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This man, undoubtedly the greatest of Protestant divines, and perhaps, after St. Augustine, the most perseveringly followed by his disciples of any Western writer on theology, was born at Noyon in Picardy, France, 10 July, 1509, and died at Geneva, 27 May, 1564. He speaks Swedish, French and Italian.(.newadvent.org/cathen)
Everyone born are destined to achieve salvation or damnation. Yet you must work at the four basic tenets he set up.
The four tenants:
1. Pursue your God given talent.
2. Practice good morals.
3. Practice frugality (save money for a rainy day).
4. Practice things in moderation.
If one practices this every-day; this would be a sign that possibly you will make it to heaven (saved).
“A generation divided him from Luther, whom he never met. By birth, education, and temper these two protagonists of the reforming movement were strongly contrasted. Luther was a Saxon peasant, his father a miner; Calvin sprang from the French middle-class, and his father, an attorney, had purchased the freedom of the City of Noyon, where he practiced civil and canon law. Luther entered the Order of Augustinian Hermits, took a monk's vows, was made a priest and incurred much odium by marrying a nun. Calvin never was ordained in the Catholic Church; his training was chiefly in law and the humanities; he took no vows. Luther's eloquence made him popular by its force, humour, rudeness, and vulgar style. Calvin spoke to the learned at all times, even when preaching before multitudes. His manner is classical; he reasons on system; he has little humour; instead of striking with a cudgel he uses the weapons of a deadly logic and persuades by a teacher's authority, not by a demagogue's calling of names. He writes French as well as Luther writes German, and like him has been reckoned a pioneer in the modern development of his native tongue. Lastly, if we term the doctor of Wittenberg a mystic, we may sum up Calvin as a scholastic; he gives articulate expression to the principles which Luther had stormily thrown out upon the world in his vehement pamphleteering; and the "Institutes" as they were left by their author have remained ever since the standard of orthodox Protestant belief in all the Churches known as "Reformed." His French disciples called their sect "the religion"; such it has proved to be outside the Roman world.” (The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume III Copyright © 1908 by Robert Appleton Company Online Edition Copyright © 2003 by Kevin Knight Nihil Obstat, November 1, 1908. Remy Lafort, S.T.D., Censor Imprimatur. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York)
Calvinist believed that it is OK to get rich as long as you follow the tenets. This is the case of most of American history. People worked hard and followed the tenets and become hugely successful and good people. As the left-wing ( Devil) started to make demands that God and everything related to him (The four tenants) be taken out of public life ( view) America ceased to be pure and started the slow decent to “fall.” This actually started the commercial revolution and this religion was a reinvent of the new middle classes that is essential in free societies and counteracts against Feudal and Two-class societies (Rich and the Poor).
Significance: of Calvin and Luther and the New Commercial religious revolution.
People follow Calvin rather than Luther because one can become rich.
Basic procedures to follow: Don’t blames others ( like the life and the victim mentality). Government does not regulate religion. Calvin is opposed to Monarchy. He adopted early Christianity ( Not what is in the Bible) but before that. “we are gods ancient people.” Monarchs determined what peoples religion was. Calvinist was against Monarchs determination of what religion you practice.
Some Calvinist names: English were the Puritans; Congregationalists were the Dutch Dutch Reform was from Holland, Huguenots were French. Another example is that the Amish of today are a direct off-shoot of the Puritans. Thousands of branches of churches have their off-shoots roots with Protestants of today. For example, in Southern California, the most diverse place on earth in year 2000, data was gathered that there are over 2000- plus different religious sects alone. More popular names include: Methodist; Baptist; Mormons; Holy Rollers; Jehovah witnesses; 7 th Day Adventist; Quakers; Amish.
The Catholics were that and the Jesuits of the old dominating power.
The most important about the different of the two major movements is that Protestants said, “ You can interpret the Bible yourself, “ whereas the Catholic Church did that for you and that was their law.
1. Everyone must be on guard, because everyone is responsibly for their own actions.
2. No Pope; No Priests, don’t like it or need them anymore.
3. Most important, is that the Catholic Church rule is now split between the worlds now with Protestants. South America is fully Catholic and the new migration to America will be fully Protestant dominance changing the world for centuries.
Calvinists wear simple clothes, no card playing, no theater (Mostly because women started to dominate the French stage, and no dirty dancing).
