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Michael Johnathan McDonald, April & May 2006, U.C. Berkeley, History 181A., Spring 2006.
The Calculations of the Speed of Light, as understood in the17th Century.
For Huygens, Descartes treatment of light was the worst of the worst. 'Light must be a motion, because fire is a motion', he thought. He thought how does light come to our eyes? The balls of light would collide in our eyes making everything fuzzy , he thought, 'Light must become kind of wave, ' he concluded. He states that light is a pulse (correct) and it has a vibration. One of his experiments involves metal balls hanging together and the ends are swung and the as the ball's on the end smash into a line of balls ( the locus of eather - must have subtle matter to propagate) the other end swings upward and repeats the process and the middle balls vibrate - this showed that light was not a indefinite velocity because the atoms (balls) would interfere with each other. This was an experiment on subtle matter and a demonstration on refraction. The double refraction is what he shows for the progressive motion of light. Light continues, says Descartes, but Huygens had a tip from the University of Paris where people were conducting viewings to see if light travels great distances; does it have a terminus? " We just proved it at the academy that light takes time to move," Huygens says. The questions people were now asking was: " If light was always everywhere then what makes a shadow?" The concept of the speed of light was born. To prove this the Moon and satellites of Jupiter were studied with observations of progressive motions. They looked at the shadow of the Moon or Satellite and kept time and then waited to the Earth moved to another position around the the Sun to take another observation. This was done to prove light was not an infinite velocity. Once there was the two positions of the Earth recorded with the observations then they were calculated together to see if distance equaled time for both positions looking for the constant and measuring against it.
Renť Descartes Universe
The Cartesian Universe dies because it cannot show vortices with Kepler's laws.
Descartes only cared about the cause of gravity, Newton decided he couldn't care less, because God made it, as noted the ancients from his investigations of history and the Bible. All Newton did was measure its affects on bodies. Historians say that Newton gave up on the theory (the cause) of gravity and focused on the more important Kepler laws. Kelper's laws were not universally accepted after his death, it took people as astute as Newton to prove to us they were in fact significant.
Cartesians say Earth is flat at the equator.
Newton understanding water made up the Earth, apparently this is a part of his Biblical investigations, he says that Earth is flatter at the poles and the Earth in the middle budges because of the water. Well the French solve it.
|Stabilizing the clock, The Pendulum & Tides
The annual motions combined to spin. V+v → V-v Diurnal.
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