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395: Death of Theodosius I and division of empire between his two sons.
402: Establishment of the capital of western empire at Ravenna
406-7: ‘Great Invasion’ of Vandals led by Alaric; Emperor Honorius calls on Britons to defend themselves.
c. 410: Foundation of Monasteries of Marseille ( John Cassian) and Lérins (Honoratus).
418: Visigoths settle in Aquitaine with capital at Toulouse.
c. 425: Completion of St Augustine’s City of God. Christianity becomes teleological.
429: Invasion of Roman province in Africa by Vandals.
431: Condemnation of Nestorian heresy in the east and rise of Monophysite heresy.
443: Settlement of Burgundians in Savoy.
c. 450: Appeal by Britons to Aëtius for help against the Saxons.
451: Defeat of Attila and the Huns near Châlons-sur-Marne; formulation of orthodox Christological doctrine at Council of Chalcedon.
452: Invasion of northern Italy by Huns led by Attila.
454: Murder of Roman general Aëtius.
456: Visigothic hegemony in Spain established by king Theoderic II.
471: Assassination of Alan general Aspar; reduction of barbarian influence in east.
476: Deposition of last Roman emperor in west, Romulus Augustulus.
481-2: Death of King Childeric of the Franks, and accession of Clovis.
493: Control of Italy gained by Ostrogothic King Theoderic.
496?: Conversion of Clovis of the Franks to Christianity.
506: Issue of Breviarium ( Roman law code) by Visigothic King Alaric II.
507: Frankish conquest of the Visigothic kingdom in southwest Gaul [ France].
511: Frankish kingdom devided into four on death of King Clovis.
524: Composition of Consolation of Philosophy by Boethius while awaiting execution.
c. 525: Foundation of Monte Cassino monastery by St Benedict and composition of his rule. Religious leaders saved books, and ruled from knowledge by keeping literacy alive, deeds of lands, and treaties, records in which religious leaders could in later centuries draw upon to claim domain—this is why the Church could rule without an army.
c.527-65: Gradual penetration of Balkans by Slav tribes.
529: Promulgation of Justinian of the first edition of new Roman law code (Codex Iustinianus); closing of the Academy of Athens.
532: Serious uprising against Justinian in Constantinople (Nika riot).
533: Byzantine reconquest of Vandal Africa by general Belisarius.
534: Frankish conquest of Burgundian Kingdom; Byzantine occupation of Sicily.
535: Byzantine invasion of Italian mainland.
540: Byzantine occupation of Ravenna; Persian invasion of Syria and sacking of Antioch.
542: Serious outbreak of bubonic plague throughout Europe.
c. 551: Occupation of Cartagena and south-eastern Spain by Bysantines.
554: End of major Ostrogothic resistance in Italy.
568: Lombard [Mongols as Avars?] invasion of Italy.
572-91: Renewed war between Byzantine and Persia.
582: Fall of Sirmium, leading to invasion of Balkans by Avars [proto-Mongolians] and their Slav allies [interesting, Kievan Rus’ connections to Sarai, later hist.].
585: Sueve kingdom in north-west Spain taken over by Visigothic King Leovigild.
587: Conversion of Visigothic King Reccared to Catholicism.
590: Arrival of Columbanus and companions in Gaul.
597: Augustine of Canterbury begins conversion of Kent.
603: Beginning of a series of devastating Persian raids into Anatolia. Truce between Byzantine and Lombards in Italy.
613: Foundation of monastery of Bobbio by Irish missionary St Columbanus.
622: Migration (hijra) of Muhammad from Mecca to Medina: start of Muslim era.
626: Repulse of Avaro-Slav siege of Constantinople.
627: Defeat of Persians by Byzantine Emperor Heraclius near Nineveh; Edwin of Northumbria baptized by St Paulinus.
627?: Death of Rædwald of the East Angles and burial at Sutton Hoo.
c. 633: Completion of Etymologies of Isidore of Seville.
635: Arrival of St Aidan at Lindisfarne.
637: Defeat of Persian Empire by Arabs.
638: Fall of Jerusalem to Arabs; death of Dagobert of the Franks.
642: Fall of Alexandria to Arabs.
643: Issue of Lombard law code by King Rothari.
c. 649: Creation of affective Arab fleet by Mu’awiya.
654: Issue of extensive law code by Visigothic King Recceswinth.
661: Establishment of Ummayad caliphate based on Damascus.
663: Invasion of southern Italy by Byzantine Emperor Constans II.
664: Synod of Whitby settled dispute within the Northumbrian Church between Irish and ‘ Romanists.’
c. 670: Establishment of the first Bulgar Khanate in Balkans.
