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Italia Renascimento Topics  & (pre - French: Renaissance)

The Pre Northern Renaissance


Copyright © 2008 Michael Johnathan McDonald, October 10, 2008.

RE1 Identifications

At Siena around the 1320s-1340s new wealth begins to appear. Then others realized they had lived in darkness, and that Roman ruins spoke to them out of the earth to suggest a reaching back into time to begin a new hopeful future.  – this is now a myth – Michael Johnathan McDonald

Golden Agers

Italian Renaissance List: Mirrors of Modernity

A Golden Age -- Golden Agers

Historicism: Why a renaissance?

Can no longer live and die in extreme poverty and disease Crusades → Conquest → Trade→ Dreams→ Realization→ Renaissance → War Mentality → Rise of Western Civilization → Unprecedented Prosperity → Reaction to Guilt of Comfort (21st Century).


pluralism vs. singularity:

Pluralism: Chaos

Singularity: Order

Singularity: Liberation from plurality

Pluralism: Free Speech

Pluralism: Liberation from singularity

Medieval Age: Better name Age of Rejuvenation of the Soul (Ideology of singularity/Monotheism)

Renaissance: rebirth of pluralism

Protestant Reformation: Pluralism proper and the bring back of the ideology of the body and the soul.

Counter Reformation: a reestablishment of the ideology of singularity


Paganism: the nourishment of the bodily senses and since science says that humans are hardwired to lust (as animal multipartnership) the gratification of the senses, including violence was communicated as happiness during the Roman Empire stages of 31 BCE to 325 ADE. Yet, gratification of the senses led to groups and people being hurt who led to a reaction to fight back against the pagans which tired the rulers who then adopted guilt by way of exhaustion in the form of Christianity. Therefore Christianity and pacifism trumpeted and historians believe that Christianity was the down fall of the Roman Empire, or more correctly religion remained the cause. Christianity tried to civilize the beast through stringent daily routines to keep the mind away from agreeing to the passionate bodily senses. Once Rome went pacifist (extremely left wing, political correctness, anti-militarism, etc) then pagan (militaristic sense gratifying groups) outsider groups were able to overtake the civilized pacifist groups – thus ending the Roman Empire. The guilt that Christianity had fashioned on the Roman citizen created the need to turn away from immorality which had led Rome to become the power and controller of the world. This empirical adoption created the notion that Roman citizens did not want to be associated with their collective and heritage past. They began to deny themselves as heritors of the Roman Empire which exhibited a weakening on the periphery and eventually the only Roman power remained in a city called Rome.


Ten Commandments


Moses makes laws to bind a wide and chaotic disunified group to allow them to focuses of monumental tasks that lay ahead such as battle and survival.

  • Some see this from a perspective that Moses used God’s name to become a dictator.

  • Some see this from a perspective that Moses used God as monotheism to established law and order in an otherwise unorderly mass of people.

Constantine unified a growing pacifist movement called Christianity (c. 325 ACE) in order to unify a disunified and weakening Roman Empire.  Many scholars blame Christianity for ending the Roman Empire because of Christianity’s monotheistic strictness and moral aptitude.  Empires do not survive with strict moral goodness and brotherly love.


Medieval Ages: the Western European Romans were constantly reminded of their guilty past of imperialism, how the Roman pagan ideology of expansion contributed to slavery, territorial subjugation of indigenous tribes or groups, and military ideology. After pacifist Christianity had been adopted by populist pressure, about 85 years later in 410 ACE The Visigoths sacked Rome beginning the downfall of a civilization.


Roman paganism was pluralism and the adoption of Christianity witnessed Rome change these realities to singularity. Under singularity a populous sentimentality could take place for a kindler and gentler European people.


Lust, sloth, greed, anger, envy, covetness, gluttony, passion of plurality or extreme liberalism – or hedonist pleasure—was changed for a singular ideology that redefined how human’s souls must operate to keep it from fashioning a return to aggressive imperialism.


Lust made humans confused, unfocused, and unmanageable by order and law. In the Roman Empire this was tolerated because of the apparatus of anger as militarism.  The focus on conquest and violence helped establish focus which assisted the management of law and order.


After the fall of Rome, Augustine of Hippo and Jerome helped to establish new ways of cooperating with the intending guilty complex of the Europeans. The new ideology was anti-education, pro-seclusion, pro-inward reflection and contemplation, and strict management organization. Only by continual vigilance could these populous’ of Europe sustain a moral and pacifist understanding of life. The ideology of life on earth was not worth living, one needed to look to the afterlife of hope for happiness. St. Augustine stated that only the kingdom of heaven could be attained in a monastery. This meant that seclusion, that isolation, that constant moral reflection and that pacifist lifestyles could only achieve the required mentalities to end guilt. The guilt of managing an empire that constantly needed economic stability – capitalism—which is always unfortunate for some-- led to this dark and dreary lifestyle that we call the medieval ages.


Justinian I also helped by ending higher education in 520s ADE. Education was communicated as leading toward uncivilized thoughts – that is of imperialism, greed, lust, envy, sloth, wickedness, anger, violence and desire to lose one’s rational.


The Church did not control the people and force them into church servitude. They had no military. Instead it was the people of Europe that desired the Church to control their violent passions through strict ideologies of monotheism. Under Rome, who had adopted Zeus from the Greeks, was a deity called Jupiter. This god’s lust found forceful sexual conquests a virtuous reality. Mars, the god of war, had to be placated with blood and perpetual violence. Paganism exhibited pluralism, a freeness a liberation of the soul and binding of the bodily senses to pleasure and excitement. This excitement created the euphoria of lust that was believed by the mind as happiness.

Reformations overlap and run parallel in historical timelines. 

Proto- Renaissance: People tired of dying, severe weather, disease and death provoke  masses of people to demand the Pope do something about it. It comes in the form of fight, die in the name of God and gather what wealth you may. 1095.

Crusades: to help Eastern Roman Empire against Seljuk Turks, not an attack on Muslims. significance: The retrieval of technology from Islamic scholars and technicians, and the first parts of pluralism, underground and secret. These crusades created the Venetian Shipping Empire. This began to bring in capital into south/eastern Europe. Jerusalem Constantine Basilica destroyed by Turks, but it takes one hundred years before the west responded. Prior to this Muslims and certain Christian sects live in close proximity.  Mongols push Turcoman out of eastern steppe, and a new rise of eastern power shakes up the west. Transfer of gunpowder, but not understood of its destructive power until the later fifteenth century.

13th century: Crusades singled a need for education. Church understands if it educated people they will be weakened. However, they promote it because it is the will of the people. A Few Universities established, as well as lay grammar schools. The world is a dangerous place, and people of the Far East scare the idealist west into reactionary measures. Prophecy of end of life emerges with the knowledge of the eastern civilizations. As a result Christianity becomes militant.

Church Schism: two pope’s period. This led to the Italian-republican City States, autonomous systems predicted upon independent republican city-states modeled on Plato’s 500 member civic polities and independent Constitutions. These result in growth for individual wealth, and grew toward working guilds, a later socialist understanding of the working people.

Pre-Reformation: Separation of Church & State: 14th Century: Prague, England, Netherlands, Switzerland. First attempts to break idealism and singularity of moral pacifism. The expression of individualism is allowed by advanced education.

Italian- Renaissance: 1350-1500

Renaissance: Continues today. We look to the past to explain and understand our future! Realism and Monumentalize.

Roman Renaissance: 1500-1700 (blended with baroque period) Counter Reformation 1560s onward, building of New Capital at Vatican, complete with new St. Peter’s Basilica.

Northern Renaissance: 1500 ~ 1600s England, France and Spain adopt De Regna Christi, or Monarchal Christianity. These western states do not adopt republican city-state models. France doesn’t adopt renaissance methods but attempts to push knowledge further than that of Romans – they are the first.

Protestant Reformation, an attempt by Martin Luther to reform the Roman Catholic Church that resulted in a schism, and grew into a wider movement.

Counter-Reformation, the Catholic Church's response to the Protestants (Paul III to Westphalia)

English Reformation, series of events in sixteenth-century England by which the church in England broke away from the authority of the Pope and the Roman Catholic Church

Radical Reformation, an Anabaptist movement concurrent with the Protestant Reformation

Scottish Reformation, 1560, Presbyterians

Swiss Reformation, 1520s, Radical Reformations.

Reformations? What are they?

Reformation is loosely regarded as close examination of the Bible to understand and shape current political spheres. We now speak of reformations in the plural and connect them nominally to western civilization.  While the Reformation had political-demographic outcomes, its underlying process was a reestablishment by interpretation and translation of the Old and New Testaments, as well as redefining the Patristic Fathers, and redefining Greek and Roman philosophers. By individuals translating and interpreting what the Bible had said, it created factionalism by local and regional rulers attaching themselves and their civic charges to these independent movements and directionally moving away from the Medieval ‘loosely’ monolithic religious structure, which then emerged secular nationalism(s) (described at the Treaty of Westphalia) based upon patriotism and freedom of speech from various interpretations of these sacred scriptures. These Reformations’ underlying causes were inward revelations while they demonstrated secular and surface economic effects. The Reformations are still felt today in modern world cultures and these pages are for helping us understand how we got here. 

Salvation History tended to bind the secular European authority to the Catholic Church, as a central authority.

John Wycliffe

John Wycliffe (mid-1320s – 31 December 1384), a 14th century early critic of salvation history of the Catholic Church, an English  theologian, founder of the Lollard movement, helped translate along with others enthusiasts the Latin Vulgate Bible into a vernacular of English in the year 1382 ( now known as the Wycliffe Bible). It was finally completed in three editions 1384, 1388 and 1395. Yet the movable type printing presses had not been invented yet, and one would have to wait until the late fifteenth century until dissemination of religious reformulations on the bible does appear. However, Wycliffe was an inspiration upon Martin Luther’s psyche and had alerted some the Catholic Church members to take up their own projects when they had a chance. Wycliffe certainly is viewed as a pre-reformation figure.

After the crusades, new secret orders the Knights Templers, and the Order of Zion brought back knowledge and technology from Islamic scholars and technicians – such as stone cutting technology, and all this related to business opportunities. The ruins at Rome, in which Petrarch once looked down upon and wondered about the shell of once a great civilization, began to be communicated to how it was lost. Yet, still at this time imperialism, the initial guilt was still held by the majority of people. Yet, plague and disease in association with a climate weighted heavily on the mind of new generations of people. Was idealism of singularity worth living in such uncomfortable conditions. How about fighting like the Romans had done and celebrate the human body, the passions, and the heroics and retrieve some excitement to create a heaven on earth –and the only problem was relinquishing the ghosts of the Roman past.

The Medieval Age Begins to Collapse

Art was restricted, works of art were not signed due to the ideology of anonymity. The art was emotionalist, and two dimensional.

Rise of Western Civilization: studia humanitatis (a study into the endeavors of man (Five principles: grammar, Greek, primarily Latin, Rhetoric, History and Moral Philosophy)). Originally before the Medici, this idea intended a study in what man is in reality and not what he should be. Colicco Sulutatis coined the word, and Leonardo Bruni articulated the concept. Yet, this idea of moral philosophy is qualified. Secretum, a Fracesco Pertraca journal, he intends that paganism is possibly a positive aspect of human endeavors. Poverty and death surrounded him, and he could see it -- his family exiled from Arezzo because of factional privilege (his family was on the Ghibelline side; so was Dante Alighieri ( he writes mainly in Italian in hopes to bring this language to importance) – he traveled and wondered most of his life, and many peasants in towns and the countryside knew of him by the end of his life.[1] Pertraca came from a privileged family and he saw deplorable living standards everywhere he went.  This would be totally inconsistent with framing western European civilization in the negative imperialistic light. De Vita Solitaria, Pertraca had the question, what if Julius Caesar was reborn and had accepted Christianity. Petrarca had understood Julius Caesar was an imperialist. Yet, Petrarca had grappled with these contentions since his early days at Montpellier. Petrarca could not ignore his understanding from transcribing and translating Julius Ceasar’s biography that he had expanded the Roman Republic (which then Rome became and empire under him and thereafter) in conquest of previously occupied lands and people. Historiography that intends that moral philosophy is predicated upon Christian concepts understand little of what is Christianity. In facilitating the imperial model, Petrarca knew he was promoting expansion ( a concept that today is loosely tied to the ides of progressive, e.g. that is moving away from a current established world view which was knowledge and learning were dangerous for society and civilization (not a scientific paradigm)). 

Petrarch opens his Triumph of Love using the metaphoric under meanings.  First is the season to which equates the medieval age and contrasts it to the dawning of a new age -- a part of his fantasies, imagination, hopes and dreams. He is speaking on ancient Rome and its glory he had read and seen ruins for authentication. He makes the contrast to his own age, as taken issue here, he is dealing with the subject of knowledge and its applications to morality – he must make a choice – he did, western civilization and its associations to imperialism were something he understood at the time. Fracesco Pertraca wrote:

A leader, conquering and supreme, I saw,

Such as triumphal chariots used to bear

To glorious honour on the Capitol.

   Never had I beheld a sight like this --

Thanks to the sorry age in which I live,

Bereft of valor, and o'erfilled with pride --

   And I, desirous evermore to learn,

Lifted my weary eyes, and gazed upon

This scene, so wondrous and so beautiful[2]

This was a refutation on Justinian I medieval age ideologies and the groups that supported it. One can read the full translations on the net and understand Petrarca understood his own time, a time of poverty, death and pitiful living circumstances – mainly populated by the majority of uneducated and illiterate masses.

So the morality is qualified in the current period of American institutions that pretend that Petrarch had believed that Caesar could be a benevolent leader. If Petrarch had believed this and had understood Julius Caesar’s conquests, then we would be saying that Petrarch was not as intelligent as been communicated in academia. Today, academia in the U.S.A. intends that conquest is a moral human flaw and groups or individuals that take part, or advocate are irrational and mentally challenged.  Petrarch had been modeled as a mythic figure who had believed in human justice based upon imperialism, and demarcated by Burckhardt as only realizing his spiritual self. Neither Burckhardt, nor many other commentators can communicate a valued and clear understanding of what is a spirit. Therefore, Burckhardt uses the term spiritual awakening for Petrarch to explain he had no idea why Petrarch would advocate for imperialism. Burckhardt was adamantly opposed to imperialism.

Most persons have contradicting emotions and thoughts. This must be understood that Petrarca is grappling with current trends of expansion or statist or even regression of the public body of Europe – he as a young man who had been introduced to the Order of St. Augustine of Hippo ( by a man named Denis, who also gave him a copy of Confessions), who vehemently advocated anti-imperialism, and the turn inward to reflection of the imperfections of life, humans and their thoughts [he mixed up as souls, in regard to emotions he links to ‘spiritual’ conditions].

studia humanitatis: This phrase as qualified was first promoted by Leonardo Bruni (now defined as a Christian Humanist), notably a two time Chancellor of Florence (I intend that the reason why studia humanitatis was so successful was its application of creating logic and reason back into a discipline which brought higher education back into western civilization – with no moral incentives associated to its intentions – morality, as personal to the individual had been in existence from the beginning of time and had never faltered or disappeared from human’s minds or lips). Manuel Chrysoloras was a Byzantine scholar who came to Italy from Anatolia and Bruni had asked him to lecture in Florence in one of the pre-colleges established as a predominate Aristotelian- curriculum. When he lectured, and if Chrysoloras had brought up Book II of The Republic where Plato makes Socrates lose the argument to which person attains the most power, a good person or bad person, then Bruni would have also understood that justice was not the winner in moral philosophy in regards to the organization of the state. Bruni sided with the new faction who intended Plato was the superior philosopher. The rise of western civilization is built upon a more complex constellation of arguments that commentators or historiographers had previously Romanced (such as Jacob Burckhardt’s The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy (1860, 1st ed.)).

When Leonardo Bruni claimed Florence was the new Rome, he may have understood of its conquest of small Tuscan towns, which later were built in the model of the new republican-city-state of Florence. To Bruni, Florence was a micro-mirror of the great Roman Republic with associations to the Imperial Roman era as well. Since Bruni wrote Petrarch’s biography, he had known his views on the choices of imperialism. Many of these sentiments can be uncovered in a massive collection of letter Petrarch decided to maintain.

Epistolae familiares (a.k.a. Familiar Letters) was largely collected during his stay in Provence about 1351 to 1353, however was not ultimately completed until 1359 when he was in Milan. Petrarch had this collection of letters copied onto parchment in 1359 by a certain ingeniosus homo et amicus with another complete copy done in 1364. He added letters in 1366, bringing his first collection of letters to 350. He broke these down and sorted them into 24 volumes. Since Cicero had kept letters, Petrarca decided to imitate him in this respect. Burckhardt decried that Petrarch did not leave a more sordid collection of gossipy letters when he was in Avignon, and Montpellier. Petrarch discovered the text of Cicero’s letters in 1345, which gave him the idea to collect his own sets of letters. It wasn't until four or five years later however, that he actually got started. He collected his letter correspondence in two different time periods. They are referred to as Epistolae familiares and Sentiles.

Note: (!!!) that Humanism during the early stages of Italian renaissance had opposing moral conjoiners; the Medici introduced a different concept for their morality for their educational purposes than say that of the earlier Christian humanism. Nicollò’s Machiavelli’s humanism is thusly a vastly different morality, tending to understanding some of Machiavelli’s understandings of the roles of Princes have no moral conjoiners, but strategies he had empirically gathered as conceptual data and wrote his appraisal of these qualities he admired in a prince.  However, modern dictionaries will intend a “humanist” pertains to a person seeking, promoting and harboring moral sentiments with intentions of facilitating this in their studies, rhetoric, and writings. Most readers who take heart to this claim in the definition will intend their own morality into the vary definition itself. Therefore the word becomes qualified.   Humanism also had a third basic non-morality –that is to say no morality was intended in explaining human actions. Someone that wrote about humans as they are in reality, and without offering what they should be, could be a humanist. Humanist paints pictures of history or their subjects. They are not there to sell a morality to their audience—they are there to tell a story on how they perceive the world around them or their subject. How the individual or group then takes the information and uses it can become a moral issue or not.   this is where the field of study Social Studies comes into mind. Morality came into the scientific model and education at various times during the renaissance and onward in history. Because the phrase Social Studies which also today had taken on a moral conjoiner of varying classifications intends a confusion to the very differential application of the two fields of study. Moral Philosophy, part of Studia Humanitatis (the study of the human endeavors) carried constellations of differential moral qualities. Petrarch promoted a military state based upon Julius Cesar’s model for a state, in which Petrarch believed this program was  to help bring back western civilization domination, prosperity and security. Many commoners disapproved of reviving Imperialist Roman ideas. To Petrarch morality was the strength of the state at the expense of future ramifications associated with military states. To Petrarch, steeped in antiquities’ arguments, there was a price to be paid (a sacrifice). The same intention came from Nicollò Machiavelli, as well. His morality for a Prince is tied up in the security of the state. A Prince is allocated a quick and decisive murder spree at the beginning of his consolidation of a state. It is perfectly moral for Machiavelli’s prince to uphold morality as a symbol for the strength and security of a state by murder of the potential Prince’s enemies. While on the other hand, some Christian Humanist will see this as solely immorality. Murder of anyone is not to be praised or valued in any manner. To understand conflicting moralities, one can clear the definition of what is a humanist. A humanist is just a made up word, by Bruni and people of his time, who had seen merits in the paganistic qualities of ancient Rome and ancient Greece. These Christian humanists sought to combine the two ideologies (religion Orthodoxy and paganism) which tells us that inherent contradictions proceed to conflicts not addressed in brief definitions in dictionaries today. Pagans can offer many different moralities as well as Christians or other religions. Humanism, in dictionaries offers only a general sense that a humanist pretends toward morality. What morality is , is another question all together. Both Thomas More and Niccolò Machiavelli intend tolerance of other religions a necessity for securing the peace and stability of a state. This would be a moral choice made by each as determining something beneficial to the morality of humans. Yet, Machiavelli advocates, manslaughter, murder, and pro-active imperialism, while More argues against these actions for a civilized people and their security, peace and prosperity of a state. These essentially are moral judgments that contrast each other but, both intending toward the same goal of a perfect society based upon morality. Moral philosophy, part of the five principles of the Lorenzo de’ Medici, academic circle of friends who advocated studia humanitatis of their interpretation, redefined Christian Humanism to paganistic morality.

Fall of Western CivilizationSocial Studies (a study of what man should be in idealism and not what he is in reality.).

Things to Keep In Mind

Things that are not well understood: The Catholic Church tried to destroy the aristocracy for centuries (Karl Marx did not have the sources to understand this reality), Jacob Burckhardt claims, up until Pope Sixtus IV, nephew of the Warrior Pope, Julius II (p. 1503-12?). Yet at the same time, he tells us that the Church was a monolithic controller of all the people of the medieval age? Most of this is explained from understanding his biography. Burckhardt had distained these subjects on politics and on economics. He does paint pictures of political figures in the Italian renaissance, but understands little of their actual history, and less of the real cause of their actions. He is one of the first to place unknown actions of people into an “irrational” category of the unexplained – thus typecasting a new genre of editorial opinion piece, where biasness is demarcated by lack of knowledge and sustained as intent. Burckhardt understood little of the politics of his day, and less of the politics of the past. While saying two things at once, Burckhardt intends that the Church contributed a large effort in suppressing the people from individuality.  Crowning Charlemagne the first holy Roman Emperor was a part of this plan. The papacy prior to the late fifteenth century was controlled by families and not the pope in general. The families connected to competing factions of the Catholic Church vied for ending monarchies in other parts of Europe. But these monarchies remained too powerful and with too powerful of regional militaries. The construction I learned in high school was that the papacy had controlled all of the middle ages – the minds, the thoughts the aspirations. This now is a dismissed myth. The people wanted to live like this – the guilt of their Roman past remained a psychological extremity for centuries. When disease, plague and deplorable living conditions resulted in mass-population decline, the Crusades were proposed as the last ditch effort to save western civilization. These attempts, while some successful and other failures opened up trading routs in the east and a new hope of a better circumstance for life than living young and dying young. The prince was to suppress and/or depose the psychological manifestations of guilt. In order to do this, humanism was born from the past, which helped to describe what man is and not what he should be. Once this was understood western civilization began to better its circumstances and used the model of Roman and Greek civilizations as the tool to understand how to get back to the future. The future was always addressed as a future golden age. By the time the Renaissance is in full throttle, the discourse of “we are now living in a golden age,” became a reality. Western civilization was on the rise. The rest, as they say, is history.

Today, Classical Latin, and the Medieval ages are being studied in force – it is a new fad, yet it tells me that we are of need of understanding how to live in the medieval ages because western civilization if going in that direction. (MJM, October 12, 2008 2:12 p.m., Berkeley)

Where to start teaching about the Italian Renaissance?

  • The Ghost of Middle Ages.

  • Reviving, remembering the Roman Empire

  • Early dreams and expectations of the renaissance

Words which came into modern discourse:

Petrarch “Dark Ages,” Bruni, three distinct historical medieval ages, Biondo, “Middle ages.”

History is like seeing one’s reflection in the past and understanding one can replicate it in the future by predictable measures and dedication to the study of the past.

How Academia Ends, explains the Rise of the Middle Ages.

I intend that the common people wanted this and the rulers followed the people’s wishes.

Medieval Age Mentality

How the Medieval Age Mentality Began – By Populous consensus.

1. Justinian I (eng. a.k.a Justinian the Great) or Flavius Petrus Sabbatins Iustinianus closed down the last academia institution in 529 (The Neo-Platonic Academy of Athens, which a major part of the curriculum expounded upon Hellenism). He argued Greek Classical knowledge was dangerous. This was communicated as repressing paganism.  The medieval ages took on the concept of ‘darkness’ of acknowledgement of the past and of acknowledgement of western civilization. Communism had been argued in the twentieth century the same way –forget the past – it was evil.  St. Augustine firmed up this position in his contention of the City of Man v. the City of God. Humans of the west were bad people and they must live a tough and hard life. They must die poor in hopes of reaching salvation for their sins of racism during Roman Imperial era exhibited as a reaction during the Roman decline periods. Yet, it was the people that wanted this, not the church. Justinian spoke IIIyrian or Dacian Latin and came from a peasant background. He had understood the common people’s fears from outsiders blaming them for wreaking other people’s lives and civilizations. I intend that Justinian was following the consensus of the people because of reaction and accusation that westerners of Christianity were imperialists and that they were not following the tenants of pacifism, misinterpreted ideologies of Christianity by polemic Church critics. Therefore, the Eastern Roman Empire’s economics primarily rested upon agriculture and not conquest, trade and setting up trade colonies. Western Europe adopted this program.  Thus the Middle Age primitivism was enforced – as I intend by the wished by the people. This is why western civilization critics today do not mark the medieval age of western civilization as “evil,” in comparisons to the modern times of western civilization and the rise of it, along with its corresponding prosperity and pagan ideologies that explains western prosperity and global dominance ( now in decline as a cyclical reoccurrence).

Proto & Renaissance

2.    Ghost of ancient Rome.

After the crusades, new secret orders, the Knights Templers, and the Order of Zion, brought back knowledge and technology from Islamic scholars and technicians from the crusades – such as stone cutting technology, and all this related to business opportunities. The ruins at Rome, in which Petrarch once looked down upon and wondered about the shell of once a great civilization, began to be communicated to how it was lost. Yet, still at this time imperialism, the initial guilt was still held by the majority of people. Yet, plague and disease in association with a climate weighted heavily on the mind of new generations of people. Was idealism of singularity worth living in such uncomfortable conditions. How about fighting like the Romans had done and celebrate the human body, the passions, and the heroics and retrieve some excitement to create a heaven on earth –and the only problem was relinquishing the ghosts of the Roman past.

