India South Asia Periods

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India   The Book of Life  this table is approximate and one should look for the specific dates below.

Basic (Later middle age to early modern periods ) concept: Hindus, Sunni, Shi’i, Sufis tribes live sometimes side by side but religions do not mix to form a syncreticsm.



North West




Deccan West

Deccan East







































































































M a  u r  y  a s






? Cattle gifts









? Sacred Cows

? began


Indo Greeks









Indo Parthians
















3  Kings   of







Cera, Pāndya,


















Local Dyns,





G u p t a s








‘K alabhra



H    a      r         

ş     a



Of Bādāmi

















Arabs of Sindh









Cāllukyas of


C         o        l         a     s


Weaker Turks

Then Seljuks

















Began 1204-6 Bengal

coup d’etat
















Originated  in   West































Overall Theme: Monotheism streamlines social centralized power/knowledge if efforts to equal up equality in perspective of motives. Polytheism, coded structure ( caste)  limits this capacity (less social mobility) but with no less effort to centralize power/knowledge to rule effectively. In India, when Islam came, polytheism and monotheism lived side by side but never mixed their statutes. Rulers, could adopt specialized themes, seemingly to link both religions together, but were met with disharmonizing results, but during different times these disharmonizing processes created stability within the rule itself.

India has a rich and unique cultural heritage, and has managed to preserve its established traditions throughout history. It has always absorbed customs, traditions and ideas from both invaders and immigrants. Many cultural practices, languages, customs and even monuments are examples of this co-mingling over centuries.’ (Wikipedia)



1500 The first group to invade India were the Aryans, who came out of the north in about 1500 BC. The Aryans brought with them strong cultural traditions that, miraculously, still remain in force today. They spoke and wrote in a language called Sanskrit, which was later used in the first documentation of the Vedas.





900 Mas‘udi (d. 956), recorded the earliest-known notice of Muslims residing in Bengal (Eaton Ch. 2.1.f31 Mas‘udi, Les Prairies d’or [Murūj al-dhahab], trans. Barbier de Meynard and Pavet de Courteille, corrected by Charles Pellat (Paris: Société asiatique, 1962), 1: 155. Dans le royaume du Dharma [i.e., Pala], les transactions commerciales se font avec des cauris (wada‘), qui sont la monnaie du pays. On y trouve le bois d’aigle (‘ūd), l’or et l’argent; on y fabrique des étoffes d’une finesse et d’une délicatesse inégalées. Les Indiens mangent sa [i.e., the elephant’s] chair, et ils sont imités par les Musulmans qui habitent ce pays, parce qu’il est de la même espèce que les boeufs et les buffles.”




600 -800.  Brahmanism descends from the upper hills of the Himalayas N/E of Bengal; Coming through routs of Bihar from west to east to settle in Bengal’s S/W Delta region where Kolkata ( Calcutta) will come into existence.



300:  Contact between Indo-Aryan civilization ( according to nineteenth century commentary of surviving documents) and the delta region coincided not only with the rise of an imperial state but also with that of Buddhism, which from the third century B.C. to the seventh or eighth century A.D. experienced the most expansive and vital phase of its career in India . Indo-Aryans, who brought with them a vast corpus of Sanskrit sacred literature. Their migration into the Gangetic Plain is also associated with the appearance of new pottery styles. (Eaton 1. Bengal under the Sultans). […] ‘Hindu’ period extending from about 300 CE to around 1200. It was followed by the ‘Muslim’ period that came to an end in the eighteenth century, so be superseded by a ‘ British’ rather than a ‘ Christian’ period ( Stein 112-3).