Catholics didn’t want you to make a profit. Tithes and supporting the Catholic Church was a duty of a good Catholic. Calvin said; keep your own damn money.” So what do you think people voted on? People seen this as Catholics not free and Protestants free.
This is the single utmost reason that Latin America (South and Middle) remained in the dark ages until the Mexican Revolution in the 19 Century.
In 700 AD the Jews were kicked out of Judea by the fragmented remains of the Romans. Only recently has the Catholic Church acknowledged that the Jews did not kill Jesus. Protestants and Catholics hated the Jews all this time because the history was not correctly promulgated.
After Commercialism in Europe Starts, Elizabeth changes to the Anglican Church. The Puritans upset with Elizabeth with her choice move on out. According to Elizabeth, everyone must convert to the Anglican Church. The Puritans didn't want government to appoint bishops, cardinals, or anyone for that matter in the clergy. They wanted to be what American
would finally realize as a separation of "Church and State."
Puritans believed that the truth was from God alone and no one, including government could over rule him. The Bible was their tool. The ten Commandment their laws. They were more interested in the Old Testament way of dong things. Simple and togetherness; God was the congregation bypassing and governmental figure or laws. The "Bible" equaled "truth" and "truth" equaled "God."
No government can be involved. Puritans didn't like the Catholic stuff, so they gave up on the material things. ( Protestant acknowledged their religion was OK to be rich as long as you follow the "Four Tenants.") The Protestants wanted no Flashy gowns, No stained glass windows, no gold chalices, no hanging chandeliers, or decorated megalo-churches, no confessions, ( You do this in secret to yourself) basically no pomp-and-circumstance at all. This will create thousands of offshoots that we call sects: All basic sects interpret the Bible in their own opinion, in contrast to the Catholic Church who told you that the interpretation is all done for you and these are the standard rules. Most of the Puritans are believed as fundamentalists, this is not true, as fire and brimstone preachers believe in the same thing but our to hysterical when problems that arise in tack and diplomacy are involved , where the Puritans excelled.
The thorn in the side of Elizabeth was the Puritans. While the puritans move away Elizabeth finds out that they were the literate and gifted, most likely because of their hard work ethic. Remember in South America the Hidalgos, were the slave owning Hacienda rulers and everyone did everything for them, they had no talent because they didn't work hard. The work ethic of the Puritans made them literate, plus understanding the world around them. They saw the evils of the Anglican Church members who were the Nobles of Britain. - They wanted no part of it. Elizabeth made some concessions and asked them to come back. They were tricked and many persecuted and sometimes executed by other jealous Anglicans, but after their influence England becomes the most Literate of the world at the time.
Calvin talked to the Middle Class, the Burgesses. By Now the Puritans replace the Jews in saying they are the chosen of God. After much persecution they sail to America, and leave the intolerable British Anglicans.
1498 John Cabot an Italian sailing for England under Henry the VII. When he finds good places on American soil he tells the king, Henry VII, and Henry the VIII was too busy spending time battling his sins and others and his wives to be interested in America as Spain was pillaging the South Americas and France was sending their men North to Canada.
Raleigh substitutes 100 men to come to America. They land in hot and humid place, that is just a drag to live in. He leaves the settlers on this tiny island of "Roanoke" off the coast of N. Carolina which was full of insects, and bad water. At first the Algonquinn indians help out the settlers. They brought them food and material to live. But after a while when they noticed that the settlers were not leaving to go home they got mad. Raleigh could not return in 1588 because of the Spanish Armada, but in 1590 when he did come back to his settlers, no farming was done, no houses were built, no tools or evidence they were even their. He found no one there, only a carved name of an indian tribe No one knows for sure what happened to them. But one could guess they wore out their welcome. On a tree was carved the word Cratian." It is possibility that an indian tribe ate them. Raleigh named the eastern seaboard Virginia.
James the first in now in England, because Elizabeth didn't want children so the Stuart line of rulers take over. This was her cousins, and on her death bed it was even then hard for her to hand the power over to them - they had a long standing feud. There will be four kings, James the I, Charles the I, Charles II, and James II. They were the worst king and they were also from Scotland. They knew nothing of English ruling. Germanic roots of the Saxon and Anglos. The Magna Carta was tried to be destroyed.
