Crucifixion Eclipse The Large Gizāh  Pyramid : Nostradamus’ Birthdate at Central Axis of Giza Pyramid :

  Welcome, Guest                        Michael Report  

[Contact, Search] World History - Yahoo! - Help

 : H O M E :  



 I N D E XBook of Life  Index  directory B I B L E Apocalypse Book of Revelationsdirectory W E B S> Internets  directory J O U R N A L  > Journal Directory directory G A L L E R Y >photo gallerydirectory W M D  > XLXXII  ARMAGEDON  directory G A M M A > gamma index 

Privacy  [Public]  

High Renaissance Art -- Italy


Titan, Venus of Urbano, 1538, oil on canvas.


idealization—The representation of things according to a preconception of ideal form or type; a kind of esthetic distortion to produce idealized forms. See also realism.

sfumato— A smokelike haziness that subtly softens outlines in painting; particularly applied to the painting of Leonardo and Correggio.
pietà— A painted or sculpted representation of the Virgin Mary mourning over the body of Christ.

tondo— A circular painting or relief sculpture.
trompe l_œil— A form of illusionist painting that attempts to represent an object as existing in three dimensions at the surface of the painting; literally, “fools the eye.”

chiaroscuro— In drawing or painting, the treatment and use of light and dark, especially the gradations of light that produce the effect of modeling.

cartoon—In painting, a full-size preliminary drawing from which a painting is made.


Leonardo was born in Anchiano, near Vinci, Italy. His father Ser Piero da Vinci was a well-off landowner or craftsman and his mother, Caterina, a peasant girl.

Any Shadow on face is undesirable in the high renaissance. This was a Greek Model that was hold over to this period.

Cartoon: Leonardo da Vinci, Cartoon for Virgin and Child with Saint Anne and the Infant St. John 1505-07(?), charcoal on paper, heightened with white. was of many various Mother Mary with her Mother, Jesus and/Or John the Baptist that were for altarpieces. In these pieces he would work in public and many would come to see. He most often worked in Churches and the Churches opened up to the public. Throngs of people came to see him. So allot of young artists joined him to watch him work. He was extremely influential on the young artists. By 1505 Michelangelo was was at the Vatican, and he was influenced by cartoons from Leonardo. This cartoons dating is in question and was believed to have another date before reassessing a new date. At the national gallery of London where this carton is held, a curator or a museum worker was fired and started to complain that this artistic work was false to make noise. However, his noise didn't result in a forgery, it however, resulted in a reassigning the date of this cartoon. This is a format/basis composition, that Leonardo used throughout his life. Leonardo displayed these cartoons in churches for people to see. Yet, this was not the finished product. No? This was an outline for the real thing. These were play-templates to work out chiaroscuro  before applying the real paint to the job. Leonardo had a n few students, but the people became influenced by him because of the Church viewings of his cartoons.

Cartoons were mainly of charcoal or earthly powder and used as an outline or rendering of what the final product would look like once finished. There were many methods. Coat the back with charcoal and use a stylus to make an outline on a canvas or panel or use powder pigments: Press the outlines onto surface. This was a type  of transfer model. After the artist transferred the outline he or she would mount the cartoon next to the workstation and further use this as a reference to the real painting. When creating the cartoon, first the artist would work out the couture lines, then sfumato  ( Smokiness| take out the rough edges) to later produce the ideal images.

Architectonics: Based upon the Human Form.

Having a highly structured form is termed architectonics in paintings. The way to describe what this means is an analogy to automobiles and there frames. For example, a BMW Z-3 has curvy structure and basically has no boxlike form to its frame. In whereas, the Hummer is basically a box on wheels. Thus the Hummer has a highly structured frame that cane be termed  Architectonics in structure. To further the definition, in art, the structure is a human occupier in space as to the setting itself. Within this invisible structure the human[s] forms take on a structure that affects out unconsciousness. this is an Albertian/ Math structure. Another way of phrasing this is this Architectonics is Alertianism to the extreme.

Occupying depth and space and the structure. These concepts all came out of Neo Platonism. The neo prefix reminds us that the people who studied Plato's theories and work placed their own working models into the field of practice. Te triangle/pyrimade  occupies depth and space in a Architectonic scene  and the artist first sees the human figure in blocks of space and time. He or she then sets out to form the human form within these parameters. Human figures are a part of a geometric formation in the platonic world and our figures are just merely units of measure on the physical plan, but operating in the fourth dimension ( the spirit world). These are hard concepts, yet the practice is more simple in construction.

Part of these poses can be seen in the Virgin of the Rocks, (Large View) by Leonardo da Vinci.

1. Mary kneeling and twisting to make sure she is in the position of the Architectonic frame.

2. To achieve this Leonardo needed to place her in a compromising position of tension. She is leaning awkwardly over toward us while twisting he spine and gesturing with her left hand ( iconographic).

3. The gesture is to reveal her soul.

4. Leonardo would not show persons as static.

5. Hands are in tension indicating right movement.

6. Leonardo always painted with the intention that the figures were in motion.

7. The twisting pose of Mother Mary suggested life itself.

8. The DNA double Helix also twists and can be represented as a comparison here.

9. The Rocks are in an arch shape and the a circle intersects the triangle. 

The base structure of Architectonics. Leonardo perfected the Alberti Figure grouping and this is called thus: Architectonics.

Mary's head is the top of the pyramid. As she leans over her head forms the top of a triangle and the angle to her left forms the outline of the left of the triangle, and Jesus forms the base of the triangle, which baby John the Baptist, to her right and below form the right side of the triangle. This is also  the outer wall of the pyramid. The triangle was symbolic of the renaissance trinity of the God the father, Jesus the Son and the Holy spirit which make up the three components of God.  The base of the pyramid ( Four sides)  comprise the four figures of John the Baptist, Jesus the Christ, Mary, the mother of Jesus and an angle. This is strict spatial arrangement also called pyramid composition (arrangement). Still it is all part of the architectonic structure of neo-Platonism.

From 1482 to 1499 Leonardo worked for Ludovico Sforza, Duke of Milan, for which he created the Last Supper and the Virgin on the Rocks. He sent a letter to the Duke offering him architectural plans and machine outlines  for wars. On his list of specialties, painting was placed last and half heartedly alluded too out of humility. This was rare being that Leonardo considered himself, first a painter, before any of his other masteries. He maintained his own workshop with apprentices there. His forst work was The Virgin on the Rocks. There are two versions of the Virgin of the Rocks, one (the earlier) in the Louvre, Paris and another in the National Gallery, London. This is because if a person saw a painting they liked it was not odd for a painter to reproduce the painting for sale. The Paris Virgin of the Rocks adorned the altar in San Francesco Grande. The chapel of the Immacolata in the church of San Francesco Grande in Milan is where the painting was to be hung and it was commissioned on April 25, 1483, by the members of the Confraternity of the Conception. This was a lay order and not  the strict ordained religious people of the Catholic Church.

the emasculate conception refers to the birth of Mary by the Mother of Mother Mary. However, the confusion has stuck and we refer to her as the Virgin Mary thinking it is the birth of Jesus that was immaculate. No, here mother was old and past menopause, like Sarah with Abraham, whom also was old and past menopausal stage, gave birth .