Francesco Petrarca

3.  Francesco Petrarca, b. 1304, Aresso – d. 1374 (Rome)? Family exiled from Aresso, grew up in Avignon, studied law, then change to recovery of classical books, awarded early papal pension; spent his life traveling to monasteries to find ancient manuscripts, then by transcribing, translating and publishing books of antiquity, he became famous even with commoners. He is accredited for beginning the renaissance project. A sentiment as well as a pro-action movement intent to recover ancient learning that had been otherwise argued against (Medieval Age sentiment as populist) and banned (Justinian I, 529 A.D.). He and Leonardo Bruni are associated with beginning of a secularism movement, called Christian Humanism (not a contradiction). Petrarch (English adoption sp.) developed the concept of “The Dark Ages” as a form of criticism against Medieval Latin, which was ‘vulgar’ in comparison to Classical Latin[3] (c. 31 BC – ~ 310 AD). Consensuses of academicians today intend Petrarch falls under the auspices of the first humanist. Petrarch’s general significance is he helped fashion a new movement to revive the Roman high-culture traditions. Petrarch ended up arguing for the merits of Julius Caesar’s imperialism (but with a Christian conviction as well) as a functioning form of progress for civilization. Christian nation building was not a contradiction. Primitive life (i.e. non expansion, meaning in these days non progressive)  His position was in contention with the normative thought of the day. Petrarch and St. Augustine’s work was his main apparatus of intellectual argument. Augustine’s ‘City of God’ and the ‘City of Man’ could be viewed as a contradiction; however, Petrarch believed both could be combined, a particular unspoken idea later adopted by Protestantism – highly personal, personally ambitions, and personally awarding lifestyle. A minority of commentators contend this view of Petrarch’s beliefs. Yet, St. Augustine’s Confessions demonstrate a confused man, so it is understandable to see Petrarch’s convictions in this perspective, as well. Petrarch, with the assistance of the Catholic Church (he received an early ecclesiastical pension and was promoted by the Church for transcribing paganistic books), brought back into public consumption knowledge of great civilizations – unbeknownst to western European primitiveness.  after Petrarch establishes a desire to reveal more of the past, the genie was out of the bottle, so to speak. Everyone jumped on the bandwagon, so to speak.

4. 1341(?) Petrarch is appointed Poet Laureate in Rome ( adorned with the Roman ritual of the laurel reef ( Robert of Anjou, examined him prior to the ritual, and he was applauded, and a celebration ensued), and this is the date most historiographer equate with the beginning of the (Italian) Renaissance proper. However, most use the rounded-off number of 1350. Some commentators have argued elements of a proto-renaissance period.

5.Petrarch went to Montpellier, and then to the University of Bologna to study law. His father wanted him to become a notary to the papacy, as he was, but Petrarch fell in love with the past.

6. At Montpellier he meets Denis who introduces him to the Order of St. Augustine, and later gives him a copy of Confessions. St. Augustine’s life will play a major role in his life, and commenter’s dispute the meanings of his arguments of man, soul and spirit. These disputes rise from journals’ he had kept with him, later called Secretum (My Secrets), and Da Vita Solitaria ( a meditation book on the arguments’ of St. Augustine and Julius Caesar’s possible understanding of rebirth into another human form who Petrarch questions what would happen if Julius came back to life and was forced or contended with Christianity?

7. In Secretum he argues St. Augustine’s book “The City of God Against the Pagans.” There is a collection of three imaginary dialogues with St. Augustine.

8. In Da Vita Solitaria he refuses some of St. Augustine’s spiritual path (and the past in relations to the medieval convictions of the people to live in poverty without expansion (meaning progression in this sense, not imperialism); he also brings up Laura, a possible real life women he had seen only once in Church but felt underneath her station to approach her. His love sonnets and poetry and writings are dedicated to the remembrance of her ( in dispute if she was actually a real person) note Dante had the same type of longing for his love goddess).

Mount Ventoux

9.   Fracesco Pertraca letter to Dionisio da Borgo San Sepolcro from is collection of Epistolae familiares of the inner and outer experiences he records on his The Ascent of Mount Ventoux  and decent and reflection of the Roman past and his current period that he considered the Dark Age (some commentators question if he really claimed the mountain) actually advocates the potentiality of imperialism as it is connected to glory, wealth, prosperity and fame and ultimately to civilization.

10. Before his reflections on the spirit and soul he reminds his readers that great figures of history had climbed mountains to figure out life and the meaning of life – or a direction of their own life, their thoughts, dreams, reflections. The mountain as a metaphor of rising above the banality to see clearly what one cannot see from the valleys and plains of the earth.

11. Mount Ventoux: This is a medium mountain where Petrarch reflects in his journals his meditational conversations with Augustine. Referenced in historiography as the Ascent of mount Ventoux, on 6 April 1336, written around 1350, which he published as his Epistolae familiares (IV, I). In this letter, Petrarch claimed to be the first since antiquity to have climbed a mountain for the view (Now discredited, German writers of the 10th – 11th cc. left records of mountain accents, Jean Buridan had made the accent in the early 14th century (Thorndike, Renaissance and Penaissance, in Journal of History and Ideas, Vol. 4 No. 1 (Jan. 1943), pp. 69-74. ), and originally (Jacob Burckhardt myth who had placed special significance to this episode, calling Petrarch, “ a receptive spirit.”) is often a part of depictions of the Renaissance ( along with his brother Gherardo, in a letter addressed to Dionigi di Borgo San Sepolcro). Some twentieth-century historiographers have doubts he claimed the mountain. At the top of the summit, Petrarch wrote that he had wasted a life of fawning for his early love Laura, and that they (also his brother) could see the Rhone and the Cévennes, but not the Pyrenees (which is 200 miles away). At this point, Petrarch writes that he had sat down and opened up St. Augustine, and immediately came upon “Men go to admire the high mountains and the great flood of the seas and the wide-rolling rivers and the ring of Ocean and the movement of the stars; and they forget themselves.” James Hillman, in his seminal work, Re-Visioning Phychology, argues that it is not the ascent of Mont Ventoux that initiated the Renaissance but the subsequent decent, wherein Petrarch finds the solution to Augustine’s dilemma. Here is how Hillman puts it:

Petrarch’s experience is called the Ascent of Mont Ventoux. But the crucial event is the decent, the return down to the valley of soul. He deliberately refused the spiritual path [ the path of the medieval ages] ( represented to him by Saint Augustine [ arguments of the ‘City of God.’)], remaining loyal to his attachments to writing, the image of Laura, and his reputation among men [he is getting quite famous] –unable to “lift up”, as he says, “the inferior parts of the soul”. This further confirmation, I believe, or our reconstruction of the psychology of the passage, of Petrarch’s experience on the mountain, and of the root of the metaphor of the Renaissance.[4]

Hillman rejects the humanistic fallacy, which conflates soul with man and nature:

Augustine and Petrarch imply three distinct terms :man, nature and soul. Man may turn outward to the mountains and plains and seas or inward to images corresponding with these, but neither those out these nor those in here are mine, or human. Renaissance psychology begins with a revelation of the independent reality of soul [actually a quasi-Burckhartian claim] – the revelation to Petrarch on Mont Ventoux of psychic reality....[T]he humanistic fallacy fails to acknowledge what Petrarch actually wrote: Soul is the marvel. It is not the return to nature from man that starts the Renaissance going, but the return to soul.”

Hillman insists that the outer world of nature is mirrored by an equally vast inner world of images. The latter is what he calls soul or psyche [this is incorrect, because psyche in this sense is linked to twentieth century psychology and St. Augustine had no idea what he was speaking about the soul in the first place or of modern 20th century psychology. When St. Augustine reflects on man’s purpose and soul, the Goths had just sacked Rome, and he had understood Decline of Roman civilization arguments. The west had become prosperous of hegemonic suppression of certain groups and populations. To cure this, Augustine reveals though his own rhetoric, is to leave materialism behind for the search of the inner soul of God, forgiveness of sins of this world, like the results of imperialism, economic outcomes ( always a part of hurting someone else) and general realities of life that humans cannot get around causing others pain and grief. To get around this St. Augustine advocates the path of least conflict. Petrarch understood the argument well. Either the primitive and negative view of man would stay the same, or by revealing the past and the arguments of the philosophers and persons, such as argued in the hero books of antiquity, humans of his time could see a different and possibly exciting opportunity that they had long rejected.] Both words exist apart from the human being [claims Hillman, but does he know what is a soul?]. The outer world may have motivated Petrarch to climb Mont Ventoux, but the inner world is what he discovered when he reached the top and read the passage from Augustine’s Confessions.[5]

Augustine’s reaction to the Gothic actions and the history of invasions as a reaction of Rome’s imperialism was the reason he argued in conceptual mysticism (really undefined and lofty terms for the concepts of what is the soul, etc....) for a return to guilt and a life of primitiveness – ‘I do not want to hurt anyone, so I will suffer’ – the exact sentiment that was adopted during the many stages of the Medieval age in large by the populations of western Europe. Petrarch fell in love with love, heroism, the adventures, and happiness he had found in these classical books, and did not want to revisit Augustine’s negativism. In fact, it can be said that Petrarch was a modern positiveist. One must remember that anonymity was the actionary program of the medieval age, and that Petrarch by this time had already garnered a name for himself. He decided and contemplated the role of hero of his time and the anonymity of the past normative conviction. while kings and princes and even knight made names for themselves during the medieval times, it was the going conviction that negative images of the self help sustain one from hurting others – the main reason the prideful and boastful Romans cared little of the groups and people they had conquered and assimilated by forcing them either to adopt Roman culture of be punished – which really did not last long. Jacob Burckhardt describes men’s need to be worshiped, adored and to attain fame (so do many other writers over all of history). This was a negative to Burckhardt, but it also describes an individual in comparison to a group disposition of anonymity. Petrarch by the end of his life was a living rock-star (if we can make the worship aspect a comparison).

12. Ascent of Mont Ventoux:  “To-day I made the ascent of the highest mountain in this region, which is not improperly called Ventosum. My only motive was the wish to see what so great an elevation had to offer. I have had the expedition in mind for many years; for, as you know, I have lived in this region from infancy, having been cast here by that fate which determines the affairs of men. Consequently the mountain, which is visible from a great distance, was ever before my eyes, and I conceived the plan of some time doing what I have at last accomplished to-day. The idea took hold upon me with especial force when, in re-reading Livy's History of Rome, yesterday, I happened upon the place where Philip of Macedon, the same who waged war against the Romans, ascended Mount Haemus in Thessaly, from whose summit he was able, it is said, to see two seas, the Adriatic and the Euxine. Whether this be true or false I have not been able to determine, for the mountain is too far away, and writers disagree. Pomponius Mela, the cosmographer - not to mention others who have spoken of this occurrence - admits its truth without hesitation; Titus Livius, on the other hand, considers it false. I, assuredly, should not have left the question long in doubt, had that mountain been as easy to explore as this one. Let us leave this matter one side, however, and return to my mountain here, - it seems to me that a young man in private life may well be excused for attempting what an aged king could undertake without arousing criticism.”[6]

13. This passage is linked to a discussion of inner soul, but it is a entendre about western European society in general, as Petrarch elucidates about Justinian’s and Augustine’s place for man: “Nothing, assuredly, except that thou wouldst take a path which seems, at first thought, more easy, leading through low and worldly pleasures. But nevertheless in the end, after long wanderings, thou must perforce either climb the steeper path, under the burden of tasks foolishly deferred, to its blessed culmination, or lie down in the valley of thy sins, and (I shudder to think of it!)” [7] Petrarch, although telling a friend that this is an inner struggle of his sprit and soul, is actually debating the medieval idea of easy, primitive and base forms of existence. Sex, in the medieval age, was not (as Burckhardt intended) ruled over by the Catholic Church. Sex in peasant communities, as with the periods in comparison in Japanese medieval ages of peasant communities, was less regulated by law, freer and more open than the aristocracy – which had been stringently organized to whom could date whom. The deal to live in poverty, communally, and non-combatively was sold with free love and peace and love concepts. While these seem simple and plain in morality, still the price of keeping knowledge from the European population was this price. Petrarch living in a college town, and in southern France, would have many opportunities to gain these vices – even though St. Augustine links then to sins and vice, the majority of the population used peace and love as their main form of entertainment. In this letter, Petrarch sees this lifestyle as rather bland, uneventful, monotonous, and ponders the grandeur of the Roman adventures he had been reading.

15. It was for Laura (Laura deNoves ) which Petrarch wrote the Canzoniere.

Leonardo Bruni

17. Leonardo Bruni: (b. Aresso in 1369; d. Florence, 9th March, 1444) a.k.a. as Aretino, he studied law, and he will later study under the patronage of Salutato and under the influence of Greek scholar Chrysoloras, before turning his attention toward to the study of classics ( he is also considered a humanist). He is sometimes called the first modem historian.  Leonardo Bruni was remembered for reviving classical literature and historical works, but one great comment he became famous for intended “Florence was the new Rome.” He had moved between Rome and Florence under different employments before the deposition of John XXIII suggested the chancellorship of Florence, where Bruni spent the rest of his life writing on various subjects – and particularly a Latin history of Florence, called “Historiarium Florentinarum (Libri XII)” (eng. History of the Florentine People).  In this work he intends that Florence was the New Rome. This view was later promoted by Flavio Biondo in similar fashion of his treatise called, Rome Triumphant.  It was not that Florence was the new Rome; it is that people began to see a possibility of reviving the past as reflection of Roman high-culture-excellence. Bruni also used the word, studia humanitatis, meaning the study of human endeavors. Oxford University during Henry VIII’s period (early – mid sixteenth century) would create sub-colleges and promote studia humanitatis.  One of the first academic results for this educational system turned out the Humanist scholar Thomas More. Further into the renaissance, de’ Medici had developed studia humanitatis: Rhetoric, Grammar, primarily Latin, History, and Poetry, and moral philosophy, and these five primary disciples. Lorenzo the Magnificent started a circle of friends and an archive library to address the foundations of studia humanitatis; although Cosimo had initially understood and begun to promote a need to bring back classical literature into western civilization – and along with the Florentine Chancellor Bruni.

Capitoline Hill

Capitol Hill in Rome (1341).

  1. Robert of Anjou, known as Robert the Wise (Italian: Roberto il Saggio, 1277 – 20 January 1343) was King of Naples from 1309 to 1343. He was also Duke of Calabria (1296–1309), titular King of Jerusalem, and Count of Provence and Forcalquier (1309–43). He was remembered by Petrarch and Boccaccio as a cultured man and a generous patron of the arts. The former asked to be examined by Robert before his being crowned as poet in the Capitol Hill in Rome (1341).[8] This traditional Roman republic ritual has been said to mark the point of the Italian Renaissance. Previously, on the, Capitoline hill of Rome, Petrarch wrote  on his life experiences that he had claimed the hill and looked down upon the ruins of ancient Rome, and pondered the possibilities of reviving the past glory of Roman civilization. In Roman tradition, the cite was of “Romulus’ Rome,” and each peak concentrated to a Roman panthonic deity: “Temple of Juno Moneta, the northern peak; the Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus on the southern crest” and this temple was the largest temple in central Italy.[9]

  2. Capitoline Hill allowed one to see from a vantage point of the ancient Roman ruins, which had inspirited Petrarch.  The land below would also be the location that, Raphael, Michelangelo (Trajan’s market place, rustification), and many other artists and architects of the Italian renaissance came to study Roman architecture.
  3. “Between the Esquiline and the Caelian, the end of the Forum valley is filled by the Colosseum and the Arch of Constantine, with the Palatine edging down from the north. After the fire of ad 64 had destroyed so much of the city, Nero undertook to rebuild the end of it—200 acres (81 hectares)—as a palace for himself.”[10] Hadrian erected his Temple of Venus and Rome [...]. Trajan built magnificent baths—also with free admission—atop the domestic wing of the Golden House; and Domitian converted the portico on the edge of the Forum into Rome’s smartest shopping street. The land once housed Nero’s incredible palace. The Colosseum was erected for free entertainment, replete with an artificial lake.”[11]
  4. The removal was so complete that later Romans could not remember where the Golden House had stood. When the domestic wing was discovered under Trajan’s Baths in the 15th century, the rooms painted in the Pompeiian style were thought to be decorated grottoes. Some years later, when Raphael and his friends were let down on ropes to look, the style they imitated in decorating the Vatican loggias was called grottesche.” [12]
  5. The Colosseum that replaced Nero’s lake is more correctly called the Flavian Amphitheatre. It was begun by Vespasian and inaugurated by Titus in ad 80. The oval stadium measures one-third of a mile around, with external dimensions of 615 by 415 feet. The 160-foot facade has three superimposed series of 80 arches and an attic story. The attached columns follow the order applied on the Theatre of Marcellus (13 BC): sturdy, unadorned Doric on the ground floor, more elegant Ionic next, and luxuriant Corinthian on top. The attic story bore corbels supporting masts from which royal sailors manipulated awnings to protect the 50,000 seats from the sun during the gladiatorial contests, combats with wild animals, sham battles, and, when the arena was flooded, naval displays. The main structural framework and facade are travertine, the secondary walls of volcanic tufa, the inner bowl and the arcade vaults of concrete. Until Pius VIII (reigned 1829–30) began conserving what was left, it had been a convenient quarry for 1,000 years.” [13]
  6. “The palace of the municipal councillors, the conservatori, is on the south side of the square opposite the Palazzo del Museo Capitolino (Capitoline Palace), which, as a papal collection of Classical works offered back to the citizens of Rome by Sixtus IV in 1471.” [14]
  7. “The seat of Roman government, the Capitoline is little changed from Michelangelo’s design and represents one of the earliest examples of modern town planning. The centrepiece of this piazza of three palaces is a bronze equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius, which stood unmolested for ages by the barracks of the imperial guard (later the Palazzo del Laterano) because it was believed to be a statue of Constantine, the first Christian emperor. The Palazzo Senatorio incorporates remains of the facade of the Tabularium, a state-records office constructed in 78 bc and one of the first buildings to use concrete vaulting and employ the arch with the Classical architectural orders. After a popular uprising in 1143, a palace was built on the site for the revived 56-member Senate, supposedly elected by the people but by 1358 a body of one appointed by the pope; when it was rebuilt to Michelangelo’s design, it was called the Palazzo Senatorio (Senate Palace).” [15]

18. Latin: Vaticanus Mons, the Vatican Hill was the name given to one of the hills long before Christianity, and is said to have been the site of the early Etruscan town called “Vaticum,” in early 1st century. It is one of the hills on the side of the Tiber River opposite the traditional seven hills of Rome.

19.“The ancient Capitoline Hill, redeveloped as the symbolic center of Roman government following the sixteenth century design of Michelangelo’s [ Piazza del ] Campidoglio, constitutes yet another node of power in this most polycentric of cities.[16]

20. Piazza del Campidoglio, built by Michelangelo between c. 1538 ~ 1560, is a plaza, piazza, with an urban open space, and stairway. It is made of masonry, has an eclipitical courtyard iwth a central figure sculpture. At the top are the “Cordonata” steps, also by Michelangelo. After Michelangelo was called up by Julius II and finished his projects, and after Pope Paul III (Farnese) began to rule as pontiff, this pope decided to reshape the Capitoline Hill into a monumental civic piazza. It is argued that this is one of the outstanding architectural achievements and/or contributions to architecture in urban planning history. The city had been the center of worship for the Roman god Jupiter during the Roman Empire era. The piazza contains an observatory, government offices, and built with gigantic Corinthian orders that ties together two stories of the Palazzo dei Conservatori. Ionic columns on each side of the loggia and each side of the second story window. It represented the revival of Roman Imperialism, not in a military sense, but in its architecture grandeur.

Siena Breakout

22. Siena: (1320-1340) is argued by commentators as one of the first Italian Republican-City State to break out of the medieval fold and to engage the renaissance. However, this is romanticized.  Piazza de Campo, (contracted. 1335-1344) still is considered a remarkable achievement and attests to the new found wealth of this Tuscan city. It housed the Palazzo Pubblià, the Podestà and the nine signori.  Renaissance in Siena, one of the first early manifestations (1320-1340) of the early Renaissance demonstrated this new consciousness on Good Government. Romanticized, during the opening of the fourteenth century Florence had militarily gained access to the sea, opening up vital trade and business opportunities, in which at times Siena was under its control. Good, in this sense, equated prosperity for Florentine satellite republican-city-states. During the medieval ages, posterity meant that one or a group of a civilization was hurting others, taking advantage of them, dominating their economics and cultures. There was a point in the medieval ages that people stopped seeing expansion (communicated as progression, not the left’s progression of undermining one ethnicity to raise another) as ’Good.’ Temperance, justice and classical ideas were all but qualified because of the unity of ethnic groups that made up these little flourishing republican-city-states. In contrast, the old Venetian Empire was metropolitan, more authoritative, less republic (is considered a quasi-republican), because of its connections to international bodies of people who came to the city from around the world to work for their ethnic peoples on the docks and ship-yards. Venice was an old shipping empire, and autonomy was preferred method of social understanding. Autonomy was not preferred in the republican-city-states. When these states began, their populations were small. By the 14th century, Florence held the largest population of the Tuscan Republican –city states.  Giovanni Vallini, a statistical chronicler of Florence (c. 14th century) cited a population of 94,000 (close to 100,000 pop.). Yet this was not the norm. Republican-city-states were more ethnically pure, and tended to this sentiment.

23.When Leonardo Bruni claimed Florence was the new Rome, he may have understood of its conquest of small Tuscan towns, which later were built in the model of the new republican-city-state of Florence.

24. Siena: 1300-1320: new founded wealth (114 men become taxation supervisors?). Ambrogio (Italian Painter) Lorenzetti, Allegories of Good Government, painted in Siena (c 1348). These are frescos on the wall of peace in the Palazzo Pubblico of Siena (illust., good gov., bad., gov.).

25.The Renaissance Project: Both the Church and the Secular Aspects of Italian currents had understood that they were in the midst of a rebirth of civilization project. A certain character developed of civic pride which some historiographers intend that a unique consciousness arose out of the character development of republican-city-states – limitedly modeled on Plato’s republic population numbers and his state construction.

26.Two adjoining causes: the rebirth of literacy and the classics that embedded socio-economic-political schemes on how to run a state, and a weakening of regional overlordship. What were some of the effects from these two adjoining causes?

  • Urbanization developed.

  • Local urban constitutions developed.

  • Private countryside ownership developed.

  • To run a legislation, grammar schools developed ( first merchants and nobles who could afford them

  • A need for humanists, as teachers, fostered by the Catholic Church (a.k.a. Latin Church).

  • Republics: (over 200 of these places, developed different but all had local urban constitutions)

  • City population grew out of deep sense of a growing pride.

  • Ministers: the minister of war, minister of this and that.

Siena Government

27. Siena Government ( c. 1330s-1340s)

a.   Signoria: nine priors, each of these priors was elected for two months.

b. Buonuomini: (The twelve priors) they were elected for Three month terms.

c. Gontalonieri: 16 other people made up this group, and they were elected for four month terms.

d.  Judges: Under all of these were 15 judges.

e. Chancellor: Could hold power for a 10-15 years – they were not necessarily appointed with a set term, they get elected for their prior service.

28.21 guilds in late 14th century; potential for 5,000 office holders – the guilds were the vehicle to get into office – all the governing classes came from them and everyone had to deal with them.

Northern Italy

29.Northern Italy (Where the Italian Renaissance first takes place) was in between two powers. Holy Roman Empire to the north and the weakened Papal states to the south.   During the 14th century, the absence of papal power ( in Avignon), and of the Holy Roman Empire weakened each other allowing the Italian city states to rise in wealth and power. So little constitutions, city-state-republicans that elect town councils arose, like legislators – but each city-state represented a variety, a different and detailed governmental system, yet all self governing of the people and with judges). After a while a competition arose for the control of the countryside, the agriculture areas that supplied each city-state with food, but as a unity they had understood that they as a whole were unique. Plato suggests 5,000 as the unit number for the population as the opulent figure for a working government of a republic. This small number suggests that each individual could take part in civics of the city. These also meant potential offices for a town’s government of and by the people contained 5,000 positions.

30.Approximately 200-250 small towns to cities, republican constitutions, all different, but in conceptually mannered after republicanism.

31. Piazza (Public Square) was a central space, in which Italian towns were built around, in an ever expanding circumference of civic life.  The Piazza demarked the space associated to the control of the government. Usually the public space was formed in an outline of that of a rectangle; one side housed the town council building. The square, as it was called, was the political center, where trade transactions described the interchange of the public and classes. The Signori (Signore, as singular), head of the town council, ruled the square’s day-to-day operations. The Podestà, had a castle out on the parameter of the town’s boundaries. Surrounding the Podestà’s castle were the patrician families, who protected him. The peasants lived in the countryside, and by the fourteenth century, walls were beginning to be erected around the town’s perimeters.  They eventually became barriers between the countryside and the civic and residential areas. By the time of Leonardo da Vinci, he had proposed ‘starshaped’ fortress walls, as to allow a cannon ball to ricochet off the angular shape of the barrier increasing theses fortresses’ defenses. This explains why Francis I (r. 1515-) had called upon da Vinci to live and work in France.  Urbanization in the countryside and expanding out from the Piazza, increasingly, and towns grew in size and population. This gave the original center of the town a dignified purpose. It was where political communication commenced between the people, as well. Whoever had controlled the Piazza, it was recorded as commentary for civil unrest and political competition, had controlled the government of the town.

32. The Palazzo Pubblico is where the new common rulers (the people) kept public funds, thus for defense purposes, charity, community needs and public health. The public building, the centerpiece of the republic, was not only the symbol of the rule of the common.  It was also a place where studying the past helped plan for a better future.

