Astrology & Astronomy in the Middle
By Michael Johnathan McDonald.
Analysis of Latitude
Cultivated in Paris
and Oxford in the 14th Century.
On the list of
Outlined in a letter
to Galileo's teacher Paolo Sarpe.
Two paragraphs: The
first is recognized as medieval; graph tow is modern
Topic Rate of fall.
The understanding of motion away from Aristotelian motion to
" The Starry
Messenger:" Galiileo's telescope discoveries
combatant: Challenging the Society of Jesus
First brush with the
Two chief world
Galileo's condemnation and its consequences
Two new sciences
The Age of Descartes
"Plus Utlra:" Francis
"Cogito ergo um:" René
The Cartesian system
(1): A universal physics
The Cartesian system
(2): A quasi-mathematical physics
The spread of
The naturalization of
comets and the decline of astrology
Astronomy in the
Age of Newton
A disagreeable genius
pushes to Newton's pulls
The raw data from the
Add Galileo and
Newton's world system
The last of the Magi
Galilei (Pisa, February 15, 1564 – Arcetri, January 8,
1642), was an Italian physicist, astronomer, and philosopher who is
closely associated with the scientific revolution. His achievements
include improvements to the telescope, a variety of astronomical
observations, the first law of motion, the second law of motion, and
effective support for Copernicanism. He has been referred to as the
"father of modern astronomy", as the "father of modern physics", and
as "father of science". His experimental work is widely considered
complementary to the writings of Francis Bacon in establishing the
modern scientific method. Galileo's career coincided with that of
Johannes Kepler. The work of Galileo disagreed with Aristotle's work
is considered to be a significant break from that of Aristotle. In
addition, his conflict with the Roman Catholic Church is taken as a
major early example of the conflict of authority and freedom of
thought, particularly with science, in Western society (wikipedia).
Path: Florence - Pisa -
Venice - Padua.
Galileo was Born in
Pisa on February 15, 1564. Galileo was the son of Vincenzio Galilei
(1520-1591), by trade a cloth merchant who moved the family to Pisa
in hopes of improving their fortunes. Galileo's mother's name was Giulia Ammannati (1538-1620).
"An old and distinguished Florentine family from which Galileo was
descended had originally been called Bonajuti. His great-grandfather
had changed the family name to Galilei in honor of a brother, a
noted physician of the fifteenth century whose given name was
Galileo. " (Drake). "Vincenzio was an accomplished musician,
composer and music theorist who wrote several books on the subject
that reveal some traits later characteristic of his son
― a good knowledge of
mathematics, distrust and even contempt of reliance upon authority,
and a pugnacious temper" (Drake).
Disinterested in geometry and mathematics.
Astrology sign of Aquarius, has many fame-lasting stars connected to
trivia: His leading disciple wrote the wrong birthday, February
18, so he could be linked spiritually ( same souls) as
Michelangelo who died on this date - therefore their souls
Coincidence, Galileo was born a few days later.
Accademia de Disegno
Trade tech school,
not a major university. Like a community college or technology
school. This school was funded by Cosomo de' Medici.
Ricci saved Galileo's life by directing his focus of study
to something he understood and was good at.
Ricci's teacher was
New Sciences 1638 Lowys Elzevir (Louis Elsevier) Leiden (in
Italian, Discorsi e Dimostrazioni Matematiche, intorno á due
nuoue scienze Leida, Appresso gli Elsevirii 1638)
Letters on Sunspots
Assayer (In Italian, Il Saggiatore)
Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems 1632 (in
Italian, Dialogo dei due massimi sistemi del mondo)
Starry Messenger 1610 Venice (in Latin, Sidereus Nuncius)
to Grand Duchess Christina
combatant: Challenging the Society of Jesus
Society of Jesus
Soldiers of the Christian Church
The Most Important Agent in The Catholics
The Society of Jesus (Societas Iesu (S.I.
or S.J.) in Latin) is a Christian religious order of the
Roman Catholic Church in direct service to the Pope. Its
members, known as Jesuits since the Protestant Reformation,
have been called "Foot soldiers of the Pope" in part because
the Society's founder, Saint Ignatius of Loyola, was a
soldier before he began to follow God as a monk and
eventually a priest. Today, Jesuits number almost 20,000 and
comprise the largest single religious order in the Catholic
Church. Jesuit priests and brothers are engaged in
ministries in 112 nations on six continents. Their work is
focused on education and intellectual contributions,
primarily at colleges and universities, as well as
missionary work and ministry in human rights and social
In Spain about the 1540s, a small group of
individuals helped the poor and sick.. Pope Paul III decided
to make them a legitimate group in the Church and they began
to take a more wider and prominent role in the Church's
In 1610-1611, Galileo travels to Rome to try to
persuade the Jesuits of his grand strategy to convince them of
adopting the Copernicus system. Galileo had a little bit of a genial
temporal disposition that made him disagreeable after a while. Many
genius have this trait, usually in reaction to the less informed who
take a long periods of coaxing to convince them (Jesuits) or get
one's point across to them. The Copernicus system is not an easy
application to understand. Therefore, Galileo invited there
wrath. To understand the other outside factors that may not have
anything to do with understanding the Copernicus system, the
Church's reaction to Martin Luther and the Protestants was complex
as well as complicated. The Council of Trent ( beginning in the
1540s lasting 20 years) was set up not only to wade on issues
of what to do about Luther and the Protestants, but also reform the
Church, in ways of public relations. The Church had long been
attacked upon general issues of infidelity, moral degradation,
scheming ( indulgences) the public, and misrepresentation of the
ethics of Christianity. At first there were many Bishops and
Cardinals in attendance. However, over time the attendance dwindled
and many forums ended in disagreement. However, St. Thomas was
adopted as the doctor of the Church, as we as the Eucharist later
agree upon in general which both will have significance consequences
for Galileo in the upcoming years of his life. When the Council of
Trent first began De Rev. was making its slow but weighty
appearance on the academic scene. The second phase of the Council of
Trent, occurred in the 1550s where the doctrine of the Eucharist was
adopted. This second effort was the codification of laws mentioned
above which came into law.
The Council of Trent Objectives: Engines for the
reformation of the Latin Church.
1. Create Roman Inquisition
2. To bring the Society of Jesus into political
arena, and infiltrate them into schools. Jesuits actually create
great academic standards.
3. Create and Index, where books must be corrected
to pass publishing standards reckoned by the Church's oversight.
of Prohibited Books, or simply "Index." The codex entitled
"Index librorum prohibitorum." The Index was a peer review,
and employed many people. This is where the term censorship came
into the Middle Ages and Renaissance. The readers were censors and
it was like getting a free book review, which included suggestions.
Catchphrase, donec corrigatur, Prohibited until corrected.
The stigma surrounding this censorship does remains negative. This
can remind us of the Ulema in the Ottoman Empire that censored
scientific books for about 100 years. The Pope issues a Bull or a
Brief and ones work is in contention to the Church (in formâ
communi). A place to report was the Sacred Congregation of
the Roman Inquisition, of the Sacred Office.
did Galileo get into trouble? Galileo had a problem with
deference and intolerance. This made the Jesuits mad at him.