600 Hunas or ‘white Huns’ ( Predecessors of the Mongols | China).


800 Pīr- Sheikh concepts, pre-Islamic begin to emerge back again. Sufism forms in various ways from various intellectualizing process that accompany most religions. 8-10th  spread Anatolia, Northern Syria, Northern I(raq, Central Asia, Afghanistan, Iran and India. ( Ancestor worship based, a spiritual guild)



1100:  The product, Perso-Islamic civilization, was in turn lavishly patronized by the several dynasties that arose in this area—notably the Tahirids, the Saffarids, the Samanids, and the Ghaznavids—at a time when Baghdad’s authority in its eastern domains was progressively weakening. Although themselves ethnic Turks, the Ghaznavids (962–1186) promoted the revival of Persian language and culture by attracting to their regional courts the brightest “stars” on the Persian literary scene, such as Iran’s great epic poet Firdausi (d. 1020). Ghaznavid rulers used the Persian language for public purposes, adopted Persian court etiquette, and enthusiastically promoted the Persian aesthetic vision as projected in art, calligraphy, architecture, and handicrafts. They also accepted the fiction of having been “appointed” by the reigning Abbasid caliph in Baghdad. Indeed, as recent Muslim converts themselves, Turkish soldiers in Ghaznavid service became avid partisans, defenders, and promoters of Sunni Islam.[2] It was the Ghaznavids, too, who first carried Perso-Islamic civilization to India ( Eaton, see note at 1200). Pressed from behind by the Seljuqs, a more powerful Turkish confederation, to whom in 1040 they lost any claim to Khurasan, Ghaznavid armies pushed ever eastward toward the subcontinent—first to eastern Afghanistan, and finally to Lahore in the Punjab. Toward the end of the twelfth century, however, the Ghaznavids were themselves overrun by another Turkish confederation, the chiefs of Ghur, located in the hills of central Afghanistan. In 1186 Muhammad Ghuri seized Lahore, extinguished Ghaznavid power there, and seven years later established Muslim rule in Delhi. A decade after that, Muhammad Bakhtiyar, operating in Ghurid service, swept down the lower Gangetic Plain and into Bengal.



Nestorian Christians. Thomas brother of Jesus and disciple.

1165 Circa. copies of the Letter of Prester John started spreading throughout Europe. An epistolary wonder tale with parallels that suggest its author knew the Romance of Alexander and the above-mentioned Acts of St. Thomas, the Letter was supposedly written to the Byzantine Emperor Manuel I Comnenus (1143-1180) by Prester John, descendant of one of the Three Magi and King of India.

13th Century Large Wave of Islam Rule Comes to India

Second wave of Islam begins before the fall of Bahgdad and emigrations spread out over a wide area from Anatolia, central Asia, and, Iran, northern Iraq,  Afghanistan to India.


Main article: Islamic empires in India

‘After the Arab-Turkic invasion of India's ancient northern neighbour Persia, various short lived Islamic empires invaded and spread across the subcontinent over a period of 1000 years. Prior to Turkish invasions, Muslim trading communities flourished throughout coastal South India, particularly in Kerala. In the 10th and 11th centuries, Turks and Afghans invaded India and established the Sultanate of Delhi at the beginning of the 13th century. The Slave dynasty and Khilji empire managed to conquer large areas of northern India approximate to the ancient extent of the Guptas, but were ultimately unsuccessful in conquering the subcontinent, until the onset of the Mughals.’ ( wikipedia)

 (Eaton 1. Bengal under the Sultans).

Muslims come in for the wealth of Bengal. This is beginning of Second Islamic Wave, especially 100 years later in Anatolia.


Ilyas Shahis 13-18th Rules Bengal. Pandua big city.


1200 : 1204-6 Muslim come in to Bengal and take over kicking out the Hindu rulers – lead coup d’etat by Muhammad Bakhtiyar.…all three frontiers ( political, agrarian and Islamic frontier, which divided Muslim from non-Muslim communities)  were superimposed on a much older one, a frontier defined by the long-term eastward march of Sanskritic civilization in the Bengal delta. Characterized either by an egalitarian agrarian society organized around Buddhist monastic institutions or by a hierarchically ordered agrarian society presided over by Brahman priests, Sanskritic civilization in both its Buddhist and its Brahmanic forms had moved down the Gangetic Plain and into the Bengal delta many centuries before Muhammad Bakhtiyar’s coup of 1204. Note: Much of India already had petty rulers whose faith was already Islam. It was just in Bengal that this accepting to accept this new religion by force took place. Stein, believes the Muslims were aggressive, relentless, promoted violence to subjugate, and called the Muslims dangerous. Eaton, on the other hand, promotes a softer episode of mutual cooperation after the initial thrust of the coup d’etat. Later both concur that tension between the Hindus and Muslims arise, as this is a predominate occurrence for many world regions and periods  of duel religious or cultural systems living symbiotically but never a syncretism occurrence. “Islam brings in literacy, and methods of memorization” (Eaton). Sufi were recruited by Islam to establish legitimacy then after Islam becomes legitimite they distance themselves from the Sufis. The Sufis were vital to this region because they initially brought grains with them and cleared the eastern hinterlands and began to cultivate wet-rice which led to cheap food and plenty of it.


