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Important Dates & Concepts


Western Revolutionary Chronology


Key International Events Connected to Political Science Discourse

[updated 1989; on 103009]

470BCE. Rome Falls, begins Middle Ages for western civilization.

1200 Anatolia ~ trade juncture of the world, Ottomans begin 300 year rise and control of international trade of Anatolia, slow downfall of Eastern Roman Empire.

1203 Universities begin. N. Europe, but slow start and opposition.

1300s Mongols (-Tatars) create largest international trade empire ~ steppe system.

1350s: Proto-Renaissance period. Translations of Greek books, into Latin, some/little discovery of Roman books.  Universities in Northern Europe expand influence and take shape, translations of books as massive agenda begins (Greek philosophers writings translated & others’).



The Great Period of Change

1450s onward saw the emergence of new things such technology, such as the printing press, and new ideas and events that changed western civilization.

§         The Reconquest of Spain.

§         The Fall of the Eastern Roman Empire

§         The Northern Renaissance takes place

§         The Printing Press begins, A New Media World

§         The Reformation, A New Religious world

§         Columbus, A New Terrestrial World

§         Copernicus, A New Celestial World

1450s: beginning of massive ship building enterprises (Portugal/Spain..etc.. world-onward..)

1450s: The Italian Renaissance. The continuance of uncovering of Roman science books in excavations near Rome. Universities assist in translations – knowledge becomes known.

1492: Columbus: discovery, much of the world believed uninhabited: colonization around the world takes its first steps. Globe now fully understood to be round.

Portugal/Spain/ Dutch/English/French/others (1830s: British Empire) Colonization prime goal as an ideology but in reality colonization was a search for “new” economic markets and “remote” locations for raw materials. This is key to understanding later how modern governments understand interstate relationships.

1520-30s: French exploratory vessels land in N. America (upper east coast), but abandons colonialism do to financial difficulties and native forces. It is understood “now” that N. America is inhabited.  (Francis I’s two expeditions to the New World, to set up forts and colonize, but he is captured by Charles I (a.k.a V)), and expedition defunded. Spain in South Florida searching for economic opportunities ~ riches. Francis I’s goal is economics.

1600: The Northern Renaissance Period Begins. The destruction of the Aristotle Universe (Aristotelian Cosmology)  (Key figures: Copernicus, Kepler, Galileo, Descartes, Newton ~ Catholic Church) leads to the opening of scientific possibilities of free thinking/speech.

1607: Jamestown is first English colonization in N. America, an attempt to economically dominate the world ~ financed by investors. Spain possibly intrigue is its initial demise. English now insistent on a piece of the world land pie; raw materials, the main goal of exploration of the new world. How does this concept explain international economies?

1600-1700: Fight over the new world’s raw materials and economic potential (Spain, France, England, Dutch, Netherlands. etc..) takes form in government (secret discourse) and frames the seventeenth century colonization of the western hemisphere. Catholic Church plays part in the dividing of the world to Portugal and Spain ( Middle & South America) ~ these circumstances become significant in political science discourse around the 1850s ~ and are reverberated in almost every political discussion today.

Industrialization effects on political governments in regards to social control:

Scientific Revolution

1640 – 1699 London:  Stagecoach production begins, beginning of scientific revolution (my figures, the period still in dispute, each professor has their particular date)

1660s: Two Science Academies Open and Change the World, England/ France; and spur on the beginnings of the scientific revolution, progress slow. The best scientific minds converge, the first published magazine is from England to Europe, and it is dedicated to speaking on the findings of the Royal Society of London. Mass “periodical” publishing begins. People who will become scientists now flock to science related fields of work.

  • 1660, Royal Society of London for the Improvement of Natural Knowledge, founded (See Gresham College).

  • 1666, Paris, Royal Academy of Sciences.

1700s: Pope Benedict XIV’s Research School system replicated ever since (Research institution now appears -- main goal of a university is research, teaching second.)

Industrial Revolution.  ( mjm—figures, in dispute)

1710s: first small mechanical productions, spinning wheel, connected to wool industry.

1776: Liberal Democracy Revolutions. ~ American Revolution (Dispute if it really was a revolution, because there was no domestic-concrete government to overthrow – so social scientists cannot study it like the French Revolution).

1787: Liberty and Order, a combined concept in the “radical” US Constitution. Philadelphia: how much order to impose from the contrasting Revolutionary promise of “liberty.” All revolutionaries in history promise a “liberation” from the old order~ key concept to understanding international relationships. USA Ideology, the belief in the constant pursuit of perfection ~ perfection is impossible, but always a prescribed goal. (In opposition to future ideologies of Socialism/Marxism: belief that its system is inherently perfect.