With Urban VIII, he long time friend, he made a mistake in
editing and place unfavorable words in one of his fictional
characters, which were Urban's favorite quotes. One can only
guess if it was intentional or not. However, the fact in
significance was his beginning downfall in his relationship with
the Pope and the Church and which cost him his freedom and
therefore he spent the later part of his life under house arrest
which was not common. Most people who broke the Index
rules had eight-year terms in prison at most. It was unusual for
a person to remain under any type of arrest for the rest of
their lives as like Galileo.
Index comes out.
Robert Bellarmine, Montepulciano, October 4, 1542 – Rome, September
17, 1621), Robert Bellarmine, S. J. now a saint. J. L Heilbron...it
was against the literal meaning of scriptures, but not heretical.
In 1616, Cardinal Bellarmine notified Galileo
Galilei of the decree of the Tribunal of the
Inquisition against the Copernican hypothesis.
When Galilei complained of rumors to the effect
that he had been forced to abjure and do
penance, Bellarmine wrote him a courteous letter
describing what had been said, which was used in
Galilei's defense at his trial in 1633.
In reply to a posthumous treatise of William
Barclay, the celebrated Scottish jurist, he
wrote another Tractatus de potestate summi
pontificis in rebus temporalibus, which
reiterated his strong assertions on the subject,
and was therefore prohibited in France, where it
agreed with the sentiments of neither the king
nor the bishops. He was among the theologians
consulted on the teaching of Galilei when it
first made a stir at Rome (Wikipedia).
1616, the proofs were circulated in manuscripts
1623 The Masterpiece of Satire
1. The scientific model of repeated
experiments is a main part of this work.
we know these procedures as the modern
2. Galileo supports Copernicus instead
of Kepler, so his model uses the mean,
instead of the true, sun which show us
exactly more of a Ptolemy thematic, and
a little graduated theme than Tyco's
Saggiatore (The Assayer)
polemical text puts the case for a
pared-down scientific conception of
matter and a mathematical basis for
the mind's intuitions lead me to
conceive of matter
"So I tell
you, as soon as I conceive of a
corporeal material or substance, I
clearly feel pulled out of necessity
to conceive that it is bounded or
having this or that shape, that it
is large or small in relation to
others, that it is in this or that
location, at this or that time, that
it moves or is still, that it
touches or does not touch another
body, that it is one, few, or many,
nor by any imagination can I
separate it from these conditions;
but that it be white or red, bitter
or sweet, sounding or mute, of a
pleasant or unpleasant smell, I do
not feel compelled in the mind to
apprehend it necessarily accompanied
by such conditions." In
Galileo (1929-39), VI:347-8 (my
translation). <UCLA > .
Galileo Downfall with The Pope
The Church was not in a feud with
Galileo. It was him and Pope that
had a falling out due to a misshapen
on a popular phrase the Pope was
know to use and was placed in one of
Galileo's less intelligent
characters in one of his books that
enraged his friend which led to his
Concerning the Two Chief World
Systems, 1632 (in Italian, Dialogo
dei due massimi sistemi del mondo)
Characters: conversation takes place
for four days.
Sagredo (great independent and
open mind who always agrees with
Simplicio (The quizer a fan of
Aristotle, but not a good exponent
The Jesuits and Galileo
get into heated matches after Il Saggiatore comes out. Pope Urban VIIl liked the attack on the Jesuits, just as
long as he personally was never attacked. They were friends and
used to have dinner together. Pope Urban VIIl's sublime doctrine or favorite saying was something like
'God does it different and one never knows'. Pope says we need
equal treatment. This way he didn't need to say if one person
was correct on a new scientific finding or not. This helped
please all sides anyway. Pope and Galileo initially agreed at
dinner, " just leave the question open." No one really knows
God's plans. There were friends up until the 1630s.
Galileo places possible by mistake a passage of the Pope's
sublime doctrine into the simple man's voice. To the Pope it is
a gratuitous insult.
On the section of the tides the censures say we need editing.
This was before publishing, when the manuscript was presented to
the censure council. Pietro Redondi, Galileo is a heretic. His
research showed his attack on the Jesuits. A plea barging
is settle and it is only a material heresy, in the authors head.
Galileo also made other decision that were in conflict with
the Church. He wrote about how Copernicus was correct and the
Church was wrong.
Galileo and his pupil Mario Guiducci
Day 1) Aristotle's physics of problems. Discussion of
separating physics from math.
Day 2) Diurnal motion and defeat of Copernicus.
Day 3) Annual motion, easily repeated and discussion on
Day 4) The tides, and not well received by the Jesuits, but
shows Copernicus is correct.
Now to explain tides
simplistically, in the middle aged
mind, we look at like a cord
on a pendulum, and a ball
representing the earth is on point
of the cord while another ball is
either above or below the ball of
the earth. The moon ball closer to
the top part of the cord
representing the sun and its
subsequent relationship with its
position below the earth ball at
furthest distance from the sun,
determines the distance of the swing
of the pendulum. Therefore the moon
position on the cord closest to
the sun moves the fastest and the
moon position on the cord at
furthest position is the slowest
The Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World
Systems (Dialogo sopra i due massimi sistemi del
mondo) was Galileo's comparison of the Copernican
system, in which the Earth and other planets orbit the
Sun, with the traditional Ptolemaic system, in which
everything in the Universe circles around the Earth. The
book was published in Florence in 1632 under a formal
license from the Inquisition. In 1633 Galileo was
convicted of "grave suspicion of heresy" based on the
book, which was then placed on the Index of forbidden
books, from which it was not removed until 1822. In an
action that was not announced at the time, the
publication of anything else he had written or ever
might write was also banned.
While writing the book, Galileo referred to it as his
Dialogue on the Tides; and this was its title when the
manuscript went to the Inquisition for approval:
Dialogue on the Ebb and Flow of the Sea. He was ordered
to remove all mention of tides from the title and to
change the preface, because granting approval to such a
title would look like approval of his theory of the
tides, which attempted to prove the motion of the Earth
physically. As a result, the formal title on the title
page is Dialogue, which is followed by Galileo's name
and academic posts, followed by a long subtitle. The
name by which the work is now known is extracted from
deep within the subtitle. This must be kept in mind when
discussing Galileo's motives for writing the book.
The book is presented as a series of discussions, over a
span of four days, among two philosophers and a layman:
Salviati argues for the Copernican position and presents
some of Galileo's views directly, calling him the
"Academician" in honor of Galileo's membership in the
Accademia dei Lincei. He is named after Galileo's friend
Filipo Salviati (1582 - 1614).
Sagredo is an intelligent layman who is initially
neutral. He is named after Galileo's friend
Giovanfrancesco Sagredo (1571 - 1620).
Simplicio is a dedicated follower of Ptolemy and
Aristotle, who presents the traditional views and the
arguments against the Copernican position. He is modeled
after Ludovico delle Colombe (1565 - 1616?) and Cesare
Cremonini (1550 - 1631), both of whom were conservative
philosophers. The character's name is not "Simpleton",
but is taken from the sixth-century philosopher
Simplicius, who wrote notable commentaries on Aristotle.
