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Japanese in the ear of Imperialism


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Japanese in the era of Imperialism

 

Late 1900s practically everyone was imperializing (Colonizing) the World.

 

Japan on the other hand was left untouched. No one was interested except the Russians who were eyeing Korea which was a vassal of China. (Russia was trying establishing ports that were not frozen to the North). Japan was an interesting case. The landscape is a rugged one with vary little flat land. In the Middle Ages Japan adopted their form of Buddhism. During the age of discovery while the Portuguese were trading with islands of Chinese decent the winds blew them into Japan. This is how the western world rediscovered them, instead of the stories that the Mongols ( 1300s) told about a large island where Asian men chopped off heads with samurais ( Japanese Feudal Military aristocracy). In the middle ages  the power behind the throne was the Emperor. This position was then taken over by a family, around 1600s  that was named Tokugawa. They gained allot of power in internal wars. They were a noble family clan and made the diminishment of the emperor at this time. This family eventually ran Japan. The called themselves Shogun (The hereditary commander of the Japanese army who until 1867 exercised absolute rule under the nominal leadership of the emperor).

 

1625 the Japanese see the introduction of fire arms and were a gassed of what guns could do to their aristocracy. “ Here a common Japanese peasant could take up a gun and blow away a samurai.” “ We cannot let this happen.” The Shogun literally shut down Japan to the outside world.

 

So once the Tokugawa take over:

1.                  No guns

2.                  No outside contact

3.                  No leaving the island. If one does and comes back they get their head chopped off

4.                  No outsiders let in

5.                  No trade, except one Dutch ship in a small port once a year.

6.                  It serves them good for a while.

7.                  This goes on till c. 1850s

8.                  No country in the world would do this

9.                  Emperor is just a figurehead

 

 

1850s Imperial powers are grabbing lands. Japan is isolated and living in the Middle Age mentality. If someone would have went against Japan in an imperial takeover, they would have won. Although, word had it that Russia was eyeing this and along came the Americans.

 

It all started off that ships that pass by Japan had no interest. Except when national water treaties and procedures of shipping lanes and docking for supplies was being standardized across the globe, Japan posed a large problem for ships. First, any ships that sailed by the island would have to make sure that nothing broke down, and they had enough supplies. In addition, if a ship was to wreak off shore and the people who survived swam to the island they would get their heads cuts off.  This was particularly troubling for the Americans who had many ships in the area. About this time steamships were beginning to be used on the open waters. So, Americans suffered until the president in 1852 said “ we must do something about this.” “Lets open up Japan.” So to establish contact with the Shogun and to form treaties to not kill ship wreaked men was the plan.  Americans land a ship in Tokyo bay. The Japanese take one of their ships and light it on fire and drift it toward the American ship which just escaped. A general in the U.S. military named Perry said “ go back to Tokyo bay.” A Japanese fisherman got lost and drifted and was picked up by American fishermen that brought him back to Boston where he lived and learned the language. Perry heard of him and decided to take him as a translator on the next journey to Japan.  Two ships set off with cannons and bullets. When they reached Tokyo back they fired off two cannons – but without the bullets. After the Japanese saw this they sent out a small boat to contract the ship. The Japanese man translated and they took him to see the Shoguns. Relatively surprising was that the Shoguns showed considerable interest and told Perry to come back in two years. So in 1854 a squadron of ships showed up to the port of Tokyo bay bearing gifts and trade items from America, including a toy steam engine train for the leader of the Shoguns and this cemented the treaty for the Americans.  It also helped Japan out considerably because it was now recognized by a large country with power its sovereign legitimacy. What this had done was squelch Russia plans of conquering the island in an imperialistic move. They traded coal, and other materials. The significance is that this opened up Japan and most of the Aristocracy of Japan was for this. Still many of the peasants were worrisome. It saved Japan from being conquered ( remember they had no modern weapons to defend themselves because of their 250 years of extreme isolation).

 

This treaty made it availed for American ships to come into Japanese ports anytime they wanted. It also gave Japan recognition to the world. Japan then sent out people to all of western worlds on a fact finding missions. Fourteen years many countries started to come to Japan.

 

1854 the question was now what will Japan do in this modern world? After the benefits seen by the shoguns they wanted more and more ports to open up. Yet the Emperor, still a figure head but with influence, didn’t want to. More and more countries started to show up to do business with Japan. This progressive advance brought about a short civil war between the Shoguns and the Emperor forces.

 

1868 the old Emperor died and his sixteen year-old son took over. Although he was the new emperor he had handlers advise him. His title was Meigi.

 

The Shoguns were for the continual opening up of the country and the Emperor was against it.  It seemed that the emperor was acting from conservative values, but this is not the case. Just because people do not want to change, or try new things does not mean that they are conservative in their ways as many historians paint them as. This is a good example, because in the civil war it was the Shoguns that used the traditional swords only and the Emperors forces that used the guns, in which the emperor’s forces won decisively. Ironically after the modern weapons won the war the emperor called for the  victory the emperor was restored to the ruling power of Japan. He ends shoguns and in 1868 the Japanese history is seen as the Meigi Restoration.