672: Acceptance of Catholicism by Lombards under King Perctarit.
674-8: Arab naval blockade of Constantinople.
c.680: Treaty made by Byzantine Empire recognizing Lombard kingdom.
685: Northumbrian army led by Ecgfrith defeated by Picts at Nechtansmere.
687: Battle of Tertry marks beginning of Carolingian supremacy in northern Gaul.
698: Final Arab capture of Carthage.
711: Beginning of Islamic conquest of Spain.
713-35: Legislative programme of Lombard King Liutprand.
717-18: Repulse of the Arab land and sea siege of Constantinople by Emperor Leo III.
c. 718: Establishment of Christian Kingdom in the Asturais.
726: Issue of Ecloga code by Leo III; probable issue of first iconoclast decrees.
727: Revolts in Byzantine Italy; election of first independent doge of Venice.
727-43: Attacks by Lombard King Liuprand on Byzantine territories in Italy.
732 Defeat of Arab expeditionary force by Frankish leader Charles Martel near Poitiers.
735: Death of the Venerable Bede.
740: Major victory of Byzantines over Arabs at Akroinon.
750: Overthrow of Ummayad caliphate by Abbasid dynasty.
751 Pippen III deposes last Merovingian king and becomes first Carolingian king of the Franks; fall of Ravenna to Lombard King Aistulf.
754: Martydom of St Boniface in Frisia; meeting of Pope Stephen II and Frankish King Peppin III resulting in alliance.
754-75: Period of hard-line iconoclasm under Emperor Constantine V.
756: Establishment of independent emirate in Spain by Ummayad Prince ‘Abd al-Rahmān.
c. 760: Composition of forged ‘Donation of Constantine’ purporting to record massive grant of lands and rights to the papacy.
762: Foundation of Baghdad as capital of Abbasid caliphate.
c. 768: Final Frankish conquest of Aquitaine.
772: First of Charlemagne’s campaigns against the Saxons.
774: Take-over of Lombard kingdom by Frankish King Charlemagne.
778: Defeat of Charlemagne’s army by the Basques [ n/e Iberia] at Roncevaux.
783: Beginning of Byzantine reconquest of the Peloponnese.
787: Seventh Ecumenical Council at Nicaea; temporary end of iconoclasm.
793: Lindisfarne sacked by Vikings.
799: Establishment of scholarly centre at monastery of Studion in Constantinople by Abbot Theodore.
800: Coronation of Charlemagne as emperor of Rome [Holy Roman Emperor as tradition, henceforth].
800-909: Rule of Aghabids as independent dynasty in North Africa.
801: Beginning of Frankish ‘Spanish March’ in north-east Spain.
811: Defeat of Byzantine Emperor Nicephorus I by Bulgars.
812: Byzantine recognition of imperial title of Charlemagne.
c. 813 -- c.915: Period of serious Arab naval raids on shores of Tyrrhenian and Adriatic seas [What about Rus’ origins in 800? They are also seafarers, what makes water craft so dominate now? The global warming period?].
814: Louis the Pious succeeds Charlemagne as emperor.
814-21: Monastic reform movement of St Benedict of Aniane.
815-43: Second wave of iconoclasm in Byzantine.
c. 823: Capture of Crete by Muslim pirates from Spain.
824: Establishment of independent kingdom of Pamplona.
827: Arab invasion of Sicily.
838: Major Arab invasion of Anatolia leading to sack of city of Amorium.
840: Vikings found settlement at Dublin.
843: Carolingian Empire split up by treaty of Verdum; end of iconoclasm in Byzantine Empire.
846: Sack of the Vatican by Arab pirates.
849: Splitting up of Lombard principality of Benevento.
c. 850 Dissemination of forged ‘Isodorian Decretals’ (cannon law decrees), greatly increasing the authority of the papacy.
860: First attack on Constantinople by Kiev Vikings ( Rus).
863: Mission of Cyril and Methodius to the Slavs.
863-79: Period of schism between eastern and western Churches.
864: Conversion to orthodoxy of Bulgar Khan Boris.
865: The Viking ‘Great Army’ moves from France to England.
867: Beginning of Macedonian dynasty in Byzantium.
c. 870: Vikings discover Iceland [ it is green due to global warming].
875: Political fragmentation of kingdom of Italy following death of Louis II.
876: Beginning of Byzantine reconquest of southern Italy.
878: Failure of Viking assault on Wessex; Arab capture of Syracuse, Byzantine capital of Sicily.
c. 886-c.1025: Macedonian Renaissance in Byzantium.
888: Odo, count of Paris becomes king of West Francia.
888-90: Emergence of kings in Burgundy and Provence.