Seventy tons of bronze that had been set aside for Leonardo's "Gran Cavallo" horse statue. the Duke having more serious concerns at the time use the mettle to form weaponry t to save Milan from the French under Charles VIII in 1495. When the French returned under Louis XII in 1498, Milan fell without a fight, overthrowing Sforza. Leonardo stayed in Milan for a time, until one morning he found French archers using his life-size clay model for the "Gran Cavallo" for target practice.

Usually God or Jesus is in circles  (Centers) because this represents the perfect eternity in a composition according to Neo-Platonists, and a circle represents this unwillingly to our subconscious.  The reason why Mother Mary is now in some of the circles that Leonardo creates in his paintings is that he idolizes women and formed the perfect composite women as the supreme nature being on earth and the universe that runs the universe. It is the women who houses the infant and births. It  is the women's fluids that make this possible and it is the primordial waters of nature that give humans life. For example, the water of the earth, Leonardo thought, was the blood of the women ( female body). The phenomenon of the flow of water on the earth  ( liquid) is a female feature connected, but only too, Mother Nature herself.  So Leonardo believed God was  a female. This went a long way to understanding why Julius II didn't invite him to work on the Sistine Chapel along with the esteemed others. To further his proof, Leonardo observed in Milan some family situations. .  The Sforza family had a white person marry a back person and the baby came out more with more of a black color trait  - so this told Leonardo that mixing traits were done in the women and the black traits have some type of thing to do with the mother in creation.

Gender roles of the Church were of an utmost importance to the Catholic Church's  dogma, so Julius II never retained Leonardo as he should have with the crème of the crop. . The women to Catholicism, like that of repressive religions like Islam, regarded women as deficient and inferior to the male. This can be said of many representational societies, and ever the misogynist Greeks, during the Classical era. Aristotle began this by illusion by stating that female had no play in the creation of humans and were only incubators. The generative action of the male, who had the seed, and the seed was all, not knowing of an egg yet, proliferated the subjugation of the female in history. To the Greeks, then the Catholics, the female had no genetic representation in the human creative process. Here is where Leonardo shined and paid the price at the expense of Julius II. "The female must be tamed by sexual subjugation." the church, religion and some societies believed in history. Leonardo followed the Galenist (sp.) theory that the mother placed a real role (50:50) in birth. How did this affect the art of the renaissance?

Leonardo's women are usually at the center of these neo-platonic circles, in which traditionally the focus was always the males, even before the bringing back of perspective. In the Virgin on the Rocks Mother Mary's head is directly in the center of the circle as she also makes up the Architectonic pyramidCompared to Masaccio's Holy trinity where Jesus on the Cross is at the center of the circle and is male, the female takes the prominent role here.

the composite ideal of the women for Leonardo was to take various beauty aspects of many women and incorporate them into a single idealized form. He made the perfect face, so he remained with the same face in his paintings. this is one way to tell his paintings from forgeries.

Castiglione records that brown, grey and blacks are good colors for the aristocracy to wear in society. Also the female neckline was to show off some of your cleavage, but debate raged into how much.

Cont...Virgin on the Rocks

Illiberal Arts Liberal Arts
Class Sordid: Class one: Trivium ( Make up the art of persuasion) [Romans placed a high value on debate]
Arts of slaves            Logic
All physical & Manual labor            Rhetoric
manipulation of material ( earth)            Grammar
This includes painting and sculpture This included poetry which incorporated all Trivium sub-classes.
This is the class that Leonardo and all the artists of the Class Two: Quadrium ( Make up the art of harmony)
guilds were members of. Leonardo didn't like this at all.            Arithmetic

Leonardo wanted to elevate the illiberal arts to the side of the liberal arts. He thought that the difficulty of painting was just as hard as poetry and music. He reason that Music was dead once the last note was played, but a painting is eternal. He further argued that linear perspective and legitimate perspective were math based - which they were. The institutions were set in their ways and this never changed. Leonardo stated that we (the artists) are creative geniuses, incorporating neo-Platonic ideology, divine inspiration and the Agents ( See Greek origins of Liberal Arts), the female spirits called Muses brought divine inspiration into the human world. Painting is one of the few ways in which the artist can create images from the fourth dimension ( that do not exist). Many of the other liberal arts are not creative in this way.

The Last Supper had been painted with oil over plaster and thus was deteriorating while Leonardo was still alive. He wanted to achieve luminosity. He wanted to try this in the fresco medium. It must have looked splendid when he first completed it. It was. It became the most imitated picture for the last supper scene of the life of Jesus. The painting was next to the the kitchen area, called a refectory. This was the dinning room and to make a door the someone cut out the bottom of the fresco. We can still see the contour of the door frame today in photographs. This fresco was in Sta. Maria della Grazie, Milan.

This painting broke all  the rules and is one of the reasons that it was so well accepted.

Last Supper

Leonardo studied Masaccio's vanishing points in pieces like the tribute Money and copied his Albertian ways. Masaccio is the one who understood this first. This was used to great affect in the Last Supper. In addition to the circle, square, triangle, all the Architectonics, of the fresco we see the Albertian aesthetic theory being used and working. The unconsciousness always gravitated toward the vanishing point. Here we see that the vanishing point is Jesus head. Along with the circle, square, triangle, there are rectangles, trapezoids, polygons and numerology symbolism.

The last supper were commissioned by monks of Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan. But, some wealthy patron footed the bill.

1. Three windows and the largest is where Jesus head is at.

2. the window brings in the light that is used to illuminate the room, giving Jesus a little more significance, along with the larger window pane than the other two.

3. Jesus is the only one in the geometric triangle.

4. The triangle in art represents a stable power and harmony ( i.e. strength).

5. numerology symbolism connected to the Church and mystic unity.

6. Three widows make up the trinity representation.

7. 3 x 4 groupings of Apostles make up 12 months of the year of the number of apostles.

8. There are  4 square panes on each wall and squares represent the physical plane of earth. 

9. Leonardo always paints people that appear to be in motion.

10. Judas, is leaning forward and is not a part of the other apostles who are gesturing that they didn't betray Jesus.

11. Judas is the only one without a concerned expression.

12. this was not the traditional Last Supper scene where Jesus was always shown breaking bread, or passing the wine.