 

Modern Japan goes at it with a vengeance. They become the new imperial power of the Pacific. Now a new fact finding missions take them all around the world purchasing ships, beginning western style schools, beginning western style clothing industries, beginning western style armies, beginning western style training and equipment, and basically beginning western style civilization. Within a small amount of time Japan was on par with any other western country. They did it rapidly. This was now 1880 and they began to want to trade with their new textile industries. They see China and join the imperialist club by going over there and forcing them to trade. They go to the Chinese vassal Korea and purchase raw materials and pressuring Korea to trade. This got to  a breaking point about 1895 and China and Japan got into  a  war. The Japanese win with the modern war weapons and China is forced to trade.

 

Man y argue that China could have won if it was not that many in the government had come corrupted. For instance, the guns that the Chinese had were drained of their gun powder and replaced with sand so that the Chinese army opportunist could see it on the black market.

 

After the war Japan continues to grow and prosper because of its conversion to the western culture. By 1905 they defeat Russia in a short war for the control over Korea. This is the same war that got French scared after they made a mutual combatant treaty with Russia in the buildup to WWI. “Oh No! Look who we signed a treaty with a nation that cannot even beat another little island.”

 

 

Chronology

1641Tokugawa Iemitsu issues Sakoku

17th end of century, Sakura Sogōrō, kabuki, ghost, peasant martyr

1720, a wave of Western influence began with the spread of rangaku throughout the country.

1820s, revolts near Osaka.

1853 "kaikoku, Matthew Perry. Bakumatsu Period begins; Yoshida Shōin tried to sneak aboard the returning ship, imprisoned at least twice, tried to lead a revolt, took over father’s Shoka Sonjuku school.

1854 Kamagawa treaty, Matthew Perry.

1858 Ii Naosuke, a bakufu official who signed treaties with the Western powers, began to round up sonnō-jōi rebels in Kyoto, Edo, and eventually the provinces.

1860, Fukuzawa Yukichi  went to San Francisco sent by Bakufu.

1866 Shindatsu Uprising

1866 Satsuma-Chōshū Alliance Saigō Takamori, the leader of the Satsuma domain, and Kido Takayoshi, the leader of the Chōshū domain.

1867, fall, Tokugawa Yoshinobu, steps down amidst opposition, the "restoration" (Taisei Hōkan) of imperial rule, although Yoshinobu retained considerable power.

1868 April 6, The five-article Charter Oath is announced and taken by the Emperor. This could be called modern Japan's first constitution as it lays out the new Meiji government's basic (and very vague) policies. The Junior and Senior Councils of State are modified (DT).

1868, the Boshin War, forces from Chōshū and Satsuma defeated the ex-shogun's army and forced the Emperor to strip Yoshinobu of all power.

1886, The Meiji period denotes the 45-year reign of Emperor Meiji, running from 8 September 1868 (in the Gregorian calendar, 23 October 1868) to 30 July 1912.

1868, Yonaoshi Uprisings in Aizu.

1868, The Emperor''s Charter Oath.  (5) main points.

1868 September,  Edo is renamed Tōkyō (Eastern Capital) and established as the capital city.

1868 June,  The Councils of State are completely revamped. The supreme governing body is now a single Council of State, consisting of an Upper and Lower House for deliberations, an Office of the President of the Council, and five Departments of State (Shintō Religion, War, Foreign Affairs, Finance, and Justice). The system is not modeled on any western system, but rather on the administrative system established in Japan in 701, with most of the same offices and titles. However, the entire system undergoes several modifications until 1871, and then a final modification in 1889 (DT).

1868-1870, The Meiji government arrests over 3000 christians in Kyūshū in their attempt to stamp out Christianity and exalt Shintō (DT).

1869 March,  The emperor is moved to Tōkyō and the city is made the seat of government. The daimyō of Satsuma, Chōshū, Tosa, and Hizen return their domains to the Emperor. Most of the other daimyō do likewise by the end of the year. To encourage this surrender, the government grants the daimyō one-half of their revenue (DT).

1869 July, Daimyō who have returned their domains to the emperor are appointed as governors of the domains they once ruled (DT).

1869, March, The emperor is moved to Tōkyō and the city is made the seat of government. The daimyō of Satsuma, Chōshū, Tosa, and Hizen return their domains to the Emperor. Most of the other daimyō do likewise by the end of the year. To encourage this surrender, the government grants the daimyō one-half of their revenue. (David Turkington, see link)

1871, A Ministry of Education is established which encourages Western learning and begins the process of building a national system of education.

1871, December 23,  Iwakura Mission, two year trip,  the mission sailed from Yokohama, bound for San Francisco. From there it continued to Washington, D.C., then to Britain, France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Russia, Prussia, Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Austria, Italy, and Switzerland, (then through the east).

1873 The ban on Christianity is officially lifted although many Buddhists, Shintōists and Confucianists allied in an all-out anti-Christian campaign (DT).

1873, September 1873 When the Iwakura Mission returns to Japan, they find that Saigo Takamori, Itagaki Taisuke (of Tosa), Goto, and others are making plans to invade Korea and Formosa. The plan to invade Korea is overruled by Iwakura, Kido, and Okubo. Saigo and Itagaki leave the government in protest (along with Goto, Eto, and others). The plan to invade Formosa is not overruled and Kido resigns in protest for that (DT).

1874 January, An unsuccessful assassination attempt is made against Iwakura for his role in reducing the status and income of the samurai (DT).

1874 Itagaki returns to Tosa and founds the "Freedom and People's Rights" movement (Jiyu Minken Undo) and the Aikok Koto (Public Party of Patriots).

1875, ("An Outline of a Theory of Civilization") published in 1875, in which he details his own theory of civilization.