1204  The Coming of Islam to Northern India and Bengal. Brought by the Ghaznavids who were Turks living as Muslims ( Eaton). They ( had a different view of Islam) like the spoils of war more than the Islamic religion. Muslims brought in new food, new religion, and patronage (Eaton) new kinds of irrigation techniques, and this all counts toward basically higher technology which leads to another question of what really is legitimacy in totality. ( My claim is that the technology ( even government systems, and military training)  wins and conquers in all time periods, and it was no difference here). Eaton says the Muslims brought over patronage; however, patronage was a human quality of basic tribal government and would have had a long history before this period. Eaton might be alluding to a specific bureaucracy of patronage that he doesn’t go into depth on. To eaton, Fusion of Islam and Hinduism was not a factor. Both religions lived side-by-side. Stine cites continual hostility, evidencing skirmishes and conflicts within all periods of the relationship. It is true today that many see the hostility linked back to these periods of conquest by the Muslims, and yet, some Muslims and Hindus live side-buy-side today in happiness.

Muslism do not adopt gods. For Islam, the superhuman and the human cannot intertwine. However, the Indian religious systems have many examples of shapshifting, co-inhabiting and mythical features of superhuman combine with humans in their poly religious system.


1221 (Nestorian Myths led to Christians searches leading to India) In 1221 Jacques de Vitry, Bishop of Acre returned from the disastrous Fifth Crusade with good news: King David of India, the son or grandson of Prester John, had mobilized his armies against the Saracens. He had already conquered Persia, then under the Khwarezmid Empire's control, and was moving on towards Baghdad as well. This descendent of the great king who had defeated the Seljuks in 1144 planned to reconquer and rebuild Jerusalem.


"King David", as it turned out, was no benevolent Nestorian monarch nor even a Christian, but Genghis Khan. His reign took the story of Prester John in a new direction. The rise of the Mongol Empire gave western Christians the opportunity to visit lands they had never seen before. The belief that a lost Nestorian kingdom existed in the east, or at least that the Crusader States' salvation depended on an alliance with an Eastern monarch, accounts for the numerous Christian ambassadors and missionaries sent to Mongols, such as the Franciscan explorers Giovanni da Pian del Carpini in 1245 and William of Rubruck in 1253.

1290 ‘Ala al-Din Khalji ( 1290-1316) of the Delhi regime tried to reinvent the (Bengal?) agrarian community by cutting half the tax payments, which eased up peasant constraints and fostered local growth. However, this was not a new trend. Regime change in China, for example, saw their agrarian societies needed [placating] winning over to make a case for their legitimacy.

One, for example, happened during the The Sui dynasty period. The new administrations understood the number one problem in China, at that time, was the heavy taxation on the agrarian society that had caused, impart, some of the difficulties of the mini-dark age; therefore, one must lower the tax base in order to win support of its citizenry or peoples. One cannot work a people to death because, then, they will not support the regime. For the Sui, their plan got China back on the right track, - thus winning their legitimacy. The independent Muslim regimes possibly knowing some Chinese history from the Mongol invaders, exploited it, whom possibly brought over some administration tradition address the agrarian societies need by introducing the correct agriculture methods, doing away with slash and burn techniques, and change to subsistence ( continuation), all in an effort to ease the work load of the people.



1316 Kalgis set grain prices so to pay soldiers less, run economic –security state – this showed forms of a new centralized state and states in India.