894: Invasion of Byzantine territory by Tsar Symeon of Bulgaria.
899: Hungarian raids in Italy. [ Huns heritage].
c.900: Resurgence of Byzantine power in Balkans and Anatolia.
906: Magyars destroy the kingdom of Moravia and begin almost annual raids into western Europe.
909: Cluny founded by Duke William the Pious of Aquitaine Charles the Simple grants the sea surrounding Rouen to the Viking leader Rollo: beginnings of the duchy of Normandy.
915: Arab raiders ousted from mouth of River Garigliano in Italy.
922: Robert of Neustria rebels against Charles the Simple and wins the French Crown.
923: On Robert’s death Duke Raoul of Burgundy becomes king; Charles the Simple is imprisoned by Herbert II of Vermandois and dies in captivity in 929.
933: Henry I of Germany defeats the Magyars at Riade.
939-42: Robert of Neustria’s son, Hugh the Great, and son-in-law, Herbert II of Vermandois, rebel against Louis IV of France.
948: Otto I of Germany founds missionary bishoprics at Brandenburg, Havelburg, Ribe, Aarhus, and Schleswig.
953-4: Revolt of Liudolf and other dukes against Otto I.
955: Otto I defeats the Magyars at the battle of the Lechfeld and ends their raids.
961: Byzantine recapture of Crete.
962: Otto I crowned emperor by Pope John XII.
963: Foundation of the Great Lavra monastery on Mount Athos by St Athanasius; Otto I defeats Mieszko I of Poland and obliges him to pay tribute.
965: Byzantine recaptures Cyprus; King Harold Bluetooth of Denmark is baptized.
966: Mieszko adopts Christianity.
968: Otto I founds the achbishopric of Magdeburg; the first Polish bishopric is established at Poznan.
978: Lothar V of France and Otto II of Germany lead campaigns against each other.
982: Otto II defeated in southern Italy by Muslims.
982-3: The Slavs revolt against German rule and recover most of their territories to the east of the Elbe.
987: Death of Louis V, last Carolingian king of France, and accession of King Robert’s grandson, Hugh Capet.
989: Truce of God first proclaimed, at Charroux.
997: Martydom of St Adalbert in Pomerania.
999-1003: Pole Sylvester II (Gerbert of Aurillac).
1000: King Olaf introduces Christianity to Sweden.
1002-18: War between Henry II of Germany and Boleslav Chobry of Poland.
1007: Henry founds the see of Banberg.
1009: Martydom of St Bruno of Querfurt.
1016: Cnut of Denmark becomes king of England, in 1019 of Denmark too, and from 1029 to his death in 1035 also of Norway; first Normans in southern Italy.
1016-17: Turkish raiders first reported in Armenia.
1024: Boleslav Chobry becomes king of Poland.
1032-3: Conrad II of Germany secures the kingdom of burgundy after the death without heir of King Rudolf III.
c. 1036: Foundation of monastery at Vallombrosa.
1037: Constitutio de feudis.
1049: Pope Leo IX condemns simony at the Councils of Rheims and Mainz.
1046-56: Minority of Henry IV of Germany; considerable loss of crown lands.
1054: Patriarch of Constantinople anathematizes Roman Church: the key date in the Schism between Orthodox and Catholic Churches.
1055 Seljuks capture Baghdad.
c. 1056-75: Patarene heretics in Milan.
1059-61: Pope Nicholas II.
1059: Election Decree on appointment of pope; Robert Guiscard becomes duke of Apulia and Calabria.
1061: Roger I the ‘ Great Count’ invades Sicily.
1066 Harald Hardrada of Norway invades England and is defeated and killed at Stamford Bridge; Duke William of Normandy defeats King Harold of England at Hastings and gains the English crown.
1071: First Saxon revolt against Henry IV; battle of Mantzikert: Byzantine defeated by Turks; Bari falls to Normans.
1073-85: Pope Gregory VII.
1075: Henry defeats the rebels at the battle of Unstrut.
1076: Henry and the German bishops withdraw their recognition from Pope Gregory VII at the Diet of Worms; Gregory excommunicates Henry and urges his subjects to rebel.
1077: Under threat of deposition Henry makes peace with Gregory but the rebels elect Rudolf of Rheinfelden as king in his place; civil war ensues.
1080: Henry again withdraws his obedience from Gregory; he is again excommunicated.
1081: Imperial confirmation of the customs of Pisa.
1082: Alexius I Comnensus grants trading concessions to Venice.
1085: Christians capture Toledo and reach River Tagus; Gregory VII dies at Salerno, having been driven fro Rome by Henry IV.
1088: Work starts on the third and largets church at Cluny.
1088-99: Pope Urban II.