1875 A Press Law is enacted which implements censorship and severely restricts political criticism of the government (DT).

1876 Government cancels ex-daimyo stipends. The daimyo paid off with government bonds (which, of course, would have no value if the central government fails)(DT).

1876 Samurai are denied the right to wear swords (DT).

1877 January,  Close to 80,000 samurai in Satsuma, led by Saigo Takamori, begin a rebellion uprising (Seinan Rebellion, Seinan no eki). The government puts it down after almost nine months of fighting and Saigo commits seppuku. The important point coming from the government victory is that a national army consisting of non-samurai could defeat the elite samurai from Satsuma. The government no longer need fear an armed samurai uprising (DT).

1879, Prefectural Assemblies are instituted and replace the previous (and discredited) Assembly of Provincial Officials. While they still hold no real power, they do teach local authorities needed administrative skills. Okinawa is incorporated into the state and becomes Okinawa Prefecture (DT).

1880 Village, Town, and City Ward Assemblies are assembled.

1880 The first translation of the New Testament into Japanese is completed (DT).

1882 April, In preparation for writing a draft constitution, Itō, with a large staff, goes overseas to tour several constitutional systems of government - spending most of his time in Germany studying the system of Bizmark (DT).

1882,  The government divides Shintō into 'State Shintō,' which is allowed to use the title jinja for it's shrines, and 'Sect Shintō,' which must use the title kyōkai (church) or kyōha (sect). In addition, the former received state privileges and financial subsidies while the later didn't. Also, Sect Shintō establishments were forbidden from using torii (DT).

1884, Chichibu Uprising, 3000 participants +, economic peasants against wealthy peasants and debt collectors.  – sever response by the oligarchs, sending police.

1886, short experimented and included aspectal hybrid European statist system  which featured German influence.

1889, Japan's first Western/Eastern-style constitution

1889, Meiji Constitution (1889), a set of education laws, most notably the Imperial Rescript on Education (1890), which set obedience as the goal of education, and the Civil Code (1891).

Education for the masses was to include an exoteric doctrine of the Emperor whereby the Emperor was promoted as an infallible, mystical being. Myths, such as the unbroken line of Emperors springing from the Sun Goddess,35 were invented from fragments of traditional folk beliefs, Shintō  religion and newly minted notions.

1890 First Diet

1890s industrialists opposed to factory legislation. "Warm-heartedness," "beautiful customs” and “harmony” contrasted with western commercial competition.

1890s. the period of choosing cultures, which ones were the best? Does modernity, as a global interrelated discourse dedifferentiate us with concerns of self-preservation?

1894-1895, First Sino-Japanese War.

1895, March, The Chinese send out peace overtures to the Japanese.

1896, 1890's a remarkable turnaround from feudal to commercial industry with 210 of 258 such businesses ran by Japanese in 1896.

1896 The Reform Party (Kaishintō) and other minor parties merge to form the Progressive Party (Shimpotō) (DT).

1898, A government order forbids teachers and priests of Sect Shintō establishments from teaching within the compounds of State Shintō shrines (DT).

1898, The Liberal Party (Jiyutō) and Progressive Party (Shimpotō) merge to form the Constitutional Party (Kenseitō). (Now, instead of two parties, there was one party is two factions) (DT).

1900 October,  Itō Hirobumi forms the Seiyukai political party (by merging his followers with those of Itagaki) and becomes its party president. Leaders of Kenseitō dissolve their party. Some members join the Seiyukai while other members form the Kenseihontō (True Kensei Party) (DT).

1901 (PARTY) The first Social Democratic Party is formed. Five of the six founders are Christians.

1891, A commercial legal code, with strong German elements, goes into effect.

May 6, 1891 Matsukata Masayoshi becomes Prime Minister. (DT)

October 28, 1891 An earthquake rocks Gifu Prefecture killing or injuring over 25,000 people.

1891 December,  The first Diet is dissolved after the government is unable to get the budget passed, but the administration remains in power (although disliked throughout the country for its strong arm tactics).

1892 February,  Following the dissolution of the Diet, new elections are held and a new Diet is formed. The government, however, still fails to get a majority.

1892 August 8, Unable to work with the Diet, the cabinet resigns. Itō Hirobumi becomes Prime Minister again in an attempt to restore order.

1892 November, A new Diet session opens but the battle between it and the govenrment continues.

1893 February, The Lower House submits an address to the emperor accusing the cabinet of misconduct. The cabinet, gets the emperor to issue a message which tells both sides to work together, but is, in effect, a rebuke of the Diet

1893 December, After another Diet appeal to the emperor, and another negative imperial reply issued on behalf of the cabinet, the Diet is dissolved.

1893 A civil legal code, with strong French elements, goes into effect. While it did recognize some individual rights, the code still makes the household the legal unit. All Japanese are registered as either the head of a household or the subordinate to a head.

1894, March  General elections are held (/DT)

1904 February 10, Japan declares war on Russia over the issue of control of Korea and control of the Liaotung peninsula in China (DT).

1905 August, Britain and Japan renegotiate the Anglo-Japanese Alliance and Britain acknowledges Japan's control of Korea (DT)

1905 Late, Japan sends Itō Hirobumi to Korea to begin the process of making Korea a protectorate (DT).

1907, August 1, Japan finalizes complete control of Korean forces and dissolve them, and force a signing of agreement with gives them complete control of all government ministries.