James the first creates companies to settle people into America. on the 35 degrees of Latitude up to 40 Parallel. The two main beginning corporations were the Plymouth Company and the London Company. Word gets out about the gold rush that the Spaniards made in South America and so the middle class thinks good fortune could fall their way, so they pool their money for expenses to travel to America to try their luck. Quickly this turns the tables to a way to get the poor and jailed out of the streets of prisons of Britain - off their backs. This would eventually hurt them. They also thought that the poor that would sent over would convert the indians to Protestantism.
Henry eventually took the Catholic Church and sold over 1/3 of all of British land that the Church owned, ( Now he posses the rights) this was called the “Enclosure rule.” Which left allot of homeless without work, because it was easier to raise livestock and agriculture with these new lands. Also, walled boarders took any ranchers who made a living watching livestock so they wouldn't run away.
This causing of homelessness creates many into the town streets and causes a problem for England. A plan was devised to send the people over as "indentured servants." These people contract was that for seven years they worked for a proprietor and after that they were free and helped to get their own life going. Once sent to America they worked and were free after seven years. They still had their rights as a British citizens, so no one could be a slave. This would come in later for the south as they devise cheaper workforce and more profits. The ruling body of England also told the indentured servants that why you are over their, why don't you convert the indians to protestant..
The first group comes in 1607. The English camp starts at Jamestown. It is undesirable, but they call for more reinforcements to protect themselves from the indians and survive. 124 people arrive and only 36 people survive after nine-months. Some ate snakes, ousters, nuts, acorns and some got malaria. One person ate his wife - they found her body in his abode all chopped up in mealpieces and they executed him right away. Captain John Smith was the overseer.
Powhatan was the indian leader, it wasn’t a tribe but a federation of indian tribes he presided over. His daughter was the famous Pocahontas; she was naked at that time running around enthralled with the new people from across the ocean. She help sneak food to the new settlers and informed them of what the indians were thinking and planning.
1614 John Ralfe, took seeds from the indians and planted tobacco, so this was the very first crop grown by the settlers. He planted them all over James town. Now the settlers had something to sell ( Give )England and show them they are prospering in England’s name. This excited England.
Pocahontas married John Ralfe and change her name to Lady Rebecca, she went to England to raise awareness’ of possible funding of an indian school, she died their of tuberculosis.
Powhatan died and his brother took over. He hated the settler with a passion. He knew by then they were there for good. In 1624, he invaded the Jamestown and killed over 2/3 of the colonists. This was first blood. (remember the others were wiped out) So se3veral smaller wars ensured. The English were ready and supplies showed up and they wiped out the Powhatan tribe.
"Anyone that stays gets 100 acres," was the decrees that delighted some. If you brought along another person, such as your wife, you doubled this amount, and so on. For example, one man brought 17 people and he got 17 times 50 acres. This was much land.
1632 Williamsburg settlement and political system starts. They start their own Parliament of Burgess ( Middle Class) It is called the "House of Burgess." So famous that many of the founding fathers went their. By 1936 its name was “Parliament of America."
Bourgeoisie means middle class and come from the word Burghers (merchant class), Karl Marx belived this class destroyed the family, traditions, and enviroment.
Puritans in England
The Tudor Dynasty 1485 - 1603 1503
Author, than Henry VIII
VIII (1509-47 AD)
Henry was 17, and Catherine was 22 years-old when they betrothed. Henry wanted a son and when Mary was born, he looked elsewhere to a tet-de-tet with Ann Boleyn - not sex yet, but courting her waiting to marry her. You see Aragon’s was Aunt of Charles V ( Holy Roman Emperor) of Spain and Henry read that bible passage I make a paraphrases, “ no man can marry his brother or sister, cousin, and this was unclean would result in childless.” Meaning for Henry ‘no –boys.’ Henry would wait for sis years to Marry Ann Boleyn and she has a girl. She is named Elizabeth the bastard who becomes Elizabeth I of England. She was conceived before the two were officially married. When he divorced the Catholic Church excommunicated him. “All my sons will inherit the throne.” This determination is why he marries six wives. The Church of England sent Catherine one maid, no money and out her in a little apartment to live out the rest of her life. Ann runs around and is caught in extrametrical affair and is executed.
Next James Seymour, she gives him a son but the baby dies in childbirth. His name was Edward.. So Anne of Cleaves leaves after Henry finds her to down to Earth.
Catherine Howard was a beautiful girl and only 18 when Pervert Henry got around to her. Henry had boils and warts and was fat, not the muscular athletic man of his younger years. He was also impotent and after two year no sex. Sexual needs of the young girl are not met. Catherine played the young princes and boys of the court and was caught and executed.
