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Iberia -- Some Identifications

By Michael Johnathan McDonald

The House of Habsburg

Charles I of Spain: 23 January 1516 – 16 January 1556

Philip II: 16 January 1556 – 13 September 1598,

Philip III: 13 September 1598 – 31 March 1621

Philip IV: 31 March 1621 – 17 September 1665, in 1640 Portugal became independent once more

Charles II: 17 September 1665 – 1 November 1700[1]

 

House of Bourbon.

Philip V November 16, 1700 January 14, 1724

 Louis I January 14, 1724 August 31, 1724

 Philip V September 6, 1724 July 9, 1746

 Ferdinand VI July 9, 1746 August 10, 1759

 Charles III August 10, 1759 December 14, 1788

 Charles IV December 14, 1788 March 19, 1808

 Ferdinand VII March 19, 1808 May 6, 1808

 Charles IV May 6, 1808 May 6, 1808

 

Joseph I Napoleon June 6, 1808 December 11, 1813

House of Bourbon (first restoration)

Ferdinand VII December 11, 1813 September 29, 1833

Isabella II September 29, 1833 September 30, 1868

 

Philip II accomplishments:

Philip II: 16 January 1556 – 13 September 1598,

(ID) Philip II's death was pious and he had spent some time preparing for it. This was part of the king’s biography. His life inspired over 100 biographies, the remembrance after death. Manages well the biggest empire yet known in the world, and moves the capital to Madrid, increasing its population to one of the great cities in Europe by the end of the 16th century. He constructs El Escorial, a metaphor of Spain using the famed architect Juan de Herrera, and the same architect built the Plaza Mayor. Under him, the universities grow to 23, by 1637, with 5% graduation rage by 17th century. He added to the empire, the Philippines and Portugal. He names the Philippines after himself, and produces a vibrant trade in the Pacific that will last until the 19th century.  He takes control micro-managing the empire through a set of Conciliar Systems, while continuing to allow autonomous laws in regions of the Empire to exist to foster benevolence. He creates institutional memory with the national archives at  Simancus, and one in New Spain. He expands the means of communication with a postal system under Antonio Tassis. His policy of allegiance creates the visitations system, a policy of ordered special visitors to check up in provinces on viceroys or leaders to make sure they were doing their jobs correctly. He imported to Castile the best artists that Europe had to offer. Philip finally accepts the Jesuits, and the organization becomes a factor building Salamanca and in education, missionary and repulsion of the Protestants in Spain and the New World. He had a long reign and produced a Spanish Canonized superstar in Teresa of Avila, and tool control of the Church by not standing up for Bishop of Toledo Carranza. His great achievement is that he lived  a long life and reign which defines fortunate circumstances for the blessed of the realm.

Loyola and Jesuits

(ID) Inigo Lopez de Loyola was the youngest son of a nobleman of the mountainous Basque region of northern Spain.  In 1521 he defended the Spanish boarder against the French artillery, Inigo's right leg was shattered by a cannon ball. He was taken by French captors and in the ensuing years studied a Paris University. At 33, he went to University of Alcala to learn Latin, and then moved on to University of Salamanca, then back to Paris University spending summers in Flanders. He decided to go to Rome and place he and his disciples at the disposal of the Pope. Jesuits were ordained to the Catholic priesthood in Venice and offered themselves in service to Pope Paul III. In 1540, Paul III approved the Institute of the Society of Jesus. Society grew in numbers and spread over the world. When developed, Jesuits concentrated on three activities. First, they founded schools throughout Europe. Jesuit teachers were rigorously trained in both classical studies and theology. The Jesuits' second mission was to convert non-Christians to Catholicism, so they developed and sent out missionaries. Their third goal was to stop Protestantism from spreading. So single biggest move was Charles III moved against the Jesuits, and clearly from 17th century the Jesuits were Aristotelian dominate educators of all over the Catholic schools, and Jesuits were favored as councilors and confessors to kings – so drawn into political intrigue. 5000 Jesuits the kingdom, a major revolution; this move was to take control over the Universities. Theology cannot be the queen of the sciences because it suppresses sciences.

Armada 1588

Period Philip II of Spain.