1092: Alexius I Comnenus reforms Byzantine coinage.
1093: Revolt of Henry VI’s son Conrad.
1095: Pope Urban II proclaims the First Crusade at Clermont.
1097: First Crusade reaches Constantinople.
1098: Siege of Antioch; Magnus of Norway seizes the Orkneys, Shetlands, and Isle of Man; Robert of Molesme found Cîteaux.
1099: Fall of Jerusalem to crusaders; Baldwin of Lorraine elected ruler.
1106: Succession to Germany of Henry I after the forced abdication and death of his father; Henry I of England defeats his brother Robert at Tinchebrai and so gains the duchy of Normandy.
1107: Henry I agrees not to invest bishops, save with the lands of their sees, but insists upon their homage and his continuing influence in elections.
1111: Henry V is crowned emperor and forcibly extracts a concession of his right to invest bishops from Pope Paschal II; trading rights in Constantinople given to Pisans.
1112: The inhabitants of Loan proclaim a commune and murder their bishop.
1113: Peter Abelard opens his school in Paris.
1118: Council of Toulouse plans Christian attack on Saragossa.
1121: Abelard condemned at the council of Soissons.
1122: Henry V and Pope Calixtus II agree in the Concordat of Worms that Henry may invest German bishops with the lands of their sees, receive their homage, and be present at their elections; in return he renounces his right to invest.
1124: Henry V invades France in support of his father-in-law, Henry I of England, but retires when a majority of French magnates rally to Louis IV.
1125-30 Flying buttresses used to reinforce nave at Cluny.
1127-8 Succession dispute in Flanders following the murder of Count Charles; Henry I and Louis VI both intervene but neither prevails, the Flemings eventually accepting Thierry of Alsace.
1127: Conrad of Staufen is elected anti-king against Lothar III of Germany. In revolt until 1135.
1128: Henry I’s daughter Matilda marries Geoffrey of Anjou.
1130: Roger II crowned king of Sicily.
1137: Louis VII of France marries Eleanor, heiress of Aquitaine; Abbot Sugar begins to build Saint-Denis in the Gothic style.
1140: Abelard again condemned at the council of Sens; about this time Gratian compiles his collection of canon law.
1144: Geoffrey of Anjou secures Normandy in the civil war which follows Henry I’s death in 1135; fall of the city Edessa to Muslims.
1145: Preaching of heretic Henry the Monk in southern France.
1146: St Bernard preaches the Second Crusade; Louis VII and Conrad III of Germany are among the participants.
1147-8: The Second Crusade.
1148: Bull Divina dispositione encourages crusades to Spain.
c. 1150: Promulgation of Usatches ( Customs) of Catalonia.
1150: Byzantine forces attempt to recapture Italy.
1152: Louis VII is divorced from Eleanor of Aquitaine who almost immediately married Geoffrey of Anjou’s heir Henry.
1154: Henry becomes king of England as well.
1155: Frederick Barbarossa crowned emperor; period of almost incessant civil war begins in Norway and Sweden, lasting to about 1230.
1156 Frederick Barbarossa restores Bavaria to Henry the Lion, who is already duke of Saxony; the former duke of Bavaria, Henry Jasomirgott, is compensated with Austria.
1158: Roncaglia Decrees.
1159: John of Salisbury produces his Policraticus, a work of political observations drawing heavily upon classical authors.
1160: Work begins on the construction of the first Gothic cathedral, Laon; Notre Dame is begun in 1163.
1166: Revolt of Serbians under Stephan Nemanja.
1167: Formation of the Lombard League.
1168: Henry the Lion marries Matilda, daughter of Henry II of England.
1169: In the peace of Montmirail Louis VII insists that Henry II must divide his lands between his sons.
1171: Downfall of Fatimid caliphate in Cairo.
1173: Revolt of Henry, son of Henry II, supported by Louis VII.
1176: Byzantine defeat at Myriocephalon.
1180: Henry the Lion deprived of his duchies; he is forced into exile the following year.
1181: Henry II’s sons again rebel.
1182: Massacre of Latins in Constantinople.
1185: By the treaty of Boves Philip Augustus substantially increases the French crown lands at the expense of Count Philip of Flanders; Revolt of Bulgarians under Peter and Asen; Thessalonica sacked by Normans. [Nostradamus]
1187: Battle of Hattin; Saladin captures Jerusalem.
1188: Another rebellion by Henry II’s sons, aided by Philip Augustus.
1189-91: During the absence of Frederick Barbarossa on crusade Henry the Lion attempts to recover Saxony but is defeated.