33. 13th-14th centuries: Siena (exmp.) paintings Palazzo Pubblico (palace of the city), they give rise to towns stability. They are part of the rise of the public political body – these building are for public funds. By the 14th century, the citizens had taken over the civic administration – they had took it away from the bishops who were the controllers of towns pre- 14th century. This is history in a broad brush, so this is a qualified broad example. Basically, two building existed next to each other or down the block; they were the Bishops’ residence and office and the civic public administration building.  Also, the republican city-states had judges and notaries in these republic politics. Judges were learned men, notaries wrote up the charters, the taxes, and the executive paperwork. Notaries had to know Latin (the emerging lingua) if one wanted to work for the church or for a prince or for a merchant.

34. Town councils arose at the behest of the people to govern themselves as an emerging city, connected to a supplying countryside (circa. 14th c.). The main business was trade, and a specialty trade revolved around a guild (a type of union) where most of the people worked and lived in proximity. These guilds offered the chance for the common to rise in station or important citizen status. Some commentators see this period as the beginning of the individual – the commoner to citizen importance, and to commoner wealth – a position restricted during the medieval ages by laws of birth and precedence.

35. At the head of the town council was the Podestà. A Podestà, sometimes elected or brought in from the other towns – thus having no emotional connections -- acted as the arbitrator of contending preferences.

36. Towns identified independently from one another –corresponded to the rise of the individual: Venice, Genoa, Florence, Parma, Modena, Siena, (Siena) Pisa, Tourane, Piiva, Piachennsa.

37. When competing towns vied for control of countryside food production (and where they had battles), two distinct factions grew out of these contentions. The Gulfs and the Ghibblins. The Podestà’s main role was to check against this civil strife.

Ghosts of antiquity

Ghosts of antiquity, the rebirth of something, what you need to figure out was what had died; it was much of the greatness of Roman Empire, economic unity, military, and Roman government.

  • Francesco Petrarca

  • Leonardo Bruni

Francesco Petrarca

Francesco Petrarca (b. 20 July 1304, Aresso – d. 27 June 1374 (rome?)): Italian scholar.  Petrarch’s family had been exiled from Italy for being on the wrong political side and grew up at the papal court at Avignon, France where he gave up his fathers ambitions to become a lawyer to take to his passion of classical studies. Awarded early in his youth by the papal appreciative gaining an early pension, he spent his life digging out of monasteries ancient manuscripts transcribing, translating and publishing books of antiquity. In advertently, as with Leonardo Bruni, he is associated with beginning of a secularism movement. However, both championed Christianity, both remained supported by the Catholic Church, and both spoken of as connected to the period of Christian Humanism.

Petrarch (English adoption sp.) developed the concept of “The Dark Ages” as a form of criticism against Medieval Latin, which was ‘vulgar’ in comparison to Classical Latin[17] (c. 31 BC – ~ 310 AD). Petrarch read previous scholastic commentaries comparing contemporary Europeans with ancient Romans and Greeks who had reached a stage of cultural development unknown to the medieval Europeans. Theodore E Mommsen cites one such medieval reflection: "Amidst the errors there shone forth men of genius, no less keen were their eyes, although they were surrounded by darkness and dense gloom." [18]

Petrarch, although exiled like Dante from Italy, received a papal pension at an early age (appx. 22-25? yld.), and this helps explain the expenses for private and dedicated study to transcribing, translating, and promoting Classical Latin – back into western civilization. By the end of Petrarch’s life, even illiterate townsfolk were discussing the ancient Romans, told to them orally by a new set of academics which will be later called humanists.  Consensuses of academicians today intend Petrarch falls under the auspices of the first humanist (e.g. if we are speaking specifically of the Italian renaissance). Petrarch’s general significance is he helped fashion a new movement to revive the Roman high-culture traditions, at least in literary form – but later as this idea catches on it will become desired that all aspects of higher Roman culture, including art, architecture, mathematics, philosophy, etc.. to be recoverable by renaissance projects for the west.  Untimely to understand the condition, the emerging knowledge that was uncovered opened the floodgates of a novelty of unique expression.  As for contention in historiography, Petrarch ended up arguing for the merits of Julius Caesar’s imperialism as a functioning form of progress for civilization. His position was in contention with the normative thought of the day, that all sub-periods of Roman Imperialism was the wrong course of action for a civilization, city or people. In relevancy, the Reformation movement of the sixteenth and seventeenth century accused the Catholic Church of causing their entire problem associated with the dark ages. However, Petrarch never blamed Christianity. Quite the contrary, he championed it – thus he never attacked the Church’s ideals on Christianity. In addition it was the church that funded his secular scholastic quests. Protestants did not understand this or even know about it.   Later Protestants would attack the Catholic Church over doctrine. I intend, as is empirically evident, many came on board to the Protestant movement who were actually agnostics and atheists – because Protestantism offered personal accountability away from Church oversight or community oversight of living the way of pacifism, love and community. The Catholic Church offered communal oversight and family obligation. The changed incorporated a private sphere of non community involvement and oversight -- A protestant could communicate that they were religious, and at the same time claim God was a private matter – dismissing altogether any commitment to religious activities or questioning. Protestantism is secularism in concept and allows a loose association with God of the New Testament scriptures.  Petrarch with his contention to the continuance of the separation between Augustine’s ‘City of God’ and the ‘City of Man’ could be viewed as a contradiction; however, Petrarch believed both could be combined, a particular unspoken idea later adopted by Protestantism – highly personal, personally ambitions, and personally awarding lifestyle. The Catholic Church during the medieval age were following the larger population desires of communal peace and communal accountability – the community acted as a check and balance system so no one could become a despot. Generally, the Medieval populations of Europe championed anonymous and pacifisms to the best of their abilities (F. Engels  & Karl Marx’s excellent medieval observations). When Protestantism arose, it associated itself with secularisms, and aggression of personal interest and personal fame (i.e Jacob Burckhardt, Machiavelli’s observation on the rise of militancy and the new individualism of aspiring for personal fame and glory without moral adjoiners). Petrarch spent his later life in Italy where he was crowned with the ritual of the Roman reef on the steps of the ( place) Rome. This was a honorary traditional Roman Republic ritual, and repeated as such to represent the return of antiquity.

Petrarch developed the idea of the sonnet (sonetta, It. “little song”). Shakespeare wrote 154 sonnets, thus employers of this the convention are called sonneteers.

Leonardo Bruni: (b. Aresso in 1369; d. Florence, 9th March, 1444) a.k.a. Aretino he studied law, later studying under the patronage of Salutato and under the influence of Greek scholar Chrysoloras, before turning his attention toward to the study of classics ( he is also considered a humanist). He is sometimes called the first modem historian.  He moved between Rome and Florence under different employments before the deposition of John XXIII suggested the chancellorship of Florence, where Bruni spent the rest of his life writing on various subjects – and particularly a Latin history of Florence, called “Historiarium Florentinarum (Libri XII)” (eng. History of the Florentine People).  He also is the author of Italian biographies on Dante and Petrarch, and wrote considerably on topics of Hellenistic antiquity – the ancient ideas of the prior Greek city-states and the later pan-Hellenism? He did this by translating out of Greek and into Latin many Greek works. He translated Plato, Aristotle, Plutarch, Demosthenes and Æschines into Latin. He also wrote Latin biographies on Cicero and Aristotle. Bruni’s significance also lays in his communications of ideas. He intends that ‘Florence was the new Rome.’ this view was later promoted by Flavio Biondo in similar fashion of his treatise called, Rome Triumphant.  It was not that Florence was the new Rome, it is that people began to see a possibility of reviving the past as reflection of Roman high-cultural excellence ( hence the connotations to a plethora of conceptual terminology: rebirth, renewal, refashion, revive, etc...). This gave people inspiration – the more they heard these oralists communicate these writings onto the street level, the more the commoner desired the past and wanted to learn to read and write. Yet, still education was not a public function at this time, and things developed slowly – however the Ghost was out of the box and desired filled the imagination and offered a new hope of bettering one’s conditions.

Categorizing explanations for pedagogical purposes: How do we teach the people to understand our collective past?

  1. Bruni offered a solution. Knowing Petrarch’s conception of the Dark age [not pl.], borrowed from earlier reflections of medieval culture comparisons to knowledge of the past, a further taxonomic division came into popular discourse. The Dark Age became a plurality of segmentations of periods later as these issues of categorization were argued by later interests. Bruni demarcated the fall of Rome, the intermittent period of the Dark Age and the modern age ( his conception of modernity).

  2. Bruni also used the word, studia humanitatis, meaning the study of human endeavors (also interpretation of the critical criteria is still in contention, it is a general conception of the field of humanism, where the field of humanities comes from).  Humanities differs from Social Science for many reasons, one of the simplest ways to differentiate it, is the practice of rhetoric (i.e. the art of oral and literary persuasion, frowned upon today in many western academic institutions for its potential epistemic  dominance).

  3. His original work also included “Commentarius Rerum Suo Tempore Gestarum”; “De Romae Origine”; “De Bello Italico Adversus Gothos”; and ten volumes of letters, “Epistolae Familiares.” Bruni wrote not only on ancient culture, but ancient economics as well Without the Crusades and the opening up of trade with the middle east region(s), the merchant class could not have funded the beginning of the Italian renaissance – it which cannot be communicated to the cause without understanding this historical development.

Flavio Biondo

Flavio Biondo (1392-4 June 1463) coined the term Middle Ages, after understanding Bruni’s conception of the three ages, and Petrarch’s understanding (which came from sentiments of the common) of the Dark Ages. (Latin,  Flavius Blondus) He represented one of the early Renaissance humanist historians. At Milan, before moving onto Rome in 1433 (he traveled extensively at least in eighteen Italian provinces), he had found a rare Cicero dialogue and translated Brutus. When he moved to Rome he began a writing career. Over his life he produced a three-volume encyclopedia of topography of ancient Rome (among other more celebrated works). This helped give the later emerging humanists an idea of the geographical past. This work was his first success called De Roma instaturata (Rome Restored, 3 vols., 1444-1446). His next success was De Roma Triumphante (Rome Triumphant, (1459), which professed these merits of a Roman paganistic past, and issued it as a model for contemporary government and military reform ( actually Petrarch’s intentions of military reform which he intended was needed to bring a new Roman civilization back into contemporary society, see his argument of his transcriptions and translation commentaries on Julius Caesar’s writings). Rome Triumphant did its part in evoking a type of patriotic sentiment ( if we can use that word here) and a respect for the classical past of Rome. Biondo’s greatest works were Italia Illustrata ( as mentioned above, based upon Biondo’s personal travels, it was a geography of ancient Rome, he had covered in his travels eighteen Italian provinces – he had rested upon the whole of Italy and not its parts – thus communicating knowledge that Italy was once a large geographical place during the Roman times.) (Italy Illuminated), written between 1448 and 1458, published in 1474, and the Historiarum ab inclinatione Romanorum imperii decades ( Decades of History from the Deterioration of the Roman Empire, written from 1439 to 1453(years of the end of the Eastern Roman Empire, Ottomans / Constantinople conquered), published in 1483). Biondo’s greatest work is the Historiarum ab Inclinatione Romanorum Imperii (Venice, 1483). Its model was the history of Europe in three ages ( Bruni’s conception), but more importantly a start of the fourth.[19] The first geography begins with the Roman Republic and Empire, through 400 years of barbarian invasions and an analysis of Charlemagne and later Holy Roman Emperors. He also gives emphasis to humanist revival and restoration of the classical works of antiquity.

Ascetic Symbols of Power

Ascetic: Romans for 500 years had copied the Greek sculpture, so this was a renaissance for the Romans. Yes, they had their own renaissance.

  1. rebirth of civilization project.

  2. Florentines fell in love with the Roman Republic period, not the Roman Imperial Age.

  3. Republics: (over 200 of these places 1350s - 1450s, local urban constitutions); by 1500s this number dwindles to about a dozen. The republicans are being taken over by quasi-republic empires. Most republican city states are in northern Italy.

  4. Venice, an island in north east Italy, economically built itself up from a ship-building empire, a type of a proto-production line, merchants became wealthy, and Venice was never a republican-city-state from the beginning, it was a quasi-republican empire.

  5. Plato suggests 5,000 as the unit number for the population or as the opulent figure for a working government of a republic.

  6. A certain character developed of civic pride.

    1. Urbanization developed.

    2. Local urban constitutions developed.

    3. Private countryside ownership developed.

  7. To run a legislator, grammar schools developed.

  8. A need for humanists, as teachers, fostered by the Catholic Church.

  9. Militaries are a must to a state, the idea that militaries must come back as protectors of the western civilization. Ministers: the minister of war, minister of this and that.

  10. Towns identified independently from one another –corresponded to the rise of the individual: Venice, Genoa, Florence, Parma, Modena, Siena, ( Siena) Pisa, Tourane, Piiva, Piachennsa,

  11. The head of the town council was the Podestà.

  12. Palazzo pubblico. (palace of the city), the main civic building, had many functions, one holding the funds in case of war.

  13. Siena: 1300-1320: new founded wealth (114 -15 men are employed as taxation supervisors). Crusades opened the door for trade which brought wealth.

  14. Ambragio Lorenzetti (Italian Painter), Allegories of Good Government, painted in Siena’s Palazzo Pubblico’s Hall of Peace/ or .... (c 1348). It communicated thought its artistic symbolism to the common people how good government should look when running smoothly.

  15. Renaissance in Siena, one of the first early manifestations (1320-1340) of the early Renaissance.

  16. Florence (The Center of the Renaissance, because they kept so many records of daily life and employed some of the greatest artistic minds of this time.) Without the records, Florence would not be known as the center of the renaissance.

Giovanni Villani Chronicler, (pre-statistician), historian, banker

  1. Giovanni Villani, (before b. 1277| some say c. 1276 or 1280 - d. 1348) chronicler of Florence. He wrote Nuova Cronica (New chronicles) of the history of Florence. He calls Giotto a master, someone to study, and introduced statistics of government and society of Florence. In 1300 he became a member of the banking guild. Villani was a Guelph and valued republicanism over monarchy. Giovanni links past events to present events with and understanding of patter repetition –both intending secular and divine intervention of historical events. Villani is important to Italian Renaissance history because he, as I intend, gives us the proto-empirical evidence the rise of individualist thinking – yet still on a group scale. He details the first split into political parties of Italy which helps explain later the Italian warring republics vying for control of over towns and cities. Paul Hasall in his commentaries on Villani’s Florentine chronicle explains the possible origins of the two factions the Guelfs and the Ghibellines around the thirteenth century. There were powerful families. One in Germany and then there were the Roman papal families in Italian cities around Rome and in Rome. Villani speaks of two powerful families in the twelfth century in competition. This gives of a sense of regional conflict (Hasall uses the word international, but carefully.) One of them was the Hohenstaufen family, and they inhabited the castle, their home base of government, called the “Waiblingen.” This was possilby associated to the later term Ghibellines through an association to the battle cry, Waiblingen, the same name of the castle.  At a time, Frederick II, Hohenstaufen emperor (d. 1215) had been seen by some, including the papacy, as unchristian. The Popes were determined to obliterate the Hohenstauten, in which they did. However, this struggle began to take on an international dimension.[20] This helps to describe Florence’s origins ( and Italy itself) of their two parties, the Guelfs and the Ghibellines. The Guelfs supported the papacy ( who at this time supported the republican way), the merchants, and the commons ( a general an uncomplex view, but always more complex), while the Ghibellines supported the aristocracy, monarchy, and the Holy Roman Empire. However, as complex, the aristocracy or nobles in the republican city states initially controlled the guilds. This would change, meaning the roles changed and powerful citizens who were merchants would take over the aristocracy, while the common fought against the new citizen magnets (demonstrated in the later part of the fifteenth century in Florence).

  2. The parties were more of a reflection of famile relationships than ideological, Hasall intends. I intend to see the seeds of the Protestant and Catholic break, as a reflection more about geography (and its economic possibilities) than over paganism verses religious orthodoxy. In the 1378 Ciompi revolt ( Wool-trader revolt), the Geulfs rose up against the aristocracy. The aristocracy would align themselves with monarchies, thus in the Italian Renaissance, first France, and later Spain ( before that it was German families or the papal families. The peoples on the other hand, according to Burckhardt, were trying to destroy the aristocracy (in this sense either first the Hohenstauten emperor castle, and later France and Spain as they rose. Only during Pope Sixtus IV (1471-84), the first pope to change this trajectory (now the popes take on an aristocratic program to consolidate power in Rome, usually attributed to Julius II. However, I intend, because of vote buying and bribing, and the rise of Savonarola, at the behest of the Florentine common, empirically sees that middle Italy (Rome) has taken on an ideology of aristocracy). Sixtus IV will be the first pope to control Rome after its return. Next Pope Innocent VIII will began serious paganistic measures, such as allowing criminals to pay for crimes instead of imprisonment – if they happen to have wealth.

  1. Ciompi revolt: (1378) a famous revolt because it was referenced by Karl Marx who cited its importance as the start of modernity.

Florence Italy

Florence, in contrary to romantic historiography, was the first model of the republic. After Florence’s example, the Tuscany breakout of the republican-city-state ideology spread to Siena, Pistorja, and Lucca ( then &c.).

Brief and incomplete political Chronology of Florence

Circa 1250 the Podestà, the capitano of the people (Podestà means power). Guelfs promulgated a new constitution. A new magistrate was created beside the Podestà. Next Florentines organized into minor arti (corporate trade groups of the popolo minuto). In 1300, Guelfs split into Black and Whites over how Guelfism [spelt Geulphs, but not in this encyclopedic entry which has Marx didactic language, as well] should be expressed (Black intransigent, Whites somewhat moderate) and over independence of the Angenvins and the popes. Whites first held a series of priorships, to which Dante belonged. The Blacks seized power with the support of Bonoface VIII and banished the White leaders [Petrarch and Dante’s families were banished from their homes in Italy over these political factional struggles]. Dante died in exile in Ravenna (1321). Then the split as Emperor Henry VII died. Florence set out and took Pistoria, Aresso, Cortuna and Siena. The stopped conquest by Pisa in a contest for the possession of Lucca proved the limits of the cities conquests. Then the great backing system of Preuzzi and Bardi failed. Walter of Brienne (Duke of Athens) accepted the rule of the city. He was expelled in 1343 after a year of misrule. The war of “eight Saints” (1375) was fought against the papal legate William of Woellet (d. 1394), who attempted to take Florence. Afterward party conflict raged stronger in the city. In 1378 the proletariat [actually day-laborers] of workers (Ciompi), excluded from corporate rights and rules, seized power, making Michel di Lando gonfalonier. Democratic [as unqualified definition here] rule lasted to 1382, when the oligarchy was restored under Maso degli Albizi. Capture of Pisa (1406) and Leghorn (1421) gave Florence access to the sea [this was a means to access trade ships and commerce, a vital understanding to the next events of Florence]. The Medici: The rule of the Albizi lasted until Cosimo de’ Medici, a shrewd politician and rich merchant [wool-trade/industry of fine and desired textile of France] replaced it in (1413), founding a dynasty [a qualified statement] that reached its peak under his grandson, Lorenzo the Magnificent [de’Medici] (1469-92) [Piero exiled by Savonarola]. The aspirations of the Oligarchs out of power exploded in the Pazzi revolt, to which Lorenzo’s brother Guiliano fell victim, but Lorenzo survived and consolidated his hold on the people. Not only did he rule well, assuring external peace with painstaking alliances, but he fostered internal growth, under him Florence attained its economic, artistic, and its intellectual peak of the renaissance. He was surrounded with humanist geniuses.: Poliziano Pico [The areation of man] Della Miranbola, Marsilio Ficino, the Camaldolese theologian and humanist Ambrogio Travarsari (1386-1439), and others. In his [ Lorenzo’s] Biblioteca Laurenziana, he collected codices of Greek and Latin classics. Great artists worked for him. Michelangelo was raised in his house. At the time of his death, Girolamo Savonarola was denouncing the corruption of the morals of the new age [paganism]. Savonarola obtained the expulsion of Piero, Lorenzo’s son who ceded [because he was a weak leader according to  Francesco Guicciardini, “The History of Florence and History of Italy,” (Italian: Storie fiorentine (1508-1510)] Florentine land to Charles VIII of France, and he established a Christian Republic that was intended to be the center of disciplinary reform of the Church [ Rome and the papacy was in shambles, and in a form of beginning of imperialism based possibly on paganistic Roman ideas]. The Oligarchy reacted, however, and the friar’s dream vanished with him on the pyre (1498) [ a four-year rule]. After a brief out of power, the Medici returned in 1512, protected by two Medici popes, Leo X and Clement VII. In 1530 the republic came to an end falling to a siege by Charles V. It became a ducal dynasty, but no real power. It lasted until 1713 and was replaced by François II of Loraine. Except for the Napoleon period (1801-14), the Loraine dynasty ruled until 1859.[21]

Council of Florence or Council of Ferrara-Florence (1438–45), An ecumenical council held successively in Ferrara (1438–9), Florence (1439–42), and Rome (1442–5). The purpose of the Council was to reunify the Byzantine Church in the east with the Roman Church in the west. The Greek delegates invited to the Council of Basel had pleaded for a more convenient venue; most delegates were opposed to a change, but Pope Eugenius IV decided to convoke a new council in Ferrara, which opened on 8 January 1438.

The Byzantine delegation was led by the emperor, John VIII Palaiologos, and its theologians and scholars included Bessarion and Pletho; the leading theologian in the Roman delegation was Cardinal Cesarini. The pope declared himself unable to bear the costs of the Council; the city of Florence offered to finance the Council, which transferred on 26 February 1439 to Florence.

There were four main theological points at issue. The oldest theological issue, which had been smouldering since the Third Council of Toledo in 589, was the double procession of the Holy Spirit as embodied in the filioque (Latin; ‘and the son’) clause; the Roman theologians argued that the Holy Spirit was generated conjointly by the father ‘and the son’, and the Greek theologians insisted that the Spirit was generated by the Father alone. Delegates debated this issue for three months, during which time Bessarion wrote his discourse arguing that the doctrine of the double procession was taught explicitly by both the Greek and Latin fathers. This argument, when strengthened with an offer of military assistance for Byzantium, persuaded the Greeks to accept the Roman doctrine. The second and third issues, the use of unleavened bread for the eucharist and the doctrine of purgatory, were quickly settled in favour of Roman doctrine, but the fourth issue, that of papal primacy, caused difficulties until the Greeks accepted a watered-down version of papal supremacy.

Once the theological debates had been settled, the Decree of Union was proclaimed in a papal bull on 6 July 1439. The bull is known from its opening words as Laetentur coeli (Latin ‘Let the heavens rejoice’), a phrase meant to recall the opening phrase of the Greek Formulary of Union of 23 April 433.

The Greek delegation returned home to a cool reception from the Byzantine synod, which eventually repudiated the Union; the minority who accepted the Union became a separate denomination, known as the Greek Uniate Church. The Council continued in session in order to deal with the schismatic Council of Basel, all members of which were declared heretics and excommunicated. The age-old dispute of the relative authority of the pope and the councils was settled in favour of the pope in the bull Etsi non dubitemus of 20 April 1441. Union with the Syrian Monophysites (‘Jacobites’) was effected in 1442, and the following year the Council was transferred to Rome. Its activities in Rome are not well documented, except that reconciliations with the Copts of Egypt (1443), the Mesopotamian Nestorians (1444), the Cypriots, the Chaldeans, and the Maronites (1445) were successfully negotiated; all of these unions proved to be ephemeral, though the Maronites were eventually reconciled in 1736 and the Chaldean Church in 1830.[22]

  1. Florence as Population and thriving city: In Europe Populous cities in order: Paris, Milan Naples and Venice, then Florence  ( ~ pop. 100,000, 14th century). Giovanni Villani: He gives a chronicle figure for the population’s consumption at 100,000, a figure that takes into account of the people including the immobile people, mothers and children.  He gives a consumption value at 2,300 bushels of grain consumed every day; 70,000 quarts of wine a day. In an age of no clean water, it was healthy to drink it at least at two meals.

  2. Brunelleschi: lived during the crowd of geniuses – it was miraculous – so many geniuses born at once (Reincarnation/Predestination). Brunelleschi loses the competition to decorate the Babastry doors in bronze castings to Ghiberti, and build the “Dome” of the Florence Cathedral. All of the 21 guilds pledges to the building the cathedral in fact everyone did pledge money. Bruni says in Velossi (his work) “we are the ‘new Rome.’” Brunelleschi went to Rome to study the pantheon – he doesn’t figure it out, but he develops the egg strategy.

  3. Orphanages: It was the orphanages a result of the plague(s), that one institution for orphanages exist. It was the revival of the Roman villa.

  4. Market of Trajan: Model for the new rustification, outside architecture styles.

Ciompi revolt 1378

  1. Ciompi revolt: (1378) a famous revolt because it was referenced by Karl Marx who cited its importance as the start of the modern times – the commoners rose up (most were these day-labourers in the wool industry in Florence) against the aristocracy, in a wool-trade dispute (after they had taken power) and the common revolted against the general working conditions and attempted to take over the control of the guild corporations. This represented the common trying to take over the role of government. The wool carders (the Ciompi) were day laborers, usually sellers of vegetables, manual labor, etc..., they aligned with the arti minor ( minor guilds who worked with dirty types of jobs for wool ( France was a main market) and formed a radical faction eventually taking over the Florentine piazza ( public space), which for Florence was the political control center. For a short while, this radical factional government established a classless democracy, however within a few weeks it became apparent they had no management skills. Soon the ciompi and arti-minor began to fight over how to run the trade industries and negotiate foreigner contracts. However, this system of non-oligarchy rule ( usually the only educated class), traditionally held by the wealthy families, lasted in various forms for four years. The wealthy families took back control. The main reason was that democratic governments run by uneducated radicals were unable to create a stable economic environment. They fell out of favor with locals and foreigners and the old system of ruling families returned to bring things back into a natural working order. However, this revolt left a lasting impression on the patricians. Nicollò Machiavelli, in his work, Florentine History, wrote from the patrician point of view, claiming the radical lower class had fabricated their justifications and qualifications (even in rhetoric), thus confirming his stance for the justification of the state. Marx had to understood that the uneducated ruling classes and illiterate leaders had taken over the seat of power, and this explains why they had failed miserably. No foreign entity would do business with them, and arguments must have presumed quickly, as a result. Their management skill had been absent, and their spirit was the only positive response they could muster. Once they came into control, they did not know what to do.  Marx was sure of himself this was the first proletariat uprising in modern times. However, Marx never explains how these uneducated commoners could sustain a revolutionary takeover and rule in sustainable fashion a common classes (as classless, in economic terms). This remained his main weakness for advocating a world preliterate society. Public school systems throughout the world began to take shape in the later half of the nineteenth century and help to explain why communist revolutionaries were able to run with some type of success their extreme socialist governments. They had to advocate through education their system of ideology. They argued it was superior to the freedom ideologies. Education at this time in Florence and generally Europe was not consistent with the social currents or as a standard system international learning all across the continent like it is basically today. The Church and the Aristocracy were in economic positions to hire tutors for their children and start small grammar schools, at this time. During the fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries in Italy, public education appeared as a form of helping the middle classes (I would call here the merchant class), but still in limited amounts when we speak of the common or a lower class in regards to free public education. Progressively this takes place over the sixteenth and seventeenth century, at least in Europe.