1909 Itō is assassinated by a Korean while in Manchuria for his role in making Korea a protectorate (DT).

1912, death of Emperor Meiji; Emperor Taishō took the throne, thus beginning the Taishō Period

1915, End of Carol Gluck’s Ideologies of confusion period.

1930, conservative policies, according to a liberalists’ viewpoint,  implemented

1920s, The stylish moga (modern girl) of the 1920s represented bourgeois women's challenge to established gender norms (35 Vlastos, Stephen).

 

 

 

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(DT)  http://www.shikokuhenrotrail.com/japanhistory/meijihistory.html

 

 

 

 

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(DT)  http://www.shikokuhenrotrail.com/japanhistory/meijihistory.html

 

Chronology

Version: 1.04

1641Tokugawa Iemitsu issues Sakoku

17th end of century, Sakura Sogōrō, kabuki, ghost, peasant martyr

1720, a wave of Western influence began with the spread of rangaku throughout the country.

1820s, revolts near Osaka.

1837, Gōso plot, Ōshio Heihachirō, bought a cannon, sold library, he then drafted a summons to revolt, addressed it to villagers and village officials in nearby provinces, and had it distributed. The summons denounced officialdom for corruption and extravagance, for abusive taxation, for shipping rice from Osaka to Edo even when it was scarce and dear, and for failing to punish merchants guilty of exploitative accumulation of wealth and land. These conditions being intolerable, he called for a rebellion Ōshio attacked the shogunate's administrative offices and set fire to parts of the city of Ōsaka, hoping to trigger popular peasant uprisings in the neighboring areas. One-fourth of Ōsaka, including the shogunate's storehouse, was destroyed in two days of confusion and fire. The rebellion was crushed, and Ōshio, surrounded by superior shogunate troops, took his own life, at time not seen as important to the Tempo fallout, but later he becomes a daimyojin, a quasi- mystical hero.

1853 "kaikoku, Matthew Perry. Bakumatsu Period begins; Yoshida Shōin tried to sneak aboard the returning ship, imprisoned at least twice, tried to lead a revolt, took over father’s Shoka Sonjuku school.

1854 Kamagawa Treaty, Matthew Perry returns as promised,  Officially called, Treaty of Peace and Amity between the United States and the Empire of Japan. Signed 31 March 1854 at Kanagawa (now Yokohama, Kanagawa Prefecture) during Commodore Matthew C. Perry's visit to Japan. The treaty included the following terms: (1) the ports of Shimoda and Hakodate would be open to American ships; (2) provisions would be supplied to these vessels; (3) shipwrecked sailors would receive good treatment; and (4) an American consulate would be established in Shimoda. Conclusion of the treaty between Tokugawa shogunate officials and Perry signaled the end of Japan's 200-year policy of National Seclusion Sakoku; the shogunate concluded similar treaties with the British that same year, with the Russians in 1855, and with the Dutch in 1856. See Opening of Japan.

1855, Yoshida Shōin, imprisonment and later in house arrest defied the National Seclusion edicts and attempted to stow away on Commodore Matthew Perry's flagship, USS Powhatan, consolidated his thinking on sonnō jōi and national politics, Kokutai,  In the Shōka Sonjuku, a private school originated by his uncle, Shōin gathered a group of young samurai, including Takasugi Shinsaku, Kusaka Genzui, Itō Hirobumi, and Yamagata Aritomo,

1858 Ii Naosuke, a bakufu official who signed treaties with the Western powers, began to round up sonnō-jōi rebels in Kyoto, Edo, and eventually the provinces.

1858 July, Tokugawa Nariaki incarcerated, within days of Nariaki's incarceration in July 1858, large numbers of Mito retainers began to maneuver against Ii, the shogunate, and one another. As bitterness, fear, and overt military activity grew in Mito during 1859, Ii responded by increasing the pressure.

1858 July 29, The Unequal Treaties, Townsend Harris, The treaty stipulated the exchange of diplomatic agents and consuls; the opening of various Japanese ports; the right of American citizens to reside in those ports, trade without interference, and enjoy extraterritorial privileges; the opening of Edo and Ōsaka for trade; and a moderate, fixed scale of import and export duties. Similar treaties were concluded within a few weeks with the Netherlands, Russia, Great Britain, and France.

1859, Protestantism appeared in Japan in 1859 at the opening of the country. The first arrivals were the American Episcopalians, the best known of whom was Channing Moore Williams. Shortly afterwards came the Presbyterians: James Curtis Hepburn followed by Mr. Werbeck (1861) and Mr. Thompson (1863). They halted first at Yokohama. Protestant missionaries were also at Nagasaki.

1860 a band of men intercepted Ii Naosuke Ii on his way to Edo Castle and murdered him.

1860, Kokutai, (literally, body of the nation), Mito school of historical studies, became the subject of heated debate, Mitogaku.

1860 rangaku diminishes and kokugaku increases domainwide influence.

1860, Fukuzawa Yukichi sent to San Francisco by Bakufu.

1866 Shindatsu Uprising

1866 Satsuma-Chōshū Alliance Saigō Takamori, the leader of the Satsuma domain, and Kido Takayoshi, the leader of the Chōshū domain.

1867, Ōkuma Shigenobu  traveled to Edo with Soejima Taneomi to propose an imperial restoration plan to Shogun Tokugawa Yoshinobu: the Shogun responded by declaring the men ronin.