1336 Vijayanagara ( South Central) Early 14th Century. (often written Vijayanagar, meaning the city of victory), in northern Karnataka, is the name of the now ruined capital city of the historic Vijayanagara empire in the Southern part of India. They fought with the Muslim kingdoms. They recruited Muslim archers because they said these experts intimidate others with their accuracy. So we have Hindu’s adopting Muslims into the fold for productive services. Cannot be considered specifically only Hindu ruler. The natural setting for the city is a hilly landscape, dotted with numerous granite boulders, of all sizes. The Tungabhadra river runs through a gorge alongside it, and provided protection from the north. Beyond the hills on the south bank on which the city was built, a plain extended further the south. Large scale walls and fortifications of hewn granite defended the centre of the city.


Vijayanagar empire  14-17th   Deccan

The name means 'City of Victory', from vijaya (victory) and nagara (city).



This 14th century statue depicts Shiva (on the left) and his wife Uma (on the right}. It is housed in the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C.The brothers Harihara and Bukka founded the Karnataka Empire, also known as the Vijayanagara Empire, in 1336. The Vijayanagara empire prospered during the reign of Krishnadevaraya. It suffered a major defeat in 1565 but continued for another century or so in an attenuated form. Southern Indian kingdoms of the time expanded their influence as far as Indonesia, controlling vast overseas empires in south east Asia. The Hindu dynasty came into conflict with Islamic rule and the clashing of the two systems, the prevailing indigenous Hindu\Muslim]] religion, which caused a mingling of the indigenous and foreign culture that left lasting cultural influences on each other. The later Mughal rule also saw such influences of Gujarati and Rajasthani culture contributing towards this. See also: Islamic invasion of India, Decline of Buddhism in India’


The city flourished between the 14th century and 16th century, during the height of the power of the Vijayanagar empire. During this time, it was often in conflict with the Muslim kingdoms which had become established in the northern Deccan, and which are often collectively termed the Deccan sultanates. In 1565, the empire's armies suffered a massive and catastrophic defeat at the hands of an alliance of the sultanates, and the capital was taken. The victorious armies then proceeded to raze, depopulate, and destroy the city over a period of several months. Despite the empire continuing to exist thereafter during a slow decline, the original capital was not reoccupied or rebuilt. It has not been occupied since.


The buildings in the city show a certain amount of Islamic influence considering the various levels of interaction with the Islamic kingdoms.



1350 Lodi Afghans ( Last to mid 15th century)

1398: Tamerlane (Timur) invades India with 90,000 cavalry and sacks Delhi because its Muslim Sultanate is too tolerant of Hindu idolatry. A Mongolian follower of Sufism, he is one of the most ruthless of all conquerors.



Early 15th century a decentralization except for around Delhi.


Ghurids & Khaijis 15-16th Delhi sultanate


1400 Mid Fourteen Muslim historian, Ziauddin Barni, commenting on history and the early Ilyas Shahi dynasty says: “ After the science of Qur’anic commentary, or tradition [ Hadiths],of jurisprudence, and the mystic path of the Sufi sheikhs, I have not observed such advantage from any branch of learning as I have from history. History is the knowledge of the annals and traditions of prophets, caliphs, sultans, and of the great men of religion , and of government”( Stein 141).



: Kingdom of Mysore  ( South central India)

The Kingdom of Mysore was a kingdom of southern India, which was founded around 1400 CE by the Wodeyar dynasty. The rule of the Wodeyars was interrupted by Hyder Ali and his son Tippu Sultan. Under their rule Mysore fought a series of wars sometimes against the combined forces of the British and Marathas, but mostly against the British with some aid or promise of aid from the French. After the death of Tippu Sultan in the Fourth War of Mysore in 1799, the Wodeyar dynasty regained limited power as a Princely State under the British. The Kingdom of Mysore became part of the modern day, Indian state of Karnataka.


Four Wars with India, the last large independent central Mughāl Rule. Symbiotic ruler.




