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Nationalism (Re)Begins


Treaty of Westphalia (1648)



This treaty brings the most bloodiest religious war to an end. There were large significance things that came out of this “mother of all battles.”

  1. Protestants are now accepted ( because France was continuing to war as long as the Catholics wanted to make them servants to the rich).
  2. No more fighting wars over religion.
  3. France conjured up areas by the Rein.
  4. New French weapons make war more powerful.
  5. Live and let live mentality
  6. Safety from persecution of ones religion.
  7. Hapsburgs had been weakened
  8. Everyone was horrified by how bad that war had really been.
  9. Germany recovered their depopulation quicker than normal.
  10. Cultural changes emerged.
  11. Kings will take into account discipline and lines of commands for their armies. More efficiency.
  12. Uniforms for soldiers so each side can know who they are shooting at ( from a distance).
  13. The creation of generals ( again in history). A line of command that you do what you are told to do but do not question in the army ( Something that is standard today in America’s Army. You had to either, in the army, take orders or get shot by your superiors. This was not laughing matter anymore. Today you are court-martialed. So there are clear lines of commands and each of the European kings take these plans into account.

Causes and Types of Ethnic Conflict

National identity and ethnic identity are closely kinked according to political science. this does not have to be the case. There argument is that different ethnic groups vie for political power while excluding out another. Different ethic groups vie for a better share of the wealth and privilege in a chosen region. There can be internal conflicts between same ethnic groups such as the case in Pakistan and Afghanistan or one can view continental conflicts in struggles such as the American colonists breakaway from the mother country Great Britain. National conflicts sometimes rise out of ethnic conflicts where one group wants to break away from the whole and began a new country. For example in the 1980s May Russian provinces began to break away from the crumbling Soviet Union

Top-down conflicts often result from policies of states, regimes or governments. ( (Government officials start the conflicts). History:

Conflict could be stopped by arresting political leaders responsible. Use of outside force can be effective.

 Bottom-up conflicts often result from longstanding friction, competition, or grievances of between different groups vying for power ( The people start the conflict) History: Animosity must “burn itself-out.” Use of outside force will be effective.

Another example was that Bill Clinton





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