1867, fall, Tokugawa Yoshinobu, steps down amidst opposition, the "restoration" (Taisei Hōkan) of imperial rule, although Yoshinobu retained considerable power for a short while.

1868 April 6, The five-article Charter Oath is announced and taken by the Emperor. This could be called modern Japan's first constitution as it lays out the new Meiji government's basic (and very vague) policies. The Junior and Senior Councils of State are modified (DT).

1868, the Boshin War, forces from Chōshū and Satsuma defeated the ex-shogun's army and forced the Emperor to strip Yoshinobu of all power.

1868, Ōkuma Shigenobu  was placed in charge of foreign affairs for the new Meiji government, and was soon given an additional post as head of Japan's monetary reform program. He made use of his close contacts with Inoue Kaoru to secure a positions in the central government in Tokyo.

1868, Yonaoshi Uprisings in Aizu, appealed for benevolence, It was a revolt by small cultivators and the poorer members (landless) of the village community against high-status peasants. They did not directly question their relationship to the state.

1868, The Meiji period denotes the 45-year reign of Emperor Meiji, running from 8 September 1868 (in the Gregorian calendar, 23 October 1868) to 30 July 1912.

1868, Bakumatsu era over. Sonno joi replaced with Fukoku-kyōhei.

1868 April, The Emperor’s Charter Oath. Restoring Imperial Honor (5) main points.

    A. Creation of a national assembly to settle state policy via "public discussion"

    B. Unification of all classes high and low

    C. Abolition of "absurd customs of olden times"

    D. Pursuit of knowledge throughout the world"

    E. The Unstated Purpose: Fukoku kyohei "Enrich the nation, strengthen it militarily"

1868 September,  Edo is renamed Tōkyō (Eastern Capital) and established as the capital city.

1868 June,  The Councils of State are completely revamped. The supreme governing body is now a single Council of State, consisting of an Upper and Lower House for deliberations, an Office of the President of the Council, and five Departments of State (Shintō Religion, War, Foreign Affairs, Finance, and Justice). The system is not modeled on any western system, but rather on the administrative system established in Japan in 701, with most of the same offices and titles. However, the entire system undergoes several modifications until 1871, and then a final modification in 1889 (DT).

1868-1870, The Meiji government arrests over 3000 christians in Kyūshū in their attempt to stamp out Christianity and exalt Shintō (DT).

1869 March,  The emperor is moved to Tōkyō and the city is made the seat of government. The daimyō of Satsuma, Chōshū, Tosa, and Hizen return their domains to the Emperor. Most of the other daimyō do likewise by the end of the year. To encourage this surrender, the government grants the daimyō one-half of their revenue (DT).

1869 July, Daimyō who have returned their domains to the emperor are appointed as governors of the domains they once ruled (DT).

1869, March, The emperor is moved to Tōkyō and the city is made the seat of government. The daimyō of Satsuma, Chōshū, Tosa, and Hizen return their domains to the Emperor. Most of the other daimyō do likewise by the end of the year. To encourage this surrender, the government grants the daimyō one-half of their revenue. (David Turkington, see link)

1869, Aritomo Yamagata with Saigō Tsugumichi visited Europe in 1869 under government orders to research European military systems. Yamagata was strongly influenced by Prussian military and political ideas, Otto Van Bismarck.

1871, A Ministry of Education is established which encourages Western learning and begins the process of building a national system of education.

1871, December 23,  Iwakura Mission, two year trip,  the mission sailed from Yokohama, bound for San Francisco. From there it continued to Washington, D.C., then to Britain, France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Russia, Prussia, Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Austria, Italy, and Switzerland, (then through the east).

1873 The ban on Christianity is officially lifted although many Buddhists, Shintōists and Confucianists allied in an all-out anti-Christian campaign (DT).

1873, September 1873 When the Iwakura Mission returns to Japan, they find that Saigo Takamori, Itagaki Taisuke (of Tosa), Goto, and others are making plans to invade Korea and Formosa. The plan to invade Korea is overruled by Iwakura, Kido, and Okubo. Saigo and Itagaki leave the government in protest (along with Goto, Eto, and others). The plan to invade Formosa is not overruled and Kido resigns in protest for that (DT).

1874 January, An unsuccessful assassination attempt is made against Iwakura for his role in reducing the status and income of the samurai (DT).

1874 Itagaki Taisuke  returns to Tosa and founds the "Freedom and People's Rights" movement (Jiyu Minken Undo) and the Aikoku Kōtō (Public Party of Patriots),and the Rissisha, Self Help Society.

1874, Itagaki Taisuke and Gotō Shōjirō organized local political societies that tapped the forces of social discontent by advocating a liberal ideology of power-sharing diametrically opposed to the Satsuma-Chōshū practice of rule by a few. This strategy gradually developed into a political movement of national proportions, the Popular Rights Movement. In its first five years of existence, the Popular Rights Movement's political societies, largely Itagaki's creations, were based in Tosa and composed of former samurai like himself. One of the first such organizations, the Aikoku Kōtō (Public Party of Patriots), was founded by Itagaki and several other former samurai on 12 January 1874. Its guiding philosophy was the doctrine of natural rights and its primary political goal was popular representation in government. On 17 January it submitted to the government the Tosa Memorial, which called for the establishment of a representative national assembly. Despite the egalitarian ethos that underlies the doctrine of natural rights, this society, like many others that succeeded it, was notably elitist. Itagaki made clear that by (popular representation) he meant a government chosen by a highly exclusive franchise limited to former samurai, wealthy merchants, and landlords. This emphasis on rule by an elite has prompted many scholars to dub the early phase of the Popular Rights Movement as jōryū minken or shizoku minken (upper-class or former-samurai popular rights).