1792: Liberal Democracy Revolutions ~ French Revolution ~ changed the political landscape of Europe ~ then world ~ effects still reverberate around the world in almost every political government today and will continue. Concept of revolution takes on a new meaning, a meaning that groups, governments and entire nations can be continually in the mode of revolutionary movements (Marxism would stress this point).

1798: Napoleon begins to imperialize the known world, by invading Egypt.

1800s: Massive Revolutionary Consciousness envelopes the social stratosphere and of social science ~ governments are seen not solely as governments but as revolutionary movements ~ an on going commitment to political-socio change of the socio-political fabric of mankind describes our current world.

1800s: massive workers, English factory building, give rise to communistic ideas of individual representation to society. Communism:  already known in social-worker parties (See. Origins). People now come in from the countryside to the factory towns – cities arise, as well as a new social consciousness~ people’s health are serious issues when large amounts of people live in close proximity.

1805 worker rights protest emerged from industrialization ~Liverpool workers gathered to protest deplorable working conditions. he people said “ we need reform. “Special interest groups arise now. Communism’s principles of human rights take shape in working culture.

1830: France, the Middle class revolution where the Monarch begins to wear business clothes and has limited power begins to see England’s industrial revolution mistakes of working conditions, and improves on worker conditions. “Worker Rights” consciousness arises, in regards to the industrialization-cities. 

1848: Karl Marx revises Frederick Engels draft of the Communist Manifesto – this short pamphlet, in adjunct to Marx’s later works explaining it,  will change the world forever. Marx : first to write a substantive argument of industrialization ~ monograph on English worker’s rights in industrial cities,  in Das Capital, Ch. 8. vol. 1). (can be discussed theoretically as a Thomas Khunean paradigm, check with each professor in terminology of “class-specific” language domain)

1850s: Mass-Movements ~ population explosion accompanied the beginning of the industrial revolutionary period into many countries.

1850s: United States of America forces Japan to open up to trade under threat of war; The British Empire forces China and India to trade under threat of war. Following, many European nations descend on Far East and force trade in the eastern hemisphere. The carving up of Africa begins by some European nations. Intellects become aware of predatory liberalism, under the guise of liberty, freedom and capitalism. This affects how we think in terms of internationalism: Liberalism and Capitalism now seen in a different socio-economic-political light by the world’s governments.

1890s: Marx’s writings become popular, everyone anticipating and watching for the world revolution of his prediction. This changes the world. Lenin in Germany uses Marx to look for a country to overthrow and start the Proletarian World Revolution. Socialists and Marxists in every known western country form parties and anticipate the world proletariat  revolution. Commoners now understand destiny is in their hands.

1890s: Communist have Marxist discourse tools to explain 1798’s failings:  The origins of the modern ‘predatory plutocrats’(See. Marxism, Socialists, Neo-Marxism), in search of economic-raw materials – capitalism “vampirism behavior,” becomes political science discourse—origins, Marx). (Edward Said’s western epistemocratic-conquest beginning-period 1798, French Revolution & Napoleon Invasion of Egypt ~ ultimately affect USA research institutions in the 1960s- onward; USA now seen as inherently evil, a continuing part of the events of 1789. Political Science changes from contructionism, formal logic, to various discursive formats linked with informal logic. (novelty theories: 1960s-onward, deconstructivism, anti-history,  anti-science, (pathological anti-science, begun in the late nineteenth century and continuing to be taught as “valued” science).

1900: Capitalist counties and industrialized countries begin thinking about carving up the world in regards to natural resources. Natural resources runs capitalism.  The victims are underdeveloped nations. This spurs on fear in which facilities mass-mobilizations of revolutionary movement ~ consciousness. Germany, land-locked and need for industrialization materials, are choked off by Britain, France and Russia for the shipping dominance, the access to raw materials, ally with the sickman. German’s need for raw material, the impact of international relations realized ~ too late. War is inevitable.

1915: Treaty of London of April 26, 1915; The Treaty of London promises the allied forces to portion out the world to many liberal democracies, and cut off the axis countries. A fight for the world’s resources – economic in origin. This is the treaty for the Great War. Ottoman Empire (The Stickman of Europe ~ Anatolia, trade juncture of the world ( East-west)) spurs on a rush to imperialize the middle east ~ raw materials, and cheap labor (textile manufacturing to replace India’s textile manufacturing).

1915-1917: The Great War sees the Liberal Democracies victorious ~ they set the agenda of carving up the world for raw materials, capital and subjugation of under develop nations. A crisis in the mass-movements around the world – war (in this sense world war) removes people from their traditions-- removal from traditional settings, provided mass-mobilized humans to be available for revolutionary figures to manipulate. Consequence, the world sees massive revolutions in the early twentieth century, including South America and South Asia.

1917: Britain reneges upon its promise to give trade and raw material access to Italy in the world, for the Italian contributing in the victory of the Great War. The period of humiliation begins. It gives rise to fascism ~ the drive to industrialize.