16th Century  Timurid Ruler in India

The Mongols rule India


1526 Babur wins a victory establishing the Mughal rule.


Mughal Advantages

Maratha Advantages

1 Mounted Archery

2 Much money, large army

3 Mansabdars non-loyalty

4 Imperial jobs - army

5 scorch earth tactics ( bad for land)

6 above caused peasant revolts





1 light cavalry

2 speed & mobility

3 guerrilla warfare

4 Hit and run

5 scorch earth tactics ( bad for land)

6 above caused peasant revolts







The Greater Mughāl Emperors


Babur 1526 1530

Humayun 1530 1556

Akbar 1556 1605

Jahangir 1605 1627

Shah Jahan 1627 1658

Aurangzeb 1658 1707


Chhatrapatis 1646-1818

Peshwa 1713-1818

Confederacy 1770 – 1818



The Greater Mughāl Emperors

Emperor Reign start Reign end

Mughal Era

In the early 16th century, descendants of Genghis Khan swept across the Khyber Pass and established the Mughal (Mogul) Dynasty, which lasted for 200 years. The Mughal Empire ruled most of the northern Indian subcontinent from 1526; it went into a slow decline after 1707 and was finally defeated during the War of Independence of 1857. This period marked vast social change in the subcontinent as the Hindu majority were ruled over by the Mughal emperors, some of whom liberally patronized Hindu culture, some of whom destroyed historical temples and imposed taxes on non-Muslims. During the decline of Mughal rule, which at its peak occupied an area equivalent to that of the ancient Mauryan dynasty, several smaller empires rose to fill the power vacuum or themselves were contributing factors to the decline.










Robert Clive, 1st Baron Clive, became the first British Governor of Bengal.



17th Cnetury Dutch Out French in Mysore Out

Calkin,  the system becoming more effective.


Slaves: British didn’t need to import or use slaves, they hired locals to work for them. When transcribing work was done, this didn’t mean that the workers could read and write English, they just learned how to transcribe, so the concepts and grammar mistakes are patterned.


1600 Early 15th century a total decentralization but not in Delhi. Dutch setting In Tamil. Also a religious decentralization. Sultanic change, disharmony, symbiotic. Sultan bhakti ( Blessing)


1609 Tamil South/East India  (Western Mercantilism) Around 1609, the Dutch established a settlement in Pulicat. In 1639, the British, under the British East India Company, established a settlement further south, in present day Chennai. The British used petty quarrels among the provincial rulers (divide and rule) to expand their sphere of influence. Dutch not interested in Starting a State in India.


The British fought with the various European powers, notably the French at Vandavasi (Wandiwash) in 1760, and the Dutch at Tharangambadi (Tranquebar), driving the Dutch away entirely, and reducing the French dominions in India to Pondicherry. The British also fought four wars with the Kingdom of Mysore under Hyder Ali and later his son Tipu Sultan, which led to their eventual domination of India's south. They consolidated southern India into the Madras Presidency.


Some notable Chieftains or Poligars who fought the British East India Company as it was expanding, were Veerapandya Kattabomman, Maruthus and Pulithevan. ( tamil/wikipedia)


Main articles: Colonial India, European colonies in India


Robert Clive, 1st Baron Clive, became the first British Governor of Bengal.Vasco da Gama's discovery of a new sea route to India in 1498 paved the way for European colonization of India.


The British established their first outpost in South Asia in 1619 at Surat on the northwestern coast of India, arriving in the wake of Portuguese and Dutch visitors. Later in the century, the British East India Company opened permanent trading stations at Madras, Bombay, and Calcutta, each under the protection of native rulers.


The Portuguese set up bases in Goa, Daman, Diu and Bombay. They remained the longest colonial rulers for 500 years till 1962.



Dutch: Pepper


French India

The French set up base along with the British in the 17th century. They occupied large parts of southern India. However subsequent wars with the British, led to the loss of almost all their territory. They however retained the colonies of Pondicherry -(Pondicherry, Karaikal, Yanam, and Mahé.) and Chandernagore. Pondicherry was ceded to India in 1950.


The Dutch did not have a major presence in India. The towns of Travancore were ruled by the Dutch. However they were more interested in Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) and their prize of the Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia). They were responsible for training the military of the princely state of Kerala.


In 1845, the Danish colony of Tranquebar was sold to the United Kingdom. ( India/wikipedia)


The Maratha confederacy


Extent of the Maratha Confederacy ca. 1760

(shown here in yellow map)Main article: Maratha Empire

The Maratha Kingdom was founded by Shivaji in 1674 when he annexed a portion of the Bijapur Sultanate. Shivaji had declared war upon the oppressive Mughal dynasty in order for the Hindu majority of the subcontinent to once again be free of the various Islamic dynasties that had appeared over the last 600 years. By the 18th century, it had transformed itself into the Maratha Confederacy under the rule of the Peshwa. By 1760, the Empire had stretched across practically the entire subcontinent. This expansion was brought to an end by the Maratha's defeat by an Afghan army at the Third Battle of Panipat in 1761. The last Peshwa, Baji Rao II, was defeated by the British in the Third Anglo-Maratha War.