Concerning the Two Chief World
Systems, 1632 (in Italian, Dialogo
dei due massimi sistemi del mondo)
Characters: conversation takes place
for four days.
Sagredo (great independent and
open mind who always agrees with
Simplicio (The quizer a fan of
Aristotle, but not a good exponent
The social changes had many levels. Copernicus was
set on the problems of the equant, and Luther was set on the
problems of the indulgences, which both affected the reforming of
science and religion.
Luther wants to go back to natural living, back to
the justification of St. Augustine and live by the faith. His
reasoning is that God chose you but we cannot decipher God's mind.
This was what he thought the Church was doing. Kepler in the same
sense, being a Protestant understood this as well. God made the
universe the way he did, but man's observation is not in contention
with God's ultimate meaning. The Church was stuck upon the old
scholarship of Thomas and Aristotle, Ptolemy and others that
believed the Earth was the center of the Universe, so therefore, man
was at the center of God's plan.
does it mean to be a Humanist in the Middle Ages? One had to know
the languages of Greek, Latin and Hebrew.
of the motion of a body traversing a circular path. The acceleration
is directed radially toward the centre of the circle and has a
magnitude equal to the square of the body's speed along the curve
divided by the distance from the centre of the circle to the moving
body. The force causing this acceleration is directed also toward
the centre of the circle .
This is basic physics, independent of cosmology,
that was well known:
centrifugal = velocity x velocity / 'distance from the center.'
Therefore, objects don't fly off a
spinning Earth because the downward acceleration of gravity is 300
times more powerful than the outward acceleration due to the
spinning of the Earth.
Newton took this idea further. He could calculate
the centrifugal forces experienced by the planets. He used Kepler's
third law for the periods of the planets and found that the
forces varied as the inverse square of the distances from the Sun.
He then asked, what about the Moon? If it
behaves like the planets, then the centrifugal force that it feels
should be proportional to the inverse square of its distance from
the (center of) the Earth. But what can Newton compare the Moon
He compared the centrifugal acceleration of the
Moon (at a distance of 60 Earth radii from the center of the Earth)
to the force felt by something near the surface of the Earth (at a
distance of one Earth radius from the center of the
of Galileo on Mechanical inventions.
circle sweeps out the angle...
The time of
an object to fall is the same in respect to anywhere on the circle.
However, the cords at the bottom is a contradiction with an
isosceles circle and Galileo observes that bigger amplitudes (
we need to speed it up to make an equal swing of a pendulum).
triangle, the angle in a semicircle being a right angle, formulas
for the circumference and area of a circle
François d'Aguilon, was Jesuit Church authority for
the mathematical department. He also was an architect, and conduced
many natural science projects on Optics, which are included in his
work with pictorial representation called Opticorum libre sex
(published in Antwerp 1613).
François d'Aguilon (also d'Aguillon or Aguilonius) (1546 –
1617) was a Belgian mathematician and physicist. He was born
in Brussels, Belgium and became a Jesuit in 1586. In 1611,
he started a special school of mathematics, in Antwerp,
which intended to perpetuate the mathematical research and
study in the Jesuit society. This school produced geometers
like André Tacquet and Jean-Charles de la Faille. His book,
Opticorum Libri Sex philosophis juxta ac mathematicis utiles
(Six Books of Optics, useful for philosophers and
mathematicians alike), published in Antwerp in 1613, was
illustrated by famous painter Peter Paul Rubens.
Furthermore, it inspired the works of Desargues and
Christiaan Huygens and was notable for containing the
principles of stereographic projection. He died in Antwerp (
1634 - 1670
1670 - 1710
1710 - 1760
1634 - 1670
of thought to whom is correct? Aristotle's
physics or Copernicus physics?
Ricciole, Novum Almagestum, 1651. All knowledge summed
up into an encyclopedia. Hundreds of arguments of philosophy
Galileo was not
accused of vehemence suspicion, a serious crime. These were
crimes of a person giving assistance to heretics, or
opposing the holy office, or violation on an injunction.
Galileo wrote a book saying the Church was wrong about
Copernicus. So this was the excuse the Church took him to
court. He said " Do with me what you will." After one year
of imprisonment , he was moved to his house and place under
house arrest for the rest of his life. Galileo was a lay
person and he never remitted and this is why he remained in
his condition. This became the buzz of Europe, and possibly
this facilitated scientific research. The Pope sent out
diplomats to spread the word to all mathematicians to show
Galileo was incorrect. Copernicus' book had only a few pages
of corrections and nothing to do with math. The Attitude was
mixed. Some said in 1634 reformable judgment, others in 1632
said maybe this is heresy. It was a stupid decree some
said, and didn't hurt the Church what was in the Copernican
book. Up until 1820 the Church didn't drop the decree.
1670 - 1710
We can only
depend upon the guidance of the Church. Fictionalization of
Copernicus work is the byword in academia - this pleased the
Church. The Jesuits were apologetic, but taught Copernicus'
lawyer, and printed index books on his printer for fun. Copernicus
comes off his press.
1710 - 1760
Church still had
to point out the fictionalization of Copernicus' work.
Benedict XIV (14th) had a sincere interest in science
but as with the Church a Pope cannot overrule without much
consternation a rule of a previous Pope. Galileo words
seemed to change with added essays telling the reader math
cannot give us the truth. Also some of Galileo's dialogue
was changed. Jesuits attacked Enrico and this facilitated
his rise to a cardinal position by the favoritism of the
Merton, his thesis was the connection of the
Protestant's ethic to capitalism.
J. L Heilbron, tells us "the artifacts move to the north "
where Protestant revolution is taking place. Freedom of
thought significantly loosely governed than in Italy. Luther
and Copernicus came from the north, both Protestants.
Protestants more tolerant of Copernicus' ideas, even a snide
but non-direct comment by Luther on the falsities of people
who promote different universes.
1758 a New Index
is published minus Copernicus inclusion. However, Galileo
remains. Popes do not undermined their predecessors.
proposed what became known as the Big Bang theory of the
origin of the Universe, although he called it his
'hypothesis of the primeval atom'. He based his theory,
published in 1935 on the laws of relativity set forth by
Einstein, among others, as well as ancient
cosmological-philosophical traditions, although at the
time Einstein believed in an eternal universe and had
previously directed derogatory comments at Fr.
Lemaître's mathematical competence. (Wikipedia).
1760 - 1820
investigators ignore, and nobody says nothing.
Anfossi, an Italian Dominican, Master of the Sacred
Palace and chief theologian of Rome , is considered
way to the right by Heilbron.
doctrinal fights about math and astronomy which were to have
no restrictions. However, the corrections as discussed
before were not the math or the physics of in Copernicus's
work but his theology commentary in his work. Yet,
Protestant toward the end of the 19th Cnetury enjoyed
kidding the Catholics over their treatment of Galileo. " You
should apologize" was the sentiment.
1835 The Latin
Church finally recognized Copernicus.
1992 a commission
established to achieve this goal - trouble reaching a
decision of why things happened the way they did in history
when speaking of suppression of some of the commentary of
Galileo and Copernicus. Many came together but no one could
make up their mind on how things happens. There was not
enough record keeping.