1917: Lenin makes his move; The Bolsheviks promise Russian soldiers free land, and jobs, but lie. The era of Neo-Marxism begins and the headquarters of the world revolution begins (Comintern/Comiform).

1917: The age of humiliation era gives rise to fascism (Italy 1919, Soviet Union, 1922, Germany 1933.). Humiliation, a key principle, applies to the masses of people who do not want to be slave laborers of the industrial nations ~ Britain, France, and the United States of America.

1917: War displaces mass-people from their traditional lives, which leads to reinventing their heritage ( Political Science understanding of international relations of revolutionary movements~ remove people from their traditions, i.e. families, churches, homes, and they are more acceptable to revolutionary ideologues. Lenin understood this and explains his method of lies which facilitated his successful takeover of Russia.   a key Principle in understanding mass consciousness of all states in international relations, even today’s international politics ~ a key factor why stabilization, the term, is understood in foreign relations~ which ultimately applies to economic situations and ramifications throughout the world.

1920s: Fascism is articulated into a Doctrine and Ideology (“Origins and Doctrine of Fascism,” 1921, Giovanni Gentile ), by Italian intellects in the 1910s. Its main point is a drive to industrialize~ no racist doctrine involved in the writings. Benito Mussolini coined (that is retranslated a Roman Latin word) the connotative word of the Roman (Empire) Imperial period. It becomes popular nationalistic word. Later, Trotsky claims Stalin’s government is a “fascist” government and bears little to no resemblance to Marxism. This explains the economic and social policies of J. Stalin.

Versailles Treaty: The main players France and Britain (lesser extent USA) carve up the world for raw material, they seek secretly to never allow Germany to have access to raw materials ~ economic independence. Instead they abuse the treaty and begin to starve the German people. The Germans see their people dying. France takes all the coal for free out of Germany, England takes all the other raw materials for free out of Germany. Desperate, death or genocide is a real factor for socio-political change.  These circumstances gives rise to the anti-democratic parties in Germany and end the semi-democratic parties in Germany. It is the abuse of the treaty and not the treaty itself that fostered the factors in the rise of National Socialism. Many German intellects, empirically and suspiciously, see the Jewish capitalists in positions of political power that are behind the secret genocide of the Germans.

1939: Stalin and Hitler form a secret treaty to carve up the world for access to raw materials. Poland is seen as the first move. The joint war on Poland begins World War II, as a surprise to the world. In international relations, political science, this is an ideological battle ground. Stalin represented Marxism, communism, and common people—politically taking charge, and Hitlerean Germany represented the bourgeoisie, aristocracy trying to subjugate the common people. Both Germany and Russia would systematically kill the fleeing populations in N.E. European – but this information does not become public until after 1989 ~ too late for academic corrections, many theoreticians (their studies in texts and still used in many schools and educational institutions)  in political science wrote how Soviet Union was benevolent to human life and in contrast to the German people as an entire population of humans. The rise of Anti-fascism after 1945 defined the world socio-political movements and still reverberates to day in political science discourse internationally. This is a testament on how effective secrecy and propaganda work as am international political-tool

1941-45: World War II: Fascism seen as a racist ideology. Stalin’s sins are forgiven by the allies for their part in supporting the allies. The United States of America sends massive technology to the Soviet Union ~ building up the Soviet Empire’s ability to militarize ~ huge consequences result. Stalin lies to the Russian people and says that his ruler ship was responsible for the massive modernization witnessed. The war of political ideology commences. Communism/Fascism/Liberalism becomes confused in definitional variables.

United States did not know of Stalin’s genocidal programs (Millions in Ukraine, and lower regions of eastern Europe under Soviet control,  starved to death, including million of Jewish-Ukrainians, millions more sent to work-to-die in Siberia). Roosevelt and the west believed Stalin was one of the most benevolent and honest twentieth century leaders of the world. This explains Stalin’s total control of all media and propaganda utilities.

1945: Anti-Fascism changes form from, anti-racism to anti-capitalism. Germnan’s defeated ~ no threat of racism of fascism. The ideology of anti-capitalism, communism verses liberalism/capitalism returns. The confusion of what is “right-wing” and what is “left-wing” politics takes shape in political discourse, and is continuing in academia, the juridical politics, all around the world.

1946: Doctrinal fights in political science: Socialism becomes the preferred government system in Europe. Capitalism is seen as a fascist ideology, of the rich and capitalist. Stigma creates power to the socialist movements. Socialism is seen under rubric of the Marxist –universalism of the proletariat. It is anti-nationalist, anti-democratic but politically communicated as the “true” democracy of mankind and the only socio-economic-political path to individual liberation.

1950s: Soviet forces the allies to give up parts of Europe. Soviets move into Europe for the first time in their history. The cold war is fought ideologically that socialism is benevolent and more successful than capitalism, which is viewed as “evil”.