(ID) The Spanish Armada was a vision by Philip II to reestablish the old Roman Empire in which Spain believed they were the inherited progenitors. Philip II had married shortly into the English throne, but the Spanish-controlled fleet of about 130 warships sailed against England in 1588 to establish their consternation at Elizabeth’s secret promotion of Drake and Raleigh, the English pirates raiding Spanish treasure fleets from the New World to Spain. Spain planned of meeting troops and a flagship fleet to carry them at Flanders at the Straits of Dover, but they didn’t show up. Spanish Armada was only a defeat and not the collapse of the Spanish navy as previously suggested by historians. Bad weather and bad luck played a big part in the defeat, and after the campaign, Spain, financially strong, ordered the ships to be rebuilt, thus indicating their vitality and resolve, still managing their empire.

Desengaño

(ID) De Sengano, meaning Spirit of disillusionment in beginning of the 17th century is like the consumer confidence index, a state of affairs that a state can be measured. In the 17th century, a overflow and out of work Arbitrates, theologians and lawyers wrote treaties on everything ― mostly negatively on how bad something was going, like banditry, agriculture; Readjustment of finances, while the Monarchy continued to spend 50% on the military budget.  Very small amount of opportunities in private sector industries, At, the Treaty of Westphalia, October 24, 1648 the Spanish lost Portugal. The next ten years 1648-1659 the Spaniards would continue to be challenged by new competitors on the block, Netherlands, England, and France of whom all chip away at the lands of Spain. In the cities the disparities of rich and poor brought an internal self questioning. Weak independent control, so agitation of Tuscany, Savoy, and Papal states began to take liberties and want out of Spanish rule and want autonomy after 125 years. Louis XIV, the Philip II type of monarch, so France strong monarch and Spain in weak monarch, so a reverse is seen from 150 years ago. Philip IV dies at 39, and is seen as a bad omen.

Duke of Lemra, and the new form of government.

(ID) Duke of Lerma, ( Francisco Gómez de Sandoval y Rojas, (b. 1553, Seville, d. 1625, Valladolid)), changed Spanish government, most powerful position under the king, represented a change in absolutism in Europe at this time, was a viceroy of Naples raised to administer position of prime minister-likeness, called a validos - strong men or favorites, and they would govern Spain for the Hapsburg kings up until the end of the 17th Century.  The king technically approved all major decisions, but this position led to autonomous decision-making by another, a stark contrast of the micro-management of King Philip II’s reign. Lerma squandered money on family and friends with government positions and government contracts. He also wanted to build a new magnificent building with his coat of arms on ever other columns alongside the king. He signed some favorable treaties with Rome to avoid the steep costs of war. He had two major challenges, first was the Interdict with Rome: 1604-‘5, crisis in Venice, two Catholic Priest (two clerics, Scipione Saraceno, a canon of Vicenza, and Abbot Brandolino of Nervesa) put on sectarian trial, accused of nutty crimes,  which was not in accordance with the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of tradition, so this created a crisis in which diplomacy by Lerma averted the cost of war. The second was the The Morisco Revolt which occurred from 1568 ― 1609, where 130,000 Moriscos form Valencia region and from Granada, amounting to about 300,000 they were marched-off to the Mediterranean. Lerma is credited for keeping relative peace in the region by his decision to expel the Moriscos in 1609.  Two phases of Charles III reign, phase I is give power to a favorite, and phase two was to get rid of him and replace him with the Count Duke of Olivares  who helped in Lerma’s removal and thus became the King’s favorite.

Miguel Legazpi and the Philippines the last part of Spanish Expansion.

(ID) Miguel Legazpi’s voyage in 1564 to explore a chain of Islands in the south Pacific represents the final stages of the limits of Empire. Later named after Philip II, the Philippines were the final acquisition, not accounting for the Portugal inclusion in 1580, for the Spanish Empire.  Feeling the brunt of critics like Las Cases, Philip asked that no one of the mission use force tactics. His crew violated the kings’ orders, colonized, set up encomidia and used native salves to help them service conditions of the tropics that they were not accustomed too. The results included two decades later legal codes and inquisition jurisdiction administered by New Spain. A vibrant trade from the 17-19th centuries existed with the Pacific, Manila, Malacca, Macaw to New Spain silver and commodities trade.  A question of further imperialism with the focus of conquering China met Philip III’s world which saw the limits of empire, a reflection of jurists (Arbitristas) and theologians further criticizing all problems that they saw in the Empire. The mindset of Spanish Imperialism was ending. The people had lost their will to conquer.