Pope John Paul,
20th Century, wanted to apologize for past deeds of the
Church which is not their way because the persons invovled
should be the ones who apologize, not the ones who were not
Books for convincing the
people often employed things they could understand coupled with the
less understood physic equations and high-tech math. Therefore, in
1616 Galileo combined
physiology and philosophy which shouldn't be combined
according to the Council of Trent. One remembers that Einstein
combined energy and matter, two things that said were not meant to
go together as a formula concept, to figure out the theory of
relativity. The Council of Trent doesn't think that philosophy and
physics can go hand in hand. Who knows?
It was true the Churches
exhibited some responsibility but one need to look at what the
Church was trying to accomplish. That is to say, the job of the
Latin Church was the protection of the European people. That was
their first job, and sometimes these bizarre treatments in physics
coupled with philosophy were just as they proclaimed hypotheses and
not laws. For all the correct judgments the Church made against so
many on the Index it was only responsible to see that some
people such as Copernicus and Galileo would be unduly censored with
the rest that were truly wrong in retrospect. It is hard to censor
most of the wrong theories and not let a few correct ones slip
through. In 1992 Pupard, we use the phrase,"" tragic ,mutual
incompetence," is correct but a harsh judgment of ourselves. In
retrospect it was not like Galileo and Copernicus were not utilized
in academia wich is the main point of progressing the learning for
the advancement of western civilization. Things turned out in the
commission to change sides in that some said Galileo had the Bible
right, but not the science, and other said we just couldn't
interpret correctly the philosophical statements of him.
Therefore, the Church concluded that it had the science right but
didn't have the correct interpretation of the Bible. The
Commission apology was impossible in this way. Why? Pio Paschine,
prepared 300 years of history and the test was suppressed. The
commission resurrected this text and found out that the Jesuits
didn't do their part in all of this censorship of history, according
to Heilbron. Job promotion is one followed the Pope's decisions in
the past to promote Jesuits who followed the censorship squad.
The Jesuits were placed in a negative light in this regard. Lets
resurrect Pashine's work and show how the Church was unable to make
faith and science compatible thus leading to censorship in the
middle ages and the renaissance. If we cannot face ourselves we must
try to understand what happened at least. Maybe what came out of all
of this is that Galileo received a tonsure in 1620 to receive
Urban's VIII's presents, and that to show a promotion of Galileo
above the Pope Uraban's magnanimity will one day turn Galileo into a
saint. Galileo was not against the Church as we Urban, but Galileo's
actions of placing the Pope's favorite saying into the
simpleton character made history which turned into something else
with all his other writings on Copernicus' promotions.
Edit section for Apirl 5,
2005 ( Need to work on this)
Torricelli's work in physics
Evangelista Torricelli (October 15, 1608 -
October 25, 1647) was an Italian physicist and
After Galileo's death Torricelli was
nominated grand-ducal mathematician and professor of
mathematics in the Florentine academy. The discovery
of the principle of the barometer which has
perpetuated his fame ("Torricellian tube", "Torricellian
vacuum") was made in 1643. The torr, a unit of
pressure is named after him. Torricelli is also
famous for the discovery of an infinitely long solid
now called Gabriel's horn, whose surface area is
infinite, but whose volume is finite. This was seen
as an "incredible" paradox by many at the time
(including Torricelli himself, who tried several
alternative proofs), and prompted a fierce
controversy about the nature of infinity, involving
the philosopher Hobbes. It is supposed by some to
have led to the idea of a "completed infinity".
Torricelli was also a pioneer in the area of
infinite series. In his De dimensione parabolae of
1644, Toricelli considered a decreasing sequence of
positive terms and showed the corresponding
telescoping series necessarily converges to a0 − L,
where L is the limit of the sequence, and in this
way gives a proof of the formula for the sum of a
geometric series ( wikipedia).
Torricelli stayed with Galileo.
Weights falling down in
every direction as if a ball was released at the same time then
thesame time to get to the tangent described in a circle is the
same. It takes twice as long to get there from a reflection.
All associated with an
entire foreign way of thinking.
North of the Alps.
South of the Alps.
Tops of barometers.
Accademia del Cimento
Founded by Prince Leopoldo de’ Medici and the Grand-duke Ferdinando
II in 1657, the Academy resolved to test a series of principles of
natural philosophy which up till then had been commonly accepted
solely on the basis of the authority of Aristotle. They proposed to
follow Galileo's example, and use only rigorous experimentation as
their guide. (
Robert Boyle and Robert
Hooke working together and finish around 1660.
Air Pump. The Airpump
goes north to England about 1660s. The Jesuits bring it to the
Lutherans. Hooke excelled in mechanics and Boyle was able to pay
him for the time and effort. Later they turns things around and
make a compressed air device. This leads to Boyle law. hH=constant.
Pressure in space and time & Volume in a space was a constant.
pV=constant. The use of quantitative rules was in importance and
useful for life, Prior this was just a Aristotelian theory of
quantitative ideas. He expressed his law into anagram in the
language of Latin to hid from everyone the law. This was the
only form of copyright that existed in those days and most
philosophers ( Scientists during this period in terms of
physical science) used them.
This was a guard
against undermining. Before quantitative axioms were useless to
the old Latin and Geek masters, but these laws changed them.
However, vacuums and pumps were long ago postulated there
physical application was never put together. This is the two
things into one. The ideas and the physical application of the
two becoming one.
Cosomo short lived
Urban VIII's death decided to form an academy dedicated to
Galileo and they employed 10 physicists or professors to invent,
do science and to performs proofs of scientific experiments.
They ran experiments of can electricity survive in a vacuum or
barometer. Filling a barometer tube with mercury, then wiggling
an amber fixture attacked to a rod against a fir fixture while a
leather sleeve kept out most of the air was produced. They
really wanted to see what happened in a vacuum. Bells didn't
ring, bugs dies, etc.. The problem was it was for the Medici's
to see only. They didn't want to publish anything, and fear of
the Church they claimed everything was of hypotheses and never a
theory or law. This academic only lasted ten-years. All
experiments were given no credit to the professors and no
explanation was given in their book that they published. The
Great book the Medici called it headed with the statement that "
we do not stand behind any theoretical statement in the book" (a
paraphrase). When Piero Medici, the weak leader rose to power,
things fell apart. However the major influence from this
academia wound-up being Francis Bacon.
worked for Elizabeth & James I of England. He was trained as a
lawyer who fell in love with the high-life. He became James'
chief layer, garnering power. He desired more money than he
actually was making which was a good deal anyway. He lost a
bribery case involving him that ruined him and he fell from
influence around 1620s. Before in 1605 he published a book in
English. He was looking for a replacement of scholastic
philosophy for higher learning. He wanted to do away with the
old philosophers because he thought they bogged down men's'
minds. We must remember that after the establishment of the
printing press, Aristotle's enemies printed pamphlets and books
attacking his theories. This was, of course, a reaction to the
Church's adherence of his ways over the centuries from the
recovery period of learning all ready spoken about in part I.