Jacob Burckhardt

  1.  “Jacob Christoph Burckhard [(b. 1818- d. 1897)] was born in Basel as the son of a pastor. His family was one of the most distinguished in the city - eleven ancestors had served its Bürgermeister.”[23] He was a social historian who does not discuss in detail politics or economics. He, however, by interdisciplinary methods demonstrated new ways to write history.  Social historical commentaries intend he created a new genre of historical writing. (I do not). While he has a few famous phrases associated with his name, the most widely understood and adopted was that Florence was the center of the renaissance, and the renaissance came about by a shift or change of consciousness. However, as I intend, in reality it came about because of the Crusades and the new influx of wealth which trickled down to the commoner, excited the elite (or nobles) to produce more goods for sale, thus putting the populations to work, which then led to individualism of personal agency by the spreading of this new found wealth demonstrated its social ramifications of the awakening of the consciousness of individualism. Yet, in regard to social aspects of the renaissance, we have no better source than Burckhardt. This explains why we still use him as a reference guide to understanding our past. His work on renaissance literature is vital to historical record accounting. He had visited Rome, and decided to stay there falling in love with the city and its cultural past and present. He decided to investigate it and record it for posterity. Thus out form this admiration of Italy and Roman, his most famous work called The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy.

  2. Burckhardt freely borrows from many previous sources, modern scholars of Burckhardt intend.

  3. Private Man (Burckhardt).

  4. Jacob Burkhardt is trying to provide a cross section of historical things that are constant, typical and have reoccurrence (it is a cross-section), he says.  He was trying to provide the culture of the renaissance. This was interdisciplinary history a new genre ( some intend). He tells us he is not going to write about politics, but he writes about it in a selective manner and incomprehensive manner. However, he is interested more broadly in the culture and how it contributed to the renaissance. Culture, as the realm of the spontaneous – the realm or literature, science, art, technology, and social life (intercourse) -- this is the description for his interdisciplinary methodology.

  5. To think about the first four chapters, Burckhardt’s book addresses issued from Politics to Religion. Then the central four chapters address cultural themes.

  6. The state is a work of Art,” Jacob Burckhardt’s famous phrase; interdisciplinary history, a (re)new(ed) type of historical writing. Obviously for the amount of recording on Florence, this concept comes mainly from Florentine culture of the renaissance. However, Burckhardt’s concept of the (rise of the) individual comes from a general view of northern Italy’s emergence to wealth and republican common rule governments and new modes and options of commoner employment and private property during the 14th century.

  7. Part IV of the work is about the discovery of the world and the man.  A famous claim, issued by Burckhardt (but normal in those academic circles, especially from Germanic schools) the renaissance witnessed the birth of the individual, instead of the communalism of the previous era.

  8. The High Florentine 1450-1520 Renaissance.

  9. Jacob Burckhardt, in his book, The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy, is said to have change the format of historical writing. It is less chronicalish, more detailed and narrower. Yet, at the same time, insinuation and personal opinions create a limitation. For example, sentences like “A more childish method of reasoning cannot be imagined.”[24] Phraseology like this sentence is usually is preceded by phrases like “[w]e need not to inquire.” [25] Although, this new method of historical writing gave rise to later monographic narrowness, the historical opinion piece is born with Burckhardt’s construction.

  10. Burkhardt & Politics and Economics: Burkhardt’s book lacks any in-depth or critical assessment needed for a clear picture of Roman politics or economics of the renaissance. This understanding helps explain the myths began after this book that the Church was corrupt, selfish and created indulgences to feed its coffers. The Myth: So the Church is losing its influence to secularism and its reaction was to consolidate its power by changing its system. Burckhardt relates it was no longer valid for the church to invoke feudal rights over emancipating principalities, which could now afford radical new defenses and build up mercenary armies to protect their commerce and materialist interests. So indulgences, bribery, and conquest were some of the plans that a few church visionaries took into account to saving the Church’s control over the people’s minds and lives. This view is heavily in contention. With an in-depth and broader working of evidence, it became clear that Burckhardt had worked with a select few texts. This meant he possibly did not have the access that modern scholars have today, that is if he consciously determined not to include a more sophisticated accounting of the time in regards to politics and economics.  Like the German schools he was educated in, he and Marx had seen the past as simple and not complex. Marx had seen politics and economics in black and white frames, and to some extent so did Burckhardt.  To both Marx and Burckhardt, politics, economics and religion were intertwined. Separating them and analyzing them were too difficult of tasks for them. At least for Marx, it had been a conscientious decision.

Baldasare Castiglione Book 1527

  1. Courtier: Rise of the Courtier. Baldasare Castiglione’s book “The Book of the Courtier,” is taking notes at the Montefeltro court, court of Urbino after an invitation by Guidobaldo of Montefeltro, Duke of Urbino in 1504. He was a diplomat for Guidobaldo and Duke, Francesco Maria della Rovere ( nephew of Julius II, exiled by Leo X from Rome) after the death of Guidobaldo in 1508. He became a liaison ( resident ambassador in Rome in 1513. In 1513 the expulsion of Francesco Maria from Urbino deprived him of a job, and in the years 1516-19 he lived quietly on his estate near Mantua. In 1519 he returned to Rome, as Mantuan ambassador, and after further activities of behalf of his Mantuan masters entered the Papal service in 1524. From that date forward he was until his death in 1592 the Papal Nuncio in Spain.[26]  He died in Toledo Spain, February 2nd, 1529, The Courtier was completed, with additions and editing, in 1527. The book went through many editions, still printed today, and used as a guide for courtly etiquette for centuries. Much of the book’s ideas and concepts were freely borrowed from classical Greek and Roman philosophies and literature.
  2. Patricians: understood that they were now the new elite.
  3. Family Treatist (1430), on the family: written as a dialogue, an older father to younger family member. Alberti, Leon Batista ( his view for Florence); Virtues and characteristics of the patrician nuclear family; about 75 pages. Also, traslated Marcus Vitruvious Pollio, so that Masaccio and Botticelli could learn legitimate or linear perspective and artist techniques and architectural techniques of the classical ages (in three volumes).
  4. ~100 ( families) build palaces in the 15th century, about 2-3 stories.
  5. Cosimo: Pater Patriae. Cosimo de’ Medici: begins employment of scholars.
  6. Lorenzo the Magnificent: University, Library, circle of scholars/ circle of neo-Platonists. ‘Magnificent does not mean anything, it was like a sir-name at this time.
  7. Corpus Platinico:
  8. famous conspiracy called the Pazzi:
  9. Masaccio: Brancacci Chapel , painted about 1427.
  10. expansive ( Term could be translated into modern as progressive).
  11. Leonardo Bruni:
  12. studia hamanitas: Rhetoric, Grammar, primarily Latin, History, and Poetry, and moral philosophy, and these five primary disciples. Medici developed.
  13. Poet- secretary: A duty of humanists.
  14. A mercenary prince would begin to attain at least two qualified humanists.
  15. Public Speaking: This was an important field of learning. (Rhetoric).
  16. Archbishops were called in Germany chancellors.
  17. Eloquence: the work took on importance associated to princes.
  18. Christian Humanity: not a contradiction, moves beyond the despair of the falseness of man.
  19. Federico de Montefeltro 
  20. Mercenary princes: they end up embracing the ideas of the humanists, ordered princely.
  21. Benozzo Gozzoli: Magi Chapel of the Palazzo Medici-Reccardi, and depicted the Journey of the Magi to Bethlehem, and he also included a portrait of himself in the procession; fresco, c. 1459.
  22. Piero della Francesca: late medieval church in Arezzo.  The Cappella Maggoire (Major Chapel or chancel), Francesca depicted a fresco cycle called the Legend of the True Cross.  Here he had incorporated humanist elements with the biblical past.
  23. Sprezzatura; part of the courtier curriculum.
  24. Virtù

Art as Rebirth Renaissance Art and Architecture

  1. Doctrine of the incarnation, was that God showed us his flesh, his image in Jesus, so it was permissible to use Jesus as figure in painting.
  2. Petrarch /City of Man, good people/ City of God, bad people, This presented a danger for Petrarch. Was his loving the Roman figures in the book antithetical to Christianity of Augustine’s dominance of the medieval ages?

Giotto (1267-1325?)

  1. Giotto (1267-1325?). He is primarily known through his frescos in the Church of Saint Francis of Assisi in the town of Assisi. He had placed “expression” back into the medieval stoic countenance in figures. He also began to move away from hierarchical figuration, and also incorporating angular lines, indicating action and motion. He is important to the ‘Introduction of realism.’ He was of the first artists to incorporate foreshortening of figures, the cherubim, (& some aspects of modeling), the occultation of human figures over divine, no haloes (Arena Chapel, Padua, The Lamentation). These concepts were forbidden during parts of the medieval ages.  This was a step toward (but not there of) elemental perspective and later an articulation of chiaroscuro – that flourished along the introduction of a legitimate perspective by later renaissance artists (Leon Batistta Alberti’s Vitruvius translation). This rebirth of artistry represented a realism of the human form which Giotto took shape and by so bring new artists to study the rebirthing method (although they at the time saw it as new). Giotto’s work represents the first steps away from medieval idealistic representation of hierarchical religious forms. Now artists studied Giotto’s work and began to expand upon his artistic themes. In Giotto's Lamentation, in Padua, of the Arena Chapel [1305, Fresco] we see two distinct figures in front of Jesus Christ who do not have halos. This was forbidden in the middle ages to place any type of figure that was obscure a portion of a Saint, Apostle, significant religious figure or Jesus Christ.

Ghiberti ( Babastry Doors in Bronze Casting | Florence)

  1. Lorenzo Ghiberti (b. 1378 – d. 1 December 1455) was a sculpture and metallurgist, who decorated in bronze casting the Baptistery door of St John, regarded as the oldest building in Florence. Dante Alighieri (and other famed artists) were said to have been baptized here.
  2. Ghiberti did not perform the first sculpture in relief during the renaissance. Donatello employed it with the sculpture Saint George in 1415-17 (Marble) on the same building Or San Michele and the commission was ordered by Guild of Armor and Swords.
  3. Ghiberti and Brunelleschi were both finalists for the casting of the Bronze reliefs on the Baptistery doors – Ghiberti won, offering another example of Fortuna as Brunelleschi went onto to argue, plan, win the contract, and erect the famed Dome of Florence. Art historians believe that by the time Ghiberti got to the Queen of Sheba and Solomon panel of the Baptistery door of the Florence Cathedral he was employing legitimate perspective or the first use of its form in the renaissance age in bronze casting.

Leon Battista Alberti: Master Builder of the Renaissance.

Leon Battista Alberti's legitimate perspective


  • Alberti freed the artist to now imagine in three dimensions and to reproduce their imagination onto a two dimensional background.
  • Leon Battista Alberti was an intellectual (theoretician) and a humanist advisor to princes who championed high-culture. He wrote three treaties that are widely viewed today as foundations of western art.
  • Alberti transcribed Marcus Vitruvius Pollio book’s so that people in Italy, such as Masaccio and Botticelli and other artists could read them.

Alberti was the first architect to argue for the correct use of the classical orders during the Renaissance.  “Alberti from 1404–72 held many roles in the renaissance:  Italian architect, musician, painter, and humanist,[ linguist,] active at the papal court, Florence, Rimini, and Mantua. Alberti was the first architect to argue for the correct use of the classical orders during the Renaissance. His ecclesiastical works include the exteriors of the churches of San Francesco in Rimini (begun 1451), Sant' Andrea in Mantua (c. 1470), and part of the facade of Santa Maria Novella in Florence (c. 1458–70). On the facade of the Palazzo Rucellai in Florence (c. 1452–70), Alberti used tiers of superimposed classical orders, as inspired by such antique buildings as the Roman Colosseum. Alberti was the author of several important treatises on the visual arts. His De re aedificatoria, written c. 1450, became the first printed book on architecture (1485). Although largely dependent on Vitruvius, it was the first modern work on the subject, and it included important new material. His treatise on painting (1436) was the first book in this field to treat theory as well as technique. His treatise on sculpture (c. 1464) was another pioneering work in its field, and it was significant for its discussion of human proportions.”[27]

Masaccio (1401-1428)

  • Masaccio Tribute Money, Branacci Capel, Santa Maria Carmine, Florence. Fresco. 1425 (light logic)
  • Masaccio Expulsion of Adam & Eve, Branacci Capel, Santa Maria Carmine, Florence. Fresco. 1425.  (light logic)
  • Masaccio Holy Trinity, Chapel, Santa Maria Novella, Florence. Fresco. 1425. Donor of funds, Lorenzo Lenzi, then wife. Estimated 1425 (not certain). 1425, the Holy Trinity was the first painting to use Linear Perspective. "La Trinità" (the Trinity). This fresco brought Masaccio fame and became a tourist attraction immediately.


  1. Tommaso di Ser Giovanni di Mone (b. 21 December 1401 – autumn 1428) adopted the name Masaccio as a humorous take on Tommaso, ‘big,’ fat,’ clumsy, and ‘messy’ Tom – as a way to distinguish between he and his collaborator also born with the first name of Tommaso, then adopting the moniker Masolino (“little/delicate Tom” [source?]).
  2. The Branacci reference for Masaccio is an oriented private Chapel of the Felice Branacci family, which became a tourist attraction during the renaissance.
  3. The Church: Santa Maria del Carmine - a traditional Basilica.
  4. Masaccio lived a short life but was influential on later Italian artists, and his contemporaries were Donatello, Ghiberti, Brunelleschi..
  5. Masaccio went to Rome, studying art and architecture, then leaving behind the Byzantine and Orthodox Greek methods to champion the Classical Roman style – as others would follow and do the same.
  6. In Florence, Masaccio studied Giotto, and Michelangelo studied Masaccio (Vasari, “The Lives”).
  7. The Expulsion from the Garden of Eden, depicting the new emotions of distress on human figures, not hitherto allowed during the anonymous but ridged art laws of the medieval age. Adam and Eve, are also in the nude, and this fresco had, according to Vasari, enormous influence on Michelangelo. This was the first use of a light source in the Italian renaissance.
  8. Masaccio, in tandem with Phillip Brunelleschi, employed types of perspective(s).
  9. The Tribute Money depicts Jesus and the Apostles in a Roman classical (era) style instead of the medieval style, along with freedom of light and shading – which represented a form of freedom in art, hitherto now allowed in previous common medieval art laws .
  10. Brunelleschi began applying “legitimate Perspective,” yet at the time Masaccio employed a less refined form, just called perspective back then. Masaccio was the first to use the vanishing point, a critical part of perspective.
  11. 1424 the Felice Branacci commissioned Masaccio to execute a cycle of frescos of the private family chapel (called Branacci Chapel), in the church of Santa Maria del Carmine in Florence.
  12. Holy Trinity, in full title, “Trinity with the Virgin, Saint John the Evangelist, and Donors” (1425-‘27/’28) – Fresco, Santa Maria Novella, Florence. 
  13. Brancacci family chapel (a competing trade/union family to de’ Medici), helps explain some of the lost Masaccio work.
  14. A scholarly consensus of only four frescoes survive today, while others are attributed to him – other destroyed in various circumstances.
  15. According to Vasari (“learn the precepts and rules for painting well”), Masaccio’s work deeply influenced renaissance painting/fresco work. The move away from Gothic idealization, and toward a more realistic representation of form in the emerging humanist world.
  16. Masaccio first uses a light source, human figures in the nude, and emotion on the faces in the frescoes Cacciata dei Progenitior dall’ Eden, The expulsion form the Garden of Eden.  Adam and Eve’s faces illustrate an exquisite Emotion on their faces. Michelangelo’s inspiration for “The fall of Man and the Expulsion from the garden of Eden” on the ceiling of the Sistene Chaple, progressed a method called trompe-lœil ( a work not invented then) – this was a “trick of the eye.” Michelangelo initially was given a group of artists to help decorate the Sistine Chapel. But, as Michelangelo began on the ceiling the architecture, and the small spaces created a problem for novice artists – so he refused them to work with him ( getting in a fight with his patron Julius II over this), but he had to use trompe-lœil methods so the scenes and figures looked natural under difficult undersized areas on th ceiling. Donatello, Raphael, and Michelangelo to name a few studied Masaccio’s style, which helps to explain Masaccio’s importance in Renaissance artistry.

Filipo Brunelleschi

  1. (First use of linear perspective; architecture).
  2. Eventually won the job of constructing the largest Dome in the western hemisphere at that time, the Dome of Florence called Dome of the Cathedral of Sante Maria del Fiore (the Duomo). The Palazzo Veccchio, and its high tower, to the far left, can be seen from afar. Visitors to Florence during the renaissance who had no idea what was going on were startled. This large dome which could be seen from afar to a visitor approaching the city help to launch the benefits of a rebirth of civilization. It is still today considered an architectural engineering marvel.
  3. Brunelleschi began the Pazzi Chapel, [ Sya. Croce, Florence], c. 1440-61, masonry, but died before he was finished. Maiano finished it. Nestled and connected to the Church of Santa Croce,  Brunelleschi last work was in working with neo-Platonic concepts.
  4. Brunelleschi (he went to Rome to study) use of Roman Temple designs began an old use of centralizing structures - the use that was first employed by the Romans.


  1. Venice (Old Merchant Empire) and contained 20 towns and seven provinces (regions) known as a Veneto. Venice was the longest lasting quasi-republican (oft. Imperial) Italian renaissance state up until the age of Napoleon (In 1797 Napoleon’s armies invaded the Venetian Republic and the Doge Ludovico Manin resigned, it changed hands in control from Austria, France, independence, etc...).


  1. Veneto or Venetia (Vèneto) is one of the 20 regions of Italy, and during the Venetian empire used to describe the countryside or non-Metropolitan area controlled by Venice during the sixteenth century.


Veneto is divided into seven provinces:

  • Province of Belluno
  • Province of Padua
  • Province of Treviso
  • Province of Rovigo
  • Province of Venice
  • Province of Verona
  • Province of Vicenza

The Doge’s Palace

  1. Palazzo Ducale di Venezia: The Doge’s Palace. (Carved marble façade).
  2. Tintoretto, decorated The Doge’s Palace.
  3. Saint Mark's Basilica (Italian: Basilica di San Marco a Venezia), the cathedral of Venice, is the most famous of the city's churches and one of the best known examples of Byzantine architecture.
  4. Another architect the architect Pallodio ( 1508-1580) is one of the more important architects for the sixteen century and beyond his current era. He had written four books on architecture, that became a standard guide of how too build classically inspired architecture. He had built in Venice, but his most massive projects were of some roman style villas constructed in the countryside, the Veneto. He sets a continental example. People from all over Europe get his books and read them. They are translated into English and builders copy the Roman villa style into some forms English country houses, France architecture, he is important. His architecture is a more modest style, as compared to an expensive Michelangelo style.

Italian, Venetian Artists: High Renaissance Art Period.

  1. 1560s-1580s: this is the high-renaissance: ( Dandlet lecture quote dates)
  2. Tintoretto (real name Jacopo Comin; September 29, 1518 - May 31, 1594) was one of the greatest painters of the Venetian school and probably the last great painter of the Italian Renaissance. His father took him to the studio of Titian to see how far he could be trained. Receiving a commission in 1588, he was engaged in his crowning achievement, the largest canvas painting of the time, the Massive Paradise. At a size of 74 ft. by 30, it was reputed to be the largest painting ever done upon canvas.
  3. c. 1560 , he executed a portrait of the doge, Girolamo Priuli.

Andrea Palladio

  1. Andrea Palladio (November 30, 1508 – August 19, 1580), was an Italian architect, widely considered the most influential person in the history of Western architecture.
  1. Palladio synthesized economics and taste into architecture and became famous as a result in mimicked architectural design across Europe. He represented Venetian as a cultural diffusion.  He had written four books that were adopted, studied, and followed – thus becoming one of the most important architectural thinkers of the high-renaissance era – and after his life.
  2. He was born Andrea di Pietro della Gondola in Padova (Padua), then part of the Republic of Venice.
  3. Palladio also established an influential new building format for the agricultural villas of the Venetian aristocracy. His model was the Roman Agricultural homes, with wings dedicated to animals that were a part of home/agricultural (homesteads) of Roman times.
  4. Palladio's influence was far-reaching.
  5. The Palace of the Doge was badly damaged by fire in 1574. In the subsequent rebuilding work it was decided to respect the original gothic style, despite the submission of a neo-classical alternative design by Palladio. As well as being the ducale residence, the palace housed political institutions of the Republic of Venice until the Napoleonic occupation of the city.
  6. Palladio's architecture was not dependent on expensive materials, which must have been an advantage to his more financially-pressed clients. This is a main reason that his style and architecture program became a standard across Europe.

Titian: Venitian

Tiziano Vecelli or Tiziano Vecellio (c. 1485 – August 27, 1576), better known as Titian, was the leading painter of the 16th-century Venetian school of the Italian Renaissance. He was born in Pieve di Cadore, near Belluno (in Veneto), in the Republic of Venice. During his lifetime he was often called Da Cadore, taken from the place of his birth.

Titian (he lives into his nineties)

  1. Titian, a high-renaissance painter.
  2. what he paints? Allegories, religious material, Madonnas, women
  3. He was a businessman, which differentiated from earlier renaissance artists who were mere patrons. Titian starts out painting churches for noblemen in the Veneto, like the ‘Concert,’ c, 1510, and was patronized by Cardinal Medici., a fantastic example of portraiture.
  4. Favorite painter of Charles V, and later Philip II.
  5. Still life doesn’t become common until the Baroque period, but Titian begins elemental steps in this direction.
  6.  “La Bella,” the beautiful, by Titian, some say a high prince courtesan, or Veronica Franco, the elaborate dress, the culture of luxury that Venice was experiencing.
  7. Madonnas, women soft skin,

The Venus of Urbino

  1. The Venus of Urbino was commissioned by the future Duke of Urbino for his bedroom, so he could view this and contemplate Platonic love. (Feloroperi (?) had taken over)
  2. Sensuality: Venice was more tolerant of allowing images like these to be painted. This was possibly the first sensual nude painting of the renaissance ( post-medieval period)
  3. The Venus of Urbino (1538) is an oil painting by the Italian master Titian. It depicts a nude young woman, identified with the goddess Venus, reclining on a couch or bed in the sumptuous surroundings of a Renaissance palace. It hangs in the Galleria degli Uffizi in Florence. The figure's pose is based on Giorgione's Sleeping Venus (c. 1510).
  4. Platonic ideal was to show off your nakedness, so not to be ashamed, like during the garden of Eden before the fall from grace, love was everything beautiful  -- including the body. Although Plato was speaking in a Greek context, Platonic love meant not being ashamed in general. While a women wearing a dress is covering up her body, the nakedness defined the high(er) form of love; understanding of no-shame of the human body. It was platonic Love. This was more tolerated at Venice, a secular sensuality became part of the renaissance – it creates a tension in the critique of the renaissance. In Germany, Holland, and France, and other places looked down upon this luxury living that draws this type of critique.
  5. Titian worked for Charles V and then his son, Philip II. During the last twenty-five years of his life (1550-1576) the artist worked mainly for Philip II and as a portrait-painter
  6. Titian: In 1518 he produced for the high altar of the church of the Frari, his famous masterpiece, the Assumption of the Virgin, still in situ.


  1. Titian's state portrait of Emperor Charles V at Mühlberg (1548) established a new genre, that of the grand equestrian portrait. The composition is steeped both in the Roman tradition of equestrian sculpture and in the medieval representations of an ideal. Charles V, is done by Titian when height of his powers in 1540s. It was done to celebrate the emperor against the German Protestants. By the time Charles was at this age in his early forties, he was actually gout ridden. He could not take part in battles and remained a commander, off to the side of the battle field; He was moved around in a cart, but Titian portrayed him on a horse with a lance. Why would this be so? These themes that were fictitious were all signs of “real” imperial authority – from his perspective the world’s more powerful man. Charles holds the largest empire in history. At this time Pissarro had taken Peru, Cortez had taken Mexico, so Charles was the global emperor.

Significance of the Titian

  1. Significance of the Titian –the fame and volume of the collection is unprecedented, in part was his skill as a businessman. Titian also understood that art was a real business. The renaissance at the end is about the world of material culture – a new age. By 1500-1550s depending upon your location, they understood they were living in a new golden age, and they were speaking and writing about this topic of a ‘new golden age.’ They were saying ‘we got it back,’ conquest, the fulfillment of a lot of Renaissance fantasies, much of the fantasies in the 1350s were now fulfilled. It will be criticized by the north as they take off in their own renaissance – they want a piece of the pie.