 

Archbishop Carranza

NEED

Pax Hispanica

(ID)  Pax–Hispania theme saw Spain managed to keep things under control for the next 100 years. Pax Hispanica can be summed up as a time of contradiction, and included the period beginning with Philip III’s reign. On the positive side, the Councilor system consists of the best men in the country there is still a very strong military. A Mature and simpleminded diplomatic core; a vibrant Pacific trade (from the 17-19th centuries existed) in the Pacific, Manila, Malacca, Macaw to New Spain silver and commodities trade. Treasure ships are arriving from the New World full of silver and gold. The inquisition and a set of institutions in the New World are stable. Catholic – Protestant aggravation, Spain doesn’t want to get involved. The backbone of big navel yard ship building going strong in Spain as well as in New Spain. The Reform of Manners helps to offset anti-Spanish rhetoric.  The negative side: Bad Omen: Philip III dies at a young age, Philip IV is only 16 years old. Economic depression hits Europe, Arbitristas arise criticizing everything from the government and church;  Problems with Holland, vanguard shipping in Asia and America, and fighting in Germany against the Hapsburgs. Holland viewed Spain as the world policemen. Self imposed limitations, a possible conquering of new lands not favored any longer. The Protestant and Catholic sees Spain stays out of the war with Philip III, only funding armies, and not overtly sending in the big Spanish Army. 1555 treaties to settle problems but reinitiated in 1618. A Goal, Separate from Germany. Internal self questioning, key concept contained in Cervantes’ Don Quixote.

 

Pope Gregory XV Canonizations of 1622

In 1622 the Pope was pro-Spanish, that is Pope Gregory XV, the pope that sponsored all the Spanish canonizations in the 1620s.  Pope Gregory XV canonized Teresa of Avila (the religious superstar and reformer of the Carmelites in Spain), Isidore the Farmer (Spanish husbandman and layman),   Ignatius Loyola. (Jesuit founder: "The Company of Jesus”), Francis Xavier (Jesuit's most successful missionary), and  Philip Neri. He also beatified Aloysius Gonzaga and Peter of Alcantara (Minorite:  designation for a person from a Franciscan order, he was directly connected to Teresa’s life). This brought Spain recognition because they had received more canonizations than any other country in Europe. They had parades and celebrated which brought a sense of unity and pride. This was a period that saw a Catholic France supporting the Protestant side, just for political reasons and for increasing France-Habsburg rivalry. This was a bright spot in their heritage.

 

Count Duke of Olivares and the Union of Arms ( Conscription-likeness)

Period: c. 1625

Philip IV: 1621 –1665

 

1.     (ID) Olivares  replaced Duke of Lerma as the favorite. Olivares’ economic austerity, moral reform, tight controls of the court, tight budgets for princes and court figures, and a bigger agenda called “ uniform of Arms” straddled his agendas. Olivares, no uniform tax policy, but uniform laws and uniform military. He instituted the Union of Arms after reading annus mirabilis, that he evolved an idea on monarchy that could defend itself by using local resources rather than having to call on Madrid ( the central gov.) The plan was that each member of the state of Spain would raise their own militia at their own expense and also maintain a body of troops for each local. Castile and America, for example, would between them recruit forty-four thousand men, Catalonia sixteen thousand, and Milan eight thousand. If all the states cooperated, the empire would be able to dispose of up to 140,000 men. The army was expensive to maintain at this troop level. This of course angered some. From 1626, the count duke began taking measure to have this plan put into place. Olivares was in power when the Spanish lost at the battle of Downs. However Spain could still draw on resources which tells us it was a real powerful empire. Olivares chose Catalan as his war front against France who had challenged the throne and power of Spain. Increase taxation and conscription led to revolt in 1640 of the Catalans.  The Catalan Revolt brought about the fall of Olivares and contributed to the collapse of Spain’s military. Catalonia north of the Pyrenees was lost for ever after the Treaty of the Pyrenees in 1659. (kam 401)