"This was an old
vision, a vision with a history. In the 17th century, the
English statesman and "Father of Modern Science, Francis Bacon
(1561-1626), believed that natural philosophy (what we call
science) could be applied to the solution of practical problems,
and so, the idea of modern technology was born. For Bacon, the
problem was this: how could man enjoy perfect freedom if he had
to constantly labor to supply the necessities of existence? His
answer was clear -- machines. These labor saving devices would
liberate mankind, they would save labor which then could be
utilized elsewhere. "Knowledge is power," said Bacon, and
scientific knowledge reveals power over nature" (Keris).
After he fell from
influence he went back to work.
James started the
initiative of the National Science Foundation.
Theme was changing
thought and advancement.
Bacon published the
work entitled " Novum Organum ( 1620).
"Idols of the Tribe"
Bacon's idols of
though as he called it were the old philosopher's outdated
thoughts and theories, He said we should avoid:
- looking at ourselves
idol in a cave -
idols of theater
- systems of thought of Aristotle and Plato.
For example, William
Gilbert, who was fascinated with the magnet and wrote De
Magete (1600) was a target of Bacon. He belived everyithing
in the world was connected to magnets. He belonged to the
idol of the cave, because he had one focus on everything.
I guess instead we
should have Bacon as the new idea mater?
Bacon - The Solution
in the tribe book as goes - Patience - "put weights on
thought no wings"
complicated. and therefore in teaching, one must investigate
something thoroughly before one writes about it.
was his major goal and he suggested (Albeit like Aristotle did
so long ago) one should investigate all sources of the material
before publishing or claiming the knowledge of a particular
subject. His keyword was " Patience." He therefore wrote
a comprehensive book on teh " Natural history of Wind" which was
so convoluted and clumsy that no-one could understand it. " What
was he trying to say."
Bacon wrote a book
called the, New Atlantis, and this was about the reliance
of the state. He needed money so he enlisted the king's help in
writing about Utopia. There was this island of Bensalem and its
institution was called Solomon's house. Everyone who became
shipwreck on this island fell in love with the Utopia and never
left, except for Bacon's informant, of course. There were
three-dozen Solomon industrial spies that went about the earth
collecting the scientific inventions - they were the ants of the
scheme. The bees were the research institutes and offered there
tests to the spies. These three-dozen extracted information and
material for experiments on the island. They were not there just
to get info. Experiments created the English term 'crossing,'
implying that two experiments were treated together to see which
one was the better outcome ( Which held better). All inventions
were free of charge. The three dozen upheld the bad experiments
that would harm the public on the island. Therefore they were
the overlords of protection for this society. Bacon spends alot
of time explaining their lifestyles and how they were rich - in
fact it was physiologically his own self-wishing of becoming
rich as he once was back during his lawyer days. Soloman's house
was not received until the Medici acted as sponsors.
NOTE WILL FINISH UP
wanted to change the relationship between philosophy and
theology - he was no anti-religious.
"René Descartes was
born in a village near Tours in France in 1596. At the age of
eight years he entered the Jesuit college La Flèche in Anjou,
where he would study classics, logic, and Aristotelian
philosophy, as well as mathematics from the books of Clavius. On
account of his fragile health he was allowed the privilege of
sleeping until 11 o'clock every morning, a habit he kept for his
entire life. Descartes studied at the college until 1612, and
despite his Jesuit education, would maintain the importance of
separating reason and faith" (European).
"Descartes went on to
obtain a degree in law from Poiter, then enlisted in the Dutch
military. Military service was tradition in his family, and when
the Thierty [sic] Years' War began he was
encouraged to volunteer under the Count de Bucquoy in the
Bavarian army. In his leisure time he studied mathematics,
having been influenced by the Dutch mathematician and scientist
Beeckman. Descartes dates his first new philosophical ideas and
his analytical geometry from three dreams that he had while
campaigning on the Danube. He saw November 19, 1619, the date of
these dreams, as a landmark moment in his life. It was around
1619 that he may have started Rules for the Direction of
Mind, his first major philosophical treatise, which would
remain unfinished. This work discusses the proper method for
engaging with science and rational theology"(European).
He wandered around
Paris for a while.
"From 1620 to 1628 Descartes traveled through Europe, moving
from Bohemia, to Hungary, Germany, Holland and France. In 1623
he was is Paris where he met Mersenne, a connection who would
keep him in contact with his contemporaries in science. After
Paris, he spent time in Venice, returning to France in 1625. In
1628 he met the Cardinal de Berulle, the founder of the
Oratorians. Berulle was impressed by his conversation with
Descartes, and he encouraged Descartes to devote his life to the
study of truth. In 1629 Descartes moved to Holland where he
would live in seclusion for 20 years. Occasionally during this
time he would visit France, and he changed his address
frequently to maintain his privacy" (European).
"During his first four year in seclusion he wrote Le
Monde, a thesis on physics defending a [Copernican]
heliocentric view of the universe. 1633 was the year that
Galileo's Dialogue was condemned by the Catholic
Church, and although Descartes book was ready, he put off its
publication out of concern that his views might too be censured.
The incomplete manuscript of Le Monde was finally
published in 1664. In 1637 Descartes published Optics,
Meteorology, and Geometry, a collection of essays. The
preface to the collection is titled Discourse on the Method
of Rightly Conducting the Feason and Seeking Truth in the
Sciences, and was written for the most part before 1633. A
conclusion to the preface, added later, explained that he would
publish despite of the risks because he needed readers to help
confirm his scientific theories. In Discourse Descartes
insists on the use of deductive reasoning, countering Francis
Bacon's induction as introduced in Novum Organum from
1620. The work from these years forms the basis of some of
Descartes most important contributions to mathematics and
physics, including the introduction of what is now known as
analytic geometry" (European).
Hw was nervous about publishing Le Mond, and Galileo was
censored with the new unintelligent non-tolerant Church
leaders at that time. The best way to spread the truth in a
Jesuit school is to get bunch of friends. He remained quite.
1637 He wrote a paper
and it was a discourse essay called Discourse of Method,
1637, in which he discussed ancient geometry ( Not do all the
math), Optics, which was not practical and meteors ( replaced
teaching of the schools). Common sense was his biggest
wit in his books. His method: It was doubting, and
doubting everything until there was nothing left to doubt. " I
think therefore, I am." H was always a devout Catholic, however
he understood that old dogma of remaining loyal to outdated
science like Aristotle needed to go in order to further the
Principia Philosophiae was published in Amsterdam. Its four
sections, titled The Principles of Human Knowledge, The
Principles of Material Things, Of the Visible World and The
Earth, are a study of mechanics, developing a mathematical
foundation of the universe. The book concentrates on physical
science, specifically the laws of motion and theory of vortices.
In 1647 the French court granted Descartes a pension to honor
refused the Aristotelian and Scholastic traditions that had been
the dominant shape of philosophy throughout the Medieval times,
and he rejected religious influence in his scientific and
philosophical studies. Throughout his life and afterwards his
work was condemned by the Catholic Church, and was officially
prohibited in 1663. Nonetheless, Descartes was a devout
Catholic, and influenced by the Reformation's challenge of
Church authority, and he often uses a vocabulary influenced by
scholastic thought. As long as he felt an idea was in line with
his thoughts on clear reasoning he was glad to borrow it. He saw
reason as the foundation and guide in the pursuit of truth, and
he was relentless in his search for absolute certainty"
perceive, is true, he like to note.