13. The artist focuses on the physiological responses of Jesus telling them that ''one of you  here betrays me.''

14. This is like a stone cast into a pond that makes ripples in the water.

15. In Judas's hands he is holding a bag of silver given to him by the Roman soldiers.

16. Judas is on the right hand side, breaking tradition, but Leonardo did this so not to break up the numerology symbolism.

17. He also makes Judas more darker in the skin color to show his darker side of his personality.

18. the belief in the Church is that although what Judas did was despicable, it was necessary to fulfill the prophecy.

19. the long table shows the horizontal physiology of the stableness and a separator from the secular and the sacred. ( us and them).

Fluids and temperament: Ancient Greeks though that an imbalance of these caused sickness and disease. Influenced by astronomical features.

a) Sanguine      ( Fluid blood, body part heart) Enthusiasm.

b) Melancholic ( black bile body part spleen) Introverted personality, melancholy.

c) Choleric       ( Yellow bile body part brain) Anger.

d) Phlegmatic   ( phlegm  body part liver )  Apathy

The Church belived that Adam and Eve had perfect balance of these traits before their fall from grace. Also, what was believed was that the planets at the time of birth correlated to the imbalances of these four traits and were causes of destiny. This was astrology. The planets have influence on the person from birth. Each Apostle, thus has a astrology sign attributed to him. For example, Bartholomew is a Taurus. Judas is a Capricorn, Thomas a Virgo, Mathew is a Libra and Simon a Sagittarius. However, on Jesus's representation he has all the four major elements of the Universe: Earth, Air, Fire and Water.

The Last Supper was important for the renaissance and the influence was great with the radicalness and departure from tradition.  1482 Leonardo left Milan. When Leonardo left, Milan became mad at him and his excuse was that he became board ( as was so evident through his life). 

(Leonardo) In 1476 he was anonymously accused of homosexual contact with a 17-year-old model, Jacopo Saltarelli, a notorious prostitute.

The Virgin of the Rocks is one of the greatest paintings Leonardo Da Vinci produced during his 17 years in Milan. It is known in two versions. The first, dating from 1485, hangs in the Louvre, Paris. The second, shown here, and now in the National Gallery, London, was completed in 1506, probably with the help of an assistant.

Medici Continued...

Even though Lorenzo Medici began a public library to have artists exposed to Plato’s philosophy  not all understood or could and this surely led to his other thoughts about keeping this magic ( or intelligence) secret form the rest of the world. Just like his family kept the sheep separate from the rest of europe to keep their family in power.

1425 Alberti published his treaties on Art.

Leonardo wrote about how to diffuse light and how to set up environments to study diffused light.

Leonardo da Vinci said to study light paint the courtyard matt/flat black ( All courtyards in the those days were in the middle of the building), then stretch a white linen cloth above the ground, like a false ceiling and then place a model under this to study the diffused light and how no sharp light illuminates the face.  Leonardo da Vince also was a lighting technician (Director) for plays and events as a hobby and job for him. His study of diffracted light and the consequences are still used today in cinema and photography. For examples his court yard process was what we today would deem filters on camera lenses to diffuse light to cover up hard elements in pictures such as super defined definition. Photographers use various filters for various things. One of them is soft light to cover up skin imperfections.

To achieve soft light he purposely manipulated the light to get a soft edge. We can see this persistent use in his paintings. It was meant to achieve a natural perspective in nature. The air is misty sometimes when we see fog or mist. Other natural aberrations of dust and natural pollution cloud the air in the distance. Leonardo’s figures appear to be bathed in atmosphere - so a specific term was applied only to his work ( at first).  Sfumato ( Smoke[y]) .

Leonardo did endless studies of nature. Many times he would go to the market center and skech peoples faces and items in the market to come up with ideas for what we know about his paintings: idealized composite. We can recognize many of the Leonardo’s painting from the fact he used idealized composites. This way he could through out the parts of an individual he didn’t like and keep what he did like. The composite perfected his ideal form for the body on male and female. We see all his angles have similar facial structures. This is because after he set upon one ideal for a particular figure he stayed with that system.  For example, golden hair for religious women and strict iconography. Hnad jesture of Mother Mary with here hand out. For example in Leonardo’s Virgin on the Rocks, and Annunciation. He thought that the religious figures didn’t need halos anymore if the artist treated the figures with extreme physical beauty in form. This was his interpretation of nature from Plato. The first work with no halo visible is the Annunciation.

He also moved out of the halo representation by this ideal composite structure. Once he made his perfect composite for a holy figure, he then relied on the beauty aspect of that body type to convey it was a religious figure. Leonardo believed that all religious figures were extremely beautiful and it reflected their intelligence. This was indeed an old  Classical Greek ideology.                  

For the study of hair Leonardo when to local streams and placed a board in the water and watched how the water washed around the board making swirls.       

Contrasts were Michelangelo’s hard edges that made his figures look like sculptures in frescos and paintings. We call this a contour style.   

Raphael studies Michelangelo and Leonardo’s work and like all other artists while apprentices copied them to mimic their style. Raphael seem to incorporate both aspects forming a composite of them both. He used somewhat stumato and for his landscapes he used Michelangelo’s wash,

Leonardo was a perfectionist, and continued fine detail of botany, in the likes of predecessor Botticelli’s fine botany detail.  (Premavara). Leonardo made endless efforts to make realism of his frontal landscapes employing a variety of plants and animals. The detail is stagnating when he pioneered using oil bas paint in 1470. Oil base paint was already in use in northern Europe, and was first discovered in use of furniture decorations in Flanders (Flemish) in the 1420s. It was da Vinci who pioneered its use in Italy and made quite a sensation. Oil base, once conditioned with flaxseed oil, will shine like a photograph. This is also accented by the use of the stone to polished the surface (semi-soft agate stone on a stick) to take off excess brush strokes and make the surface appear smooth and soft. 

So what did oil do? It made artwork more detailed and reflective.

Michelangelo’s poetry excerpts:

To people of Good Judgement, every beauty

seen here resembles, more than anything else does,

That merciful fountain from which we derive;...


My eyes, desirous of beautiful  things,

and my soul, likewise, of its salvation,

have no other means to rise

to heaven but to gaze all such things.1

Michelangelo preferred sculpture and Leonardo da Vince preferred painting. Through these mediums these men expressed themselves.

Michelangelo complied with his father’s wishes to undertake humanistic studies and to
become a notable. He went to Florence to study with Francesco da Urbino, a grammar teacher.( G. Vasari The Lives of the Artists)
June 28 - Michelangelo started working in the Ghirlandaio brothers’ (Domenico, Davide and Benedetto) workshop where he learned various painting techniques (


Michelangelo like to simplify his landscape and put emphasis on the human form. He did this be what is called wash affect, where the viewer focuses more on the human form than the landscape.

For example, Raphael’s Alba Madonna is washed landscape.