1192-4: Philip Augustus returns early from crusade and takes advantage of Richard I of England’s absence and captivity to secure boarder fortresses in Normandy; Edicts against Cathars by rulers of Montpellier and Aragon.
1194: Charters cathedral largely destroyed by fire; work begins on its Gothic rebuilding; Henry VI of Germany conquers Sicily.
1196: At the Diet of Würzburg the German princes refuse to make the monarchy hereditary.
1197: Richard I completes the construction of a major new fortress, Chateau Gaillard, to defend Rouen against Philip Augustus’ attacks.
1198: Following Henry VI’s death groups of German princes elect his brother, Philip of Swabia, and Otto of Brunswick, son of Henry the Lion, as king; civil war ensues.
1204: Crusades capture Constantinople and establish Latin Empire; Philip Augustus conquers Normandy and other Plantagenet lands in France.
1210: St Francis meets Philip Innocent III and is given verbal approval for his movement.
1210-29: Albigensian Crusades in southern France against Cather heretics.
1212: Christian victory over the Moors at Las Navas de Tolosa in Spain. [Reconquista, proper]
1212-50: Frederick II rules the German Empire and the kingdom of Sicily.
1214: Philip Augustus defeats the allied forces of the Plantagenets and the German Empire at Bouvines.
1215: Fourth Lateran Council held at Rome by Innocent III; Paris University receives its first statutes.
1216: Papal approval of Order of Preachers (Dominicans).
1217-21: Fifth Crusade captures and then loses Damietta in Egypt.
1220-2: First Mongol incursions. Bukhara and Samarkand taken, 1220.
1222: Foundation of the University of Pedua.
1226: Emperor Frederick II summons Diet of Cremona; Lombard League of towns revives; 1226-83 Teutonic Knights conquer Persia. [Iraq, 2003]
1228-9: Crusade of Frederick II; truce with Sultan, Frederick gains crown of Jerusalem.
1230: Final unification of kingdoms of León and Castile. [Reconquista, proper]
1231: Liber Augustalis, law code for Sicily, promulgated by Frederick II.
1236: Castilians capture Cordoba, former capital of Muslim caliphate.
1239-41: Crusade of Theobald of Champagne and Richard of Cornwall.
1241: Mongol invasion reaches Hungary and the Adriatic Sea.
1244: Jerusalem falls to Muslims.
1245: Frederick II deposed by Council of Lyons [This is the first council of Lyon, Mongol-Tatars are discussed (Tartars)]
1248: Seville yields to Ferdinand III of Gastile.
1248-50: Louis IX of France leads crusades and is captured in Egypt.
1250: Abbasid dynasty in Egypt overthrown and replaced by Mamluk. [Ottomans (Selim ‘the grim’) conquer Cairo and Mumluk control of Egypt in 1503-]
1252: First coining of the Florentine florin reintroduces gold coinage to Europe.
1254: Death of Conrad IV, last Hohenstaufen king of Germany.
1258: Mongols take Baghdad, the spiritual center of the Muslim world.
1259: Treaty of Paris between Louis IX of France and Henry III of England establishes a feudal relationship in which Henry becomes Louis’s vassal; western Christian forces defeated by Byzantine of Nicaea. [now called an empire]
1260: Mongols take Damascus but are decisively defeated by the Mamluks at Ain Jalut. [ Mongols were planning on traversing Egyptian deserts, a rout preferable to the woody and hilly areas of south-eastern Europe. Mognols now understand the limits of empire].
1261: Byzantine regains Constantinople from Latins.
1266: Charles of Anjou crowned king of Sicily by Pope Clement IV; defeats Manfred at Benevento.
1268: Conradin, last surviving son of Frederick II, defeated at Tagliafcozzo.
1268: Christian-held Jaffa, Beirut, and Antioch fall to the Mamluks.
1270: Louis IX of France dies on crusade against Tunis. [Crusade num. 8]
1273: Election of Rudolf of Habsburg as king of the Romans: end of interregnum in the empire.
1277: Genoese begin annual convoys to Bruges and other Channel ports.
1282: ‘Sicilian Vespers’: Charles of Anjou expelled from Sicily, Peter of Aragon [Spanish/Iberian controlled now] becomes king of the island.
1284: Defeat of Pisans by Genoises in naval battle of Meloria.
1285-1314: Philip IV ( the fair) king of France.
1291: Fall of Acre to Muslims: end of western Christian rule of Outremer.
1293: ‘Ordinances of Justice’ passed in Florence, excluding magnate families from participation in government.
1294: Outbreak of war between England and France over Gascony; beginning of Philip the Fair’s conflict with Pope Boniface VIII.
1297: ‘Serrata’ of Venice’s Great Council, limiting membership to establish families with hereditary rights.