Saint Mark's Basilica

  1. Saint Mark's Basilica (Italian: Basilica di San Marco a Venezia), the cathedral of Venice, is the most famous of the city's churches and one of the best known examples of Byzantine architecture. It lies on St Mark's Square (in the San Marco sestiere or district) adjacent and connected to the Doge's Palace. Originally it was the "chapel" of the Venetian rulers, and not the city's cathedral.

Venice Industry, Ship Building

Arsenale, The walled area in Venice, covering some 32 hectares (79 acres), which contained the naval docks, the armouries, and the ship-construction and dry-dock facilities of the republic. The Arsenale was founded c.1104 and expanded in 1304 by Andrea Pisano; subsequent additions were undertaken in 1325 (the Arsenale Nuovo), 1473 (the Arsenale Nuovissimo), 1539 (the Riparto delle Galeazze), and 1564 (the Canal delle Galeazze e Vasca). The monumental gateway to the Arsenale (1457) is the earliest Venetian example of the Renaissance style of Italian architecture. By the fifteenth century the Arsenale had become the largest industrial zone in Europe, employing some 4,000 men. The workers of the Arsenale, who were known as Arsenalotti, provided the personal guard of the doge and the civic fire-fighters of the republic. The presence of gunpowder and wooden ships made the Arsenale vulnerable to fires started by explosions, the largest of which occurred in 1509 and 1569.[28]

Georgio Vasari

Georgio Vasari ( 30 July, 1511 – 27 June 1574)

  1. Vasari was an artist, an architect and an historian of renaissance artistic culture.
  2. Patron: Duke Alessandro de' Medici, the favorite of the court de’ Medici. [pronounced ma dee ceases]; Farnese family.
  3. great frescoes:  in de’ Medici  Florentine Palazzo Vecchio; painted the famous posthumous portrait of Lorenzo the Magnificent.
  4. Designed the Uffizi, the executive office building of the Florentine Dukes, for the Medici family, and decorated the Cancelleria in Rome with scenes of the life of Pope Paul III (Alessandro Farnese).
  5. His contemporaries: Michelangelo Buonaroti, Raphael Santi, etc..
  6. Sig: The Uffizi gallery serves as a metaphor for Vasari's life. He was not about promoting himself as an artist but artistic accomplishments of his day, of the people of the Italian renaissance.
  7. His favorite artists was Raphael, and Vasari invented the word "maniera" to praise Raphael’s unique geometric and shaping (forming) his figures and landscapes. “Raphael got it from Michelangelo in a sneak preview of the Sistine chapel and managed to complete and display a major work in Michelangelo's style before the chapel was opened for public viewing.” wiki see for cite of verification)

Intervention Choices, Factions, and Individualism

Guelfs and Ghibellines or Guelphs and Ghibellines, The terms used in thirteenth- and fourteenth-century Italy to denote rival supporters of the papacy (the Guelfs) and the Holy Roman Emperors (the Ghibellines). As the glossator of Spenser's Shepherd's Calendar explained in 1579, ‘all Italy was distraict [i.e. divided] into the factions of the Guelfs and Ghibellines’.

The term ‘Guelf’ (Italian Guelfo, medieval Latin Guelphus) derives from Middle High German Welf, the name of the founder and successive chiefs of the Bavarian princely family that produced five dukes of Bavaria (and from which the British royal family descends).

The etymology of the term ‘Ghibelline’ (Italian Ghibellino, medieval Latin Ghibellinus) is uncertain, but may derive from Middle High German Waiblingen, the name of an estate owned by the Hohenstaufen family; the term Waiblingen is said to have been used as a battle cry by the soldiers of the Hohenstaufen Emperor Conrad III.

From 1198 to 1218 there was a struggle for central Italy between the supporters of the Emperor Otto IV Welf and the supporters of the rival Hohenstaufen emperors, Philip of Swabia and his nephew Friedrich II. Between 1235 and 1250, the Emperor Friedrich II was in dispute with the papacy, and during those years chroniclers began to use the term ‘Guelfs’ to denote supporters of the papacy and the term ‘Ghibellines’ to denote supporters of the Empire. From 1266 to 1442, when Naples was ruled by the house of Anjou, the term ‘Guelf’ acquired the additional connotation of ‘pro-French’, because the papacy supported the Angevin claim. The Guelf alliance that emerged in the late thirteenth century linked the kingdom of Naples, the Papal State, Provence (ruled by the counts of Anjou from 1246 to 1481), and France; the trade that arose out of this alliance was financed by the merchant bankers of Florence.

In the early fourteenth century, the Emperors Heinrich VII of Luxemburg (ruled 1308–13) and Ludwig IV of Bavaria (ruled 1314–47) invaded northern Italy and formed alliances with the Visconti family of Milan and the della Scala family of Verona; these noble families became the most prominent supporters of the Ghibelline party.

Florence was divided between Guelf and Ghibelline: the merchant banks supported the Guelfs, and the noble families the Ghibellines. This class difference enabled the Guelfs to depict themselves as the champions of republican liberty and their Ghibelline opponents as apologists for tyranny. The Parte Guelfa was formally incorporated, and despite occasional splits (notably the moderate White Guelf and aggressive Black Guelf factions) remained a powerful force in Florence until the War of the Eight Saints between Florence and the papacy (1375–8) fractured the Guelf alliance within the city. In the early fifteenth century the palace of the Guelfs (Palazzo dei Capitani della Parte Guelfa) was rebuilt to the design of Brunelleschi.[29] 

Medici family (some names of a large family)

      Medici, Alessandro de' [dei] (In Florence sets up a wool guild and business, becomes prosperous, French are one of the main recipients of fine wool cloth, becomes wealthy soon main industry in town.).

Medici, Cosimo I de’

      Medici, Cosimo I de’ (organized peace treaties in northern Italy (Peace of Lodi, stopped factional city-state fighting for 40 years) and Byzantine, ambitions for nobility of son, but remained a committed Florentine citizen till death, continues wool trade, de facto ruler of Florence, many commoners say by influence of power and wealth.).

      Medici, Giovanni de' (born Giovanni de' Medici in Florence on 11 December 1475, the second son of Lorenzo de' Medici, becomes Pope Leo X (1513 – 1521). On 14 September 1512, Cardinal Giovanni and with support of Julius II   perform a restoration of de’ Medici to Florence, installed younger brother Giuliano de' Medici as head of Florence, but remains until his death the de facto ruler of Florence.).

      Medici, Giuliano de'

Medici, Lorenzo de', Il Magnifico

  1. Medici, Lorenzo de', Il Magnifico: (1 January 1449 – 9 April 1492 (d. The Miraculous Year, Spanish Historiography). Ruled Florence defacto, reared by his grandfather Cosimo I, controlled the family Medici bank, and lived during the high renaissance period of the Italian Renaissance. After his death, the renaissance shifts to Rome, and the Florence renaissance is mainly over, ending the Golden Age period for Florence.

  2. Spouse(s): Clarice Orsinni ( a traditional Roman papal-state family; the grandfather wanted to make sure his offspring became nobles.); thus a marriage-contract was a vehicle to nobility. Philippina of Savoy. Lorenzo fathered seven children.

  3. He was considered the most intelligent of the five siblings.

  4. Before the Italian Wars forced Lorenzo to go to Naples and broker a peace which secretly emptied the Florentine banks, a main reason Lorenzo brought over Girolamo Savonarola was to stabilize the population’s restlessness, he had spent considerable fortune on Florentine culture and is one of the main figures of the renaissance project. The very fragile peace that he maintained, or bought-off, collapsed after his death, and with both France and Spain contending with ancient claims for lands in the various Italian peninsula, two years after Lorenzo’s death the French invaded in 1494, and the Italian Wars commenced ( 1494-1559, at times involving most of the Italian-city-states, the papal states, and all the major states of western Europe: Spain, France, Holy Roman Empire, England, Scotland, as well as the Ottomans --- Lorenzo had been on good terms with Mehmed II, Sultan of the House of Osman), leading to Spain’s sacking of Rome in 1527, and its subjugation of Florence, shortly after a Medici restoration. In general and even after the Italian Wars, Florence’s renaissance came to an end ( as did many other Northern Italian republican-city-staets), and for nearly 400 years, foreign occupation of the Italian Peninsula would have to wait until Garibaldi’s efforts resumed the reunifying the Italian people and ridding the foreign occupation in the nineteenth century Italian reunification efforts. Flavio Biondo, in his geography encyclopedias (Italia Illustrata 1448-1474), during the early Northern Italian Renaissance period had produced maps and arguments that Naples was a part of Italian peninsula, thus belonging to Italy. Thus when Garibaldi began to plan for a united Italy, Naples was a part of Italy proper.

  5. Known as Lorenzo il Magnifico by his Florentine contemporaries. His professions include diplomat, politician, patron to scholars, artists and poets; classical work archivist,

  6. He promoted classical topic discussions in groups ( called his ciricle of friends, discussed Greek philosophers. He wrote poetry of melancholic subject, wrote on love and feasts. ,

  7. He began a classical archival retrieval system, and promoted general education and the facilitation of artistic endeavors. Father Cosimo wanted him to become a nobleman.).

      Medici, Piero I de'

      Medici, Piero II de'

Girolamo Savonarola

Girolamo Savonarola (b. 1452) was a Dominican friar and prophetic preacher. He dominated Florentine politics form the expulsion of the Medici [the common backed him at this time, the economy soured and the Medici in their extravagance were blamed] in 1494 until 1498, when he was executed as a heretic [many believe falsely]. [30] Many supporters of Savonarola intend he was a product of his age, to stamp out a new paganism, the same idea Thomas More promoted in his work Utopia, an ideal a society not concerned only with wealth and/or only with material. Machiavelli intends Savonarola’s only fault in a short term of rule was not establishing a citizen military. This would be accomplished under the Medici restoration. Savonarola rose to power by commoner consent. In a fit of confusion he ordered the townspeople to burn their luxury items, and if not gangs of youth would invade their houses, take their luxury items (paganistic items) and put them to bonfires, later named “Bonfire of the Vanities.” The Medici, being rich, and Savonarola not forming quickly a citizen army, stirred up considerable insurgency. Savonarola would pay the price and was burned at the stake in the front of the Florence Palazzo Pubblico. Opposition to his canonization today remains mainly the Franciscans.

Florentine Guelphism[31] and “In the imagination of the Italians,” [32] they pictured Savonarola as ideal of wise, just and powerful savior and ruler (he tried to restrain or turn back some paganistic and ‘extreme’ secularism movements that he believed damaged Florentine ethics.). People initially followed Savonarola because the citizenry common’s began to blame a faltering economic crisis on the elaborate expenditures of de’ Medici, who acted as de facto rulers.

Italian Wars

What finished the Italian Northern Renaissance?

The Italian Wars ( or the Great Italian Wars of the Great Wars of Italy) were a series of economic conquests 1494-1559,  at times involving most of the Italian-city-states, the papal states, and all the major states of western Europe: Spain, France, Holy Roman Empire, England, Scotland, as well as the Ottomans. While Spain and France had claims of irredentism, most of these conflicts were economically based at their core of their arguments. Each Italian province, city-state or regions contained industries, opportunity for trade, and economic possibilities.

When we think about Europe carving up the world during the later half of the nineteenth century and into the twentieth century, we can think of these episodes as precursors. Following the Wars in Lombardy between Venice and Milan, which ended in 1454, Northern Italy had been largely at peace during the reign of Cosimo de’ Medici and Lorenzo de’ Medici in Florence. France was still engaged with England, and Spain was focusing on Andalusia, and the expulsion of the Moors and Jews from Spain. After 1492, the Miraculous Year, in Spanish historiography, Spain turned its attention against toward the east. Spain had promised not to interfere with France’s conquest plans (called interventions by Italians, to protect them from other predatory Italian states or princes) in Italy in return for Roussillon and Cerdagne, where were ceded to Spain in agreement for restraint in France’s conquest projects in Italy. This agreement was part of the Treaty of Barcelona of 1493. Lodovico Sforza of Milan, seeking to ally against the Republic of Venice, encourage Charles VIII of France to invade Italy using the Angevin claim to the throne of Naples as a pretext. When Ferdinand I of Naples died in 1494, Charles invaded the peninsula with 25,000 men (including 8,000 Swiss mercenaries), possibly hoping to use Naples as a base for a crusade against the Turks [Ottomans].[33] The French moved freely through the Italian states and condottieri armies of the Italian states could not stop them. Machiavelli had contended the use of condottieri, due to their disloyalty, paid in advance mentality, fight another day mentality, and when war approached many took their money and deserted their jobs, implying they were not what they said they were as mercenaries for hire but looking for a living while peace reigned. The Italians had to put up with this because they in general and as a whole would prefer not to fight but to pay others to fight for them (a Thomas More ideal in his state construction of Utopia). These condottieri were described as weak points of Italian renaissance, in which Petrarch had furthered the idea of a standing army. After the Medici restoration in Florence, Machiavelli oversaw the first Florentine citizen army, but still had to contend with a small portion of foreign military men for hire. Machiavelli had argued that while French and Spanish militaries contained populations of mercenaries, overwhelming in comparison to Italian armies, they comprise large “loyal” citizens. The only critique of Savonarola for Machiavelli was that the friar did not form a citizen military to back his rule. The French invasion of Naples finally provokes a reaction, and the League of Venice was formed against them, effectively cutting off Charles’s army from France. Despite the tactical victory of French armies against the League at the battle of Fornovo, the formation of the League to his rear forced Charles to withdrawal. After initial reverses, most notably the disastrous Battle of Seminara, Ferdinand II of Naples, with the able assistance of the Spanish general Gonzalo Fernández de Cordoba, reduced the French garrison in the Kingdom of Naples. Ludovico, having betrayed the French at Fornovo, retained his throne until 1499, when Charles’ successor, Louis XII of France, invaded Lombardy and seized Milan.

Italian War of 1499-1504 ( Battle for Naples)

In 1500, Louis having reached an agreement with Ferdinand I of Spain to divide Naples marched south from Milan. By 1502, combined French and Spanish forces had seized control of the Kingdom of Naples. Disagreement about the terms of the partition led to a war between Louis and Ferdinand. By 1503, Louis’ forces having been defeated at the Battle of Garigliano was forced to withdrawal from Naples, which was left under the control of General de Córdoba, the Spanish viceroy.

War of the League of Cambrai

Pope Julius II (1503 – 1514 -15) wanted to revive the Imperial Roman model, and make himself the new reborn Emperor of Roman antiquity.

“The remaining years of Machiavelli’s official career were filled with

events arising out of the League of Cambrai, made in 1508 between the

three great European powers already mentioned and the pope, with the

object of crushing the Venetian Republic. This result was attained in

the battle of Vaila, when Venice lost in one day all that she had won in

eight hundred years. Florence had a difficult part to play during these

events, complicated as they were by the feud which broke out between

the pope and the French, because friendship with France had dictated the entire policy of the Republic. When, in 1511, Julius II finally formed

the Holy League against France, and with the assistance of the Swiss

drove the French out of Italy, Florence lay at the mercy of the Pope,

and had to submit to his terms, one of which was that the Medici

should be restored. The return of the Medici to Florence on 1st

September 1512, and the consequent fall of the Republic, was the signal

for the dismissal of Machiavelli and his friends, and thus put an end to

his public career, for, as we have seen, he died without regaining office.”[34] Machiavelli writes that Venice and Rome both became powerful military contenders to carve up Rome itself. he states, “We

have in Italy, for example, the Duke of Ferrara, who could not have

withstood the attacks of the Venetians in ’84, nor those of Pope Julius

in ’10, unless he had been long established in his dominions.”[35] To restrain Venetian expansion the League of Cambri had been formed with a confederation of France, the Papacy, Spain, and the Holy Roman Empire (mainly representing Germany). These states agreed to restrain Venice, a powerful merchant and ship building empire. The League decimated the Venetian military at the Battle of Agnadello in 1509, but if failed to capture Padua. By 1510, Julius II now regarded France as a preeminent threat and dissolved the league and aligned himself with Venice. Julius II formed the Veneto-Papal alliance and tried to conquest Romagna, what Cesare Borgia had prior tried. Defeated often, Julius II decided to proclaim a Holy League against the French. The Holy League grew into a papal alliance of England, Spain and the Holy Roman Empire against France. Forces under Gaston de Foix inflicted an overwhelming defeat on a Spanish army at the Battle of Ravenna in 1512, but Foix was killed during the Battle, and the French were force to withdraw from Italy by an invasion of Milan by the Swiss, who reinstated Maximilian Sforza to the ducal throne. The Holy League left victorious but fell upart on conflicts of division of resources. In 1513, Venice then allied itself with France, agreeing to partitian Lombardy between them.

Louis mounted another invasion of Milan, but was defeated at the Battle of Novara, which was quickly followed by a series of Holy League victories at La Motta, Guinegate, and Flodden Field. The loss to the French, Scottish and Venice power was surpassed by Pope Julius II’s death which left the league without effective leadership. The reaction in Rome against Julius II plans to regain Roman Imperialistic measures doomed the Italian states to subjugation. Leo X was elected the new Pope and revered much of Julius II’s plans of empire and consolidation.

Italian War of 1521- 26 Now continues with France and Spain

Louis’ successor, Francis I took action and defeated the Swiss at Marignono in 1515 and the League collapsed. The treaties of Noyon and Brussels ceded to France and Venice the entirety of northern Italy. The Medici who had a long history of brokering peace would lay idle in military preparedness and alliances while Charles V and Francis I campaigned for the position of Holy Roman Emperor. Charles V kept sending troops into Naples and won by the larger bribes to the Holy Roman Council electorate the position of Holy Roman Emperor. This gave Spain more manpower in military prowess and Charles V, now the Holy Roman Emperor sent his Spanish army into Navarre (1519) a French fief and created tension for Francis I to counter attack and send forces into Italy to counter the Spanish plans of conquest. Francis I sent his forces in Italy to drive out Charles V’s armies from Naples. The Spanish military now supplied with Mexican gold from the new world was far superior for the struggling French forces. Spain’s empire had reached a new strong economic stability and new modern weaponry from Germany (from the spoils of Charles V being the Holy Roman Empower; Germany was the state which made the premier weapons during the medieval ages and continuing into the renaissance). With the harquebusier tactics the French suffered crippling defeats at Bicocca and Sesia under Spanish commander Fernando de Avalos. With Milan threatened, Francis I led a French army into Lombardy in 1525, only to be defeated and captured at the Battle of Pavia. He was imprisoned in Madrid, before a further transfer to a secured castle in Portugal, France was forced to agree to extensive concessions over his Italian territories and pay a huge indemnity (scores of barges of gold and money sent to Austria (Hapsburgs) for Charles coffers and France’s people suffered with raised taxes) – thus crippling France’s ability to forge further attempts at intervention or defense in Europe. This allowed Charles V to take over Italy, and his focus on Rome itself.

War of the League of Cognac (France out of the picture)

In 1526, Pope Clement VII alarmed at the growing power of the Empire and without the possibility of France helping Italy formed a League of Cognac against Charles V, allying himself with Venice and Florence and some other small Italian republican-city-states. Remember that Machiavelli had decried the anti-military sentiment of the republican city states. Machiavelli had gone to Florence after Julius II ‘s death to help form a Florentine citizen army. Yet, it was too late. With French armies leaving the lands of Italy (Lombardy), Charles V’s plans continued to subdue Florence (ending its republic once and for all), and then he returned home to Spain to be with his wife to celebrate his child (future king Philip II of Spain, ruled 16 January 1556 to 13 September 1598 (b. 21 May 1527 – d. 13 September 1598)) and was not able to pay his military that had reached the walls of the city of Rome. The Pope not willing to negotiate, fled into a palace, and the Spanish soldiers demanding someone pay them – Charles V spent all his money on celebrations back in Spain and had no money to pay his troops – resolved to Sack Rome, murdering civilians, destroying art work and buildings, severely retarding the Roman Renaissance for some time in 1527. Florentine citizens encourage by the sake of Rome threw out the Medici and restored the republic, and Michelangelo for the love of his adopted city he grew up in at Lorenzo’s home ( now dead) he worked on the cities fortifications from 1528 to 1529. The city however fell in 1530 and the Medici were restored to power by Spain. Completely out of sympathy with the repressive regime of the ducal Medici, Michelangelo left Florence for good in the mid-1530s, leaving assistants to complete the Medici Chapel. (Back to 1527) The Spanish soldiers demanding anyone pay them money sacked Rome and Clement was imprisoned by Spanish Imperial troops. Letters to Spain form Rome took many weeks, and the soldiers had asked for Charles what to do? Out of this realization of Spanish conquest came

the Treaty of Cambrai in 1529, which formally removed Francis I from the war, the league collapsed and Spain now was in control of Italy, which it then spread its finances and culture, helping rebuild what it had destroyed and all the destruction of these wars. Yet, Francis I paid a huge ransom and Charles V restored him to power by the way of huge sums of money. Charles V did not restore Frances I out of kindness or was he going to kill him in captivity. Charles V was broke spending money on armies on two continents, and his understanding of future costs of many armies stationed all over Europe, as well as planning to refund the damage his armies had wreaked during their conquest wars.

Italian War of 1536-38

The third war between Francis I and Charles V began with the death of Francesco Maria Sforza, duke of Milan. When Charles’ son Philip was given by his father the patrimony (Duchy of Milan), Francis I invaded Italy capturing Turin, but failed to take Milan. In response, Charles invaded Provence advancing to Aix-en-Provence, but withdrew to Spain rather than attacking the heavily fortified Avignon. The Truce of Nice ended the war, leaving Turin in French hands but effecting no significant changes to the Spanish control of Italy.

Italian War of 1542-46 France Allies with the Ottoman Empire

Francis I in a last ditch effort and possibly dreaming of a miracle had allied himself with the Ottoman Empire. Ironically Süleyman I the Sultan had changed the Ottoman rulership system and was now a recluse in his palaces. Süleyman I had others plan and carry out military matters for him (like Mahmud Pasha). This was a change in the Ottoman ruler system and a series of defeats for the Ottoman state began under this sultan. The two states manage to launch a Franco-Ottoman fleet which captured the city of Nice (Nizza) in August of 1543. This joint military campaign laid siege to the citadel. The defenders were relieved within a month. Count d’Enghien, Francios defeated a Holy Roman Empire army at the Battle of Cresole in 1544, but the French failed to penetrate further into Lombardy. Charles and Henry VIII of England then proceeded to invade northern France, seizing Boulonge and Soissons. A lack of cooperation between the Spanish and English armies and in conjunction to increasingly aggressive Ottoman Empire advances and attacks, led Charles V to abandon these conquests and restore a truce once again. François Rabelais’ social criticisms make fun of Charles and Francis endlessly fighting eachother across Europe a valid point in his book Gargantua and Pantagruel ( although not naming them by name, he would have been killed or in deep trouble, but everyone knew who had been speaking of).

Italian War of 1551- 59 Henry II of France & Charles V

In 1551 Henry II of France, who had succeeded his father to the throne, declared war against Charles V with the intent of recapturing Italy and ensuring France, rather than Hapsburg, domination of European affairs. An early offensive against Lorraine was successful, but the attempted French invasion of Tuscany in 1553 was defeated at the Battle of Marciano. Charles’ abdication in 1556 split the Hapsburg empire between Philip II of Spain and Ferdinand I, and shifted the focus of the war turned to Flanders, where Philip II, in conjunction with Emmanuel Philibert of Savoy, defeated the French at St. Quentin. England’s entry into the war later that year led to the French capture of Calais, and French armies plundered Spanish possessions in the Low Countries. Henry still at a disadvantage to a still powerful Spanish military (the best in the world at this time) singed a Peace of Cateau-Cambrésis treaty to which he renounced any further claims to Italy. France at this time turned its attentions to internal conflicts, that of the new religious factions between the Protestants (Huguenots) and Catholics. Spain began to turn its attention to rebuilding southern Italy and funding the Vatican project.[36]

The Rise of Rome – Roman Renaissance?

 Topic Two Worlds, Republic and Imperial

  1. Northern Italy early renaissance were republican city-states.
  2. Papal States were in decline until the late fifteenth century, when the papacy returned, and then visionary popes declined adopting republicanism of Roman antiquity and instead embraced Roman imperialism, outbuilding northern republican city states by a grandeur aspirations and ambition.  
  3. Ghost of ancient Rome, wanting to revive Roman times, but which one? Republicanism or Imperialism? that is the question Italians are dealing with during the mid-renaissance.
  4. Artistic and ascetic renaissance ‘first’ take root in the republican city states ( northern Italian republican city-states.
  5. Military and securing culture to Rome from northern regions. Rome connections to a different understanding of the Renaissance!
    1. During the 14th century, Rome was deprived of its major patron, the pope. The papacy had moved to Avignon, and remained under the power of the French Monarchy (~ 100 years).
    2. In 1417, the papacy returns to Rome.  A church council finally resolves the schism. After a century in exile, Martin V as pope  (patriarch 1417-31) and a member of the Colonna family, his personal name Oddone Colonna.   He represented the beginning the renaissance in Rome. Prior to this, the city of Rome was in shambles. However, his family had supported the renaissance, and had embraced the humanist culture of the Florentines. Petrarch had stayed with the Colonna family.
    3. Martin V: Regal name, Papa Martinus Quintus, Episcopus Romanus, personal name Oddone Colonna (pontificate, 11 November 1417 –20 February 1431). Convened the Council of Basel, 1431. Born in Rome.
    4. From hence, Rome was like a cowboy outpost, where limited to no police were found, and the population was scarce in comparison to Florence. Rome approximately contained 25,000 as it population.
    5. City of Rome Conditions: Pope Martin (~25,000 pop), and Florence had ~ 100,000 people, and Rome was struggling to clean its sewers, and contain its poverty. So Martin is important for getting the idea of bureaucracy out to the city’s people and laying the foundation for city administration.
    6. Politics were medieval in the Rome-Renaissance, but in the North politics take on a more progressive renaissance position – this is a contrast. Traditional Roman families were always patrons of the humanists, but the politics were medieval in the Renaissance (still under medieval mindset while the north had embraced republicansim). Rome did not go through a stage of the republican city-state. It directly went from feudal rights to imperialism, modeled on the kings and queens of northwestern Europe. [ mjm: This is why Marx’s model is not consistent, it tells us little about what historicism actually is.]