How does one know it
to be true?
Because it has to
the supreme being would not deceive.
Points of his
reason: He thinks he knows how to test a truth claim,
by balance and
ultimately in God.
substance was radical.
is like the force all around us.
substance was the same thing.
it was colorless,
odorless and characterless.
Only notion of
shape and mobility builds the universe.
Descartes doesn't like only that he showed the results of
the universe, " He is built without foundations."
Descartes wanted to break the old Aristotlean system and
make a new updated version of the universe.
Analytical of Cartesian Geometry.
This was the
unification of Algebra and Geometry. This was well used until
the 19 century, as a major force. Today we have variables of
this system we learn in school.
Conic sections, shows
advantages, orthogonal lines.
The Princess of
Bohemia, Elizabeth, daughter of the Kind of Bohemia, nice of
Charles of England was tutored by René. Correspondence
between then about geometric and algebra problems. She said I
can solve the problem. René was not really up to doing the
math himself, but the Princess used his system, and they had
letters back and forth. She did all the calculations, he didn't
like calculations - he liked the big picture.
Snell's law of
refraction, and lenses shapes (grinding).
Refraction is the bending of the path of a
light wave as it passes across the boundary
separating two media. Refraction is caused by
the change in speed experienced by a wave when
it changes medium.
Rainbow and Refraction
Descartes also made
contributions in the field of optics; for instance, he showed by
geometrical construction using the Law of Refraction that the
angular radius of a rainbow.
In the 13th Century
it was known that 42° is a constant
= α+ b of light diffracting. He described this process in the
form of a water droplet with light-ray bouncing around in the
droplet and ricocheting off the sides to flow outward at a
42° angle. Then the
eye perceives the wavelength. The droplet bends the light-ray to
the 42° . Here is a example
from a website.
Descartes believed that God created the universe as a perfect.
However he needed to show everyone how it came about.
The program of René entails
an independence of the Aristotelian Universe system.
The entire Aristotelian system should be replaced by this
primal chaotic universe system.
wanted to replace it with the Cartesian System.
wanted to present things that were familiar to the readers.
This meant beginning with first principles then proceeding
to the mathematical concepts until one reaches a series of
reductions, reducing physics to mathematics.
didn't show laws of motion, because the average reader
couldn't grasp its concepts. .
most famous phrase was "Cogito ergo sum," (I think,
therefore I am). He derived his philosophy and his belief of
God from this utterance.
fundamental force of motion René
worked on with inertia, accelerations and variations of
collisions ( exchanges) of velocity and mass gave Newton his
thoughts which led him to his discourses and laws of motion.
A Simple collision rule, V+v/2
What happens if the bodies are
the same size? V12 = v/4 =
½(0 + v/2), V11 =
3v/4 = ½(0 + v/2). Therefore, he
stated, ' everything exclusively is a plenum' (the
antithesis of a vacuum; in other words, completely filled
deemed mass times velocity (today known as momentum).
Descartes also believed that colors were caused by the rotation
of "spheres" of light, using the tennis ball as a model of a
spinning sphere. Unlike Newton, Descartes believed that white
light was the pristine form. Descartes gave the first
formulation of what is now known as Snell's law of refraction.
Descartes believed that God created the universe as a perfect
clockwork mechanism of vortical motion that functioned
deterministically thereafter without intervention.
one motive is 'Motion.'
Beginning. The void is black
" Let there be motion.
Orange like balls first appear. These are ultimately little
balls of knowledge and this is at the stage 1.5. This is the
Next, balls squeeze out matter.
the balls stack upon each other.
channel particles emerge between the balls.
Struggling in inertia or weight, a process of orange-sized
balls faster then some channel particles that emerge.
Quantity motion is converted to a universe full of vortices.
This becomes stage two.
orange -like balls become suns and channel particles flow
between them in a screw like motion and some screw into the
vortices has one ball in the center with the particles
ones that screw into the sun become sun-spots.
vortices swirl around. And if too many channel particles
chaotically start flying around then,
Things break free and comet-like things fly-loose from the
Neighboring vortices capture the comet-like things and they
become a planet.
many happen then they knock into another sweeping planets
all over the vortices.
orange, or now identified as a sun captures these planets,
and eventually more of the same until we have our solar
our Earth retained its nature of its origins of vortex.
also caused the tides. This is a notion on attraction and
gravity. Note: Newton later gets his ideas of
quantitative idea from this and Descartes.
of the Earth Particles caused it to line up. The magnetic field was
important to establishing forces and his main field of concentration
that the prime motive is motion. He also discussed poles of
Christian, b. 1629-95. He came from a
prominent family in the new independent Holland. His father
taught him a little of the Cartesian system, and he learned more at
Paris University. He believed in only sound physics should be used
and was used in Descartes system.
Descartes though is taking chances in kinematics. He had a
variety of responses to Descartes'
Universe. He was welcomed in Paris Academia and was there when
Rohault was there. He could grind a telescope lenses better than
anyone else. This helped with his universe findings. He discovered
Titan and Saturn's rings. His father taught him the Cartesian system
when he was young and he learned more when he studied in Paris.
Huygens was against Descartes but he used much of his work in his
own. Galileo has blurred vision from a short telescope, called
chromatic aberration, and his lenses were not ground well enough to
distinguish the details of Saturn. Therefore, a couple hundred foot
telescopes solved this problem, but they were hard to manage. One
could only look a small bits of the sky. Very few people were able
to work these. It was like catching a fish in the sky.
Campani, a principle lens maker in Rome, made new powerful
telescopes and was an excellent lens maker. Huygen's solution was to
tie a string to a pole and therefore, one man could operate the
telescope by themselves. These long scopes were called boon
Descartes treatment of light was the worst of the worst. 'Light must
be a motion, because fire is a motion', he thought. He thought how
does light come to our eyes? The balls of light would collide in our
eyes making everything fuzzy , he thought, 'Light must become kind
of wave, ' he concluded. He states that light is a pulse
(correct) and it has a vibration. One of his experiments involves
metal balls hanging together and the ends are swung and the as the
ball's on the end smash into a line of balls ( the locus of
eather - must have subtle matter to propagate) the other end
swings upward and repeats the process and the middle balls vibrate -
this showed that light was not a indefinite velocity because the
atoms (balls) would interfere with each other. This was an
experiment on subtle matter and a demonstration on refraction. The
double refraction is what he shows for the progressive motion of
light. Light continues, says Descartes, but Huygens had a tip from
the University of Paris where people were conducting viewings to see
if light travels great distances, does if have a terminus? " We just
proved it at the academy that light takes time to move," Huygens
says. The questions people were now asking was: " If light was
always everywhere then what makes a shadow?" The concept of the
speed of light was born. To prove this the Moon and satellites of
Jupiter were studied with observations of progressive motions. They
looked at the shadow of the Moon or Satellite and kept time and then
waited to the Earth moved to another position around the the Sun to
take another observation. This was done to prove light was not an
infinite velocity. Once there was the two positions of the Earth
recorded with the observations then they were calculated together to
see if distance equaled time for both positions looking for the
constant and measuring against it.