18th Century. British Raj CARNATIC WARS , Pilassi


Bengali spelling of war defeat of Nawab Siraj Ud Daulah: Pilassi

East Indian Company trained Indians in clerical work, thus freeing up a need to utilize slaves.

Curzon located pilassi battle. Archeology


‘The British, established a foothold in Bengal when the British soldiers, funded by the East India Company, and led by Robert Clive, defeated Nawab Siraj Ud Daulah in the Battle of Plassey in 1757.


1767 British inherited the legitimacy, juridical control and definitional control of the Mughāls by their control of the diwan of Bengal which allowed them to control the knowledges by way of the imperial system of surveillance, information dissemination and gathering. This included also the financial recourses and well informed outer perimeter information systems.  However, as with the Mughāl’s in their late stages, they were less successful in controlling important “information within the localities” ( Bayly 42).  This is reminiscent of the local knowledge problem with the war in Iraq, there are Iraqis that want the foreign agency there to help build a western economic infrastructure and there are a group of Iraqis, and other foreign groups, that want no help whatsoever, and see the US as subversive and thus they use the same subversive tactics to cause disruptions in verifiable information. All means sides try to sift threw the ‘density,’ of information similar in India as Bayly pointed out with the Mughāls, British and Marathas of local knowledge informants. This causes us to question how many channels of information all sides utilize for accuracy information of local knowledges and how it affects our lives ( Michael Johnathan McDonald| A hope for Goodness).




Bengal became a protectorate, and then directly went under the rule of East India Company. The British expanded their influence from these footholds until, by the 1850s, they controlled most of the Indian sub-continent, which included present-day Pakistan and Bangladesh’.


‘In 1857, a rebellion in northern India led by mutinous Indian soldiers caused the British Parliament to transfer all political power from the East India Company to the Crown.This is also called first war of Indian independence. The United Kingdom began administering most of India directly, while controlling the rest through treaties with local rulers. From 1830, the defeat of the Thugs played a part in securing establishing greater control of diverse Indian provinces for the British.’



1698 Englsih Land in Tamil ( South East coast)


Carnatic wars

French ß__________________________Contender ruler_____________________> British


Both back their own contender to the thrown of India to get people’s support.




1707 No theory, it is suggested, has yet given an adequate explanation of the outstanding fact that, between the death of Aurangzēb in 1707 and the outbreak of the year 1857, there was no sign of concerted opposition to the British in India, save the attempts made by Haidar “ Ali and his son Tīpū. And, moreover, that these attempts produced the opposite effect to the one desired, in that they brought together the Company and the rest of the Mughal Empire ( Buckler 2.).



20th Century Fall of the British and Independence of India


When India became independent in 1947, Madras Presidency became Madras State, comprising of present day Tamil Nadu, coastal Andhra Pradesh, northern Kerala, and the southwest coast of Karnataka.


The state was subsequently split up along linguistic lines. In 1953 the northern districts formed Andhra Pradesh. Under the States Reorganisation Act, 1956, Madras State lost its western coastal districts. The Bellary and South Kanara districts were ceded to Mysore state, and Kerala was formed from the Malabar district and the former princely states of Travancore and Cochin. In 1968, Madras State was renamed Tamil Nadu, partly to resist the imposition of Hindi as a national language by the Central Government.






(MJM 144AP1) Invaders  worked to establish their legitimacy to the throne by various methods, reached the plateau when the majority of the population finally supported them financially and spiritually.

setstats1 ‘acceptability and legitimacy by a judicious use ... following hereditary kings or chieftains’

(MJM 144AP1)  ‘to strengthen the legitimacy of their claims to power by gaining the recognition of the  people by ways and means of offering substance far greater than that which was occurring before they arrived. Most often then naught, people care less about the spirituality of its region, when faced with dismal day to day circumstances affected by hard living. Therefore, when someone offers a practical alternative to old ways, that far out shoe its predecessor, people are more willing then naught to change religious or spiritual aptitudes for a better circumstantial resolve. Thus the gain of the legitimate ruler must satisfy these basic needs of the communities in which they need to rule over and forge a contract with the people that establish not only trust, but good will.  (??? Usually a leader will show his (or her) talents by ways that appear of judicious to the community, and not foolhardy or prideful of the conquest that had just occurred.