Catherine Parr would be his last and out live Henry.
Significance of Henry is that he took all the land of the Catholic Church they owned in England after they excommunicated him. This was about 1/3 of all the land in England. He sold it too Nobles who built walls around the lands and farmed animals that displaced many people and put them out of work. This will cause much homeless in England and a problem for Catherine in the future. What to do with them?
Henry was not a nice guy. “To
some, Henry VIII was a strong and ruthless ruler, forcing through changes to the
Church-State relationship which excluded the papacy and brought the clergy under
control, thus strengthening the Crown's position and acquiring the monasteries'
VI (r. 1547-1553)
During Edward's reign, the Church of England became more explicitly Protestant - Edward himself was fiercely so. The Book of Common Prayer was introduced in 1549, aspects of Roman Catholic practices (including statues and stained glass) were eradicated and the marriage of clergy allowed. “ (http://www.royal.gov.uk/)
Significance is that Edward allows a printing go f the Bible in English. SO many people can read it. Although, it was expensive.
Mar became Queen for only five years.” Mary I was the first Queen Regnant (that is, a queen reigning in her own right rather than a queen through marriage to a king). Mary restored papal supremacy in England, abandoned the title of Supreme Head of the Church, reintroduced Roman Catholic bishops and began the slow reintroduction of monastic orders. Mary also revived the old heresy laws to secure the religious conversion of the country; heresy was regarded as a religious and civil offence amounting to treason (to believe in a different religion from the Sovereign was an act of defiance and disloyalty). As a result, around 300 Protestant heretics were burnt in three years - apart from eminent Protestant clergy such as Cranmer (a former archbishop and author of two Books of Common Prayer), Latimer and Ridley, these heretics were mostly poor and self-taught people. Apart from making Mary deeply unpopular, such treatment demonstrated that people were prepared to die for the Protestant settlement established in Henry's reign. The progress of Mary's conversion of the country was also limited by the vested interests of the aristocracy and gentry who had bought the monastic lands sold off after the Dissolution of the Monasteries, and who refused to return these possessions voluntarily as Mary invited them to do.” (Royal.gov.uk)
Mary imprisoned Elizabeth in the tower for six-years. Marry becomes queen for only five years. She dies of Cancer in 1558. Over three hundred men and women burnt who were puritans. (Thus the name Bloody Mary).
ELIZABETH I (r. 1558-1603)
The Power Queen
Elizabeth succeeded to the throne on her half-sister's death in November 1558. She was very well-educated (fluent in six languages), and had inherited intelligence, determination and shrewdness from both parents. Her 45-year reign is generally considered one of the most glorious in English history. During it a secure Church of England was established. Its doctrines were laid down in the 39 Articles of 1563, a compromise between Roman Catholicism and Protestantism. Elizabeth herself refused to 'make windows into men's souls ... there is only one Jesus Christ and all the rest is a dispute over trifles'; she asked for outward uniformity. Most of her subjects accepted the compromise as the basis of their faith, and her church settlement probably saved England from religious wars like those which France suffered in the second half of the 16th century. ( Royal.gov.uk)
Elizabeth I (1558-1603 AD)
She never married and courted many men and flirted allot. Remember she saw her mother, murdered by her father (men) and she had issues about this. Also, her brother and sister died of small pox. She had a long reign, and spoke seven languages. She wanted England to free from other countries forces to control her. Angelo Church was renamed as the new country ‘state’ church. No more Church of England. At 25 years-old she becomes the ruler. The Puritans who ran out of the country who were persecuted are asked to come home because of their work ethic and literacy. In fact, when they do come back they make England the most literate nation of at that time of the 17 Century.
Significance of Elizabeth: One little problem is that she forces the puritans to change and now be the Anglican Church. They say no way and now a repeated persecution evolves yet again. “Everyone had to belong to the Anglican Church,” Elizabeth said. So now the puritans get up and leave to America.
The Significance of England in this chapter of the world.
William the Conqueror:
The English ear should be seen as the steps of the beginning of the New World.
Our Modern world in Representative Republic makes one free. One of the great things in Elizabeth’s reign is she kept out the Spanish Inquisition that installed fear in people so much that they could never take steps towards this Representative Republic of America way of Freedom. The Spanish Inquisition can be looked at as a Gestapo enforcing the totalitarian laws of its dictators. Not living under totalitarian rule is the only way to advance in culture, technology and spiritual advancement.
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