16th Century France People and Times
Johannes Stöffler & stars 16 th century. Astreology 16 th century Stars. [ feb. 2014]
A young Diane de Poitiers. She was a major figure in Francois I and Henri II's administrations ( or court). Her public symbol were three Islamic crescent moons, interlaced. Her political power reached a height at the Peace of Cambrésis, where Henri had to free Montmorency from a Spanish Prison which resulted in over 200 towns and cities being ceded to Philip II, including all of the Italian protectorates and conquests of Francois I that was achieved over thirty-years. Poitiers had sided with the Guises, a major Catholic faction that recently had won Calis from the English who had held it for 200 years. The Guises wanted to continue war against Spain, despite the disaster at Saint – Quentin (perhaps the second Pavia?), but both Philip II and Henri II wanted peace. However, Philip II could never hand over for free major Italian cities to the French out of political pressure by his own people. The problem with Poitiers was that by siding with the Guises and Montmorency in prison, that he and others captured during war would never be free until a peace-treaties, she had forced a difficult decision by Henri to inform Montmorency to bargain to get free anyway he could. This allowed historians to blame Henri II for being too lenient and to lose what took thirty years to make. However, by freeing up the Italian possession, this freed up vital resources, as these possession were expensive to upkeep. And also, eventually, as with Spain in the eighteenth century, Italians would lead a reconquesta to take back their territory. By this treaty (1555), Philip II was assured as the sole arbiter of European politics. Yet, during the time of the treaty, he was nearly broke, as he explained in letters to the French officials. He did not desire war either, so the questioned remained that the Guises who had pressured by popular support to continue war could not have done so if Montmorency was free and back into his official office in which Henri met Montmorency and secretly told him to make the deal with the Spanish. In part, Diane had to take also credit form the blame because she did not back Henri’s efforts to quell the ambitions of the Guises. Catherine de’ Medici was never in political control at court the way Poitiers had been, thus when Henri died, she would be exiled to one of her estates and she worked for the poor children and led a quit life thereafter.
La Château - Cambrésis Treaty First Page.
This treaty allowed Spain to Dominate Italy for hundreds of years, while some sources suspect France’s natural boundaries were thus formed by this agreement. Under Henri II, a major happenstance occurred that changed the course of history for many European locations. After this treaty, the entire focus of Spain and France for the most part were combating the rival factions between the new upstart Protestant religion ideologies and the conservative Catholic Church. Particularly by 1555, the first substantive organized Protestant Church began to operate, and but the end of the decade, the religious strife turned toward battles, skirmishes, and general alarming chaos throughout many European realms. In Italy and Spain the Inquisition proved more successful, however, in France decades of religio-political tolerance spilt over into open warfare affecting the countryside – especially with the Iconoclast movement. Calvin acted as a military organizer from Geneva sending in agitators into first southern France then all over France to convert Catholics to Protestantism. After Henri’s death, the line of Valois kings and its government proved incapable of such a force as a grass-roots movement to emancipate from a unified Catholic Western Tradition. Protestantism offered incredible flexibility of sin-accounting. Individually, a person was only accountable to God, and not his neighbors or community. Protestantism was like a cowboy capitalism ideology wrapped in swathling religiosity, a diatribe of discourse espousing radical victimization.
Isabella of Austria, Wife of Charles IX. From "Illustrations of the Court of the Valois Kings," by Pierre de Bourdeïlle and C.-A. Saint Beuve, literally translated by Katherine Prescott Wormeley –illustrated by photographs of original paintings (New York: MCMXII ). A translation and personal recollections and records of the Abbé de Brantôme, who had left a written chronicle of the Valois women. High definition color file. Isabella was considered perhaps one of the most beautiful people of this time period.
Henri II was born 31 March 1519 [Julian calendar, so we calculate it using that calendar to get the correct data; (as the future king of France would be born on the New Year if we did it in the New Style ]) He was born seven hours and six minuets after midday (05:06 Am LMT, Jul Cal). Photo by Gorges 1975, and archived by Bibliothécaire de Noyon. This differs from Ronsard’s recording in which he said that the boy was born a little after six in the morning. This discrepancy in one hour and six minuets. How then does an descriptive astrology chart been cast? The poor recording may have had to due with King François ( the father) not expecting his second son to inherit the thrown, so as to not to keep the expected astrology with Madame Claude for the recording of the exact time of birth, as documents conclude such a case. It also points out, typically, that Astrology played just as great a role in the French court as it did in the Spanish and Italian courts.
King Henri II, a good king, was born with the star Facies ( a part of a nebula with inherent eye problems as the physical aspect, but can use the inner eye-sight to come up with solutions to difficult problems.). Henri II’s life is overshadowed by more debonair leaders, but his judicial and military reforms outlasted for over a hundred years – he made an astounding contribution. He was also tolerant of other religions, unlike his father. He went out of his way to free political-religious leaders, usually against the French legislators, local and national.
Agnés Sorel, a popular characture of the 16th Century ideal women.
Catherine de' Medici, Queen Regent, defacto ruler after Henri II died in 1559.
Margeurite, the fourth daughter of Francois and Claude, a portrait by Clouet.
Margeurite as older.
French Persons page one
References & Sources:
Williams, H. Noel, “Henri II: His Court and Time (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1910).
Treaty of Cateau- Cambrésis
“The Bed of Justice” (p. 337, Noel) acted like an executive order for the U.S. president. Judicial councils and court, and the General Committee could denounce decisions by the ruler, thus breaking the image of what later was called ‘the absolute ruler.” Even though this period is well within what is called the ancient regime (about 1480s - 1792), absolutism did not arise for France, that is, until the seventeenth century. The reason of the term as applied here is solely the rise of absolutism of the Catholic Monarchs (Spain), as they took total control of their judicial systems and performed autocratically over all regions of their realm. The “Most Christian King,” thus the title for the French Monarchy were participants in communal government. However, when something was deemed extremely important, the Bed of Justice acted like an executive order of the United States of America – without a provision of a three-month recourse by any Parliament or Senate. While the U.S. Senate has a power to overturn Executive Orders after a three-month period of execution, it rarely has done so in the past. It is like the sacred part of the office of the Presidency, being that this is his kingship authority in otherwise his delinquent position as part of the arbitrational powers of the entire system of the United States of American government.
corrections and technical inquiries to