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Web Renaissance [ER 7] Michelangelo (File), Michael Johnathan McDonald
Renaissance Art and Architecture
The Story of Roman Renaissance
1500s-1700s is a story of Spanish Rome.
1417 -1527 Phase II of the Italian Roman Renaissance ( Papacy moves back to Rome from Avignon).
The margining of the Spanish Empire and Papal Rome helps explain the Roman, Italy renaissance and the building of the Vatican, the rise of Rome’s past in art form and a renewal of faith and civilization. The Papal regions will maintain its sovereignty, but as Spain rises it takes some high- profile lands of Italy into its control. So by the 1530s Spain politically annexed the Duchy of Milan, Sicily, and the Kingdom of Naples. Spanish money becomes the backbone for building the Vatican and establishing Christian humanism’s continuance and felicity.
The rise of the commoner is what is defined as the rebirth of civilization during the Italian Renaissance priod(s) –Michael J. McDonald. (10/05/2008)
“Michelangelo Buonarroti was born on the 6th March 1475 at Caprese in Casentino (Tuscany) and he was the apprentice of the Florentine painter Domenico Ghirlandaio. After a year he began attending the school of the garden of St. Marco, founded by Lorenzo de’ Medici, where Michelangelo most likely trained to become a sculptor; during a fight at school, he broke his nasal septum and this caused him a lot of trouble for the rest of his life. In Autumn 1494, just before the expulsion of the Medici family, Michelangelo ran away from Florence and went to Venice and then to Bologna. In 1495, he returned to Florence for a short while, then he moved to Rome, where he stayed until the year 1500 (between 1497 and 1498, he went to the Carrara quarries to choose the marble for the Pietà). The artist was back in Florence between 1501 and 1504, where he sculptured the Statue of David, then he went to Rome (1505-1506) and to Bologna (1508). Once back in the Eternal City, he painted the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel alone, without any assistants and in only four years (1509-1512). Of his intense artistic activity throughout the following years, we now wish to recall the Last Judgement (1536-1541), which made him famous and the city planning reorganization of Campidoglio Square.”
In 1547, Paul III (1534-1549) asked Michelangelo to supervise the construction of St. Peter’s that is the continuation and the accomplishment of the new basilica. “The task he faced and directed, when he was already old, is somewhat superhuman and only his high idealism, nurtured by the most authentic religious feeling and supported by a no lesser sense of responsibility, allowed him to face this hard commitment” (DUSSLER – GIRARDI, Buonarroti, Michelangelo, DBI 15, page 171). Michelangelo resolved the problem of the dome, on which, after Bramante died (1514), many projects were being discussed. The annual costs of the work reached 30.000 ducats; it was estimated that between the 1st January 1547 and the 8th May 1551, 121,544 ducats had been spent.
Michelangelo’s letter to the Bishop of Cesena in January 1550, refers to the economic problems the artist had to face after the death of Paul III, on 10th November 1549. The addressee of the letter, Cristoforo Spiriti, was the Bishop of Cesena between 1510 and 1556 (in 1550 he obtained the title of Patriarch of Jerusalem); however, in 1554, the diocese was given to his young nephew Giovanni Battista Spiriti (24 years), as suffragan bishop with right of succession and who, at the moment of the appointment, was still studying in Perugia. The elderly Cristoforo belonged to that group of friends and patrons who spiritually and economically helped Michelangelo. The artist had great familiarity with him, because the bishop was homely and generous: Mons(ignio)re, io mi rachomando a Vostra S(ignio)ria e priego quella che mi dia aiuto e consiglio, come Suo Gratia à facto infinite volte, benché io nol meriti. E questo è che, esendo dopo la morte di Paolo restati i soprastanti della fabrica di Santo Pietro in decta fabrica a guardarla e a difender l’ammunitione [= materiali per i lavori di architettura] e l’altre cose da’soldati, con pericolo della vita, circa tre mesi senza provigione nessuna, e per essere bisogniosi e non potere più star così, mi fanno intendere che, se io non proveggo a casi loro, che gli è lor forza abandon[ar] decta fabrica, onde ne potre<bbe> seguir danno di parechi migliara di scudi. Io non ò il modo a dar loro l’usata provvisione, né vorrei che eseguissi anche tale scandolo; però io priego Vostra S(ignio)ria che per amor di Santo Pietro mi consigli quello che ò a fare e perdoni a mia troppa prosuntione. Servidore di Vostra S(ignio)ria Michelagniolo (Monsignor, I’m entrusting myself to your Lordship and I pray you to help me and give me some advice, as His Grace has done many times, even if I was not worthy of it. After Paul died, some soldiers remained there to protect and to watch over the materials for the architecture and the construction of St. Peter’s, risking their lives, without any salary for three months; as they are needy, they made me understand that, if I do not pay them, they shall abandon the construction of St. Peter’s and this would cause damages worth thousands of scudi. I don’t have any money for them and I don’t want this scandal to happen, so I’m begging your Lordship, for St. Peter’s sake, to advice me and to forgive me for my excessive presumptuousness. Your servant Michelangelo).