Pope Sixtus IV

  1. Pope Sixtus IV: First pope to control Rome.

Papacy rise in history

Papal Revenue:

Where did the money come for the building projects of wild-wild-west Rome?

  1. All of Europe supposedly is Roman Catholic, so lands are subject to tribute)
  2. Papacy legally owns the agricultural revenue: oil, wine, grain, ecclesiastical revenue (it gets it from other parts of Europe – from a variety of transactions. They had controlled the medieval age because they employed the literate who could understand deeds, documents of ownership and basic law and basic civilian needs. Traditionally the power of the papacy came from preserving written documentation of the past – things that people treasure and concern as important to understanding themselves and the world of which they lived.
  1. Wills, when I die, such and such money goes to papacy. When Catholics died, they left money to the Church.
  2. A formal papal officer, who is called the “collector,’ goes out and collects European revenues. These are perpetuity revenue, called the spoils. Spoils were then during the renaissance turned around as educational pensions to clerics and legates who then studied in the new humanistic mode, perpetuating knowledges back to the church in which culture and civilization progressed. Therefore, the Church promoted paganism ( as opposed to Justinian I) and understood it would later pay the price for this by encouraging agnosticism and atheism in the public awareness as a permissible civil attitude. However, the Church cared more about the general western civilization people then itself interests.
  3. It allowed ‘indulgences’ to be sold.  (Source of renaissance revenue, gained during the renaissance).

Pope Innocent VIII (p. 1484 –’92)

  1. Pope Innocent VIII sold secular indulgences, even indulgences for murder and manslaughter for large sums of money; a firm reaction by Savonarola who saw this as paganism. He is a pope after Sixtus IV (p. 1458-’64), who had “filled his treasury by the sale of spiritual dignities,” according to Burckhardt.
  1. Indulgences: (Julius II’s program to supplement funds for architecture and artistry work (ex. fund Michelangelo’s projects and other artists, and construction workers to plan and excavate the Vatican land and get ready to build a great building), while at the same time funding wars against the French and Spain.)
    1. Indulgences are privileges granted by the Latin Church in exchange for patronage to the church.

    2. Proposed plans for rebuilding of Saint Peter’s Basilica. He and the papacy needed funds, because of the winds of war – which took considerable capital to finance and maintain. Soldiers, being mainly conscripts, demand money for their services.

    3. People believed in the papacy that had the keys to heaven or the noose. It mattered that one took privilege with the Catholic Church, because they held the ideology of simple, communal life and the pathway to correct living within their medieval ideology. Many former Roman citizens adopted the Church because it promoted pacifism, and concepts of love and compassion, where as the imperial Roman times, paganism had led to imperialism, interventionism, conquest, death and destruction – selfishness, greed, abuse of people, the medieval citizens of Europe held in belief.  All consequences associated with having an empire, such as ambition, want of luxury, want of comfort, want of easy and wealthy living were discouraged and punished. [I intend the leftist people made the church act this way, not the other way around].

    4. If one fought in the Crusades, they could get an indulgence.

    5. At brief period of time, one could purchase an indulgence.

    6. Good place or the bad placed – people believed they had sins accumulating over their lifetime, and they wanted to get rid of them before they died.

    7. As time when on, your sins would accumulate, and it was sacred to get it all wiped out with one indulgence.

    8. If you support a crusade, you can make a charitable act. Maybe one cannot be a soldier, so Europeans supported financially the soldiers in the Crusades and received discounts (actually privileges). it works like modern politics, in donations and funding usually is returned by a political party in the form of favors – thus one is privileged to have access to that political party.

    9. Indulgences were taken seriously: act of patrician, must have a spiritual disposition to get the indulgence.

    10. Indulgences did not bring in enormous sums, but some money. It was a form of ecclesiastical revenue.

    11. Once the empty space of the city has popes that are humanists in power, and strong revenue continues as it did under the religious popes, this will lead to a flowering of culture in Rome.

    12. Everyone is out for money in secularism. So if the popes went humanist/ pagan, then understandably they will want to make as much money as they could. This describes the historiography abuse that religion was fraud and did not have the people’s good intentions at heart. Simply once the papacy returned to Rome, religion ceased and modern secularism took its place and to fund modern secularism large amounts of money were needed. This lead to the various cardinals and bishops melding their minds on how to establish Rome as a symbolic center of secular power. In order to do this, they had to think like the Roman Caesars and pagan civilizations.

    13. Justinian had closed down the last academia, where Greek philosophy was taught citing that it was dangerous. The return to Rome and the already emerging  secular paganism, expressed a need to leave ecclesiastical communalism and namelessness and turn toward individualism, advertisement, and broadcasting by ritual and symbolism that the Catholic Church was progressive, liberal ideas and desired by the people of Europe.

Nicholas V (1447-’55)

  1. Three major factors mark Nicholas’ pontificate exceptionally historic.

  2. Nicholas V begins Vatican Library: Will become one, if not, the largest old manuscript depository on earth. In the 16th century, the Vatican Library over takes Lorenzo’s library as the humanist employer and premier archival location. The papacy begins to employ, promote, and gather humanists with as much as money as they could spend. They send people all over the world to collect old manuscripts, books, and letters and bring them back to Rome.

  3. He moves the headquarters of the Papacy to the Vatican ( During the 4th century, the Lateran Palace, that Constantine gave to the papacy when Constantine left for Byzantine was the headquarters for the pontificate. Nicholas decided to go to the Vatican. It was a long way across town. However, It was important because it had the Basilica of St Peter.

    1. Role of successor of St Peter.

    2. actual bones of Peter were buried in this location, and the relics provided the emphasis for pilgrimages, meaning tourist money.

    3. What made Rome a pilgrimage center were the relics of St Peter. The center of the pilgrimage – Nicholas would probably say was “ I want to associate the Vatican to Peter.”

    4. As result, The Vatican Palace became the center of later renaissance Art.

  4. To make Rome a competing secular city. This was done by building ritual spaces. This is an initiative that gains steam in the 16th century.

  5. The strong humanist agenda (The City of Rome went secular) in the sixteenth century and many citizens that had lived in Rome now had a Petrarchean education. This is   compared to the 15th century popes in Avignon, who were still reading medieval religious texts and providing new clerics with continuing the medieval mindset. At Rome and as a contrast to the rest of Europe at the time of the renaissance, Romans studied the most current ancient knowledge. How does this describe the rise of Rome?

Pius II (1464 –’71)

  1. He is a Florentine. ( get his real name)

  2. The choice of the name of Aenius was to adopt a classical figure.

  3. before the pope, he was in the circle of the highest humanists.

  4. 1458-64, a short period but of an enormous period.

  5. Humanist flock to Rome under Pius II, and create a humanist court.

  6. A new center of patronage. Using the money for secularism.

  7. Curia, the administrative beau racy, becomes a humanist center, all have a similar intellectual network – a pre req. to become a notary at the Vatican, one must be a well lettered person and must be a humanist – this also implied becoming Courtiers ( possibly what Castiglione had observed)

  8. Intellectual renaissance community.

  9.  Key: Letters revived the art – the critical foundation. And it kept on going on at this time.

  10. Among the humanist, Bruni was a notary (early 15th c.) at the Roman center of humanist papacy.

  11. out to revive ancient latin, Roman and Greek letters.

  12. Flavio Biondo: Expression to the dream of patriarch, and writes a treatise, Rome Triumphant ( English trans.), a praise of Rome, similarly to Bruni’s text, and about extraordinary Rome and reviving Rome in later part of the fifteenth century.

  13. Why important? They started to believe that could revive the ‘real’ Roman Empire.

Julius II

New and different renaissance

(1503-1514-15) (new and different renaissance)

  • Regnal name, Papa Iulius Secundus, Episcopus Romanus; personal name Guiliano della Rovere; born in Albisola, Savona, Italy (pontificate, 31 October 1503 – 21 February 1513) [ mjm Nostradamus birth year 1503, a change] Julius II was Giuliano della Rovere, Cardinal of San Pietro ad Vincula, born 1443, died 1513.

  • He will embrace the city of Rome as the center of empire and the papacy as the center of the renaissance. What he starts is usually in historiography given to Leo X as credit. But to begin the grandeur of Rome, including the artistic involvement of the virtuous (vernacular as ‘skillful’) of the day, Julius II began this program.

  • Plan to build the Vatican mirrored on secular Roman paganism, to illustrate the art and architecture of the grandeur Roman Empire era.

  • “Pope Julius came afterwards and found the Church strong, possessing all the Romagna, the barons of Rome reduced to impotence, and, through the chastisements of Alexander, the factions wiped out; he also found the way open to accumulate money in a manner such as had never been practised [sic] before Alexander’s time. Such things Julius not only followed, but improved upon, and he intended to gain Bologna, to ruin the Venetians, and to drive the French out of Italy. All of these enterprises prospered with him, and so much the more to his credit, inasmuch as he did everything to strengthen the Church and not any private person. He kept also the Orsini and Colonnesi factions within the bounds in which he found them; and although there was among them some mind to make disturbance, nevertheless he held two things firm: the one, the greatness of the Church, with which he terrified them; and the other, not allowing them to have their own cardinals, who caused the disorders among them. For whenever these factions have their cardinals they do not remain quiet for long, because cardinals foster the factions in Rome and out of it, and the barons are compelled to support them, and thus from the ambitions of prelates arise disorders and tumults among the barons. For these reasons his Holiness Pope Leo [x, Former Cardinal  de' Medici] found the pontificate most powerful, and it is to be hoped that,  if others made it great in arms, he will make it still greater and more  venerated by his goodness and infinite other virtues.”[37]


Bramante the architect Julius II would pick to design the new St Peters.

Vatican was to be the center of the New Roman Empire (part #2). Yet, militarism from long centuries of war in Iberia, and northwestern Europe created powerful armies and forces under kingships that were decisive against vacillating politics of pacifist republican city states. Rome countered this as Florence and other republican-city-states fell to more powerful empire-like-minded-states. France under Alexander VI’s auspices and his son made a plan to intervene on the behalf of this new Roman power, but Spain beat them, and sacked the city forcing a treaty with Rome that for two hundred years and at varying capacities was under Spanish rule.

The ideas of republican life as the perceptions of the northern Italian states fall to the wayside. Julius makes changes to the Papal States that will affect history and its later position in western civilization.

Roman Imperial Renaissance

  • The change is the revival of Roman Imperial renaissance.

  • He models a new emperor, he is modeling himself after Julius Caesar, and mints coins, that say on the back side that he is an Emperor.

  • No revival of Republican city state for Julius’s vision, of the likes of the northern Italian republican city-states with constitutions toward public political involvement.

  • This papal revival is of an imperial renaissance importance.

  • Julius’ name was chosen on purpose to project this idea of the grandeur of the Roman Empire. Julius believed the Roman empire was stronger, more grandeur, more illustrious, and more secure than a republican style city-state.

Imperial artistic agenda

  • Imperial artistic agenda – he wants to make Rome the center of artistic for Europe, and more specifically wanted to overtake Florence, we will be bigger and better and an empire that will show that republican politics are not as grandeur as Empire politics of the Roman model

  • Sponsors the scope and symbolism of the imperial architecture, Michelangelo, and Raphael came down from the northern republican city-states at the turn of the century and they lead the center for artistic and architectural development of the city of Rome --  now in imperial proclivities.

  • Chronology: 15th century about 100 large buildings were built in the northern republican city-state but, 16th century the shift was evident by the movement to the Papal States which saw similarly numbers of construction of modern buildings of about palaces. So the shift represents Julius’ actions – this is the move we look for (although Leo X is often given credit, it was Julius that implemented the idea – he just did not have the funds and was dealing with European politics at the same time.

  • Julius’ projects. He brings Michelangelo down, to do sculpture, paint the Sistine chapel, and picks Raphael to decorate the Vatican apartments. and the biggest single project is to rebuild St Peters ( the church, had been built by Constantine, still functional, a little renovation but standing and strong). Julius II wanted a new church, more to do with the status than the needs of the church. the fact, is that Rome had already a number of big church ( 50,000 pop, at this time) that could have been used. But competitions ensured.

Michelangelo Buonarroti

  1. Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni, b. 6 March 1475, near Aresso, in Caprese, Tuscany -- d. 16 February 1564 (age 88) Rome. Considered the archetypal renaissance [man by many] artist by Giorgio Vasari. Artist in this sense in all his forays of art, discussed below. Giorgio says he was the “pinnacle of all artistic achievements since the beginning of the renaissance. Jacob Burckhardt (b. 1818) Lombardian Italian renaissance historian intends Leon Batista Alberti was the quintessential Renaissance man.

  2. Michelangelo considered himself a perfectionist. This probably explains why he had fired the assistance crew at the Sistine Chapel provided to him by Pope Julius II to get the job done quicker.

  3. Michelangelo wrote sonnets and poems: A meeting of a sixteen year old Cecchino dei Bracci, whose death only a year after their meeting in 1543 inspired the writing of forty-eight funeral epigrams. To Tommaso dei Cavalieri (c. 1509-1587) who was 23 years old when Michelangelo met him in 1532, at the age of 57, Michelangelo dedicated to him over three hundred sonnets and madrigals, constituting the largest sequence of poems composed by him.[38]

  4. On 25 June 1496 Michelangelo arrived in Rome and on 4 of July Michelangelo began to star carving an over-life size sculpture of a Roman wine god, Bacchus, commissioned by Cardinal Raffaele Riario. The work was rejected by the cardinal, and subsequently entered the collection of the banker Jacopo Galli, for his garden.

  5. In 1497 the French ambassador in the Holy See commissioned one of his most famous works, the Pietà. Giorgio Vasari praised it as “a revelation of all the potentialities and force of the art of sculpture,” and “It is certainly a miracle that a formless block of stone could have been reduced to a perfection that nature is scarcely able to create.” This is a sculpture of Mother Mary holding her son Jesus on her lap after the crucifixion, and is carved out of a single piece of marble. While in Rome for the first time, he never ceased drawing and sketching, as was his practice for most of his life (many of his drawings remain in Paris, held by the French when Francis I asked that he come to France and contribute to military fortifications, which he did little of after he arrived).

  6. Michelangelo retuned to Florence in 1499 and stayed until 1501, and during this time the Guild of Wool asked him to complete a statute of King David of Israel ( Florence’s sentiment of being a small city in the larger realm of European states, not the patron saint; David was the symbol of Florentine Freedom.).  This statue was to be placed in the Piazza della Signoria, in front of the Palazzo Vecchio. Some believe this is Michelangelo’s most famous work, however, he lived until eighty-eight years old and his contributions in Rome stagger the mind. He completed David in 1504, from marble quarried from Carrara that already had been worked on by another hand. David fame grew further. The statue is a symbol of male beauty, and does not show David with his slingshot or armor, thus illustrating a rather peaceful Imperialist (David formed the first Empire of Israel, in Jewish history). Michelangelo, David, c. 1501-04, marble. Originally the David sculpture was for the Florence Cathedral on one of its buttresses. This meant that it was supposed to be viewed high up. Thus the detail of the top of the head is not as intricate as the rest, because no one would see it. It was a civic commission and later the commission decided to move it, also thus changing the meaning from religious to political. David exemplifies heroic, human triumphant, dignity on a grand scale. The city fathers changed their minds and moved there choice for the place of resting of the statue to the Plazzo Vecchio (City hall). This changed the meaning to a more political setting. Understanding that David faced insurmountable odds and defeated a mammoth contender, in Goliath, this was the first public nude of David. David represented Florence against impossible odds (There history of luck and steadfastness against foreign enemies).

  7. Places of his work, the Medici Chapel  (Capella Medicea) sculpture of the Madonna and Child, set over Lorenzo’s his burial site in the Medici family chapel,; Laurentian Library ( Lorenzo’s archival library), built by Michelangelo around 1530 in Florence, attached to the Church of San Lorenzo. He produced new styles such as pilasters tapering thinner at the bottom, and a staircase with contrasting rectangular and curving forms.

  8. In 1505 Michelangelo was invited to Rome by newly elected Pope Julius II. He was commission to build the Pope’s tomb. Under the patronage of Julius II, Michelangelo had to stop work on his tomb and attend to other projects of the ambitious Julius. These actions, among others, created the natural tension between employer and employee --- which some stories have become legend. Because of these interruptions Michelangelo worked on his tomb for forty-years. The tomb, of which the central figure is Michelangelo’s statue of Moses, was never finished by Michelangelo’s satisfaction. Michelangelo had been said to have said that if one flaw existed in one of his projects, he considered the whole project ruined.

  9. The Major interruption (among others) was to fresco the Sistine Chapel ceiling, which took approximately four years to complete (1508-1512). This is because Michelangelo locked out his team that Julius II had provided him with because Michelangelo had to begin on the ceiling and due to its awkward concave angles, created difficulties that novices could not attend too. This created one of the legendary conflicts with Julius. Michelangelo finished the Chapel himself. He used  a type of trompe l’œil (— A form of illusionistic painting that attempts to represent an object as existing in three dimensions at the surface of the painting; literally, “fools the eye.” (a word not used back then)), because he had to create the figures to a consistent size to an observer’s perspective while addressing these cramped and irregular spaces on the ceiling ( Comportments, and he does not use perspective or other standards to make these figures fit into these comprotments). These circumstances had caused difficulties in proper figure placement, that he complained the novice crew Julius had provided him with were not able to perform. Michelangelo looking up from the floor to the ceiling had to calculate that patrons of the chapel could not see figures so far above their seats, so he had to make them larger than the figures on the wall -- a closer proximity to the patrons. In essence, he had to trick the eyes so the cycles of creation could be viewed naturally as he had envisioned them.  (Michelangelo, The Creation of Adam, detail, Sistine Chapel Ceiling, 1508-12, fresco.) Michelangelo, influenced by Masaccio nudes, and the last judgments of previous painters, went back to the Sistine Chapel to finish the cycle that started on the ceiling of the creation of Man by God, and then to the final chapter of life, the Last Judgment: Michelangelo, The Last Judgement, fresco ( from the Sistine Chapel), 1534-41. This work, as part of Michelangelo’s last works was commissioned by Pope Clement VII, who died shortly after assigning the commission. Paul III was instrumental in seeing that Michelangelo began and completed the project. The work is massive and spans the entire wall behind the alter of the Sistine Chapel. The Last Judgment is a depiction of the second coming of Christ and the apocalypse; where the souls of humanity rise and are assigned their various fates, as judged by Christ, surrounded by the saints. It has been speculated that one of the figures depicted in the area of heaven is a portrait of Michelangelo himself.  Originally, Michelangelo was supposed to design and fresco the twelve apostles, but he is the one who advocated for a different and more complex Christian humanist adventure. The scheme Michelangelo advocated for was Creation of Man, the Downfall of man, the Promise of Salvation through the prophets and genealogy of Christ. The work eventually contained over 300 figures, and nine episodes of from the Book of Genesis, divided into three groups: God’s Creation of the Earth; God’s Creation of Humankind and their fall from God’s grace; and lastly, the state of Humanity as represented in Noah and his family.

  10. Sixus Chapel (Sistine Chapel) stories: (1) Julius II kept pressuring Michelangelo to finish, and forcing him to take down the scaffolding. Later Julius II complained (really to himself) he should not have acted in haste. (2) Bramante wanted Raphael to receive the permission from Pope Julius II to paint the chapel, to finish the other side. This was after Michelangelo had completed one side. (3) Bramnte and Raphael had tricked Michelangelo into painting the Sistine chapel by pressing the Pope to force Michelangelo to take on the massive endeavor. Both had known that Michelangelo had never worked with colors or Fresco. The plan was to embarrass him to the public, thus increasing both of their fames. (4) Bramante built a inferior scaffolding (actually ropes attached ( anchored ) in the ceiling, meaning later someone would have to patch the holes – building this on command by Julius. Michelangelo went to both of them and embarrassed Bramante. Michelangelo built pole scaffolding, and brought many artisans and builders with him to show him how to make scaffolding so as not to touch the ceiling or walls. (5) Michelangelo locked himself and covered his work so no one, including the Pope (hard to imagine) could see it before its revealing date. (6) (Vasari is discoursing on the magnificent figures, “[...] and still others are holding up garland of oak and acorn leaves representing the coat of arms and insignia of Pope Julius and signifying the fact that the period [Roman Renaissance] during his rule was an age of gold, since Italy had not yet entered into hardship and mirrors that she later encountered.”[39] The golden age was indeed what people believed in the Italian Renaissance. Between the Wars of Italy, and from the urbanization in conducted with new economic fluidity that appeared about the 1320s in Northern Italy, it was indeed a golden age.

  11. Return to Florence: Florence: Florentine citizens encourage by the sake of Rome threw out the Medici and restored the republic, and Michelangelo for the love of his adopted city he grew up in at Lorenzo’s home (now dead) he worked on the cities fortifications from 1528 to 1529. The city however fell in 1530 and the Medici were restored to power by Spain. Completely out of sympathy with the repressive regime of the ducal Medici, Michelangelo left Florence for good in the mid-1530s, leaving assistants to complete the Medici Chapel.

  12. (1520 in Florence) Michelangelo received the commission for the Medici Chapel in 1520 from the Medici Pope Leo X (1513-23). The Pope wanted to combine the tombs of his younger brother Giuliano, Duke of Nemours, and his nephew Lorenzo, Duke of Urbino, with those of the "Magnifici", Lorenzo and his brother Giuliano, who had been murdered in 1478; their tombs were then in the Old Sacristy of San Lorenzo.

  13. Architecture: Capitoline Hill, Piazza del Campidoglio., St. Peter’s the Vatican, Palazzo Farnese, San Giovanni de’ Fiorentini and the Sforza Chapel ( Capella Sforzesca), Porta Pia and Santa Maria degli Angeli.

  14. Raphael, in his short life was said to have harmonized colors better than anyone else had. Giorgio Vasari had written teleological in “The Lives of the Artists,” with Michelangelo as the last Italian renaissance artistic of Vasari’s biographies of Italian renaissance artists, and Raphael is in the last section too, indicating his importance in the renaissance. Vasari was a pupil of Michelangelo, and had helped decorate papal projects as well. His book, expanded after Michelangelo had past, indicating his lauded opening of the divinely inspired Italian icon artist was really a true description by Vasari and not painted to attain a job by the master. Disputes between major iconic Italian artists can be explained that rivalry consisted of contracts, and to a lesser extent mastery of their craft. They all knew they, as a group, were at the elite level of modern artistry. Economics played a larger part in competition than skill.

  15. ~125 years to build and decorate the Vatican; and the biggest building project in Europe at that time, it is enormous. What Julius did was to patronize the imperial statues (inaugurated in 1504 (by his death in 1514, nothing had been built but a few walls that were torn down; not much was accomplished) he was dreaming big but the bank account was not big enough. So he is actually needs to be given credit – remember his role as patron of art and architectural personages and projects.

  16. Michelangelo, remember he has his foot in two worlds. Roman republican to imperial and he moved from Florence to Vatican (Rome). On 7 December 2007, Michelangelo’s red chalk sketch for the radial columns of the cupola drum of (part of the dome) of St. Peter’s Basilica was discovered in the Vatican archives.[40]

  17. The fall of the Florentine republic pushes Michelangelo to flee to Rome or pushes him around.

  18. He will embrace as the center of empire and the papacy as the center of the renaissance.

  19. The ideas of republican life as the perceptions of the northern Italian states. But what changes to the Papal states.

  20. The change is the revival of Roman Imperial renaissance.

  21. He models a new emperor, he is modeling himself after Julius Caesar, and mints coins, that say on the back side he is Emperor.

  22. No revival of Republican city state, like the north

  23. This papal revival is the imperial renaissance.

  24. Julius the name was chosen on purpose to project this idea.

  25. Imperial artistic agenda – he wants to make Rome the center of artistic for Europe, and more specifically wanted to overtake Florence, we will be bigger and better and an empire that will show that republican politics are not as grandeur as Empire politics of the Roman model

  26. Sponsors the scope and symbolism of the imperial architecture, Michelangelo, and Raphael come down from the republican city states at the turn of the century and become the Center of art and architecture now in imperial proclivities.

  27. Chronology: 15th cent., 100, 16th cent., built 100 palaces. So the shift represents Julius’ actions – this is the move we look for ( although Leo X is often given credit, it was Julius that implemented the idea – he just did not have the funds and was dealing with European politics at the same time..

  28. Julius’ projects: He brings Michelangelo down, to do sculpture on his private tomb (Moses, with horns and a full beard, the only authenticated work, wholly by the master’s hands.), paint the Sistine chapel, and picks Raphael to decorate the Vatican apartments. The biggest single project is to rebuild St Peters ( the church, had been built by Constantine, was still functional, a needed a little renovation --  but was still standing and was still strong). Julius II wanted a new church, more to do with the status than the needs of the church. The Location of the Vatican was moved by Pope Nicholas V, who wanted to revive the Greek plays and a new feel for Rome.  The fact is that Rome had already a number of big churches (50,000 pop, at this time) that could have been used. But competitions ensured the old St. Peter’s as the primary location to construct the gargantuan Basilica that we see today. By the beginning of the sixteenth century, a population explosion takes place in Rome, and workers and artists migrate to the ‘dirty-aired’ city. Michelangelo had left periodically Rome to take vacations (often in Florence) to get away from the construction that created dirty-air in Rome.

  29. Michelangelo had left Florence due to political complications and Julius II took advantage and had him decorate a smaller winter chapel in order to save heating costs. This was the Sistine Chapel. The Sistine Chapel was chosen because of its small space, and the heating costs of winter created ideal conditions on a tight budget. It later became the chapel where the College of Cardinals elected their popes.