1302: Boniface VIII defines papal power at its most extreme in the bull Unam Sanctam; French defeat at the hands of the Flemings at Courtrai; treaty of Caltabellotta brings truce between Sicily and Naples.
1306: Death of Wenceslas III, last Přemysl king of Bohemia.
1307-12: Philip the Fair’s attack on the Templars leads to the destruction by Clement V. [Tradition has it they move-on to Scotland ( subsequently forming an alliance or blending into the Masons (masonry fraternity), the remaining members. The reason was the Templars became one of the first groups after the fall of Roman west to become international bankers, and had considerable influence outside the role of the kings’ influence on financial matters of Europe and threatened local rulership. Myth exists that these surviving and reformed groups later revolted against the line of the kings of France, citing retaliation against Philip the Fair’s actions -- so it is stated by one source that the masons -- now the inheritors of the Templars -- began the Jacobins movement of the French Revolution – yet, little to no evidence exists for these facts (Revolutionary book’s claim with the title of Jacobins (?) c. 1798). Istoire: Templars originally were a nine member group that was to protect pilgrims for safe passage on the rout to Jerusalem—possibly started to charge passage fees—thriving into a business].
1309-77: Papacy at Avignon [southern France, the Papacy moved—does this mean that the proto-Italian renaissance could come forth?]
1310-13: Expedition of Emperor Henry VII of Italy, last major military intervention of emperors in the peninsula.
1311: Caralan Company establishes control over Athens.
1312: Council of Vienne.
1315-17: European harvest failures and famine. [note that global warming ( approximately with changes) c. 750s-1200s, now the northern hemisphere begins to start cooling down, how does the cold weather affect our knowledge of the plagues that begin to start coming into existence? How does damp weather affect vegetation and health, (ergot)?]
1321: Death in Ravenna of the Florentine poet Dante Alighieri. [high scholarship of era, changes in concepts of ‘the universe.’]
1321-8: Civil war in Byzantium. [Ottoman civil war, due to Timerlame ?check date]
1324-6: Anglo-French war of St Sardos breaks out over a boundary dispute in Gascony.
1326: Ottomans capture Byzantine town of Bursa. [n/w Anatolia: Their first capital, where early leaders are buried]
1327-9: Emperor Louis on campaign in Italy.
1328: Death of Charles IV, last Capetian king of France; accession of Philip VI, first Valois king.
1329: [The Byzantium emperor Andronicus Paleologos III made an effort to force the Ottomans back but was defeated by Orhan Ghazi in the Battle of Pelekanon].
1331: Nicaea [Anatolia] falls to Ottomans.
1333: Byzantines pay tribute to Ottomans.
1337: Outbreak of the Hundred Years War between England and France.
1338: Declaration of Rhense abolishes papal approval of the seven Electors’ choice of emperor.
1340: Edward III of England formally assumes the title of king of France.
1341-7: Second civil war in Byzantine. [Ottomans military campaigns, capturing fortresses, now using the title of sultan(s) -- Orhan Ghazi, who first used the title of sultan]
1342: Walter of Brienne, duke of Athens, lord of Florence.
1342-6: Peruzzi, Bardi, and other smaller Tuscun banks crash.
1343: Kingdom of Majorca definitively united with Aragon.
1346: English defeat the French at Crécy. [100 y’war]
1347: Siege and capture of Calais [n. France; WWII Operation Overlord, deception landing, Gen. Patton] by Edward III of England.
1347-50: First wave of the Black Death sweeps Europe killing over a third of the population.
1348: Foundation of Prague University by the Emperor Charles IV, king of Bohemia.
1354: Turks [Ottomans, later Christian soldiers will be converted into the Ottoman military machine -- money] take Gallipoli, their first European conquest.
1355: death of Stefan Dušan, ruler of Serbia, a defender of Europe against the Turks.
1356: French defeated by Anglo-Gascon force at Maupertuis, near Poitiers; Golden Bull defines power of the imperial princes.
1358: Peasant uprising (Jacquerie) in France. [Nostradamus, X.72, Roberts, c. 1950s]
1360: Treaty of Brétigny-Calais: Edward III renounces his claim to the crown of France in return for a greatly expanded duchy of Aquitaine, terms never fulfilled.
1361: Second wave of plagues begin.
1365: Vienna University founded by Rudolf, duke of Austria.
1369: Hundred Years War reopens after appeal against the Black Prince, governor of Aquitaine, by Gascon lords; Henry of Trastamara gains the Castilian throne.
1370: Death of Casimir the Great, last Piast king of Poland; accession of Louis I of Anjou king of Hungary to the kingdom of Poland.
1371: Serbs defeated by Ottomans at the River Marcia.