Planet King

Philip IV created a new title “ Planet King” for the Spanish Ruler. Spain wanting titles that represented their point of view established the title “planet King.” “ I rule more than anyone.” To legitimize this vision, he created a magnificent palace to showcase the signature , the Buen Retiro, a pleasure and show-off palace to world dignitaries. The palace also symbolized the rise of the royal collection. It embodied a political contest and meaning, as Art is power. The rise of the royal collection, Philip IV gets 1000 paintings and triples it too 3000. Olivares must create an “image of grandeur” the King said.  The “hall of realms” is a place to take leaders on tours. Many had condominiums and places built in Madrid so they could be close to the kings of Spain. The palace was ephemeral and was not built to last.  Napoleons’ troops destroyed most of the palace during the wars.  Spain still controlled much of their lands but revolts and chipping away existed. Philip IV: 31 March 1621 – 17 September 1665, in 1640 Portugal became independent once more.

Plaza Mayor, French and Italian aristocracy

Revolts of the 1640s

(ID) In 1640, The Union of Arms policy of the Count-Duke of Olivares provoked wars in Portugal and Catalonia: Portugal became an independent kingdom again and Catalonia enjoyed some years of French-supported independence, but was quickly returned to the Spanish Crown. Portugal manages to wrestle away control of the Spanish and take back Brazil, and the spice islands. Also, Dutch split the Netherlands in half, north becomes Protestant and the south remains Roman Catholic Spanish.Two front war, 1647-’48, Revolts in Naples, a fishmonger preacher incites atop a fish box. Masaniello. What did this represent? Iberians against Iberians, a dissatisfaction with how things were going in general.  Also represented a crisis of authority, and because everyone was taxed heavily for the war. Philip IV kept his head, Olivares built a new palace in Madrid. The Spanish do fairly well maintaining what remains as the largest empire in the world at that moment in history. But 1635-1650s also represents a declining in Spanish power. It also represents its first major defeat in 150 years. The sign favorable treaty with the French. Political revolts, warfare and decline, the Golden Age of Spanish Art ( because of Philip’s artistic eye, and his passion for patronizing and collecting art), showed a contrast overall.

Sicily revolts with help by French and trade bribes and privileges. And this rebellion and struggle to suppress it too 3-4 years, and Sicilians do not end up departing from sp. Rule, but sign 1678 a treaty and leaves siciliy in power but must give French Charles V, the French ( Burgandy, sinse Chales V) countee. The Spanish still control the southern Netherlands, road through the French contee to Holland 1678 treaty leads to Dutch towns given to the Northern Protestant jurisdiction, and again the withiering of Europe of Sp. Territories.

In 1680 the economic crisis of all Euopre, and stagnation to growth, in Pan Iberian economic collapse, break riots and no longer stagflation, but Toledo riots and by Madrid, but the courts.

Treaty, Peace of the Pyrenees 1659

(ID) Treaty Of The Pyrenees  (Nov. 7, 1659), peace treaty between Louis XIV of France and Philip IV of Spain that ended the Franco-Spanish War of 1648–59. It is often taken to mark the beginning of French hegemony in Europe. 1650s significant things that political war of Spanish-Franco wars and Philip IV cannot afford to fight the wars, and the ruinous wars of the 1640s. But still staying strong.  In 1639, treaties of the Pyrenees. Is advantageous for the French, the Spain, get daughter of Louis XIV and Spanish bride, but what it does for Louis is no surviving male heir in Spain, so this is too my advantage, If we get Maria Teresa, the Sp. Princess, Louis gets a claim on throne, after last sp. Hapsburgs dies, this is a smart move by the French. Absolute monarchy had a great and negative thing, power concentrated in one person.

Francisco Goya

(ID) Francisco Goya, Born in  Aragon in 1746, became artistic personification of Spain. He served as court painter to two kings, Charles III and Charles IV, and his painting, The Family of Charles IV (1800) symbolized as well as demonstrated he was the successor to Velasquez; he also painted mythical scenes and morbid things in which he had visualized in nightmarish visions and coincided with Napoleonic wars and Spanish resistance. He Painted the The Third of May 1808: The Execution of the Defenders of Madrid. 1814. He painted still life, portraits, mythical images, and graphics. One of the 14 Black Paintings a group outlined to represent the desengaño spirit that arisen from the early 17th century onward, is called Saturn Eats his Child, which represented a Roman-Greco mythological scene that alluded to a supreme leader in fear of his son (an other) of taking over his power (the empire), and this was the only way to stop it, as was the mythic tale alludes too and the reality of Spain trying desperately to keep their lands and positions which had at one time been the biggest empire in the history of the world. All phases of Goya’s work can still be appreciated in Madrid today.