In the current periods of Bengal discussed here the tribal communities never had a large centralized civilization in which to understand a hereditary Kingship’s value. An administration that endures past one generation of offspring was created in history by the people ( most of the time) themselves of whom,  accepting the continuation of that administration under a son or sibling of the King,  chose hereditary or the later name ‘ of right’ because they like the way things were going generally . The king offered in return, for this ‘of right’ to school the child in his ways and educate him so that he would made intelligent and prudent decisions when it became his time to rule. However, this system didn’t work all the time, and later as the Ottomans replaced ‘ of right’ with earned legitimacy to the throne,  ( the first ten Ottoman Sultans Kings) worked for the time being in other parts of the world. This meant that the smart ruler won over a competitor. It took inventive policy, real intelligence, great courage, and physical toughness to win the position of the leader in Bengal – but this is how it was done back then.


Islam gave the thrust of new avenues, and new technologies, not seen before in the delta to the tribes of Bengal.




bhakti (devotion) and shakti (force) are both needed to ... this, while in other Hindu temples, it is done


In Hindu Shakti is the eternal and supreme power, variously described as manifest energy, the substance of everything and all pervading. The Vedic meaning of Shakti is "energy." In Hinduism Shakti

Foots, Work Cited


Bayly, C. A. Knowing the Country: Empire And Information In India. University of Cambirdge. 1993.


Brittelbank, Kate. Tipu Sultan’s Search for Legitimacy Islam and Kingship ina Hindu Domain. Oxford Press 1997.


99 prasad – food offered to deities. Shows non-muslim theme. (Cornwallis)

35,36, Sufi pīr, Indian direct sacred power of the king through śakti,

110 f146. Fitna.


Bucker, F.W. & M.A. Hist. S, Allen scholar in the University of Cambridge, January 12, 1922

Gandhi.  Odin reader. My picture of Independence Odin 114


Gommans, Jos Mughal Warfare. Indian Frontiers and High road to Empire, 1500-1700. Routledge. 29 West 35th Street, New York NY 10001. 2002.


Huxley, Aldous Leonard The Brave New World.’ Chapter 3, pg. 34 Harper Perennial (New York). 1932.


Eaton, M. Richard. Rise Of Islam And The Bengal Frontier, 1204-1760. University Presses of California, Columbia and Princeton. 1996.


Ch. Eaton four theories on Islamization in Bengal Footnote 11


Foucault, Michael. The History of Sexuality. Volume I: An Introduction. Vintage Books. Random House Inc. New York. 1990.


Foucault, Michael The Essential Foucault. Edited by Rabinov, Paul & Nikolas Rose. The rev. ed of: The essential Works of Foucault.1954-84. c1977-c2000. New Press. New York. 2003.

Nietzsche, Genecology, History 351-369. (353).

Foucault, Michael.  Power/Knowledge: Selected Interviews & Other writings 1972-1977. edited by Colin Gordon. The Harvester House Press. 1980.


Spear , Percival The twilight of the Mughalsv South Asia Books. 1991


Said, Edward W. Orientalism.  Random House. Vintage Books Edition 1979


Stein,  Burton. A History of India Blackwell Publishing Ltd. 108 Cowley Road, Oxford OX4 1JF, UK. 1998.


Andre Wink. The Co-Shares of the Realm. Agrarian Society and Politics under the Eighteenth-century Maratha Savarajya. Univercity of Leiden. Cambridge University Press.


157. used.

BK Fitna 87, 110 ( rulers constantly manipulate local rulers so they will fight against eachother)

Wink. “ management through conflict 183.

161. fitna ( civil war, Division within Islam, drawing away from God)

management through conflict [vatan regulation like Sapahi]


Mysticism, Islamic. Bibliography. 1939. Berkeley Reader History 114A 2005.


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