1950s: Mao Zedong comes to power. He was not a Marxist, but a proclaimed Chinese nationalist. He promised capitalism, democracy, under the modernization ideology liberal emancipation from foreign occupation (Japan). Mao admired Stalin.  Once in power, he changes to communism ~ in reality it was nationalism with similar characteristics of fascism.

1959: Estimated 40 million human’s die, cannibalism, etc.. Chairman Mao’s forceful drive to industrialize and take over the world in ten years. "Great Leap Forward" campaign (1959-1961). What does this teach us internationally, about industrialization and economy? Soviets argue that Mao and the Chinese communist party are bourgeois -- fascists. They cited, racism of Chinese human superiority-thinking, and Mao being ultra-nationalistic. The ideological war over defining terms of communism begins to blur for political scientists. How do we understand international relations in this context? 

1960s: The west fears Communism (as it was called) so-called-communist armies will move into South Asia, Vietnam War is the response.

1965: Mao forms the student ”Red Army,” the goal to stamp out capitalist roaders who he thinks have infiltrated the party and society, and to stamp out all intellects in China. No need for literacy or education – teachers’ attacked, tortured and killed by rampaging students. "The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution." Over 2 million people die (conservative estimate) and untold amount of historical artifacts used in understanding the Chinese past are destroyed. Mao’s ultimate goal was to modernize China: how did this help or not? If there were no intellects to be found afterwards in China, then how could one build a factory and run it? Was this a misuse or an interpretation of Marxism (Proletariat) which led to these so-called “liberating” events, implemented by Mao alone?

1970s: Fascism is still taught in political science under the rubric of the Freud theory of the anal-sadistic/masochist stage, in major academia. How can one unofficial study of a one human individual’s psychological family trauma then  define 100 + million people’s socio-political preference without any scientific evidence in the 1930s – and billion(s) in the closing decades of the twentieth century? Freud theory’s was applied to fascism beginning in the 1930s by various Ph. D.s which gave the claims a scientific relevance and respectability. Some political science professors today still concern themselves in these variety of unscientific theories that seek to prove if a mother doesn’t manipulate their infant-babies genitals correctly, them an individual will grow up to be fascists and join the republican party, and be anti-Marxist. Other professors believe these theories to be disproved and based upon non-scientific methodologies – and are used for emotive and sentimental reasons. Since fascism was directly connected to industrialization, any nation that sought to industrialize without publicly promoting sentential words of Proletariat Revolution or Marxism is supreme, were defined internationally as fascist government systems – in government relations – which affected economic decisions of world investors.

1972: Mao Zedong, changes policy and opens up China to the west right before he dies, invited Richard Nixon for visit. Failures to industrialize play the dominate role. Russia on China’s boarders, a military threat ~ the Chinese political party racism (mainly Mao)  played a key role in inhospitality of two similar system of government.

1984: Deng Xiaoping, after Mao’s death and five years of salvaging the Chinese disaster, opens up Capitalism in limited zones in China. The beginning of the rise of economic powerhouse; China in international relations. Many western investors descend upon China’s vast economic market.  Near Future, China’s economic growth will reach unprecedented figures,  at about 8-12% annual economic growth rate ~ unheard of in the modern world.

1989: Fall of Soviet Union. The Soviet Archives are open to scholars, the failures, lies  become public ~ the world finds out the horrors of Lenin/Stalin fascist programs, genocide programs, slave-labor camps, working death camps, massive genocide of Jewish citizens within Soviet boarders. (2) Tiananmen Square Protest of 1989 ( a.k.a. June 4th Incident). Tank msn symbolic of the common people rising up against the government; the government’s compromise. Open up free market to all major cities and political agency to local jurisdictions. However, Central government is still totalitarian/ non-public. Change in rhetoric. Communists remaining in Central power cabinet positions are reported in local newspapers as conservatives. This then identifies ( albeit confusingly) that Mao Tse-tung’s reign can be considered conservative and not progressive. However, the strict liberal meaning of this intends that what started as a movement from a previous movement but was over turned in the future by another movement but still remaining political active can be deemed a conservative branch of activism and thought as well as power in political agency.


1990s: International relations in political science changes to understand that process of industrializing describe the revolutions of twentieth century.

1990s: India and Pakistan become nuclear (WMD) nations.

1999: July 1st, China announces it has reached the stage of a superpower.

2001: September 11th, creates an ideological war against so-called “radicalism” in the Middle East. Behind “radical” arguments are economic and politically positions, in an international context. How do we help develop the Middle East, and the other under developed regions of our world ~ to bring them up to the level of the advanced industrial societies?

2006: Alternative Energy and World Environment Issues takes on more importance in world socio-political-economic discussions. How will these issues change economics across the globe?



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