Expulsion of the Jesuits

Period: Charles III: 10 August 1759 – 14 December 1788

(ID) So single biggest move by Charles III’s educational reforms came against the Jesuits, and clearly from the time of the groups succession to prominence to the  17th century the Jesuits taught Aristotelian doctrines  and dominate educators of all over the Catholic schools; Their influence could be seen as the  Jesuits were favored as councilors and confessors to kings – so they represented the people drawn into political intrigue.

At the same time, the Amigos del Pais ( Friends of the Country) program of an enlighten pragmatacism  toward agriculture became a supported measure by Charles III at the universities. This science represented a practical trend that much of Europe became encased in, and was a direct result of the enlightenment of knowledge of this time.

The expulsion of the Jesuits was a move to counter the scientific revolution in the north which had thrown out the Jesuits from their universities a long time ago. The Jesuits adhered to the Aristotelian doctrines which were being proven wrong by the understanding of our universe by the scientific revolutionary Kepler, Galileo, Copernicus, Tycho, and Descartes, and many others in northern Europe and Italy. Jesuits traditionally became affiliated with teaching the young in their humble beginnings, and quickly turned out to be quite adept at producing the best scholars and students of the early renaissance period. However, the criticism became they were too slow, or resentful, to disregard new doctrines that could upset the ideologies of the Church.  For the reasons of this slowness to adjust with the scientific revolution and its corresponding views, Spain lagged behind significantly in these areas. The French had in the 1610s begun to form their Royal Scientific Academies and disregard the Jesuit restrictions of scientific doctrine that was not sanctioned by them, most notably their neo-Aristotelian curriculum. Spain believed this was slowing them down in all aspects of the Empire.

Arbitristas

(ID) Arbitristias in Spain arose out of the many lawyer and many theologian doctorates that came out of the many universities in Spain, and Italy, as well as the two most sought and graduated fields.  During Philip III’s reign the people and them saw the limits of an empire, a reflection of jurists (Arbitristas). The lack of positions created many scholars and lawyers bided their time on internal reflections. They wrote treaties and reviews on everything connected to the contemporary times. They called for the youth to take up crafts, mechanical trades, farming, and any skilled craft that would help the economic situation in Spain. In addition, they called on the youth to reframe from seeking jobs in the government or Church, apparently to two most sought after positions in Spanish Society. During the 15th and 16th centuries, Universities and humanist studies had been sought out as a career choice for many Spanish youth. In addition, elementary schools flourished in the country and literacy raised the opportunities for much of the young, if they wanted to, to receive an education that could qualify them for entrance in the many numbered universities in the Empire. The Arbatristas asked Philip in 1623 to remove some of these schools next to agrarian communities to lessen the amount of potential students to the University.

Napoleon and Spain

(ID) In 1807, Napoleon grew powerful and crazy believing he would be the Universal King. Godoy quickly became a favorite of Charles IV believed Napoleons double-dealing of peace, but quickly learned Napoleon was playing two sides of the coin. Then the truth came out, and Napoleon sought Spain's support for an invasion of Portugal in a new world alliance. When Spain refused, Napoleon invaded Spain as well. Spain had signed a neutrality with England, but they didn’t accept it and declared war also. Napoleon underestimated the Spanish, and after his generals could not outright win, he lead the French troops himself into Madrid and placed his brother Joseph Bonaparte, as King of Spain. Napoleon didn’t understand the unhappy people of Spain, we do not want Joseph on the thrown- not liberals or rightwing until 1813 a guerrilla warfare. This created bogged down Napoleon forces about a few hundred thousand that he could have used elsewhere. In 1813, the rebels, in Spain, succeeded in ousting Joseph Bonaparte, at this time, Napoleon having his own troubles. The Spanish fought hard and believed they won and looked toward the liberal policies of the French revolution. In south, rebels claim 1812 constitution, the Cortez, proclaim that the sovereignty, the power to rule, resides in the Spanish nation, and includes Iberia and New World, “ In both hemisphere.” However,  Napoleon got in the way and appoints Ferdinand to the king, a restoration, and re-established the inquisition, returned the Jesuits to power and imprisonment of the Cortez of Cadiz all which showed that Napoleon had went conservative. So what happens with Ferdinand?  To restore the ancient regime, an opposition to this came abroad from the new World, and a serious of independent movement had got a start and by 1818 and Argentina and Chili, and Bolivar will carve out independent nations of Latin America. This gives more courage to the rebels back home and in 1820 a military coup that plays into this story. Ferdinand had sent boats to enforce his new agenda, and from Cadiz, some of the Spanish troops in the boats, say lets not go it’s dangerous, so some generals “pronounced” no were not going to the new world we will side with the new Cortez – Ferdinand. Ferdinand must evolve into do new Cortez Liberalism in Portugal establishes a new constitution and so liberalism is taking over, but tension of liberal and monarchy have a tension and this is where the story ends.