1874 April , Another example of Itagaki's elitist orientation is the Risshisha (Self-Help Society), which he founded in his native Tosa domain (from 1872 called Kōchi Prefecture). Risshisha, During the late 1870s young former samurai from around the nation attended the Risshisha (school) and then returned to their own prefectures to set up political societies modeled after the Tosa parent organization. He then wanted a big meeting of the group in Osaka prompting government members to ask him to return to government, in which he did shortly, leaving Ueki Emori in charge, but he soon left the government against over their refusal to create a constitution.

1875, ("An Outline of a Theory of Civilization") published in 1875, in which he details his own theory of civilization.

1875 A Press Law is enacted which implements censorship and severely restricts political criticism of the government (DT).

1876 Government cancels ex-daimyo stipends. The daimyo paid off with government bonds (which, of course, would have no value if the central government fails)(DT).

1876 Samurai are denied the right to wear swords (DT).

1877 January,  Close to 80,000 samurai in Satsuma, led by Saigo Takamori, begin a rebellion uprising (Seinan Rebellion, Seinan no eki). The government puts it down after almost nine months of fighting and Saigo commits seppuku. The important point coming from the government victory is that a national army consisting of non-samurai could defeat the elite samurai from Satsuma. The government no longer need fear an armed samurai uprising (DT).

1879, Prefectural Assemblies are instituted and replace the previous (and discredited) Assembly of Provincial Officials. While they still hold no real power, they do teach local authorities needed administrative skills. Okinawa is incorporated into the state and becomes Okinawa Prefecture (DT).

1879 Ueki Emori wrote a popular pamphlet, Minken jiyū ron (On People's Rights and Liberty), He was editor of the newspaper Jiyū shimbun, the organ of the Jiyūtō.

1880 Village, Town, and City Ward Assemblies are assembled, included in Japan are over 150 local various liberal societies writing constitutions, conversating, and discussing liberal ideas.  In 1968, Japanese historian, Irokawa Diakichi discovered in a rural storehouse, a sophisticated constitution written by farmers, whom called themselves the Learning and Debating Society. Since then over 68 such constitutions have been discovered with complex blends of Confucian and Western sources, indicating they were not copies of pre-existing constitutions.  This showed that Japan was an open society.

1880 The first translation of the New Testament into Japanese is completed (DT).

1881, Okuma Shigenobu resigns from government over their refusal of promulgating a constitution, a month later they promise one in nine years.

1881, Itagaki Taisuke created the Liberal Party (Jiyuto) together with Numa Morikazu in 1881, which, along with the Rikken Kaishinto (Constitutional Progressive Party), led the nationwide popular discontent of 1880-1884.

1882, 1882 Okuma Shigenobu established the Rikken Kaishinto (Constitutional Progressive Party), which called for a British-style constitutional democracy. In response, government bureaucrats, local government officials, and other conservatives established the Rikken Teiseito (Imperial Rule Party), a pro-government party, in 1882. Numerous political demonstrations followed, some of them violent, resulting in further government restrictions. The restrictions hindered the political parties and led to divisions within and among them. The Jiyuto, which had opposed the Kaishinto, was disbanded in 1884, and Okuma resigned as Kaishinto president.

1882, Ōkuma co-founded the Constitutional Progressive Party (Rikken Kaishinto, disagreed with Ito Hirobumi, started Waseda University as higher education. During a trip to Nagasaki, Ōkuma met a Dutch missionary named Guido Verbeck, who taught him the English language and provided him with copies of the New Testament and the American Declaration of Independence. These works are often said to have affected his political thinking profoundly, and encouraged him to support efforts to abolish the existing feudal system and work toward the establishment of a constitutional government.

1882 April, In preparation for writing a draft constitution, Itō, with a large staff, goes overseas to tour several constitutional systems of government - spending most of his time in Germany studying the system of Bizmark (DT).

1882,  The government divides Shintō into 'State Shintō,' which is allowed to use the title jinja for it's shrines, and 'Sect Shintō,' which must use the title kyōkai (church) or kyōha (sect). In addition, the former received state privileges and financial subsidies while the later didn't. Also, Sect Shintō establishments were forbidden from using torii (DT).

1882, Fukuzawa Yukichi, newspaper Jiji shimpō, economics,new concept of jitsugaku, founder of Keiō Gijuku, never offical post.

1882 Fukushima Uprising, leader, Kono  Hjironaka ,  jiyuto suppression by Fukushima assembly, anti-establishment, national road, doubled local, corvee labor, Prefectural officials responded by declaring the peasants' property open to public auction, boundary disputes, Jiyūtō leaders were imprisoned, marching in protest, why government in our way,  On 28 November, when some 1,000 peasants gathered outside the Kitakata police station to demand their release, violence erupted. Kōno Hironaka and 57 others were charged with treason, but only 6 were found guilty, including Kōno, who was sentenced to seven years imprisonment. The incident became a symbol of popular resistance to despotic rule.