How to paint wash? Dip in a solution to thing (dilute) out the opacity of the pigment. Strokes: swivel, pass to generalize ( no detail).


Leonardo Da Vinci, Virgin on the Rocks, ca 1485. Oil on wood (transferred to canvas). Leonardo makes two copies, not rare because some patrons see a work and ask for one also. One copy remains at the Louvre, Paris, and the other is at the International Art Museum in England.

A good painter has two chief objects to paint. - man and the intention of his soul. The former is easy, the later is hard, for it is expressed by gestures and the movement of the limbs, [...]2 ( Leonardo Da Vinci)

Raphael was not liked by many critics or painters in his day because he was the good-looking rich boy. They described him as a lightweight, but overlooked his portraiture. He was very sociable and well like because he was asked all the time to social events. He waas self confident and a extrovert. He never married. Had many women. He was the opposite of Michelangelo and Leonardo who were more introverted. Michelangelo was especially a recluse. He didn’t have much patience with people he thought were wasting his time. They accused him of imitating the masters Leonardo and Michelangelo. But this was unnecessary because all master artists begin by copy the masters and incorporating many of their formulas into their own work because the formula works.                     

Raphael’s Alba Madonna is famous. He was typecast like actors for painting Virgin Marys.

1514: Baldassare Castiglione was friends with Raphael (Book on Etiquette).  Castiglione wrote a book on etiquette that was meant for the Aristocracy. The middle class picked up the book and it had many printings. These rules were how to conduct oneself socially. This help by Raphel’s friend gave Raphael the necessary social skills in public life. On the other hand Michelangelo had terrible skills because he was such a genius that he became impatient with dullards. He usually could not handle engaged in small talk for more than a little while. This earned him a bad reputation in public. Raphel was self assured; he was confident and universally like by all the women. He never married and was invited to all the best parties. Michelangelo was a reclusive introvert. He didn;t have patience and he thought people were wasting his time ( melancholy personality).                  

Leonardo was born an illegitimate child in Florence. His father took interest in schooling. At that time illegitimate children could never get into the guild ( this was not absolute as he final did). Single parents were frowned upon as compared to later stages of civilizations free societies when they allow single parents as a functioning equal entity in a society that has moved away from traditional family upbringing. Usually indicative of extreme left-wing views. The pros of single parenthood in these societies is equal opportunity for the children and parant in social circles, and the cons are more and more people end up without the disiple on the family and procreation dwindles.  However, this is usually offset by vast immigration into these societies that are sometimes blamed on the right-wing fro accepting foreigners into their country (state).

Since Leonardo’s father didn’t have anymore children he focused upon his sons achievements - while noticing he was artistically gifted at a young age. Leonardo was a prodigy. He was also called strikingly beautiful as a child. People even said his looks remained with him into his seventies. The Platonic views that beauty on the outside caused intelligence on the inside resonated with Michel early on.         

Michelangelo was a devout Catholic. So Michelangelo snuck out at night to go study at the morgue. He would dissect the human body like Leonardo would often do and wrote in his diary “ I know that I’m going to burn in hell for this.”  Leonardo wrote his notes on dead persons backwards and encrypted. Leonardo spent considerable time perfecting the human form. This was his most concern in painting.  He was dyslexic but could write both forward and backward at the same time. In addition, he could draw two perfect circles in opposite directions using both hands at the same time. Many artists could never even draw a perfect circle.

Leonardo studied skulls, dissected cadavers which lead to scientific studies in medicine. One of the reasons that the artists were the first to do this was the Catholic Church forbade tampering with the human body after death. The artists opened up the new scientific study of anatomy. Leonardo could do this because he was not a practicing Catholic. Leonardo was not a practicing Catholic - he didn’t follow the curriculum. Yet, this doesn’t mean that he was not spiritual - he was very much a spiritual soul. Even unto the 15th Century the people said that dissecting a human body was not with the Church’s teachings.                        

In the Grecian times and the people believed that beauty was connected to the intellect. Well at least the affluent who managed to be the good looking of society, who basically ruled because all beauty is attractive to the wealthy. Even though this is not true it was a belief stigma that resonated in the renaissance.

For the Annunciation the women's face is a idealized composite. Albertian legitimate perspective  ( Two point perspective) is used with impeccability. There is a contemporary setting - it is in a secular environment. Now almost invisible disks for the halos are used.

Burnishing tool used to give luster to a painting in used in oil based paints. Makes the painting look like photographs. Leonardo polished his brushwork to make it look shines and no brush marks. With egg-yoke ( basic tempura) one cannot retouch a place once the tempura has dried. However, oil was a solution and mixing colors was easier. Also, oil paint dries slower giving the artist more time to change his mind and retouch a place on the painting he or she are not satisfied with.

Early Mother Mary's (c. 1333 A.D.) had mixed emotions, but Leonardo made sure to place no trace of emotions in his women.

1James, M. Saslow, The Poetry of Michelangelo: An Annotated Translation (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1991.195 .239.

2 Anthony Blunt, Artistic Theory in Italy. 1460-1600 (London Oxford University Press, 1964), 34.


Mona Lisa


Mona Lisa (1503-1506, Louvre, Paris) was Leonardo Da Vinci’s favorite painting. Many theories have been advanced regarding the meaning of the enigmatic smile on the woman’s face and the identity of the sitter.

1. Most famous painting on earth. It is a universal image because it seen in the Universe because ti was placed upon the Voyager space probe - now traversing the universe. The Most Famous Painting on Earth. this picture is even on the Voyager Space craft making it a image of the Universe.

2. Varnished discolored this work from original luster.  The reason that is so yellow is that lacquer/ or varnish was used to coat it to keep it preserved. Some paintings have as much as 20 or so coats of varnish and the under layers are still wet four-hundred years later.

3. This Leonardo's personal favorite. He took it with him everywhere he went. Even while visiting the French King he tug this painting along.

4. Also known as La Gioconda, the wife of Francesco del Giocondo; 1503-06. However this has never been proven and debate still rages today. Notice no wedding ring which was almost mandatory when comparing other art be the same artist and his contemporaries. Note, also the significance of the women portraiture in high renaissance art and how important to represent the women with their jewelry to describe to the viewer how wealthy her husband was.

5. Some conspiracies say this was Leonardo himself in drag. He was a open homosexual.

6. Dressed: Florentine fashion of her day and seated in a visionary, mountainous landscape, is a remarkable instance of Leonardo's sfumato technique of soft, heavily shaded chiaroscuro ( modeling for paintings).

7. Originally a life-size representation of a women seated on a back of a chair with her torso twisting looking toward us between two columns, because she is on a balcony , which could been seen in the original form. A king wanted to fit this into his bathroom and it was too big so he simply cut out the rest of the picture. If one looks closely to the side walls of the painting, one can still see some of the outlying forms of the columns of the porch on the balcony ( terrace). The king said, " I'll take it, but it doesn't fit .... I'll just cut it down to size." Leonardo framed conceptually between these two columns.