Christiaan Huygens (April 14, 1629–July 8, 1695), was a
Dutch mathematician and physicist; born in The Hague as
the son of Constantijn Huygens. He studied law at the
University of Leiden and the College of Orange in Breda
before turning to science. Historians commonly associate
Huygens with the scientific revolution.
He also examined Saturn's planetary rings, and in 1656
he discovered that those rings consisted of rocks. In
the same year he observed the Orion Nebula. Using his
modern telescope he succeeded in subdividing the nebula
into different stars. (The brighter interior of the
Orion Nebula bears the name of the Huygens Region in his
honour.) He also discovered several interstellar nebulae
and some double stars. Huygens generally receives minor
credit for his role in the development of modern
calculus. He also achieved note for his arguments that
light consisted of waves. (wikipedia).
|Worked in pieces and polished them, there was no
complete theory of a universe.
Mathematician, and a little better than Galileo
Made improvements to telescopes to and found at
Saturn's rings and Titian, the satellite.
Improves on the pendulum clock of Galileo. and makes
improvements in an order of magnitude.
Both usually waited a long time to have their stuff
published - were relectant.
He always polished his work
usually waiting 15-30 years before publishing.
|Worked in pieces and polished them, there was no
complete theory of a universe.
Made telescopes to look at Jupiter's satellites.
Studies the pendulum clock.
Both usually waited a long time to have their stuff
new telescopes, as one will see with the new science universities (
academies) small portion of sky brings out allot of detail. The
Jovian system with its moons appears flat on the poles and bulging
at the middle.
during the 1640s to 1670s look for the flattening of the poles and
observed the flatness of the poles on Jupiter. With the new
Cartesian principles the an argument erupted between what people
believed the deformities of Earth were. It looks like a lemon, it
looks like a peanut, or Newton's view of a pumpkin. This had a
little play in those days. Finally it was a fight of a pumpkin to a
found the first spots on Jupiter and that Jupiter had flat plaes. He
found four more moons and gave the period of the rotations using
Kepler's third law. He noted miniature-like solar systems, of the
orbits of the moons around planets and so surveyed the our solar
system using Kepler's third law.
Giovanni Domenico Cassini (June 8, 1625–September 14,
1712) was an Italian astronomer and engineer. Cassini was
born in Perinaldo, Imperia, at that time in the Republic of
Genoa. Cassini was an astronomer at the Panzano Observatory,
from 1648 to 1669. He was a professor of astronomy at the
University of Bologna and became, in 1671, director of the
Paris Observatory. He thoroughly adopted his new country, to
the extent that he became interchangeably known as
Jean-Dominique Cassini. Along with Robert Hooke, Cassini is
given credit for the discovery of the Great Red Spot on
Jupiter (ca. 1665). Cassini was the first to observe four of
Saturn's moons; he also discovered the Cassini Division
(1675). Around 1690, Cassini was the first to observe
differential rotation within Jupiter's atmosphere. In 1672
he sent his colleague Jean Richer to Cayenne, French Guiana,
while he himself stayed in Paris. The two made simultaneous
observations of Mars and thus found its parallax to
determine its distance, thus measuring for the first time
the true dimensions of the solar system. Cassini was the
first to make successful measurements of longitude by the
method suggested by Galileo, using eclipses of the
satellites of Jupiter as a clock (wikipedia).
Bologna, a second type city of the Papel
States becomes involved in the astronomy and science. They do not
want to fall behind the rest of the countries in Europe.
Crete a painter whose paintings still hanging in the Vatican
displayed all the current discoveries in his work and the new
instruments, albeit the objects were out of scale. Inhis work one
sees Saturn with its Huygens' rings. The objective of the paintings
were to communicate to the public that the pope needed support for
the funding of a science university. Pope Clement XI (Giovanni
Francesco Albani ) oversaw Astronomy Eustachio Manfredo
Francesco Bianchini (December 13, 1662 – March 2, 1729)
was an Italian philosopher and scientist. He worked for the
curia of many popes, including being secretary of the
commission for the reform of the calendar, working on the
method to calculate the correct date for Easter in a given
year. A gnomon in the south wall of the Santa Maria degli
Angeli e dei Martiri projects the sun's image onto
Bianchini's line every solar noonHe published many books,
including A Universal History, and Hesperi et Phosphori nova
Phaenomena in which he deduced a rotational period from the
observation of the surface of Venus. Today, we know that
this is impossible, because of the thick cloud cover on this
planet. He also worked on the parallax of Venus, and he
measured the precession of the Earth's rotational axis.
As part of his efforts to improve the accuracy of the
calendar, Bianchini constructed several important meridian
lines, devices for calculating the position of the sun and
stars. The most notable of these are in the cathedral church
of San Petronio in Bologna, and in the basilica of Santa
Maria degli Angeli e dei Martiri in Rome. His point of view
on the Copernican system is not evident, but it was noted
that the picture of the planetary system in his book about
Venus has an empty center (wikipedia)
Bianchini became Pope Clement XI's lieutenant and minister of
culture. Looking at Venus he discovered features on Venus. He must
have not seen his own spots in his retina with his long telescope.
However, Venus is covered with clouds. He saw cracks on the moon,
and stated that if one could not see the crack then their telescope
lenses and in general scope were not up to par. With Venus he began
to name Portugal names to places on Venus. He published a book in
Divini and Cassini ground there lenses into spherical surfaces
therefore created aberration. (Heilbron, Sun 246).
Short scopes with technology for good convex lenses were not
available. Therefore, the math said go long. According to Bianchini,
who preferred Campani's test bed, a 50-foot telescope was needed to
view the disks and diameters of the planets, the spots on Jupiter,
and Saturn's rings, and one of a hundred feet to see all the
satellites of Saturn; whereas people content with observing nothing
more exotic than the eclipses of Jupiter's moons could do with
something between 15 and 25 feet" (Heilbron, Sun 249). The big
scopes were impractical for one man and even difficult for two. But
Cassini made a pulley to adjust his lenses to the height and
rotation of a fork carried by the frame riding on the pulley to work
the azimuth positions (Heilbron, Sun 254).
(Boon) Telescopes solved Chromatic Aberration.
Giuseppe Campani (1635-1715) was an Italian
optician and astronomer who lived in Rome during the
latter half of the 17th century.