New St Peter’s Basilica

  1. Farnese Palace, capital hill, and St Peters – clear signs of Marble, stone and brick. Michelangelo. 

  2. ~125 years to build and decorate, and the biggest building project in Europe at that time, it is enormous. What Julius to patronize the imperial statues ( inaugurated in 1504 ( by his death (1514, nothing but a few walls that were torn down was accomplished) he was dreaming big but the bank account was not big enough. So he is actually given credit – remember his role as patron of art and architectural.

  3. Michelangelo, remember has his foot in two worlds. Roman republican to imperial the move from Florence to Vatican ( Rome)

  4. Fall of the Florentine republic pushes Michelangelo to flee to Rome or pushes him around.

  5. Bramante , the architect Julius II would pick to design the new St. Peters. He had already built an extraordinary dome chapel, that by some traditions claimed that St Peter had been crucified there. This was a competing tradition, of he Franciscan Monastery. The Franciscans that were there at the time were Spanish. San Pietro de Morio, (?) there was a dome structure that marked the spot. It is a miniature example of the Dome of St Peter, it is a classical perspective dome and refinement – it is also a symbol of patronage to the city of Rome by the Spanish.

  6. After Bramante had died, Pope Paul III had asked if Michelangelo would supervise the construction of St. Peters Basilica. Michelangelo changed plans from the leading construction company; his enemies (money, profit, posterity) pressured him constantly. It was Giorgio Vasari, who encourages Michelangelo to stay on the job, in one of his last letters to Michelangelo. Remembering Michelangelo as a genius, liked to be alone, was old at this time and had lost many friends, was opposed by large construction business families and their political influence. However, he forge through to change the Dome to include window to cast natural light, and designed many future projects which were thusly followed until St Peter’s completion in the first few decades of the seventieth century.

Julius Forced Treaty with Spain

  1. In 1504 as Julius becomes pope, Ferdinand wins a decisive battle that gives him the kingdom of Naples.  It was fiefdom of the papacy, now Spain was in close proximity. So Spain and Ferdinand becomes important to Roman politics. What coincides with Ferdinand was Julius’s pontificate – he wants to be like an emperor – so there is a blending of ideologies of king-rulers now in Rome.

New Rome: center of attention

  1. Julius wanted to put his tomb in the center, where Peter’s tomb is, so Julius would be the center of attention. He wanted Michelangelo to build the tomb and this is what Michelangelo comes up with – a sculpture at the center, and it is called the ‘Moses,’ the artist working at his height. It was Moses as a combination of classical and biblical hero. As a physical grandeur of a Greek god, this tomb sculpture was an aesthetic connection between the biblical and Greek ideas. It was a Papal moment in Rome that defined a trend of the papacy to shift away from religious strictness of the medieval ages and to engage the west’s advancement out of primitive civilization.

  2. Much of the actual building will take place under Leo X, but it is Julius that begins the audacious building programs, much of its first decades were land reclamation for building projects, digging holes, laying foundations, designing, and planning.

  3. Julius’ remembrance by the local cardinals. What is the fate of Julius? Once he dies, the cardinals say he does not deserve to be buried in the St Peter Basilica – they move him to the place once thought to be the place for imprisoned persons. They move his corps to the ST. Basilica of chains. It is ironic and possibly intentional. For his excesses, the tomb ensemble remains there today.

Niccolò Machiavelli

Niccolò Machiavelli lived through G. Savonarola, the expulsion of the Medici, Cesare Borgia, and his father Pope Alexander VI, and French and Spanish incursions for control of Italy. To understand the central tenant of Machiavelli, a state is not a state if it cannot wage war (First promoted by Petrarch’s admittance that Julius Cesar had the right motive for creating a military state to facilitate an empire of culture and prosperity, but this was only an observation predicated upon the revealing of ancient Roman knowledge). Many humanists prior to Machiavelli had written guidance works for princes and leaders, however these books promoted the ancient medieval notion of moral and just leaders. These were of a Christianized Ciceronian ideal. Petrarch tried to merge the Christian humanism project into the Ciceronian idea. In case of a medieval princely tradition, these books depicted motivations for a prince to attain these highest virtues (justice, fortitude, piousness, goodness, the metaphors of allegorical figures in the hall of justice of the Siena Palazzo Pubblico of Lorenzetti’s frescoes (temperance, wisdom, etc...) and all inspired by Christian Piety. Petrarch had written to a Padua ruler in 1374 on princely guidance, and Dante had written similarly a book to another Padua ruler, called “A Mirror of Princes.” Francesco Patrizi wrote to Pope Sixtus IV a book called “The Kingdom.....” Pontano in 1469 had dedicated to Ferdinand of Naples a book on princely guidance of the same title of which Machiavelli would use called, The Prince. But Machiavelli’s text was different. Machiavelli wrote in realistic terms and opinions (or like the artists changing from idealization to realism) and communicated what he saw in reality as successful. His book, unlike the others was not on how a prince should rule, but how a successful prince will rule.  It shocked many, because to Machiavelli man was both human and animal. When humans (as a group) acted like animals, the human prince (or king/leader) had to forgo human morality and turn into an animal-like creature and dominate his realm (as the symbol of the Lion) as in the animal kingdom. During peace, the prince needed to be crafty like a Fox and promote peace. In 1557, the papacy placed the book on the restricted Index. However, this is qualified, because the Index was laughable. Anyone could read a book on the Index, by getting permission. There was little to no redaction. The pontificate methods was to leave the written contentious text into the work, by only crossing a line through the words to tell the reader this was not to be believed, and that the Church does not promote this view. So the first thing people did when reading an Index book was go strait to the crossed out sections and read what was banned. While Machiavelli’s book was publically banned, almost all European leaders had a copy in their library or next to their bed. One of the major things Machiavelli promotes is a leader quickly and decisively ridding opposing rulers of a city or region by murder or exile. This concept is old, appears in Samuel II (King Solomon), and other ancient works. He does not mention this.  Machiavelli argues that the public will forget these immoral deeds and the proof of a Prince’s historical legitimacy is receiving ultimate fame and glory by the public at the end of their life. The ends justified the means.

historiography: The Prince written in 1513. It was written for Lorenzo de Medici, the grandson of Lorenzo the Magnificence (However, some modern historians see this as ambiguous--this book was written over a period time, in many parts and some parts are anti-de'Medicis). He writes this book to get back into favor; it is a book that subsequently has a question mark over it. Note! I contend this view on evidence that the later chapters addressing the Medici writings were written at a different time. My arguments are basically my own contentious reading of his book and the initial questions came from David Wootton’s essays on Machiavelli. Machiavelli criticizes these Medici members in the early chapters of his work, and then later glorifies them in the end chapters, thus giving a clue that chapters and/or sections of the book were written at different times with different intentions or opinions. This contradiction was overlooked by previous commentators. (see the essay in Niccolò Machiavelli, The Prince, ed. & trans., David Wootton (Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Company, Inc.,  1995). The later chapters could be explained in that de’ Medici was restored as princes in the Florentine restoration in 1513. However, the real action if a prince was going to rise to powerful dominance was in Rome under the Pontiff’s directives and not Florence. Although, Machiavelli returned to Florence to help set up the first Florentine conscripted army, it did contain Swiss mercenaries, a condition he contends for a princely army. A princely army should be made up of citizens because conscripts were never loyal as a general observation. The two main things a Prince needs is a citizen military and virtù ( ‘skill’, under a constellation of attributes laid out in detail in his book)

Singed Niccolò Machiavegli to his letter to Vettori, 19 December 1513.

Cesare Borgia (1475-1507) was the natural son of Rodrigo Borgia (1431-1503), who became Pope Alexander VI in 1492 [first Spanish Pope]. He began the conquest of the Romagna in 1499. [41] Machiavelli intends that Cesare did three out of the four main things to be the perfect prince. He certainly admonishes Cesare with hope people will copy his princely example. But unfortunately, Machiavelli for all his admonishing of this figure had to acknowledge his exile and fall from power.  Ferdinand the Catholic was the perfect archetype of the Prince, according to many historiographies. Yet, I contend this opinion too, because Machiavelli was closer in proximity to Rome than of Spain, and legend and hype certainly played a role in embellishing Ferdinand as the perfect Princely specimen. Ferdinand, while ruthless, was also lucky to be born during this time when Spain was rising socially and consciously out of their own medieval age. Machiavelli on Borgia: “And if his strategy did not lead to success, this was not his fault; his failure was due to extraordinary and exceptional hostility on the part of fortune.” [42]

Machiavelli is not without conflicts and contradictions, he might not be quite sure of his findings. He claimed he understood little to nothing on religion’s role in the world and associations to governance, and one of the two main criteria all successful princes must have is in doubt. A leader needs skill [virtù], the skill [virtù], skillful [virtù]; is a must for a successful prince. But then Machiavelli counters his thoughts and perceives a contradiction: a leader needs “both luck and skill.” [43] So the book on what is a successful prince remains open to controversy. Should a prince rule by moral example, ethical examples to become successful, famed and remembered, or should he [or she] be initially ruthless, deceitful and cunning when consolidating power and then try to rule like a fox? How luck ( or Francesco Guicciardini’s main thesis fortuna, of whom Machiavelli was friends too) plays into the princes role remains a weakness or weak spot in Machiavelli’s certainty of findings on what makes a successful prince in reality.

Pius II (1453 Constantinople)

Pius II (1405–64), Pope from 19 August 1458 until his death on 15 August 1464, was born Enea Silvio Piccolomini in Corsignano (which was in 1462 renamed Pienza in his honour), near Siena, on 18 October 1405, the eldest of the eighteen children of an impoverished nobleman.[44] Pius came to the papacy in the aftermath of the fall of Constantinople in 1453, and since that time had worked energetically for a crusade. On becoming pope he issued a crusade bull (October 1458) and summoned the Christian rulers of Europe to assemble in Mantua on 1 June 1459. Before the Congress of Mantua could assemble, Pius had to decide whom to support in the struggle for the throne of Naples: his decision to crown Ferrante I, illegitimate son of Alfonso V of Aragon, and to dismiss the claim of his rival René d' anjou, aroused the opposition of France, whose representatives at the Congress then declined to support the crusade with troops or money. [45]

Pius singed the founding charter for the University of Basel (1459).

Wrote one of the first autobiographies about the papal institution, the council of cardinals, and many comedies, plays, and poetry, and a history of Basel – he furthered the humanist cause by continuing writing in Classical Latin. 

He dies trying to ferment a crusade against the Ottoman Turks, but the Humanist community at this time promoted passivism.

Paul III, Farnese Pope (Begins Council of Trent)

Charles (I) V of Spain

Charles (I) V of Spain: Holy Roman Emperor and (as Carlos I ) king of Spain, born on 24 February 1500 in Ghent; he was the son of Philip I and Juana la loca ; his maternal grandparents were Ferdinand V and Isabella the Catholic Monarchs. Much of his success is predicated upon a solid if not outstanding Humanist education. He spoke at least five languages. He ruled, and then his son Philip II, possibly the largest land empire in the world. He also had the most advanced, equipped and largest military on earth.

Julius II

Julius II (1443–1513), Pope from 1 November 1503 until his death on 21 February 1513, was born Giuliano della Rovere in Albissola (near Savona) on 5 December 1453. He was at first willing to retain the services of Cesare Borgia, whom he used to subdue a revolt in Romagna, but soon forced him into exile and imprisonment in Spain. He negotiated with Venice for the restoration of the parts of Romagna that Venice had occupied earlier in 1503 and, when diplomacy failed, allied himself with France and the Empire and wrested most of the occupied territory back for the papacy.[46]

  1. Julius is accredited as being the warrior Pope. He wants to make Rome the real Imperial center of the world. He wants to become the new Roman Emperor. Machiavelli at this time is witnessing all of this and taking notes.

Leo X


  1. Giovanni di Lorenzo de’ Medici.

  2. He changes many of the policies of Julius II.

  3. He is the Pope during Martin Luther's critical years.

16th century formulation of Modern Italian

  1. Dante Alighieri (wrote in Italian mainly)

  2. Giovanni Boccaccio

  3. Pietro Bembo

  4. modern Italian later endorsed by the Accademia della Crusca.

Pius III: Regnal name, Papa Pius Tertius, Episcopus Romanus; Personal name, Francesco Todeschini Piccolomini; (b. Siena, Tuscany, Italy; pontificate 22 September 1503 – d. 18 October 1503).


Duchy of Urbino

Raphael (1483- 1520)(respected by Vasari, Italian Artist) was born in Urbino, about the same time of Duke of Urbino, Federico.

Duke of Urbino: In Urbino was a smaller court, but non-the-less popes and famous princes visited the different Dukes at the palace for learning and refinement or for a place to rest. In its self became a cultural center for temporary or exiled Roman opportunists.

Courtier: Is a person who is connected to a court, and exhibits through knowledge and/or extensive training a certain court etiquette generally adopted by courts in western civilization as proper human etiquette. Understanding the ongoing humanist training, the condiotteri’s need for inter-regional agreements, diplomats, and notaries, Baldesar Castiglione articulated a role for a new desired person in society who had interdisciplinary skills and could conduct themselves in a manner pleasing to the model of the new man (as part of the renaissance project), based upon “in part” ancient western philosophers’ arguments for the model of a man [human].  Most commentators will intend the courtier is the model for high-class society, courtly royal life, and not for the non-lower-class society.  However, respect for women and basic human dignities make a fluid example of how common people could take from this study of the courtier with some positive examples on how to be civilized with all aspects of classes.

Federico da Montefeltro

Federico da Montefeltro ( Duke of Urbino): he had been said to have built the Palazzo Ducale from 1444 – 1472, which became the headquarters of the high-class society of the renaissance and the meeting place where the dialogues of Castiglione and a wealth of other dignitaries and court officials spent their evenings after supper engaged in dialogue-games about what is a human and what should they become or represent? How should they conduct themselves, and how to structure their lives? 

Baldesar Castiglione (b. 1478) a member of an ancient Italian aristocratic family (Lombard). He received a thorough humanistic education, acquiring a refined appreciation of art. He was essentially a courtier, and his literary activities were spare-time occupations. In 1504, after an unhappy period in Mantuan employ, he entered the service of Guidobaldo of Montefeltro, Duke of Urbino.[47] Federico de  Montefeltro  (d. 1482, about late 60s when he dies) had been tied to the Potzzi conspiracy.  He gains status as a mercenary soldier. Technically he is a feudal subject to the papacy, but because of his military skills, he ends up having a duchy as a reward. Burckhardt will think of him as a despot or a tyrant, but we will think of him as a mercenary prince – these military princes for hire (condiotrri) are major issues for Machiavelli, who also writes about the art of war as the central tenant. Military princes were forced to contend with the new humanist etiquette adopted by the more powerful princes and regional rulers. This meant that communication, or knowledge(s) will become as powerful, or even more powerful than ordinary military rulers. How to argue or persuade one’s political position, produce literary documents and communicate effectively and communicate effectively on a universally accepted medium of language (Latin, as the lingua franca) describes the rise and association of courtiers and military princes. In general, a military prince in the fifteenth century will employ about two humanists, one acting as secretary-poet, or in a relative capacity. Subjectively, someone was bound to model a universal man (or persons), and Castiglione holds true to this achievement. His work has been the model for centuries on what criteria forms a universal man (persons, as French adopted both sexes by at least nineteenth century). His book has gone through scores of editions. Subsequently, many interpretations and reformations particularly take affect according to region, time, adoption, and preference. Yet, here we will deal with the Italian Renaissance’s criteria and arguments for the standard Courtier.

Spain Controls Italy (200 Years)

Symbolic important events of 1527 Sack of Rome

war of control

Spanish Rome and the icon of the relationship was St Peters.

  1. France had claims to territory of Italy from the middle ages. [15]54-59 is an intense warfare period in Italy of the interventions and bloody affaire and people believed the renaissance was over. Wars of Italy in general are from 1494–1559;  Italy was the main theatre of the series of wars.

The Sack on Rome

The Sack on Rome: Charles V wins a decisive battle to control Italy ( in opposition to French ambitions supported by the papacy at this time)  and Charles V is back in Spain, wife was pregnant. And his son is born Philip in that year. Celebrations result, but his troops in Italy were not getting paid. Charles was using the gold for his celebrations at home which left the military unpaid. So the troops decided that ‘if Charles V could not pay us –then the pope could pay us.’ If we do not get paid we will thrash him, the Spanish soldiers without leaders proclaimed. And the pope failed in the initial negotiations. The Pope says we have soldiers too, and closes up the walls.

The mercenary armies of German, Swiss, etc.. and the troops go wild and embark upon a six month sack of the city – grab paintings, whatever they could grab—no military officers to keep them in line, so no one to stop them to protect the sanctity of the church, and the pope holds out in the ( in this place???) and it takes a long time to get  a truce signed; letter service to Iberia took approximately 6-8 weeks; when Charles V gets in touch with Rome, the papacy looses a great deal in negotiations. What was the roman suffering?

In 1527, the population of Rome numbered approximately 55,000 citizens. The immigration had started after a population number of 25,000 during Pope Martin V’s pontificate. Rome was on the way to becoming a great city.  However, by the time the sack is over, about half of the Roman citizens had fled or were killed. Momentum lost of building a great city, and treasure lost, it took about a decade from this resulting slowdown to recover to normal life. This was more than an interruption, but a conquest.

Paul III and Charles V Treaty

Paul III and Charles V made a new model and a new deal: The pope no longer makes huge political claims (that of Empire wishing) to expand the territory or states, or model themselves after Roman Caesars. That will no longer be possible, but it had been a dream. The Reformation beginning around (1517) was also part of the sack, a provides a layer on the picture to a complicated western civilization.

Paul III implied in agreement to Charles and Spain,  “ You respect my sovereignty over the church, and papal states, “ and Charles said, “you respect your military and pay for the building of Rome.”  This agreement was ‘You scratch my back and I’ll scratch your’s.

Papal financial loses:  Pope submits: I will give you the crusade towns, and the crusado ( three papal taxes, for a military budget, a perpetual budget package to the military of Spain) it is called the Thrice gracious (three gifts) what can we say about Rome and the renaissance?

Rome is becoming a hybrid

Rome is becoming a hybrid of a papal entity; and a Spanish city. Some commentators claim in Rome the populating of the Spanish community consisted of 30,000 Spanish during a 95,000 population tally. Spanish buy and take part of the cultural package. They pump a lot of money into the city’s economic valves – These Iberians are renaissance patrons in their own right.

The St. Peter’s Church is a main part of this Spanish influence discussion. Charles V relevance is that Spain from 1535-1700 – will spend Spanish money of about two thirds of all St Peters’ funding, to build the city of Rome and the Vatican.  

Spanish money (2/3rds of St Peters’ entire  building costs come from Spanish monies – thus a hybrid project of Italian and Spanish.).

Building projects fund economy, workers employment, the money spreads remaking a vibrant economy:  cities get money that flows out of these building projects, and Span is building palaces in Naples, and building things in Southern Italy. So the later renaissance, that is phase II, the palace buildings are a large part of the story of the later Italian Renaissance. Palermo, Selena, became imperial cities. Painting are also accomplished civilian projects on a large scale and funded with Spanish money.

Significance: Spain’s control 1492-1597

1494-1597 – Spain is in mass control of Rome. One must understand the role of the Spanish in Italy – there is this merging of a Spanish-Papal state – and Iberian peninsula gets a Roman influence – a ‘ traffic of people’’ to a from Iberia and Italy.  Italian humanists go to Spain and spread knowledge there, and a large part of history demonstrated that this really was a tight political connection.

1. Art and architecture, the viceroys, the Spanish nobility, Greco plays and the Spanish are fashioners – it is distinctive and not quite the same fashion, but important to understand that Spanish are significant players in the building of Rome during the Italian renaissance, and post-Italian renaissance periods.

2. Spanish Rome and the icon of the relationship was St Peters.

The Life of Raphael of Urbino, Painter and Architect [ 1483-1520]

Raphael Sanzio of Urbino

  1. Raphael, The School of Athens, 1509-11, fresco, Stanza della Segnatura, Vatican, Rome.

French Renaissance

Rabelais Promoted Humanism by anti-establishment satire

  1. Françios Rabelais is accredited with the First great French Novel, a Chronology of two fictional characters, Gargantua and Pantagruel, and their paths through the Humanist and Northern Renaissance Period. During the telling of their chronological lives, Rabelais takes the reader through the ‘real’ renaissance thinking in high-fashion comical style, while at the same time a critical but examining rendition of the human condition through a fast changing western civilization. He was fifteen years Erasmus’ junior, “the same age as Martin Luther, and sixteen years older than John Calvin.”[48]

  2. Born possibly in 1483, he published a casual tale of Gargantua in 1532 to great fame. Four additions, including the adventures of Gargantua’s son Pantagruel, followed. However these were misunderstood at the time. The adventures actually promote humanistic projects. It helps explain how Europeans became a world dominating culture. The authorities[49] were the classical authors that the humanist read and memorized passages from, thus the authority, Rabelais promotes in text. Some Humanist Authorities: “Pliny, Athenaeus, Dioscorides, Julius Pollux, Galen, Porphyry, Oppian, Polybius, Heliodorus, Aristotle, Claudius Aelian, and others.” [50]

  3. The book was misunderstood because of its scatological inclusion that blend with higher renaissance concepts of reviving the past and the program or regimen of constant educational programs, even after dinner, education does not end but continues in forms of ‘logical’ or ‘thinking games.’ In some sense, the Baldesare Castiglione’s regimen of the Courtier has some connections to the regimen of monster character’s humanist program. Today, the book is rated as one of the most hysterical books of all time, while academically the book provides a window into the French renaissance.

  4. Rabelias was a “remarkably well-schooled linguist, theologian, and classical scholar, a lawyer and diplomat and, finally, a university-trained practicing doctor. Although he was never formally married, by papal dispensation the children born to him out of wedlock were permitted to bear their father’s name. He edited learned texts, did a fair amount of translating, and lived a literally far-ranging life among the high and mightily of his time.”[51] He was much influenced by Erasmus. Rabelais died in 1554. In his time, it has been said by the greatest of living Rabelaisians, Professor M.A. Screech, that Rabelais was not exceptional to obscenity. The world around him was filled with “fetid odours and ghastly stenches. He was at home with pain, deformity, illness, starvation and death. He did not like them, but he was not averse to referring to them.” [52]

English Renaissance as Distinctive

The English Renaissance is an Imperial Renaissance when we think of the political order.

The renaissance was a golden age. What was the cost of integrity and justice in society? G. Savonarola and Thomas More represented a reaction to this Golden Age. For Savonarola it was paganistic materialism of the Medici and wealthy Florentines. For Thomas More it was the extravagance of Henry VIII’s court and the privilege of the English military class.

Julius II was looking back to Caesar. Charles V was talked about as the new Constantine –the British like this part the modernizing part of southern Europe.  The way Titian’s painting depicted him (Emperor Charles V at Mühlberg (1548)),[53] as a Roman Caesar, a modern Trajan. For the English it is a little more complicated.

Prologue: understanding their monarch’s antiquity will be looking at the empire when it turned Christian. English look back to Constantine, which is a story as a prologue or over-all arch for the English. What we should realize is that the renaissance does not become to an abrupt end when the reformation comes.

Thomas More, Utopia, 1516

Martin Luther’s 95 Theses, 1517, Germany, Reformation.

The Northern Renaissance and the Reformation overlap, and is not a contradiction. The Renaissance ‘of Europe’ lasts until approximately the early 1600s. Think about 1350 as roughly as the renaissance begins (Northern Italy), and when we get to 1517 ( and 1516 date for Thomas More’s book), the revolution is beginning in the Northern European lands and it will overlap for at least a hundred years (1616?); and the revival of ancient political models, literature, and art and architecture continues during this interim. It is not until late sixteenth century that England will embrace Andrea Palladio’s[54] country house architecture.

Guicciardini had used Livy to write his history; Petrarch looked to Cicero to write his history, Thomas More used Plato’s Republic (many say, but I intend possibly Plato’s The Laws.), and some intend Kral Marx had used Thomas More’s Utopia to write his history ( but again, I intend he probably had used also  Plato’s The Laws. The Republic has a two class system, whereas The Laws is a single class system in general.).

Political level: the two big things, revival of the republicanism (Genoa, Venice, Florence, man northern Italian city-state republics) and does not have a place in England – it has a monarchy. Republicanism in the English renaissance is in literature – like Thomas More’s work, and one can argue this is a praise of certain form of a republican empire.  Republican as understood as public welfare of the people instead of small elite who make the rules for the majority of people.

The backdrop of the Book Utopia

Everyone knew about the new world. More could not have written this work in 1490.

Everyone knew about the new world. He could not have written this in 1490. It was a part of the new intellectual class that was talking about the NEW WORLD – people were writing treatises on the new people – a lot of reflection, which we started to discover these societies that we had not known. Columbus had gone on 5 voyages. Utopia is really a part of the age of discovery. People were questioning these new worlds across the sea. It got people thinking about how the world mean?

The Utopian idea is about a world that was lost. Columbus finds the new world, and people start to understand that their little European world was not all that existed. This was a Rome a style of writing of the likes of Lucian, who was a satirist. He had used humorous stories to get across some political points. And More is placing himself as many other humanists had done. Everyone knew about the new world.

Raphael (a character in Utopia) had been a voyager, with Amerigo Vespucci, and he ends up discovering an unknown society in the book of an elongated island. Columbus had already finished five voyages, the New World had become the talk of the intellectual circles, and people’s curiosity questioned who they were in this new big world. People reading More’s book and its reference to Vespucci understood that a new world to the west existed.

Model of More’s Utopia: Plato’s Republic, the Christian monastic idea, and the things romanticized about the primitive societies that More had heard about in the new world. 