Charles III & Spanish Enlightenment

(ID) Charles III had four major parts to his enlightenment program, the control of the Church, agricultural reforms, economics and education. Economic was part of the peace treaty signed with England, one of Spain’s major enemies. He opens up trade. Prior to Charles III, there were monopolies, so better completion would be a better thing. Cadis, Barcelona, get Royal trade charters.  The Church he change the  tax system, a tax on the clergy, a 10th of that tax goes to the crown, so he was systematizing its control of the Church and also economics. He brought a new educational system by expulsion of the Jesuit 1766 to open up the educational programs to enlightenment views. Amigos del Pais ( Friends of the Country)  the reforms in Sothern Spain, Andalusia, with new agriculture technology, moved people down there to implement program. In a Cultural Revival of enlightenment he Marks the Biggest 1738 a New Palace, inspired by neo- classical, Isabella Farnese inspired, and ends up a being a enduring a vitality of the Monarchy a metaphor of the Spanish Society. The New Royal palace, built, is still the palace today on the north side of Buen Retiro in Madrid. Francisco de Goya, becomes the core painter in the later part of the century, and the royal favorite in 1786 for Charles III and then Charles IV 1788-1808 he became their favorites. Charles III was allowing some open debate and published journals, and coffee house discussion, and we see vibrancy and vitality Frederick of Prussia and some in France Monarchs Louis XV, XVI and Charles III in Spain will becomes the first enlightenment despots. The notion of turn back the priests and Church – people have potential. Charles changes 2/9th tithes will all the tithes will go to the crown. late Hapsburg monarchy.

 

Ch. III King of the Two Sicily’s

Velasquez (artists)

(ID) Spanish artistic productions 1650- 1700 saw a Golden Age culture of Spain and Refinement, It was not an accident and was political and on purpose.  Circles of patronage: aristocracy and the Church combined with literary productions, tapestry and art institutions, schools for humanities to understand art, and artist schools. Charles V, and Philip IV favored Italian artistry, and Philip II collected art. Florence and Italy in general rose in Artistic world prominence and this explains the rise in Spanish art, because they ruled Florence, governed Milan, and Naples and much of Italy. Preeminent painters of Europe at this time, Hoze Ribera 1592-1652, Zubaran (1598 - ?), Diego Velázquez 1598-1660 and Bartolome Murillo 1618-1682. All in affinity with the style of Baroque, used Chiaroscuro and painted Still life, religious scenes, and courtly life. All became quite wealthy. Some painted day-to-day things, the common world and characteristic of the Seville school. No great sculptures appeared in this period. For example, Diego Velázquez began to serve as an apprentice under the pedantic Francisco Pacheco, a founded artist and teacher in Seville. Chiaroscuro and  Las Meninas (1656, English: The Maids of Honor), Velázquez's magnum opus.

War of the Spanish Succession.