1882 September, Kabasan incident, Mishima, and railroad project, and plot to blow up group to build rail-road, and blew themselves  up and believed violence was only way to create a liberal society, so this was a different outlook, Unsuccessful revolutionary plot by radical members of the Jiyūtō (Liberal Party) to assassinate leaders of the Meiji government and then establish a democratic system of government. The plot reached its climax on 23 September 1884, when 16 of the rebels issued a revolutionary manifesto to the residents of the Mt. Kaba (Kabasan) region, Makabe District, Ibaraki Prefecture. Local policemen and troops sent from Tōkyō engaged the rebels in combat on 24 September, resulting in the death of 1 policeman and 1 rebel. By February 1885 the remaining 15 rebels had been apprehended, and in July 1886, 7 were sentenced to hang and the others to prison terms.

1884, Chichibu Uprising, the largest, leader, Tashigi Sashiro, mafia like leader, come up to discuss problems with him great local influence with him, gambling active. But trusted by people in the area, government intervened in making better silk products, and the people thought they were impeding on their territory.  And the same time of silk price fall , the rice price rose, and economic difficulty. And many landless after selling house, many had load difficulty, so first they tried traditional methods, like a moratorium, said no, to police, ask for Jinsei, we sympathize, but no, its not the government its these other people ( the causes complex in price flux). These people found different avenues, they found courts and took ideas to court about loans, and the court looked back to Tokugawa precedence, Robin hood social-bandits arose, 3000 participants +, mostly peasants, economic peasants against wealthy peasants and debt collectors,  sever response by the oligarchs, sending police,  Triggered by creditors' refusal to allow a moratorium on repayment of loans, more than 6,000 peasants marched on government offices and loan sharks' shops, While most of these escaped with fines, some received prison sentences of five to eight years. The seven leaders were tried (two in absentia) and sentenced to death. In February 1885, less than three months after they were arrested, five were hanged, Taisuje Daimyo jin, the millennial ideas of a new world would come into being, they thought, if liberalism could flourish in Japan and millennium world would be a realism, marched on people they owed debts too and then marched on police and they were successful, looking like an army they carried banners, one banner lets beg back to the Tokugawa period.

1884, Disablement of the Jiyūtō and Kaishinto parties because of the government crack down of the uprisings of the early 1880s.

1886, short experimented and included aspectal hybrid European statist system  which featured German influence.

1889, Japan's first Western/Eastern-style constitution

1889, Meiji Constitution (1889), a set of education laws, most notably the Imperial Rescript on Education (1890), which set obedience as the goal of education, and the Civil Code (1891).

1889, Meiji Constitution,

1890, a set of education laws, most notably the Imperial Rescript on Education , which set obedience as the goal of education. Specifically, the Meiji oligarchs tried to control the country by propagating two different theories of the Emperor, and consequentially two theories of the Meiji Constitution, in a two-track educational system. Compulsory education for everyone (grades 1-12)  included the esoteric doctrine that the emperor was infallible, and a mystical or transcendent being who was from an unbroken line of emperors that sprung from the Sun Goddess, which were invented from fragments of traditional folk beliefs, Shintō  religion and newly minted notions. Upper education was the doctrine of the emperor as the organ of state, a mere part of government run by humans, and this was done for the education of those who might serve in the next leaders in government positions. This was best represented by the formulation of Tokyo Imperial University constitutional scholar Minobe Tatsukichi, the Emperor was merely an organ of the state, that is an element in a constitutional order run by humans.

1890 First Diet, bicameral, used the Spanish old modle of House of Peers, and old Chivalric institution. Lower house can only forstall or implement last term’s budget, and no other authority except to argue legislation which can slow down policy making, which will be used as a tool.

1890s industrialists opposed to factory legislation. "Warm-heartedness," "beautiful customs” and “harmony” contrasted with western commercial competition.

1890s. the period of choosing cultures, which ones were the best? Does modernity, as a global interrelated discourse dedifferentiate us with concerns of self-preservation?

1894-1895, First Sino-Japanese War.

1895, March, The Chinese send out peace overtures to the Japanese.

1896, 1890's a remarkable turnaround from feudal to commercial industry with 210 of 258 such businesses ran by Japanese in 1896.

1896 The Reform Party (Kaishintō) and other minor parties merge to form the Progressive Party (Shimpotō) (DT).

1898, A government order forbids teachers and priests of Sect Shintō establishments from teaching within the compounds of State Shintō shrines (DT).

1898, The Liberal Party (Jiyutō) and Progressive Party (Shimpotō) merge to form the Constitutional Party (Kenseitō). (Now, instead of two parties, there was one party is two factions) (DT).

1900 October,  Itō Hirobumi forms the Seiyukai political party (by merging his followers with those of Itagaki) and becomes its party president. Leaders of Kenseitō dissolve their party. Some members join the Seiyukai while other members form the Kenseihontō (True Kensei Party) (DT).

1901 (PARTY) The first Social Democratic Party is formed. Five of the six founders are Christians.

1891, A commercial legal code, with strong German elements, goes into effect.

May 6, 1891 Matsukata Masayoshi becomes Prime Minister. (DT)

October 28, 1891 An earthquake rocks Gifu Prefecture killing or injuring over 25,000 people.

1891 December,  The first Diet is dissolved after the government is unable to get the budget passed, but the administration remains in power (although disliked throughout the country for its strong arm tactics).

1892 February,  Following the dissolution of the Diet, new elections are held and a new Diet is formed. The government, however, still fails to get a majority.

1892 August 8, Unable to work with the Diet, the cabinet resigns. Itō Hirobumi becomes Prime Minister again in an attempt to restore order.