8. She is seated on a chair and is twisting at a 90 Degree angle. This twisting technique would be a modern tell-tale sign of architectonics, along with the platonic, or golden mean forms of representations.

9. Greatly admired and much copied, this painting revolutionized portraiture

10. One of the architectonic structures is the triangle with the  two cylinder structures ( the two columns) . 

11. Another is a tilted circle around Mona Lisa head. A reference to the Masaccio's Sacred Conversation method - physiological unity. There is also a geometric square.

12. She blends into the background, giving the painting another form of mother nature ruled the world concept.

13. Giorgio Vasari: Leonardo worked on her for three years. The ladies name was Lisa di Antonio Maria Gherardini, wife of a prominent Florentine banker, named Francesco Zawobi del Giocondo (sp.). Name means the Merry Happy one.

14. Mona Lisa, is short for a term of endearment said: My lady Lisa, or my Lisa. ( Madonna [Madame] Lisa).

15. Other conspiricies include: ''But a German now believes she was Countess Caterina Sforza from Italy. The countess is said to have been married three times, had 11 children and countless lovers. According to Bild, Leverkusen-based Magdalena Soest says she was one of the best known courtesans of the Renaissance."1

16. Restoration: ( Comparative Photos) Mona Lisa ready for facelift Marilyn August Associated Press.

17. Before portraitures were based upon Roman Coins profiles and profiles by general standards. Now the twisting things came into fashion by storm. Yet, this was not the first portrait that was a turned/twisted/body contorted portrait.

18. Her eyes appear to follow you, like the Disney land haunted mansion ride where sculptures in the wall are designed for the same illusion act.

19. Everyone marveled at the nature aspects - Vasari.

20. Leonardo was so happy with his work on this than when the patron asked for his painting, Leonardo quickly made a copy and gave it to him.

21. She wears a silver veil. Her eyes have a gaze.

22. The Sfumato makes it hard for us to understand what is her psychological temperament at that time of capture.

23. She is dressed exactly how Castiglioni envisioned in his book on etiquette. 

24. Her smile is so enigmatic that there is no muscle pullback to her farcical structure - even thought the sides of her smile turn upward.

25. Soft hands make one know that she was not a worker - or for that fact a worker ever ( A day in her life). She was a well-to-do person.

26. Composure of the hand is an expression of normal aristocracy described by Castiglinoni.

27. One of the possible reasons for Francesco to paint his wife with the commission going to Leonardo was that Leonardo was notoriously slow. He thought that he could keep a whereabouts on his wife because he was a busy man.

28. The Norm of the elite was called Sprezzatura. Italian word meaning distain, or snobbishness; haughtiness.  It is a form of language of the body ( Body language). This is a smug pose saying " hey, looky at me, I'm not concerned over money matters as most people in life are. "

29. Leonardo like the company of intellectual courtesans of his day, giving weight to the German argument.

30. Also in the gaze is a come-hither look for sexual pleasure. She, also,  looks sexually satisfied. Castiglioni says that women should not have direct eye contact. This is exactly how Raphael shows his portraitures of women.

31. Maybe the Mona Lisa was Leonardo's Muse?

32. The curly hair, the twisting mountains and landscapes ( including windy roads, and river rapids that swirled, all showed a symbolism of the life of the kundalini ( The two serpents intertwined ascending a rod).  they didn't know it , but the similes of the DNA chain also intertwine and ascend. ( Also see golden section)

33. unity achieved is the blurring of the hard edges which is used , even today in portraiture of people to cover up there blemishes. This is also the same system employed for all the Venuses ( or most women)  afterwards in this genre because of the perfection it displayed. This was the ideal portrait style adopted.

34. Raphael will use this method in his portraiture.

35. Neo-Platonist Microcosm/Macrocosm is seen with the blending of the curls of the backdrop to the shapes of the lady.






1. Courtesans were often Quick witted or trained to be.

Raphael oil on wood, 1505 same pose as Leonardo but avoids direct eye contact as directed in the etiquette book. This was to make ladies appear modest.

2. Jewelry important now and the women pictured in the portraits must be wearing some expensive jewelry to show-off their husbands wealth. They are just property or like the men used to call them a commodity.

3. Raphael: same pose as Leonardo's Mona Lisa (Oil on Wood 1505).

4. All Capitalist societies get into etiquette and courtesans emerge out into the public.

5. On the joints of the hands, a ring positioned below the second joint toward the tips of the fingers indicates Lofty-Spiritual attitudes.


Raphael wanted to become a good artist and at that time Michelangelo and Leonardo were big stars. He went to their bodegas in order to ask if he could be taken in as a student. Both denied him, because they didn't like to take on too many students. But, both said you can stick around and watch and learn, in which is what Raphael did. This is why his work is a blending of both their styles. One day at the Michelangelo's shop, while painting the Doni Madonna (a tondo) , Michel called Raphael over to him and said, " Well why you are just standing there, why don't you do something; Here take this painting over to Mr. [ Patron/commissioner] and get the balance of Florins (or Ducats)  he owes me."  So Raphael went to the patron who took one look at all the naked boys in the background and said " I'm not paying for that - I don't want naked boys!." Raphael, quick-witted said, "  But sir, this tondo is worth double the price that you are being offered here...and look it is the Virgin Mary, with Joseph and baby Jesus with the souls that are saved in the background." Raphael was now a salesman. but the two lessons that came out of this episode were, first: Artist had more creative freedom now and could set the barr, as seen here. Second: Raphael, a party boy, as well as a gifted young artist, saw money making potential after seeing both Leonardo and Michelangelo turn down many commissions because of the tremendous influx of requests.

People in the renaissance prefer tondo's to that of other stylized paintings. This style was usually for the domestic household.

Raphael, at the height of his fame was the talk of the town in Rome. He set up many workshops and botegas. He took on many students and this is how the practices and methods of Leonardo and Michelangelo spread evidently.

#25 Venus of Urbino 1538.

Oil on canvas, 119 x 165 cm
Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence

It was painted for Duke Guidobaldo della Rovere and one of the greatest works of Titian's maturity. It is assumed that the model is Eleonora Gonzaga, the wife of Francesco della Rovere, the Duke of Urbino. A relation to Giorgione's Sleeping Venus is clearly seen from the picture.