  1. War of the Spanish Succession (1701-1713), Spanish cannot compete with the three large new competitors without a strong monarch leading them. 1695 everyone understood a new chapter in Europe was about to begin, and a dance of everyone to succeed to the Spanish throne, the king became weaker and weaker, then in bed, and people try to figure out who will have a claim to the throne. Major contender Joseph of Bavaria, Son of Margarita Teresa dies  Austrian , Archduke Charles, Philip of Anjou, the grandson of Louis XIV. Highlighted were the last two main contenders, and they were the ones battling the Spanish for imperial European dominance. Charles dies in a macabre, with people calling for a will – give me the kingdom, problem he was going made, and gives it each week to many countries, so all invalid, many wills all Europe owns Sp.15 years Wars of Spanish Succession. French dragged in, the new world dragged in and the entire balance of power thrown up for grabs, the Louis XIV was the power to in the European lands; Louis builds Versailles, huge palace, took away powerbase, to Versailles, very shrewd ruler, absolute. If Austrians took power, they would see a Charles V ( the model of Austrian prince) would be like Charles, What ends up occurring is Charles comes to Barcelona, sets up courts claims he is king of Spain. Philip V, ( d’ Anjou) goes to Madrid and claims he is the king of Spain. So Austria armies and French armies open up fronts in Spain. Revolts and chaos, and French send soldiers to Naples.  Very complicated set of battles over a long time. 1717 become clear, French establish clear claim to Iberia, the Hapsburgs driven out of Iberia, so Philip V is Bourbon, so Bourbon family, and Louis XIV was also. Spain becomes a junior client state of Louis XV, fashion, dress modeled after Versailles, but doesn’t like Spain, so he builds a mini-Versailles a in the country, tries to recreate the fountain sites in Spain- to get out of Spanish summer heat. So why less disaster. Louis XIV dies in 17? So his successor Louis XV gets tired, they lose Québec and Nova Scotia so they are tired of war. The Austrians get domination over Italy, they march into Milan and appoint their own govs. Naples becomes 1740 independent, and warfare, the agreement Naples independent

2.      

3.     1717 Theme………………………………….:

a.      Fashion changed to French and a more modern & formal dress.

b.     name changed

c.      Culture change, and tension of Castilian nobility and Bourbon nobles

 

4.     Philip V was not like grandfather Louis XIV, like anti-depressant, and spent time on his wives, and stayed in bed a lot. Sometime the entire day, and have time with wife, So French send advisors to they govern.

5.     Still have new world, Philippines, and but loses it Italian possessions. This is what the French wanted to do 1494-1599 for a long time, these gains of the Sp. Empire were now reversed. Now French struggle with the Austrians but soon win.

6.     French Philip V understood well this was not a total loss, so it was still appropriate to talk about the Spanish empire, and he becomes Hispanicized himself, and his wife’s influence, was possibly Isabella Farnese. queen consort of Philip V of Spain (reigned 1700–46), whose ambitions to secure Sicily. (Isabella, Queen of the Two Sicilies ) She was an Italian, and brings in Italian advisors and last 20 years the Italians rule as advisors’ to Philip V for last 20 years, kicked out French, and planned armada on Sicily to take it back, so Philip hispanicized, so the Sicilians wanted Sp. Monarch back, but the French and British said this is not going to happen again. No Italy – Iberia dominance, so defeat the Sp. Naval so dream falls to the wayside.

7.     But again, the new world empire remains intact, it is second tier at this point, but it still has grate majority of its territory, but its revival, Charles III, Philip V’s son, a enlightened autocrat.

Treaty, Peace of the Pyrenees 1659

(ID) Treaty Of The Pyrenees  (Nov. 7, 1659), peace treaty between Louis XIV of France and Philip IV of Spain that ended the Franco-Spanish War of 1648–59. It is often taken to mark the beginning of French hegemony in Europe. 1650s significant things that political war of Spanish-Franco wars and Philip IV cannot afford to fight the wars, and the ruinous wars of the 1640s. But still staying strong.  In 1639, treaties of the Pyrenees. Is advantageous for the French, the Spain, get daughter of Louis XIV and Spanish bride, but what it does for Louis is no surviving male heir in Spain, so this is too my advantage, If we get Maria Teresa, the Sp. Princess, Louis gets a claim on throne, after last sp. Hapsburgs dies, this is a smart move by the French. Absolute monarchy had a great and negative thing, power concentrated in one person.

(ID) Treaty Of The Pyrenees  (Nov. 7, 1659), peace treaty between Louis XIV of France and Philip IV of Spain that ended the Franco-Spanish War of 1648–59.

 

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