Michelangelo, after a short disease, died in Rome on the 18th February 1564; his body was taken to Florence and buried at Santa Croce.
Linear Perspective, in order of first usage.
Filipo Brunelleschi (First use of linear perspective; architecture).
Donatello (First use of relief in the renaissance)
Masaccio ( Disputed and agreed about the same time as Donatello)
Ghiberti ( First use of linear perspective on the gates of Paradise/ Isaac and his sons / Solomon and Queen Sheba))
Alberti (created 'Human' legitimate perspective)
Significant: Computers, movies, buildings, almost all design uses some sort of scientific perspective.
Architect, Painter, art historian.
First edition of “The Lives” appeared in 1550, followed by an expanded edition.
Vasari demonstrated the ability for the commoner to rise to riches: at his height of fame, he had bought a house in Arezzo, and called it The Casa Vasari. He was extremely happy.
In 1555 Vasari returned to Florence to serve Duke Cosimo who appointed him architect of the Palazzo Vecchio. In 1563 he founded the Accademia del Disegno.
In 1571 he was knighted by Pope Pius. Vasari died in Florence on June 27, 1574.
Vasari tells us that Leonardo and Michelangelo strongly disliked each other. However, it was probably contract competition. This same contention applied to competition with Raphael, as a result Raphael kept Michelangelo’s face out of the Fresco of his masterpiece, the School of Athens. However, both understood each were in a league of the elite and contract competition best describes the period. It was Titian that became the competent businessman, who could perform the highest levels of artistry and claim a valued price from his patrons. It would not be until approximately the seventeenth century and even later that the artists became a distinct sub-class, some commanding titles of nobility – as result of fame and a demand of fortune.
“In Vasari's concept of history, art and culture pass through three phases, from infancy to full maturity, and to "infinite improvements in everything." For him Antiquity meant glory, the Middle Ages decay, and his own time, the High Renaissance, the "revival"."
Renaissance Rome, Renaissance Rome Phase I
Bramante the architect Julius II would pick to design the new St Peters. He had already build an extraordinary dome chapel, that by some traditions that St Peter had been crucified their. This was a competing tradition, where there was a Franciscan Monastery. These Franciscans that were there at the time were Spanish. At San Pietro de Morio, there was a dome structure that marked the spot. It is a miniature example of the Dome of St Peter, it is a classical perspective dome and demonstrated classical refinement – it is also a symbol of patronage to the city of Rome by the Spanish.
In 1504 as Julius becomes pope, Ferdinand wins a decisive battle that gives him the kingdom of Naples. It was fiefdom of the papacy, but now Spain was in close proximity. So Spain and Ferdinand become important to Roman politics. What coincides with Ferdinand was Julius’s pontificate – he wants to be like an emperor – so there is a blending of ideologies of competing king-rulers now in Rome.
Julius wanted to put his tomb in the center, where Peter’s tomb is, so Julius would be the center of attention. He wanted Michelangelo to build the tomb and this is what Michelangelo comes up with – a sculpture at the center, and it is called the ‘Moses,’ the artist working at his height. It was Moses as a combination of classical and biblical hero. As a physical grandeur of a Greek god, this tomb sculpture was an aesthetic connection between the biblical and Greek ideas. It was a Papal moment in Rome that defined them away from religious strictness.
What is the fate of Julius, is that once he dies, and the cardinals say he does not deserve to be buried in the St Peter Basilica – they move him to the place once thought he was imprisoned, so the ST. Basilica of chains, ironic and possibly intentional. For his excesses the tomb ensemble remains there today.