A artist in Venice, in the high renaissance art distinct in Venice, and commissioned by Guidoalbo della Rovere, who was a nephew of Pope Julius II. He was Duke of Urbino. This Venus has a dog lying next to here, and in art the dog who laying next to a beautiful women was a symbol of fidelity. She was most likely the Dukes mistress and this picture would of hung in the chamber ( room) where the sex would have taken place. There is a maid in the background who probably takes the place of the goddess of Pomona. This was a temporary Venus in a temporary setting. She wears expensive pearls and a affection ring from her lover.  This is another example of a courtesan emerging in a renewal of capitalist society that was beginning to emerge in Italy.  Notice again this affection painting has the courtesan with jewelry, whereas the Mona Lisa doesn't. the ring is a token of a man's affection. The word Fido comes from the term fidelity that was given to dogs who were symbols of fidelity in a women's life. In general the jewelry aspect shows that a women is a man's commodity and the jewels show his wealth of himself and his family.

The differences in Michelangelo and Leonardo. Michelangelo focused on the human body thinking he was a god to who created humans from marble, whereas God created them from the earth ( This sentiment he actually stated could have caused others to heavily investigated by the Catholic Church and tried as a criminal). Leonardo focused on all the complexities of life, influencing him to concentrate on the fine detail aspects of landscape and the surrounding picture that didn't involve the human forms. Both used Albertian legitimate perspective and made   Architectonics there usual form.

“Pietà” Sculpture (1498-1500)
By Michelangelo Buonarroti (1475-1564) in St. Peter’s Basilica, Vatican, Rome.

Michelangelo  (age of 23 ) produced his first masterpiece 1497-8, according to some. The  pietà  was commissioned  by  The French Cardinal (& Portuguese) , Jean de Bilhères - Lagraulas to sculpt the marble statue for the Vatican.. The statue was created for St. Peter's Basilica  in Rome and where the Cardinal would be buried. (Jean de Bilhères-Lagraulas, cardinal de Saint-Denis. Un diplomate francais sous Louis XI et Charles VIII). Michelangelo received 450 gold

Very influential work (photo) (in situ). (photo two)

Unprecedented artistic work.

Very detailed. It almost seemed that Michelangelo used a butter knife and the material was, in fact, butter. One of the odd, but awsome, features of Michelangelo was the fact that he cut sculptures from one side until finished and not the usual circular inward rounding method. The marble was hauled out of the quarries at Carrara, Italy.

Michelangelo said: " God Created man out of the earth, and I create man out of stone." In essence, Michelangelo knew he was good and also thought he created human images in the likes of a deity. He could have been arrested , but wasn't. Michelangelo had a little life outside of art. In the renaissance and before this, people only took a shower once in a while. So body odor was normal back then and people were used to it. So when people who visited Michelangelo commented that sometimes he stunk, this meant that he was really, really dirty and sometimes his concern was more toward his work than with attending to his body's hygiene. "People waste my time," Michelangelo would say. He had a melancholic personality. He growled at people. His father didn't support him because he wanted him to become a person involved in commerce. This father/son relationship had its strains and must have drove the boy inward.

Michelangelo trained in Florence and his mother died when he was young ( His father was poor). He was a child prodigy. Even later on when Michelangelo made it in the world of business and he was busy painting the Sistine Chapel in Rome, he would send money home to his father. His father would tell him to get a real job.

One day in the Statue Garden of the Medici compound, Lorenzo came across a  statue that caught his curiosity. " It looks pretty good but too new looking." So Michelangelo raced to have it look antique. He did a fabulous job and everyone was impressed, and so was Lorenzo. After Michelangelo and Lorenzo had a talk about family problems, Lorenzo too Michelangelo under his wing of support. It was a young Michelangelo statue that cemented his career and statues remained his favored art piece throughout his life. . He ordered the artist to come visit him. Michelangelo was adopted by Lorenzo and put into training. The two got along famously and he was like a father to Michelangelo. Many people asked Lorenzo to sell them statues he had in his collection. Lorenzo not wanting to get rid of masterpieces had Michelangelo make copies of them. So Michelangelo's first real paying gig ( He was put on salary at an early age at 13 years-old unheard of ) was to make forgeries. But, who in the right mind would today not want a Michelangelo forgery? Michelangelo was too young to know what he was doing - all he knew was to make copies and it was like practicing to him - yet he was a prodigy.

The The  pietà  also has characteristics of the larger person holding the body on their knees. This was seen in other works and was nothing more than to work out the concepts of space. The Virgin Mary, often shown cradling her son, was not a mere giant as depicted in many works of art; or, for that matter, was she depicted this was to show occult status. This was a method used to make it look real. A real person holing so gently a grown human body, of the likes of Christ, would need to be strong and large - which was the case in working out the Architectonics of this sculpture ( and others works of art).

Before this time the pietà was popular in the northern European areas, like France and Portugal. Now this gave Italy its first truly masterful piece of work in this program. There is no halo, and this is highly idealized representation of Mother Mary and Jesus. Mother Mary was said to be 15 years-old when she gave birth to baby Jesus, and Jesus at 33, when he dies ( according to Bible) this would make Mother Mary 48 year-old. She looks very pretty and athletic for this age. Mother Mary also has a large gown on that if she stood up and walked out of the room would drag behind her. This is another unrealistic, but useful in sculpture to cover up her muscled legs due to the sizing problems inherent in lifting Jesus on her lap. For example, of spacial relations. Mother Mary is sitting on St. Ann's lap in the Cartoon,  Virgin and Child with Saint Anne and the Infant St. John 1505-07(?), charcoal on paper, heightened with white. She is defiantly much larger a person and could be viewed as a giant. This was to make it appear real that a women could hold other full-grown women on her lap with relative ease, as described in her facial and muscle features.

Tomb of Giuliano de' Medici

Marble, 630 x 420 cm
Sagrestia Nuova, San Lorenzo, Florence

1. The females look over muscular. This is because the male human body was what was studied in the morgue and the Greek and Roman statues were mostly male nudes. two figures in the foreground are Night & Dawn. Lady Night has coconut breasts and very masculine muscles that women do not have. This looks very unnatural. We can also see a muscular representation in Michelangelo's' Doni Madonna. The females and the Baby Jesus have biceps that look like young males who have been lifting dumb-bells for most of their lives. Even Giuliano commented that he didn't look like that to Michelangelo, but he said no one will care one-hundred years from now.

Michelangelo received the commission for the Medici Chapel in 1520 from the Medici Pope Leo X (1513-23). The Pope wanted to combine the tombs of his younger brother Giuliano, Duke of Nemours, and his nephew Lorenzo, Duke of Urbino, with those of the "Magnifici", Lorenzo and his brother Giuliano, who had been murdered in 1478; their tombs were then in the Old Sacristy of San Lorenzo.2.

Michelangelo, David, c. 1501-04, marble. Originally for the Florence Cathedral on one of its buttresses. This meant that it was supposed to be viewed high up. Thus the detail of the top of the head is not as intricate as the rest, because no one would see it. It was a civic commission and later the commission decided to move it, also thus changing the meaning from religious to political.