1372: English defeat at sea off La Rochelle by a Franco-Castilian fleet.
1374: Death of Francesco Petrarca, forerunner of the humanist movement.
1376-8: War of the Eight Saints between the papacy and Florence.
1377: Pope Gregory XI returns to Rome from Avignon. [Italian renaissance, c. 1350 -1500]
1378: Great Schism of the western church begins; revolt of the Ciompi in Florence: workers in the wool industry seize power for six weeks. [Medici make name ( and rise to power and finances) later in history as producers of desired (prized material) wool trades]
1379-83: Revolts in Flanders against Count Louis de Male and the crown of France led by Philip van Artevelde.
1382: John Wycliffe’s writings condemned and he is expelled from Oxford.
1384: Philip the Bold, duke of Burgundy, succeeds to the countries of Flanders and Artois.
1386: Union of the kingdom of Poland and the duchy of Lithuania under Ladislas II Jagellon.
1387: Thessalonica, second largest city of the Byzantine empire, falls to the Ottomans. 1389: Serbs defeated by Turks at Kossovo, though the sultan Murad I, also killed there. [The allied forces were composed of contingencies from all Balkan principalities and kingdoms and their commander-in-chief was Lazar, the King of Serbia. They met the Ottoman army in Kosovo on June 20, 1389. The Battle lasted eight hours and ended in another Ottoman victory but also in the death of Murad I, [who] was fatally wounded by a Serbian nobleman toward the end of the battle., Petsopoulos, Yanni. Tulips, Arabesques, and Turbans: Decorative Arts from the Ottoman Empire (1982)].
1392-4: First onset of Charles VI of France’s bouts of madness: rivalry for power within France between the houses of Orléans and Burgundy.
1396: Truce made at Leulinghen between England and France suspends hostilities until 1403; massive western crusade ends the fiasco at Nicopolis; Manual Chrysoloras hired to teach Greek at the University of Florence.
1404: Death of Philip the Bold of Burgundy; Burgundian influence at Paris increases under his sons John the Fearless.
1407: Assignation of Louis, duke of Orléans at Paris by the Burgundian faction.
1409: Council of Pisa deposes both rival popes and elects a third (Alexander V).
1410: Death of Alexander V and election by the council of John XXIII.
1412: Compromise of Ceuta: the Trastamarans succeed to Aragon.
1414-17: Council of Constance.
1415: English defeat the French at Agincourt; Jan Hus is burnt as a heretic by the Council of Constance after further condemnation of Wycliffe’s doctrines; desposition of John XIII by the council and abdication of Gregory XII; Portuguese capture Ceuta on North African coast; the beginning of Portuguese expansion. [ Some cold war historians cite this event as the beginning of la longue durée.]
1416: Jerome of Prague burnt as a heretic at Constance; Emperor Sigismund visits France and England in an attempt to make peace between them.
1417: Second invasion of Normandy by Henry V; Council of Constance deposes Benedict and elects Martin V: end of the Great Schism.
1418: Dissolution of Council of Constance.
1419: Assassination of John the Fearless, duke of Burgundy, by partisans of Charles, dauphin of France, later Charles VII.
1419-36: Hussite wars in Bohemia.
1420: Treaty of Troyes formalizes Anglo-Burgundian alliance against the daughinists; crusades preached against the Hussites by Martin V.
1422: Death of Henry V and Charles VI; Henry VI of England recognized as king of France by the Anglo-Burgundian party, Charles VII proclaimed by the dauphinists.
1423: Outbreak of war between Milan and Florence, to last for over thirty years.
1424: Maderia colonized by Portuguese; battle of Verneuil completes English conquest of Normandy.
1427: Hassite armies threaten Germany.
1428-9: Joan of Arc appears; siege of Orléans raised by daughinist forces; Charles VII crowned at Rheims [restoration of French monarchy, could not have it in Paris, it was too dangerous and would take a military effort]
1431-49: Council of Basle.
1431: John of Arc burnt at Rouen after trial by members of the French clergy supporting the Anglo-Burgundian regime; Henry VI crowned king of France at Paris.
1433: Reconciliation between moderate Hussites and the Council of Basle.
1434: Defeat of the Taborite extremists by Catholics and moderate Hussites at Lipany; Cape Bojador, on West Africa coast, rounded by Portuguese; Cosimo de’ Medici comes to unofficial power in Florence.
1435: Treaty of Arras: reconciliation of Charles VII and Philip the Good, duke of Burgundy; Anglo-Burgundian alliance collapses.
1436: Charles VII’s forces enter Paris.
1437: Pope Eugenius IV dissolves Council of Basle but the fathers of the council suspend him (1438).