Plato’s numbers for an ideal state was 5,000 occupants. Utopia, on the other hand, has 54 splendid towns, all built upon a modeled plan. If we take the same population about 6000 families in Utopia, and given a range between 6-10 people depending on how many children per family – so we would approximately include 60-90,000 families and roughly about 5,000,000 people. Thereofre More is writing about England which had roughly had 5,000,000 people. What More is saying is that “we must be more organized.” The communal farms was More’s dream for England’s populations, and in England there was about 30 big houses in an agricultural region, and everyone worked on the farm for a couple of years  -- than they would go back to the city – this kept the food supply going. In a sense, modernity shocked people – the economic prosperity had really never been discussed about the Renaissance – it had always focused upon topics of the like of Burckhardt’s methodology of social investigations –absence economic and political perspectives. More, Savonarola, Marx and others were reacting to materialism which they believed created men’s destinies (Marx had been accredited with this specific phrase and idea). It was the Golden Age, and the reaction against Gold took on special importance in Utopia. Gold was used for military expenditures and otherwise it had been debased to worthlessness of Utopians—who treated no more than a mere common metal. More did this on purpose to devalue the current economic thrust of precious metals and economic competition in Europe’s history – which now revealed a special importance in the elite wearing, using, and valuing gold at the expense of the poor. Utopians did not take pleasure in acquiring goods, cloths, jewelry, and land. They wore simple clothes, were pacifists and paid others to fight their wars. Machiavelli had claimed was a reality, and there was no way to escape it, so we must treat it like any other art and master it and champion it. This could be explained in that Utopia is an idealist conception, while The Prince is a realistic conception on how to run a successful state. Machiavelli decided the end result of reality was heroism, glory and fame (all part of freedoms). More decided idealism should be anonymous, secured, and bane (state regimentation (some called More society in the twentieth century a totalitarian society, and many intend it is more like twentieth century communism.). Communism was secure, relatively peaceful, bane, anonymous. But that was the trade-off in contrast to freedom: excitement, glory, fame, competition, war, art, and individual freedom (as much as permissible to a state). Communism appears moral on paper, but in tough times, Communist states had to make tough decisions which cost millions of people’s lives. Thus reality in communism exhibited immorality usually on a larger scale than other states that practiced ideologies of freedom, liberty and republicanism. Yet, the argument still continues, because it is basically a perspective which indicates a known sentiment toward a particular ideology. More saw extreme extravagance and at the same time poverty and primitive new world stories and put together a book that was never Indexed that argued tolerance of religions. Machiavelli, although promoted multiculturalism, never regarded religion as a topic for a prince to understand. This was a weakness of his construction. More on the other hand has little knowledge upon nature’s role in economics. What happens to the nice and happy people when a famine comes, or a flood, or a natural disaster? How do these people survive? If they live a life of seclusion (called inclusionist society), they are in harms way of allowing disaster to strike with no countermeasures of outside support.

Utopia: new genre of writing

More created a new genre of writing. Many people took an attempt to create the perfect society in literature, endlessly grappling with details that confounded them. Marx for instance, leaves out the category of human needs, and vices. He ignores this on purpose, because his whole model would collapse. This is a weakness in Marx’s writings on how to achieve a perfect society –in which he never wrote, although he had approximately forty-years in which to attempt such a feat.

Religion: More a bit of a revolutionary

Religion: More a bit of a revolutionary, one that is thinking forward. More talks about the Utopians as tolerant of many different versions of monotheism. Although, no atheists allowed in Utopia, and each can have a variation of any religion, each member must be tolerant of each other’s religion. Possibly the sentiments of the breaking with Rome had already been brewing for some time before Luther’s assault on the Latin Church. For example, the Christian who had been intolerant, he gets exiled.

War: Last section of Utopia

War: Last section of Utopia is dedicated to the things of war. What more is trying to say is that society is a pacifist model, but will go to war for self defense – no conquests for monies? He frames Conquest like a barbaric kind of necessity (meaning all of Europe was guilty). How quickly a prince goes to war. In Machiavelli, a prince goes to war to win honor, fame and glory. He sees war as a fundamental to human society and war is an art and he doesn’t use this word lightly. But the departure of Utopia from other works discussed here, is that More trying to tell us how things “should” be, and not what (or how) they are.

Point of Utopia: Achieve Peace

Point of Utopia: A Heavily structured society in Utopia is discussed by Thomas More. Karl Marx would read this and thought this was a good idea. Just put everyone on farms, not consuming too much, and living primitively and structured -- that means peace. I intend this was the first emphasis to romancing the medieval past. Before institutionalized English renaissance took place around mid-sixteenth century, during the classical parts of the English renaissance 1480s-1490s, intellectuals at the English university of Oxford had already begun to discuss its modernity in comparison to its past. More was caught in this tradition, and being one of the early English humanists helps to explain his revolutionary ideas of republicanism compared to the monarchianism so pandemic to European middle ages.

Questions on Utopia

Questions: Why does More think Utopia is an idea for his own day?[55] – Also, what are the impulses, and both conditions for a critique? More is not put on an Index of the Catholic Church. Why is More not put on the Index.

In More’s England most are Catholic; there are some gypsies, and the English at this time are not hospitable to Jews. Think of More’s topic for religious tolerance.

Uptopic Constructions and Contrastions

More & Machiavelli Apply as courtiers to Baldesar Castiglione

  1. Thomas More and Nicollò Machiavelli are interviewed by Baldesar Castiglione who is hiring a courtier to represent a new unnamed prince to serve. Their thoughts on their societies and of humans are these conditions that Castiglione will analyze and appraise according to his view of what a courtier should be.

Courtier Attributes

  1. Short list: Courtier

1.    Be notably born. (born into nobility is preferred): Baldesar’s phrase, “of good stock.”

2.    skilled [virtue] in military arts (Machiavelli (yes), More (no)).

3.    Military Man: be well versed on military weapons, and know how to use them, in all applications. A courtier is a military man. (Machiavelli (yes), More (no)). Do not engage the enemy least one is certain they are going to win. There is always another day to fight in mortal combat.

4.    Horsemanship: learn to ride a horse ( bareback, harness, saddle, and perform feats of chivalry on horse back), take care of a horse, be able to rear a horse, and be able to conduct military skills on a horse. ( this is one of two chief professions, the other military skill, either on horseback ( a sign of nobility) and also on one’s feet ( such as a foot soldier).

5.    Physical abilities in order of a courtier’s importance: Military skills (all applications, listed below) and horsemanship.

6.    Mentalities in order of a courtier’s importance: Above all show curiosity (toward others) and affection. (e.g. to act as if they and their concerns are the most important thing to you and in your life (attention is a powerful motivator of life!)., (this has been readily  adopted by the political savvy in history).

7.    Men are not allowed to be womanish in sayings or manners. ( a product of his time).

8.    sports: Be active, take care of one’s physical body.

9.    leap, run, vault, wrestle, cast stones, free-weights, fight the Bull (a recognition and honorary for the Spanish), throw darts and spears.

10. Hunt, and also hunt especially for hawks.

11. Horsemanship: learn to ride a horse ( bareback, harness, saddle, and perform feats of chivalry on horse back), take care of a horse, be able to rear a horse, and be able to conduct military skills on a horse. (this is one of two chief professions, the other military skill, either on horseback ( a sign of nobility) and also on one’s feet ( such as a foot soldier).

12. Fellowship with men (and women): try to treat them as equals so to attain their respect. Be honest, and have an upright consciousness (whatever that mean?)

13. Dancing: train one’s feet positions not to be clumsy, and train for limberness of dance moves.

14. Play tennis: But be nibble and quick when playing it.

15. Well-educated in classical and modern languages (Machiavelli (yes), More (yes)).

a.    Be able to be a notary, a diplomat, a liaison between a prince or duke ( thus be able to translate documents or create documents, such as contracts for trade or political agreement documents, thus be in a position to help one’s ruler when a rule is of need of one’s help). 

16. music and painting.

a.    Play the lute, viola, be able to sing from song books.

17. Be able to engage in discourse upon states. (Machiavelli (yes), More (yes)). (Part IV, called book four).

a.    The ability to engage reason, especially the platonic understanding on good and evil as they regard the state and personal actions within civics. (Part IV, called book four).

18. To be well spoken and use fair language.

19. Know your own local vernacular, purport oneself from whence they had come from by birth; yet be able to speak in Italian, French, and Spanish (The three desired cultures, although fighting) of Italy.

20. witticism subtly conveyed in the form of advice. Witticism can intend humor, and should be used but with a constructive manner, and not to offend the group you represent.

21. Gracious in conversation. Do not offend persons. Do not boast of one’s acts or skills about one’s good qualities.

22. Do not give into vanity or fantastical things (qualified, and confusing or contradicting).

23. Do not be stubborn. Do not brawl, blabber or chatter.

24. Men should entertain the women.

25. Do all these things with nonchalance and be ready at all times when asked to perform one’s skills. Key Term: Sprezzatura (No! literal translation + many interpretations) Michael J McDonald -- Do not show off, but when asked to demonstrate ‘any’ skill, dominate your crowed/group/audience (and/or wow them) with composure/countenance by appearing to them that you had not practiced this skill before. This means you probably had spent most of your life for a single moment to demonstrate your mastery of a skill(s), in the company of others which would initially demonstrate your worth and value – leading to position or class-status by your demonstration. usually compared to the French term nonchalance.

26. Appearance: Be good looking, or wear fashion attire to present an appearance pleasing to the eye. Do not wear dark colors, especially grey (most peasants had no other choice). This was to differentiate with the common class who had little choice but dark colors, because one did not have to launder them as often.

27. Understand expensive novelty items, fads, and social currents in regards to dress and body accouterments (i.e. jewelry). Flatter kings, court personal, with your up-to-date knowledge of fashion and style.

28. Not to speak on things that he does not understand, or pretend to know things he has never studied to full confidence.

29. Do not be boastful about one’s accomplishments. Await to be asked to demonstrate a skill at a party, and do not offer to show off. This is a type of restraint of one’s self, usually a demonstration of refinement. If one shows off, one puts themselves into a position of offending someone else, inspiring social discord.

30. Kept a traveling companion with one at all times.

31. Refuse to be envious or become a malicious person.

32. Do not be last in line in public places, especially where entertainment venues where one can be seen and gossip by others later. (very important to the Hollywood mentality today, to never stand in line, and act and behave as if one is more privileged then the average citizen. Common phrase: “don’t you know who I am?”)

33. Do not show interest in tales or triflings.

Serious Intellectual Revolution

New Technology of Printing 

Guttenberg’s Printing press. in two to three years printing presses begin to appear all over Europe.

Printing with removable type in 1450s changes the way people begin to think by introducing relatively cheap reading and pedagogical material into the realm of the masses. With metal movable type, printers could be reset the press in different configurations.  The first movable-type printing press is in the city of Mainz, in 1450, and was created by Guttenberg, and it changes the world – a pan European phenomena – printers went out quickly within a matter of a few years ( Seville, Salamanca, Rome, Venice, and by the later part of the fifteenth century printing of books demonstrated a contrast to the Ottoman Empire’s refusal of printing presses – a form of restriction of Knowledges.

Important point. Why the west became the territory that went out and dominated the world? Ambition of empire plays a role, and it was really the printing press – a wilding of cultural power – if you look at the Ottoman Empire – the Ottomans will not allow the printing press until the 1750-60s, and at limited places such as on the peripheries of their empire like in Egypt and Palestine. This was distinction between the east and the west. And it was fueling More who had this big body of knowledge to work with.

First thing to be printed was Christian bibles

First thing to be printed was Christian bibles. This is what people wanted.  The Bible was a long book, so during the pre-printing press age, it would take monks years to copy a new bible. And a dozen could be run-off in a Gutenberg press by comparison. At first, not many could read, and not many could get access to a Bible. But after the press and when Martin Luther comes and say, “everyone should own a bible.” now it was relatively cheap.

Some Books people liked to read

  1. Cicero, Seneca, Livy were the popular book authors.

Printing press becomes a political tool

  1. But then the printing press becomes a political tool (Index), French Privilege). This is exactly why the Ottoman elite forbade the printing presses into their empire. The propagation of knowledge was a dangerous thing – just as Justinian had claimed and reacted to Hellenistic education. The Islamic Ottomans (after 1503, the Ottomans began to adopt a stricter form of Islam) ran a regimented socialistic-communistic theocracy, and it would be dangerous to relative peace to allow “all” the Ottoman citizens to apprise paganistic works, some important works on individual freedom were of a main concern to keeping the social peace. In Europe, and especially as pamphlets were a cheap form of printing material. France for instance placed royal privileges c. 1540s attached to publications, a safeguard against Huguenot pamphlet propagation. The printing press as a political tool allowed the commons to get their voice heard in public. There were benefits and there were of course drawbacks. But the benifits out weighed the costs, and the people advocated for common literacy as a way to understand how to construct prosperity. The price was knowledge wars, argued as freedom of speech – although not like the freedoms of speech that shaped the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. However, it was a beginning of distributing knowledge around in a constructive manner to benefit to common good – a republican notion of “the public.”

Jules Michelet, French, First Renaissance Historian

Jules Michelet intends that two characteristics for the cause of the renaissance. the discovery of man  and of his the world, and the discovery of the boat—these two motors that drove renaissance –“the nature of the world and the nature of man.” It was the study of ancient maps and geography that played a big role that had a lot of influence for the cause of the renaissance – it was not just literature or painting alone. It was also economic.

The evolution of map making knowledge renaissance:

  1. In 2nd century B.C. Ptolemy’s map of the world was still considered to be valid by 1450.  The world around this time, his map was considered the best. The problem of his map, all his continents come together at the bottom of the pole. [[?Strabo, the idea the world was flat is a cliché, and it is not true, they had a sense that it was globe. ( no knowledge of north or south America).]

  2. After the Columbus voyages, we get public maps with the Caribbean, and parts of America outlined, and in a course of 120 years (from 1450 onward) we have the maps of the world. By 1500, an emerging outlines of the Columbian voyages demonstrated early maps of the new world.

  3. After the Columbus voyages, we get public maps with Caribbean, and parts of America, and in a course of 120 years ( from 1450) we have the maps of the world. (1500, emerging outlines of the Columbian voyages are maps of the new world.

  4. This was a growth industry and putting together all their ancient knowledge to work. Like reviving Classical literature, people are trying to resurrect ancient maps. So by 1550 people are realizing that world is bigger than they had realized. We have now suppressed the Roman control they once dominated in our minds -- we are now kings of the world – the renaissance Europeans claimed precedence over the ancients. The world as a golden age was a new belief. It is why we see the renaissance as part of modernity – it simply gone way past the ancients who had understood it as a small world. In French new liberalistic studies in the 1960s, this period roughly about mid-sixteenth century, the Longue Durée had begun. This meant that European dominance of the world began with the renaissance, particularly the northern renaissance.[56] It was a Golden Age to people of the renaissance, to others it was a long period of economic, cultural and political dominance by the Golden Agers. History continues onward and backward and forward and upward but always in perpetually.

[1] Giovanni Boccaccio, Pietro Bembo, in the sixteenth century formed the adopted model of modern Italian language, later endorsed by the Accademia della Crusca.

[2] Triumphus Cupidinis (Triumph of Love) I, from Epistolae familiares in “Petrarch,” Peter Sadlon, 1999-2006, available from http://petrarch.petersadlon.com/letters.html; Internet [ accessed October 2008]. unclaimed English Translation.

[3] Mommsen, Theodore E., Petrarch's Conception of the Dark Ages (Cambridge MA: Medieval Academy of America, 1942), Speculum 17 (2): 226–242.

[4] Hillman, James, Re-Visioning Psychology (Harper & Row, 1977), p. 197, quoted and unsourced editing in Wikipedia, “Ascent of Mont Ventoux” [available online, accessed 18 October 2008].

[5] Ibid., Re-Visioning Psychology.

[6] The Ascent of Mount Ventoux [Petrarch: To Dionisio da Borgo San Sepolcro], from Epistolae familiares in “Petrarch,” Peter Sadlon, 1999-2006, available from http://petrarch.petersadlon.com/letters.html; Internet [ accessed October 2008]. unclaimed English Translation.

[7] The Ascent of Mount Ventoux [Petrarch: To Dionisio da Borgo San Sepolcro], from Epistolae familiares in “Petrarch,” Peter Sadlon, 1999-2006, available from http://petrarch.petersadlon.com/letters.html; Internet [ accessed October 2008]. unclaimed English Translation.

[8] Kelly, Samantha, The New Solomon: Robert of Naples (1309-1343) and Fourteenth-Century Kingship, page 2 Google Books.

[9] Britannica Encyclopedia, The Capitoline Hill, available online [ accessed October 2008],

[10] Ibid., The Capitoline Hill.

[11] Ibid., The Capitoline Hill.

[12] Ibid., The Capitoline Hill.

[13] Ibid., The Capitoline Hill.

[14] Ibid., The Capitoline Hill.

[15] Ibid., The Capitoline Hill.

[16] Vale, Lawrence J, Architecture, power, and national identity (Yale University press, F.B. Adams, Jr., Publication Fund, 1992), 338 pp., available online from books.google.com. [ accessed 14 October 2008]. This book is based upon arguments of urban development, and not about solely about the city of Rome. 

[17] Mommsen, Theodore E., Petrarch's Conception of the Dark Ages (Cambridge MA: Medieval Academy of America, 1942), Speculum 17 (2): 226–242.

[18] Mommsen, Theodore E., Petrarch's Conception of the Dark Ages (Cambridge MA: Medieval Academy of America, 1942), Speculum 17 (2): 226–242.

[19] Note, Nostradamus eight age, instead of seven, Roi Henry II, epistle, c. 1557 +.

[20] Hasall, Paul, Introduction to David Burr’s translation of  Giovanni Villani’s Nuova Cronica, in Medieval Source Book [online], “Giovanni Villani Florentine Chronicle,” 1966, available from www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/villani.html; Internet (Rhode Island: Fordham University Center for Medieval Studies, founded at Rose Hill Campus, 1971).

[21] Florence, in “The New Catholic Encyclopedia, 2nd., ed. (Farmington Hills, MI: Catholic University of America, Gale Groupe, 2003), pp. 767-768. Too many sources and authors to cite, and not identified in this text to which part was contributed to whom? Some diction is of a Marxist style and does not represent a true picture of the groups involved. But I used this here for pedagogical purposes to allow unfamiliar readers to get a sense of the dynamic of the period of the politics of Florence for the proto- & renaissance.

[22] "Council of Florence" The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance. Gordon Campbell. © Oxford University Press 2003, 2005. The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance: (e-reference edition). Oxford University Press. UC - Berkeley Library. 8 October 2008 http://www.oxford-renaissance.com/entry?entry=t175.e983. see J. Gill The Council of Florence (1959).

[23] Jacob Burckhardt, available from http://www.kirjasto.sci.fi/burckha.htm; Internet [ accessed online, September, 2008]. Swiss historian and art historian, best known for his works on the Italian Renaissance and on Greek civilization. Burckhardt's famous thesis in DIE KULTUR DER RENAISSANCE IN ITALIEN (1860) was that Renaissance first gave the highest development to individuality. The early signs of "the modern European Spirit" were according to Burckhardt seen in Florence. Since the publication of his book, Florence has been regarded as the city where Petrarch's dream of revival took deepest root.

[24] Ibid., The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy, p. 304.

[25] Ibid., The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy, p. 304.

[26] Castiglione, Baldesar, The Courtier, trans., George Bull ( England, Penguin Books; London: Clays Ltd, St Ives plc, 1967), p. 1.

[27] Alberti, Leon Battista, in Infoplease.com 2003., Alacritude,  available from http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/people/A0803082.html; Internet, [ accessed Valley College Col. Lib. Sept. 6, 2003].

[28] "Arsenale" The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance. Gordon Campbell. © Oxford University Press 2003, 2005. The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance: (e-reference edition). Oxford University Press. UC - Berkeley Library. 8 October 2008 http://www.oxford-renaissance.com/entry?entry=t175.e224

[29] "Guelfs and Ghibellines" The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance. Gordon Campbell. © Oxford University Press 2003, 2005. The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance: (e-reference edition). Oxford University Press. UC - Berkeley Library. 8 October 2008 http://www.oxford-renaissance.com/entry?entry=t175.e1754. see Daniel Waley, The Italian City Republics (2nd ed., 1978).

[30] Niccolò Machiavelli, The Prince , ed. & trans., David Wootton ( Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Company, 1995), p. 20., note 22.

[31] Burckhardt, Jacob, The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy, trans. G.C. Middlemore, 2nd. ed. (London: Penguin Books, 2004), p. 75.

[32] Burckhardt, Jacob, The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy, trans. G.C. Middlemore, 2nd. ed. (London: Penguin Books, 2004), p. 75.

[33] R. Ritchie, Historical Atlas of the Renaissance, p. 64.

[34] Nicolo Machiavelli, The Prince, trans., and commentary, W. K. Marriott, (Project Gutenberg EBook, February 11, 2006 [EBook #1232]), [available from www.gutenburg.org, accessed 2008].

[35] Ibid., The Prince,  Marriott.

[36] Much of the Italian Wars information was from Wikipedia, The Italian Wars, unsourced editing, accessed 17 October 2008, however, there was editing and many additions from of my own. This was meant as a survey of these wars and not an analysis.

[37] Ibid., The Prince, Marriott.

[38] Michelangelo, The New Encyclopedia Britannica, Macropaedia, Volume 24, p. 58, 1991. in “Wikipedia,” available online, Michelangelo, accessed 17 October 2008. [ not source correctly, there should be an author accompanying the entry.]

[39] Vasari, Giorgio, The Lives of the Painters, trans., Julia Conaway, Bondanella & Peter Bondanella (Reading, Berkshire, G.B.: Oxford University Press, Cox & Wyman Ltd., 1991), p. 444.

[40] BBC News, Michelangelo ‘last sketch’ found, available from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/7133116.stm; Internet [ from Wikipedia, Michelangelo...accessed 17 October 2008.

[41] Niccolò Machiavelli, The Prince , ed. & trans., David Wootton ( Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Company, 1995), p. 22., note 27.

[42] Niccolò Machiavelli, The Prince , ed. & trans., David Wootton ( Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Company, 1995), p. 22.

[43] Niccolò Machiavelli, The Prince , ed. & trans., David Wootton ( Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Company, 1995), p. 18.

[44] "Pius II" The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance. Gordon Campbell. © Oxford University Press 2003, 2005. The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance: (e-reference edition). Oxford University Press. UC - Berkeley Library. 8 October 2008 http://www.oxford-renaissance.com/entry?entry=t175.e2854.

[45] Ibid., "Pius II" The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance.

[46] "Julius II" The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance. Gordon Campbell. © Oxford University Press 2003, 2005. The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance: (e-reference edition). Oxford University Press. UC - Berkeley Library. 8 October 2008 http://www.oxford-renaissance.com/entry?entry=t175.e2032.

[47] Castiglione, Baldesar, The Courtier, trans., George Bull ( England, Penguin Books; London: Clays Ltd, St Ives plc, 1967), p. 1.

[48] Rabelais, Françios, Gargantua and Pantagruel, trans., Burton Raffel (London: W.W. Norton & Company Ltd., 1990), p. xi. Raffel’s prepatory reading was guided by Professor Joseph Duggan of the University of California at Berkeley, who had been generally helpful with this translation, Raffel reveals in the introductory, “Translators’ Preface,”p. xi

[49] Rabelais, Françios, Gargantua and Pantagruel, trans., Burton Raffel (London: W.W. Norton & Company Ltd., 1990), p. 58.

[50] Rabelais, Françios, Gargantua and Pantagruel, trans., Burton Raffel (London: W.W. Norton & Company Ltd., 1990), p. 58. According to Rabelias. The chapters will introduce further authorities, as well as a critique of chivalric literature.

[51] Rabelais, Françios, Gargantua and Pantagruel, trans., Burton Raffel (London: W.W. Norton & Company Ltd., 1990), p. ix.

[52] Professor M.A. Screech, quoted in Françios Rabelais, “Gargantua and Pantagruel,” trans., Burton Raffel (London: W.W. Norton & Company Ltd., 1990), p. x.

[53] Titian's state portrait of Emperor Charles V at Mühlberg (1548) established a new genre, that of the grand equestrian portrait. The composition is steeped both in the Roman tradition of equestrian sculpture and in the medieval representations of an ideal. Charles V, is done by Titian when height of his powers in 1540s. It was done to celebrate the emperor against the German Protestants. By the time Charles was at this age in his early forties, he was actually gout ridden. He could not take part in battles and remained a commander, off to the side of the battle field;  He was moved around in a cart, but Titian portrayed him on a horse with a lance. Why would this be so? These themes that were fictitious were all signs of “real” imperial authority – from his perspective the world’s more powerful man. Charles holds the largest empire in history. At this time Pissarro had taken Peru, Cortez had taken Mexico, so Charles was the global emperor.

[54] Andrea Palladio (November 30, 1508 – August 19, 1580), was an Italian architect, widely considered the most influential person in the history of Western architecture.  Palladio synthesized economics and taste into architecture and became famous as a result in mimicked architectural design across Europe. He represented Venetian style as a cultural diffusion adopting Roman Republic country home styles with wings attached to the main section of the house for livestock and other farming concerns –making the homestead self-sufficient domicile.  He had written four books that were adopted, studied, and followed – thus becoming one of the most important architectural thinkers of the high-renaissance era – and after his life.

[55] Think of his humanist background, he is reading Plato, and others have not – so he is expounding and incorporating things around him, such as the discovery of the new world, and ancient government philosophical models, and real Roman republican histories. How would these things influence him?

[56] Many commentators had intended the start of the longue durée with the period of the French Revolution. However, this had been revised to the conquest of Ceuta by Henry the Navigator in the first European conquest of north Africa during the early renaissance period. Portugal broke out with their shipping knowledge first toward Africa, and was one of the first states to establish slave trading and cultural distribution and economic hegemony upon foreign lands.



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