David exemplifies heroic, human triumphant, dignity on a grand scale. The city fathers changed their minds and moved there choice for the place of resting of the statue to the Plazzo Vecchio (City hall). This changed the meaning to a more political setting. Understanding that David faced insurmountable odds and defeated a mammoth contender, in Goliath. this was the first public nude of David. David represented Florence against impossible odds ( There history of luck and steadfastness against foreign enemies).

The two seated Medici dukes and the reclining figures of Night, Day, Dawn, and Dusk are among the most famous sculptures in the world, endlessly copied and universally recognizable. Michelangelo worked sometimes on the Medici tombs until his departure for Rome in 1534.

Tomb of Giuliano de' Medici (Frontal main)
start. 1526-33
Marble, 630 x 420 cm
Sagrestia Nuova, San Lorenzo, Florence (all
 Tombs for the New Sacristy of San Lorenzo

Between 1519 and 1534 - Michelangelo was commission by the Medici to build two tombs, one for Lorenzo de' Medici, duke of Urbino; the other for Giuliano de' Medici, duke of Nemours. Since both men were of opposite countenance, the tomb was de3sinied to reflect this theme. Lorenzo was a introvert and reclusive and a player behind the scenes, while the outgoing extrovert Giuliano was shown his outwardly active side in representation. Thus Dawn and Dusk were placed besides Lorenzo's tomb and Day and Night beneath Giuliano's tomb. Michelangelo did not work at this alone, and other parts of the project were worked upon. However,  the statues were given only to him to complete and no one else was wanted. He never came back to  Florence because of warlike problems and he returned to Rome in 1534.

Iconography symbolism: Donatello's David at the Medici compound was for private viewing and the only iconographic symbolism was that David was standing with on foot on Goliath's head. This Michelangelo representation was a snap shop of what David would look like or probably did just before battling the giant. One see's a rock clutched nervously  in his left hand, and is shown not relaxed but appearing to notice something that makes him assume the get ready to react pose. His right arm is slightly raised, and muscle contraction can be seen. His eyes affixed on something in the foreground that appears to get his attention ( most possible Goliath). But, the most notably difference in iconographic symbolism here is that David appears to be fully grown contradictory to the Biblical account.

Classical Greek style makes up the general sculpture program here as David has key appearance from that of ancient Greek statues: An exaggerated pelvic ridge. The vantage point was to be viewed from the Cathedrals buttresses. This meant that it was to be viewed from high above the people's view. This is why the head and the hands are exaggeratedly large and the hair has had deep cutting to allow the sun to cast shadows upon David's face. Light dissolves object from on high. This was known by the artists and they made corrections for this. In 1505 Julius II summoned Michelangelo to Rome. He would try to hold him captive in a work grant type of way, promising Michelangelo a fabulous job for statue program to decorate Julius's tomb. This meant that Michelangelo could show his dad he had become rich and famous ( Something his dad would never acknowledge to him).

The Fabulous commission by Julius to create the tomb for himself (the pope) was  a dream job from Michelangelo. However, Julius knew and realized this was his favorite artist off all even though the two went loggerheads ( butted heads)  at each other often. In order for Julius to keep Michelangelo in Rome he kept him hostage by telling him in order to keep the gig ( tomb statue job) he had to work on the Sistine chapel. Michelangelo never did fresco in his life and his first job was the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel,. This was a ceremonial Chapel for Pope Sixtus IV della Rovere. ( Vatican built between 1475-1483). (Julius II [GIULIANO DELLA ROVERE] Born on 5 December, 1443, at Albissola near Savona; crowned on 28 November, 1503; died at Rome, in the night of 20-21 February, 1513. ).

Pope Julius VI was the prime person for reinventing Rome and the Catholic Church by way of bringing in the artists of the renaissance and driving out the French Army to legitimize that the Catholic Church would be forever stationed with its headquarters in Rome. In essence, he was the high-renaissance Pope. He took over the from the very corrupt Pope Alexander VI (Rodrigo Borgia; elec.1492).   Julius II called himself the 'new Peter.' Peter is accredited with the founding of the Catholic Church, but after the very corrupt preceding pope [Pius III four weeks, elected 22 Sept., 1503; d. in Rome, 18 Oct., 1503 - not significant reign] , Julius thought to reinvent the Church as a second life ( New chapter). Julius had to contend with the beginnings of the reformation that was intensified under Sixtus IV.

Julius I wanted to extend the Italian influence over the original Roman Empire area. This was far fetched and out of reality, but nevertheless he worked hard on resorting the influence of the Catholic Church. In St. Peters Basilica he tore down the old and started to build a new one. This is where, himself, the second Peter, would be buried. Some to the structural plans can be seen in Raphael's 'School of Athens' fresco. Julius summoned the architects, painters,. sculptures and all who could revamp Rome and make it the premiere place of the western civilizations in new technology. This happened and he probably save the Catholic Church from the onslaught of resentment it had retained from the previous corruption scandals.

Michelangelo was diverted by Pope Julius to the Sistine Chapel where he frescoed on and off for about four years. He had employed help to mix, prepare,  scaffold and other chores so he would have to do anything but paint. He worked on and off completing the ceiling from 1508-1512. Michelangelo had a business, so he was able to hire help. One can see before the cleaning that the walls were grayish tint and that many scholars had wrote dissertations believing that Michelangelo put a final coating that made his work appear this way. It is possibly true that he placed a outer layer of varnish or some type of coat, but possibly it was a protective clear coat. Anyway, once we seen this work after the cleaning we notice all the color. Before the colors were usually dull, or often dark toned in tint to make it look more like all the rest of the fresco work in history. this was different the color tones were sharp, contrasting and had flare - not see before. How was Michelangelo to know? This was his first fresco job. It looks beautiful. In not following Giotto's understanding that viewed from afar ( the higher placed on the chapel walls or ceilings) that fresco's could not be crowded up with stuff. This is what happened for most of the frames (separate frescos divided by decretive boarders), except two - the most famous ones we know or have seen countless times in refereeing to the Sistine Chapel: The Creation of  Man and the Expulsion from the garden of Eden.  Giotto know that frescos should have much empty space between things we are to focus on. Here in both frames are simplistic pictures of two biblical events. Giotto would have applauded. From the vantage point from the floor for the viewer, these two frames are easily distinguishable to what they are conveying. Not that the others are not - but it shows the simplicity of the scene that makes it much easier for us to comprehend.

Sistine Chapel program for Michelangelo:

  1. Prep specifics,

  2. Cartoons

  3. then frescos.