In Giotto's Lamentation, in Padua, of the Arena Chapel [1305, Fresco] we see two distinct figures in front of Jesus Christ who do not have halos. This was forbidden in the middle ages to place any type of figure that was obscure a portion of a Saint, Apostle, significant religious figure or Jesus Christ.
Ghiberti ( Babastry Doors in Bronze Casting)
Ghiberti and Brunelleschi were both finalists for the casting of the Bronze reliefs on the Babastry doors – Ghiberti won, offering another example of Fortuna as Brunelleschi went onto to argue, plan, win the contract, and erect the famed Dome of Florence. Art historians believe that by the time Ghiberti got to the Queen of Sheba and Solomon panel of the Baptistery door of the Florence Cathedral he was employing legitimate perspective or the first use of its form in the renaissance age in bronze casting.
Leon Battista Alberti: Master Builder of the Renaissance.
Leon Battista Alberti's legitimate perspective
Alberti was the first architect to argue for the correct use of the classical orders during the Renaissance. “Alberti from 1404–72 held many roles in the renaissance: Italian architect, musician, painter, and humanist, active at the papal court, Florence, Rimini, and Mantua. Alberti was the first architect to argue for the correct use of the classical orders during the Renaissance. His ecclesiastical works include the exteriors of the churches of San Francesco in Rimini (begun 1451), Sant' Andrea in Mantua (c. 1470), and part of the facade of Santa Maria Novella in Florence (c. 1458–70). On the facade of the Palazzo Rucellai in Florence (c. 1452–70), Alberti used tiers of superimposed classical orders, as inspired by such antique buildings as the Roman Colosseum. Alberti was the author of several important treatises on the visual arts. His De re aedificatoria, written c. 1450, became the first printed book on architecture (1485). Although largely dependent on Vitruvius, it was the first modern work on the subject, and it included important new material. His treatise on painting (1436) was the first book in this field to treat theory as well as technique. His treatise on sculpture (c. 1464) was another pioneering work in its field, and it was significant for its discussion of human proportions.”
Brunelleschi began the Pazzi Chapel, [ Sya. Croce, Florence], c. 1440-61, masonry, but died before he was finished. Maiano finished it. Nestled and connected to the Church of Santa Croce, Brunelleschi last work was in working with neo-Platonic concepts.
Brunelleschi (he went to Rome to study) use of Roman Temple designs began an old use of centralizing structures - the use that was first employed by the Romans.
Venice (Old Merchant Empire) and contained 20 towns and seven provinces (regions) known as a Veneto. Venice was the longest lasting quasi-republican (oft. Imperial) Italian renaissance state up until the age of Napoleon (In 1797 Napoleon’s armies invaded the Venetian Republic and the Doge Ludovico Manin resigned, it changed hands in control from Austria, France, independence, etc...).
Veneto or Venetia (Vèneto) is one of the 20 regions of Italy, and during the Venetian empire used to describe the countryside or non-Metropolitan area controlled by Venice during the sixteenth century.
Veneto is divided into seven provinces:
Palazzo Ducale di Venezia: The Doge’s Palace. (Carved marble façade).
Tintoretto, decorated The Doge’s Palace.
Saint Mark's Basilica (Italian: Basilica di San Marco a Venezia), the cathedral of Venice, is the most famous of the city's churches and one of the best known examples of Byzantine architecture.
Another architect the architect Pallodio ( 1508-1580) is one of the more important architects for the sixteen century and beyond his current era. He had written four books on architecture, that became a standard guide of how too build classically inspired architecture. He had built in Venice, but his most massive projects were of some roman style villas constructed in the countryside, the Veneto. He sets a continental example. People from all over Europe get his books and read them. They are translated into English and builders copy the Roman villa style into some forms English country houses, France architecture, he is important. His architecture is a more modest style, as compared to an expensive Michelangelo style.
Italian, Venetian Artists: High Renaissance Art Period.
1560s-1580s: this is the high-renaissance: ( Dandlet lecture quote dates)
Tintoretto (real name Jacopo Comin; September 29, 1518 - May 31, 1594) was one of the greatest painters of the Venetian school and probably the last great painter of the Italian Renaissance. His father took him to the studio of Titian to see how far he could be trained. Receiving a commission in 1588, he was engaged in his crowning achievement, the largest canvas painting of the time, the Massive Paradise. At a size of 74 ft. by 30, it was reputed to be the largest painting ever done upon canvas.
c. 1560 , he executed a portrait of the doge, Girolamo Priuli.