1438: Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges establishes French neutrality between pope and council and confers considerable powers over the French Church on the king.
1439: Council of Basle deposes Eugenius IV and elects Amadeus VIII, duke of Savoy as Felix V: schism between pope and council renewed; Council of Florence ends schism between eastern and western Christendom.
1440: Conspiracy against Charles VII by French nobility known as the Paraguerie in which the duke of Burgundy is implicated.
1442: French expedition to Gascony recovers some territory from the English.
1442-3: Alfonso ‘ the Magnanimous’ of Aragon gains control of kingdom of Naples and begins to rule combined territories from there.
1444: Crusade ends in failure at Varna on the Black Sea; Truce of Tours between England and France.
1447: Milan declares itself the Ambrosian Republic: three years later the experiment ends with the invitation to Francesco Sforza to rule the city; French recognize the newly elected Nicholas V as pope and work for abdication of Felix V.
1448: Renewal of Anglo-French truce until April 1450; remnants of Council of Basle move to Lausanne.
1449: Council at Lausanne dissolves itself and Felix V abdicates ending conciliar period. Anglo-French truce broken by English raid on boarder fortress of Fougères.
1449-50: French recover Normandy from the English.
1451: First French recovery of Gascony.
1451-3: War between duke of Burgundy and the city of Ghent.
1453: Constantinople falls to the Ottomans and becomes their capital; second (and final) French recovery of Gascony; only Calais remains in English hands.
1454-5: Pacification of Italy with the Peace of Lodi and the Italic League.
1458: George Podiebrady, a moderate Hussite noble, succeeds to the throne of Bohemia.
1460: Turks complete their occupation of the Pelopennese (Ottomans).
1461: Death of Charles VII of French; accession of Louis XI.
1462: Cape Verde island discovered and colonized by Portuguese [timbers, for ship building]
1465: War of the Public Weal in France in which many great nobles, including the future Charles the Bold, duke of Burgundy, rise against Louis XI.
1467: Death of Philip the Good, duke of Burgundy and accession of Charles the Bold.
1468: Destruction of the town of Liège by Charles the Bold after its rebellion; marriage between Charles and Edward IV of England’s sister, Margaret of York; Anglo-Burgundian alliance against France formally renewed.
1496: Marriage of Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile paves the way for the union of their two crowns.
1470: Turks capture Venetian garrison of Negropont in the Aegean Sea.
1470-1: Edward IV of England, exiled to Burgunidan dominions after temporary restoration of Henry VI, recovers the throne with Burgundian aid; unsuccessful Burgundian invasion of France.
1475: English invasion of northern France in alliance with Burgundy bought-off by Louis XI.
1475-7: Campaigns of Charles the Bold of Burgundy in Alsace-Lorraine.
1477: Defeat and death of Charles the Bold at Nancy ends Valois Burgundy; marriage of Charles’s daughter Macy to Maximilian of Austria.
1478: The Pazzi conspiracy: papal attack on the Medici in Florence.
1479: Union of the crowns of Aragon and Castile.
1480: Turks [Ottomans including Christian janissaries, as forces] capture Otranto, on Italian mainland, and hold it for a year.
1481: Beginning of Spanish war against Grenada [ last hold out of Muslim rule, south Spain (Iberia)].
1482: Death of Mary of Burgundy: treaty of Arras divides the Burgundian ands between France and the empire.
1483: Death of Louis XI of France; Charles VIII succeeds him; the Spanish Inquisition formally established by a union of the Inquisitions of Aragon and Castile.
1484: Peace of Bagnolo ends conflict in Italy.
1487: Bartholomew Diaz rounds the Cape of Good Hope.
1490: Death of Matthias Corvinus, king of Hungary; accession of Ladislas II, king of Bohemia, to the Hungarian throne.
1492: Fall of Grenada to Christians; expulsion of the Jews from Spanish kingdoms [ actually asked to stay but had to convert, many stayed]; Voyage of Christopher Columbus results in discovery of the New World; death of Lorenzo de’ Medici of Florence.
1494: French invasion of Italy under Charles VIII: beginning of the Italian Wars. [note: for so long the English forced the French to react in war, which developed into a disciple of the profits of war, in which was a reaction to their imperialism at this point in time.].
1495: Reichstag of Worms attempts imperial reforms at the instigation of Maximilian I.
1497: Vasco de Gama reaches India having rounded Africa.
1498: Burning of Girolamo Savonarola, a Dominican who had gained a powerful hold over Florence since the fall of the Medici in 1494.
1499: Cranadan Muslims given choice of conversion or expulsion.
 Michel Nostredame is born.
corrections and technical inquiries to