1892 November, A new Diet session opens but the battle between it and the govenrment continues.

1893 February, The Lower House submits an address to the emperor accusing the cabinet of misconduct. The cabinet, gets the emperor to issue a message which tells both sides to work together, but is, in effect, a rebuke of the Diet

1893 December, After another Diet appeal to the emperor, and another negative imperial reply issued on behalf of the cabinet, the Diet is dissolved.

1893 A civil legal code, with strong French elements, goes into effect. While it did recognize some individual rights, the code still makes the household the legal unit. All Japanese are registered as either the head of a household or the subordinate to a head.

1894, March  General elections are held (/DT)

1904 February 10, Japan declares war on Russia over the issue of control of Korea and control of the Liaotung peninsula in China (DT).

1904, The Shrine Bureau, a part of the Home Ministry bureaucrats between 1904―1921 promoted the ideological function of the shrines in unifying sentiment of the people in the spirit of “reverence for the gods and respect for the ancestors” (Keishin sūso) (Gluck, Carol) 141)

1905 August, Britain and Japan renegotiate the Anglo-Japanese Alliance and Britain acknowledges Japan's control of Korea (DT)

1905 Late, Japan sends Itō Hirobumi to Korea to begin the process of making Korea a protectorate (DT).

1907, August 1, Japan finalizes complete control of Korean forces and dissolve them, and force a signing of agreement with gives them complete control of all government ministries.

1909 Itō is assassinated by a Korean while in Manchuria for his role in making Korea a protectorate (DT).

1912, death of Emperor Meiji; Emperor Taishō took the throne, thus beginning the Taishō Period.

1911, end of the Meiji.

1915, End of Carol Gluck’s Ideologies of confusion period.

1920s, The stylish moga (modern girl) of the 1920s represented bourgeois women's challenge to established gender norms (35 Vlastos, Stephen).

1930, conservative policies, according to a liberalists’ viewpoint,  implemented

 

 

1867, Shogun Tokugawa Yoshinobu

Aritomo Yamagata, architect of the military and political foundations favoring Prussian models- Aritomo , went to England with Ito, chummy partners, Yamagata out of loop.

Saigo Takamori, key in abolishing the han, and conscription.

Iwakura Tomomi, sends people on Iwakura mission to study abroad, threats of coup, not taken. Korea discussed.

Ito Hirobumi, rose in 1870, liberal, went to England, first leader to turn to political party.

German best state system emulated.  5 class system., wrote Meiji Constitution.

Itakai Taisuke, Founded Liberal and Popular Rights party until 1881 after leaving the government after the return to Iwakara mission. Was a general

Kido Koin, Most important leader, British ideas, provide stability for the leaders.

Matsukata Masayoshi, role of finance minister. Sound basis for economics. 

Kato Hiroyuki, promotion of meirokusha, published journal 1880s-‘90s meirokuzosshi.

Strong stalwart of imperial rule; Social Darwinism, Spencer, deny natural rights.

Inoue Tetsujiro, The organ view of the constitution.

Tokugawa Nariaki, constantly talked about needing to reform the system. Need Jitsugaku schools.

Mori Arinori, goes abroad to Washington DC, to find out the best educational system.

Ninjimo Jo, founded school Doshisha, Christian.

Tokotomi Soho, founded ‘nation’ Christian.

Kosaki  Hiromichi, merits of education in USA was a separation of religion. Christian

Tokutoori Soho, champion of the young, hates samurai, bourgeoisies and the wealthy would be important. Christian.

Yoshida Shōin, Shokasonjuku, ‘ the growing underground movement  - private school, his unlcle, teach the youth military arts and politics.

Minobe Tatsukichi, Interpreter of the Constitution of Japan, Educated in Germany, he represented the liberal constitutional views against views of his senior colleague at the Imperial University of Tokyo, Minobe did not espouse the divinity of the emperor. He argued that the sovereignty resided in the state, of which the emperor is an organ.

Obuko Toshimichi , resoration activist, powerful Oligarch, (Otto Van Bismarck) final models used, studied with Ito Hirobumi  who also liked Otto Van Bizmarck.

Fukuzawa Yukichi: Emperor is front man because he is influenced by the oligarchs and the political system. Let king be outside of politics.

Okuma Shiginobu, founded Kaishinto, Constitutional Progressive Party.

 

 

  1. 1868, the Unequal Treaties: The Treaty of Amity and Commerce unfairly negotiated between Townsend Harris of the United States and Japan was concluded July 29, 1858.

·          The most important points were:

·          Exchange of diplomatic agents;

·          Edo, Kobe, Nagasaki, Niigata, and Yokohama’s opening to foreign trade as ports;

·          ability of United States citizens to live and trade in those ports, and,

·          A system of extraterritoriality that provided for the subjugation of foreign residents to the laws of their own consular courts instead of the Japanese law system.

·          fixed low import-export duties, subject to international control.

·          Consequences: silver was used to replace gold until the Japanese quickly caught on to its world’s worth.

 

 

1)         modern history breaks down boundaries

2)         It does so because 1) nations have modernity in common, the problem of what it means to be modern and 2) the historians are drawing from the same theoretical well, with methodology and concepts in common. For example, historians in Asia draw from Marx, despite his perhaps Eurocentric vision.

3)         the trials and tribulations of a global experience of the heavy toll of wars and totalitarianism, of capitalism and industrialization—has promoted a sort of unity in perspective.

 

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