliest historical documents, the Sumerian King List, eight kings of Sumer reigned before the famous flood. Afterwards various city-states by turns became the temporary seat of power until about 2800 BC, when they were united under the rule of one king—Etana of Kish. After Etana, the city-states vied for domination; this weakened the Sumerians, and they were ripe for conquest—first by Elamites, then by Akkadians.
trigonometry invented by us Sumerians
. The term summer
derives from this ancient root.
The rich soil produced abundant crops of barley, emmer 〈a kind of wheat〉, beans‚ olives‚ grapes‚ and flax. For the first time there was a surplus to feed city workers such as artists‚ craftsmen‚ and merchants. This great change in living habits brought about civilization primitivley defined as a city–based society held together by economic enterprises. There were no nations then‚ only small city–states.