Andrea Palladio (November 30, 1508 – August 19, 1580), was an Italian architect, widely considered the most influential person in the history of Western architecture.
Tiziano Vecelli or Tiziano Vecellio (c. 1485 – August 27, 1576), better known as Titian, was the leading painter of the 16th-century Venetian school of the Italian Renaissance. He was born in Pieve di Cadore, near Belluno (in Veneto), in the Republic of Venice. During his lifetime he was often called Da Cadore, taken from the place of his birth.
Top five renaissance painters in renaissance Italy was Titian (he lives into his nineties)
The Venus of Urbino
commissioned by the future Duke of Urbino for his bedroom, so he could view this and contemplate Platonic love. (Feloroperi (?) had taken over)
Sensuality: Venice was more tolerant of allowing images like these to be painted. This was possibly the first sensual nude painting of the renaissance ( post-medieval period)
The Venus of Urbino (1538) is an oil painting by the Italian master Titian. It depicts a nude young woman, identified with the goddess Venus, reclining on a couch or bed in the sumptuous surroundings of a Renaissance palace. It hangs in the Galleria degli Uffizi in Florence. The figure's pose is based on Giorgione's Sleeping Venus (c. 1510).
Platonic ideal was to show off your nakedness, so not to be ashamed, like during the garden of Eden before the fall from grace, love was everything beautiful -- including the body. Although Plato was speaking in a Greek context, Platonic love meant not being ashamed in general. While a women wearing a dress is covering up her body, the nakedness defined the high(er) form of love; understanding of no-shame of the human body. It was platonic Love. This was more tolerated at Venice, a secular sensuality became part of the renaissance – it creates a tension in the critique of the renaissance. In Germany, Holland, and France, and other places looked down upon this luxury living that draws this type of critique.
During the last twenty-five years of his life (1550-1576) the artist worked mainly for Philip II and as a portrait-painter
Titian: In 1518 he produced for the high altar of the church of the Frari, his famous masterpiece, the Assumption of the Virgin, still in situ.
Titian's state portrait of Emperor Charles V at Mühlberg (1548) established a new genre, that of the grand equestrian portrait. The composition is steeped both in the Roman tradition of equestrian sculpture and in the medieval representations of an ideal. Charles V, is done by Titian when height of his powers in 1540s. It was done to celebrate the emperor against the German Protestants. By the time Charles was at this age in his early forties, he was actually gout ridden. He could not take part in battles and remained a commander, off to the side of the battle field; He was moved around in a cart, but Titian portrayed him on a horse with a lance. Why would this be so? These themes that were fictitious were all signs of “real” imperial authority – from his perspective the world’s more powerful man. Charles holds the largest empire in history. At this time Pissarro had taken Peru, Cortez had taken Mexico, so Charles was the global emperor.
Significance of the Titian –the fame and volume of the collection is unprecedented, in part was his skill as a businessman. Titian also understood that art was a real business. The renaissance at the end is about the world of material culture – a new age. By 1500-1550s depending upon your location, they understood they were living in a new golden age, and they were speaking and writing about this topic of a ‘new golden age.’ They were saying ‘we got it back,’ conquest, the fulfillment of a lot of Renaissance fantasies, much of the fantasies in the 1350s were now fulfilled. It will be criticized by the north as they take off in their own renaissance – they want a piece of the pie.
Saint Mark's Basilica (Italian: Basilica di San Marco a Venezia), the cathedral of Venice, is the most famous of the city's churches and one of the best known examples of Byzantine architecture. It lies on St Mark's Square (in the San Marco sestiere or district) adjacent and connected to the Doge's Palace. Originally it was the "chapel" of the Venetian rulers, and not the city's cathedral.
Giovanni Lorenzo Bernini Interior of St. Peters' Basilica
John Lorenzo Bernini (eng.)( Puts his name in some works in the St. Peter’s Basilica).
Bernini places his name in some works in the St. Peter’s Basilica, ending medieval anonymous artistic practices. Michelangelo had done the same to some of his works.