What was he supposed to paint? Sibyls, who are Seer's or oracles that can see the future and have foreknowledge of events. In a fictive marble cornice, or imaginary pictures that make it appear that the ceiling has wood, or tiles with boarders and structure, Michelangelo was to paint a program beginning from the Creation of the Universe to the finishing of the Catholic authority to run God's Church on earth -  and separated into nine sections by broad pilaster type designs strips (Illusionistic cornice) bent across the ceiling in imitation white marble called di sotto in sÙ. This means from below upwards. Appearance extends strait upward from viewer and is  an illusion of a vault or structural and or decretive parts of the ceiling that look like actual real architecture built right into the building; but are paintings to create the illusion that they are seeing the real architecture. ( See: Photo). The ancestors of Christ are also painted on the flat side walls.

Moses was sent by God, According to the Church to prepare the way for the coming of Jesus. The Catholic Church was then to prepare the way for the second coming of Jesus. So the last judgment and the significance of the western civilization was riding in their continual outlook about this. The last Judgment takes up the entire western wall. Michelangelo painted according to Church traditions nude males and females as was done in the middle ages. But, because this chapel became so famous, the later popes after Julius decided to cover up the exposed parts of the nude body with painted cloths. Then there was a program to restore the fresco to its original version, but some of the removal took of much of the other parts of the fresco so they abandoned this.

Also, man can never be touched by God. When looking at the creation of Adam fresco one see that possibly this was breached. However, the ceiling, high-up, is too far a distance to see that God doesn't actually touch Adams hand. A-Symmetrical focal point makes up the positions of God and Adam, which higher to the upper right and Adam to the lower left. Adam seems to have sluggish legs as the spark of life has only animated his upper body. Lethargic colors are violet, green and blue and they appear to recede in a picture giving off a coolness. This is the colors that make up Adam. Then, God, is a type of Red dynamo of energy and has a lighter violet (red/blue  mix), called a warm violet, which is more red than blue. This color is stimulating and exudes energetic qualities in a picture making images appear coming out at one. Both figures have a concave form and can be placed together to fit a puzzle. So there is a lot of symbolism here in the this picture.

For the other great fresco is the Expulsion for short. Again, this is a simplistic picture with not too much going on, which is easy on the eyes,  from such a distance down below.  We tend to view things from afar with less definition, so when viewing something like the ceiling from down below too much detail obscures the view. In the garden of Eden, the lush landscape makes an impression of plentiful land where everything we need is offered to us. This is the real Garden of Eden. When we see the other half of the frame where Adam and Even are being forced out by one of God's Angles at the gate to inhabit earth, which has a look of barrenness, we sense that this was truly a punishment fit for the crime of disobedience.  Also,  the physical appearances of Adam and Even are telling of the reality of this disobedience, in more shaping out the beauty toward ugly,  than some beautiful body structures of them when they are (were) in their Paradise pose in the Garden. So we get good looking to ugly as another theme.

Michelangelo, Bound Slave, 1513-16, marble.height 229 cm. Musée du Louvre, Paris

Last judgment.

Michelangelo, The Last Judgment, fresco ( from the Sistine Chapel), 1534-41.

The largest fresco of the Renaissance, it depicts Judgment Day. Nudes (prudish draperies ) are aloud to be portrait as according to the very few images allowed inn Catholism. Yet, the bodies were covered up with cloths and some later removed - some couldn't because of permanent damage. Michelangelo painted his own image in the flayed skin of St. Bartholomew.

28 sculpture program ( Julius II) Tomb program. Julius II’s tomb; original design called for two-story structure with 28 statues. Julius kept diverting him to keep him in Rome for his ultimate plan.  St. peters was not finished being built and the tomb needed to find another home. After the completed version in 1545, the tomb was placed at (in) San Pietro in Vincoli, Rome, rather than Saint Peter’s.

A new contract between Michelangelo and the Della Rovere heirs was stipulated for
the Tomb of Julius II. It was to be executed following a new project. Michelangelo
returned to Carrara for the marble but began contract negotiations with

Michelangelo returned to Rome to finish the tomb because he wanted to leave
Florence, by then under the Medici thumb. Pope Paul III Farnese (1535) convinced
him to work on the altar wall of the Sistine Chapel where Michelangelo depicted the
Last Judgement. Work on the large fresco actually began at the end of 1536 and was
unveiled in 1541. The fresco generated both great admiration and scandal because of
the nude figures he portrayed. During this time, he also produced his famous
drawings for Tommaso dè Cavalieri, the Marquise of Pescara Vittoria Colonna and
Cardinal Reginaldo Pole.

 (By Marina Cristiani

Michelangelo left Florence for Rome in 1534, and the Medici tombs were unfinished, but he was still detracted by the Pope to finish the monumental Last Judgment. The Medici tomb would not be finished by another artist. Michelangelo was the only one they wanted. The sculptural program is incomplete.


Julius II: Basilica of San Pietro in Vincoli.

Raphael lived in the court of the Duke of Urbino. His father was a court artist to the Duke of Urbino. Raphael ended up as Perugino's student, one of the side wall painters in the Sistine Chapel. He painted the famous ironic ' Keys to the Kingdom" fresco in this same chapel. Nonetheless, Raphael was in good hands and became an excellent painter steeped in High-Renaissance fashion. Like Perugino, he used contemporary clothing in religious scenes, used extreme beautification, a Leonardo trait learned by studying his cartoons and while at his shop, and landscape while studding at the shop of Michelangelo. Other contemporary things like in the Marriage of the Virgin, 1504, oil on wood, where sticks, an Italian wedding tradition were employed instead of the traditional Jewish breaking of glass. We can see in the Alba Madonna where he employed the beauty ideal of the Virgin, a Leonardo trait, and the soft undetailed landscape a Michelangelo trait.

He was called to Rome by Julius to paint some walls inside the Papal apartments. This is where the famous,  high renaissance painting (culmination point of the HR) was done. It is one we all have seen, called the School of Athens (1509-11, fresco, Stanza della Segnatura, Vatican, Rome.). Plato's head is painted in the likeness of Leonardo who was never invited to Rome by Julius ( Cite religious differences) and Raphael's own portrait, as well as the one he had placed in the Marriage of the Virgin, of himself. the architect that rebuilt St. Peters, along with the structure plans ( the designs ) in the architecture of the painting itself. Perfect legitimate perspective with have tilted architectonic circles on both sides of Plato and Aristotle. each side has their own followers within thee circles.

Final thoughts:

Michelangelo was 23 years younger than Leonardo. Michelangelo had went to see a cartoon of Leonardo at a local chapel that he had displayed.

Michelangelo and Leonardo did not like each other, it was a rivalry thing. However, both were admired of each other work, showing a decency in leu of all the  completeness of art at that time in the field.

1.  Mona Lisa's  identity 'revealed' Ananova 2004, <> 2004.

2. Tomb of Giuliano de' Medici. Web Gallery of Art, created by Emil Kren and Daniel Marx. 2004.


For more: Olga's gallery <>


Copyright © 1999 - 2013 Michael Johnathan McDonald