Giovanni Lorenzo Bernini (1598, Naples -1680, a.k.a. Gian Lorenzo Bernini) a seventeenth century high-renaissance (The renaissance it did not end at the year 1600, sorry, it is still going on today) artist, and artistic leader on the interior design of St. Peters’ Basilica, Vatican, Rome under the direction mainly of Alexander VII – late in his life on a trip to Paris he was celebrated as a superstar – adoring crowds flocking to honor him. His father was originally from Florence, a Mannerist sculptor, and when Giovanni was a young child his father called to Rome to work on various renaissance building projects exposing his son to his trade. His life modeled much like Michelangelo; he lived a long life, first engaged heavily in superior stone work, and later colossal architecture. After gaining fame as a competent and gifted sculptor, he was given a special office inside St. Peters’ Basilica where he directed and constructed much of the interior work on the last stage of the massive building project. He engaged in a baroque style (Strip the gaudy Gothic ornamentation and one has a renaissance structure) but also continued the colossal and realistic renaissance foundations, illustrating the renaissance had continued throughout his life. He also planned outside St. Peters’ projects such as building plans for palaces and public works.
He constructed, reconstructed many areas inside St. Peters’ Basilica, including devising special schemes for unorthodox combinations of Doric columns with Iconic entablature.
Bernini’s sculptor output was immense and varied. Among his well known sculptures are the Ecstasy of St. Teresa (of Avila), in the Cornaro Chaple. It is about St. Teresa, in the moment of Rapture, in the presence of God. Also, Santa Maria della Vittoria, and the now-hidden sculpture of Constantine.
Bernini’s Basilica and Piazza of San Peitro, Rome illustrated Bernini’s elliptical urban planning and convergence of colonnades in front of the church. Bernini represented the renaissance quest for colossal architecture, and classical architecture. Bernini was a continuance of high-renaissance style. The renaissance doesn’t come to an end with the Reformation or the counter Reformation – the whole advancement of art, style, realism, it doesn’t disappear; and the ‘realness’ of the renaissance gives away to a little emotionalism, but in Catholic motif, but it is still very much renaissance tradition. Take off the frosting on the façades of the new buildings during what was called the baroque period, and one still gets a renaissance building. But then what are words for anyway?
In emotionalism, a sculpture of David, here in Bernini’s style, David is not detached, or platonic like that of Michelangelo’s. David’s expression tells the onlooker, that he doesn’t care what you think, I’m perfection was the idealism in the Platonic models of the Florentine Italian renaissance. Yet here in Bernini’s interpretation, King David is angry, reading to go to war, and much emotional drama are seen in the eyes and seen in the body contortions.
Louis XIV requested Bernini’s works, and once Bernini presented some designs for renovating the Louvre – rejected. Yet, Bernini did do some work at Paris, completing a bust of Louis XIV, which set the standard for royal portraiture for a century.
Notes do not erase
Bramante [ on test] was the architect Julius II would pick to design the new St Peters.
1417- papacy returns ( ~1527)
(Part II) Phase Two: suffers early modern, sack by Charles V. That 110 period roughly, is thought of the renaissance in Rome, and ends the renaissance of Rome with 1527, damage building and artwork.
What is too argue: Renaissance and Rome part II.
It is the imperial renaissance, with Julius II, he had pattered himself after the Caesars. minted a coin with image. He tried hard to create Rome as the capital of this new Roman Empire.
There is another contender comes to Rome 1494-95, who also have pretensions for the dominate role in politics in Rome – it will be the Spanish Monarchs, they have important aspirations for their Role.
Machiavelli writes a lot about Ferdinand (Dandelet intends).
 Michelagnolo Buonarruoti, in “Vatican Online Archives,” available from http://asv.vatican.va/en/doc/1550.htm; Internet. ASV, Segr. Stato, Principi, 16, f. 484r, Paper, mm 290x212. Overleaf, contemporary hand: † 1550, dì ... (sic) di gennaio. Di Michelagnolo Buonarruoti. A monsignor di Cesena., additional cit., Dussler, Girardi, “Buonarroti, Michelangelo,” DBI 15, page 171. Subject, Michelangelo’s finances after the death of Paul III.
 Ibid., Vatican Online Archives.
 Giorgio Vasari, available from http://www.kirjasto.sci.fi/gvasari.htm; Internet [ accessed online, October 2008].
 Alberti, Leon Battista, in Infoplease.com 2003., Alacritude, available from http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/people/A0803082.html; Internet, [ accessed Valley College Col. Lib. Sept. 6, 2003].
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