His brother, Matteo Campani-Alimenis, and he were
experts in grinding and polishing lenses, especially
those of great focal length and slight curvature. These
lenses were used in long telescopes of considerable
power. The astronomer Cassini made his discoveries with
Campani also made many observations himself.
called his attention to the spots on Jupiter, and he
disputed with Eustachio Divini, an Italian optician, the
priority of their discovery. His astronomical
observations and his descriptions of his telescopes are
detailed in the following papers: Ragguaglio di due
nuovi osservazioni, una celeste in ordine alla stella di
Saturno, e terrestre l'altra in ordine agl' instrumenti
(Rome, 1664, and again in 1665); Lettere di G. C. al
sig. Giovanni Domenico Cassini intorno alle ombre delle
stelle Medicee nel volto di Giove, ed altri nuovi
fenomeni celesti scoperti co' suoi occhiali (Rome,
His brother, mentioned above, is also noted as a
mechanician for his work on clocks. He was a priest in
charge of a parish in Rome. Louis XIV of France ordered
several long-focus lenses (86, 100, 136 feet
respectively) for Cassini, who discovered with their aid
additional satellites of Saturn (wikipedia).
telescope could not replace the meridianna as a precise
chronicler of the movement of the sun" (Heilbron, Sun 255). The long
scope could not be moved well enough to follow the horizon in
respect to the meridian, as for keeping of time, but for observing
the stars this was a good invention.
Louis XIV from pleading with the new Royal Academy gents, builds
an observatory, with these long telescopes. This was after the 30
Years War, and people wanted not to fight anymore and this became an
opportune time to start to progress into the sciences. ( See below).
1660s Academics Change
Henfi Le Roy
University, established March 26, 1636. (Utrecht is a
municipality and the capital city of the Dutch province of Utrecht).
It is one of the oldest universities in the Netherlands. Henri
Régnier a professor of
philosophy taught the Cartesian system. Le Roy succeeded Henri
Régnier. Studying medicine and
Cartesian , the young doctors were trying to incorporate the
Harvey circulation of blood methods, and include studies of the the
heart pump which fit nicely into the Cartesian system. (Harvey,
William (1578-1657), English physician, the discoverer of the
circulation of the blood). The significance is that young doctors
are fighting with the old doctors over traditional methods, and it
is these young ones that are experimenting with the Harvey heart
pumps. Young doctors were adopting the modern ways, i.e. the
non-Galen ideas. This showed free-thinking.
begins to argue with Le Roy because he was not disseminating his
system the way Descartes wanted. Le Roy placed certainty back
into the front pages of a pocket book for the Cartesian System, and
this law Descartes thought to be the most important and in
this way he made changes to the physics of the system and René
said that this stood in the way of his own progress of the
Cartesian system. In the 1650s Descartes moved to Sweden and tutored
Queen Christina of Sweden as her private philosopher, It was
cold and his body didn't manage well in the climate at that age. He
died there of pneumonia.
Henri de Montmor
Jacques Rohault (e.
Pierre - Sylvan Régis
Bernard le Bouvier de
Fontenelle ( 1675-1757).
The decuples of the
Cartesian system flocked to the University of Paris, and his system
was taught at the university. This was cells of his followers
advocated his teachings be included in the curriculum.
Rohault asked to go
back to the basics, and wanted no more matters on metaphysical
treatments. He was schooled in a Jesuit school then took this MA
from Paris. He lectured as a professor in Paris on Natural
Philosophy. His fame came from his weekly lectures at his
house and was an advocated advocate of Descartes' work. His work
Traité de physique (1671) became the leading authority on
natural philosophy and was translated into Latin in 1674 and
used as a university textbook. His focus of experiments were on the
weight of air, and magnetism.
Pierre - Sylvan Régis
broiught Cartesian system big crowds and was nick-named the silver
tongue. The King closed his public lectures in the 1680s, and said
that he could conduct them in his private space. But there was an
affected opposition of lay positions to the Cartesian teachings
beginning in the 1640s. A chancellor in Germany banned the
teachings, but one some aspects of it. These teachings were a very
integral part on free speech and free thought and did cause concern.
Some these of Descartes like his doctrine of the Eucharist were
placed on the Index around 1633. The Jesuits came out in numbers to
condemn the Cartesian system, first around 100, then 50, 40, 30, 20
and the only around 10 of them as the system proved vital for real
application to help western civilization.
In the17thcentury the
Cartesian system conquered France. The system only had a few
principles, it was applicable and could be associated with
categories. However, the best argument for its acceptance was its
easy grasping of the figures, like the shapes of these systems. It
explained the working views of a possible understanding of
magnetism, gravity and one could make inferences.
Bernard Le Bouvier de
Fontenelle (1657-1757) went to Paris and he was a mild Cartesian
follower. Fontenelle was born in Rouen, Normandy. He died in Paris.
His Conversations of the Plurality of the Worlds was a best
" He wrote extensively on
the nature of the universe: Behold a universe so immense that I
am lost in it. I no longer know where I am. I am just nothing at
all. Our world is terrifying in its insignificance. He led the
French Academy of Sciences for a significant amount of time and is
noted for the accessibility of his work - particularly its
novelistic style. This allowed non-scientists to appreciate
scientific development in a time where this was unusual. His object
was to popularize the astronomical theories of René Descartes, whose
greatest exponent he is sometimes considered" (About.com).
This story took place in a garden where beautiful girls learned
about the universe and the entire Cartesian system of vortices. It
was laid-out so that it seemed that we learn general cosmology from
a female persona. It was very influential for the first forty-years
until the 18th century.
Bernard Le Bouvier de Fontenelle's Histoire des oracles (1687)
attacked priests or practices of pagan religions - things really
haven't changed since that is a popular method of attack today.
Another approach was to emphasized similarities in religions,
refuting the uniqueness f any religion, including Christianity.....Fontenelle's
De l'orignine des fables (1724
Leibniz sees measure of a
body's "force" was the product of mass times velocity squared. We
call this proportion today kinetic energy.
Sir Thomas Gresham
, born in 1518 was a London merchant, the founder of the Royal
Exchange and of Gresham College in which he designed in 1596,
in London. A group went to London associated to the college to
petition the royal society for a private college in which to
experiment with new ideas of the people we been speaking about here.
This was the Anti-University idea. Universities up until this period
were regulated by who so ever was in charge of the curriculum, be it
the Catholic Church or an arm like the Jesuits or even the newly
Protestants. Gresham College taught only practical
things opposed to scholastic philosophy of the universities.
This Anti-University thought pursuits were best folowed outside of
these regulations and therefore, the group petitioned the King and
received an OK to have and own their college. This was quite a
change for western civilization.
Royal Scientific Academies
The two Main Royal
Scientific Academies, England's private, and France's public,
changed the outlook of what a Middle Aged University did and what it
could do. The later seventeenth century saw the rise of
organizations of scientists and others interested in natural
philosophy. Paris, Royal Academy of Sciences, its initial name, was
founded in Paris in 1666 and a little time before this Europe saw
the Royal Society founded in London in 1660 ( initially called the
Royal Society of London or the more popular title of Royal
Society of London for the Improvement of Natural Knowledge).
Later the Paris, Royal Academy of Sciences is called the
French Academy of Sciences (Académie des sciences) and
initially was credited due to the pleading of Jean-Baptiste
Colbert, and was from the beginning deemed by the king under
pressure as a public institution. The academy continued at the
forefront of scientific developments in Europe in the 17th and 18th
centuries. The English academy still operates today and is still
privately operated. These academies had the distinction of claiming
as for the body of members the distinction of ' the learned
King Louis XIV, as a counterweight against the English
and with pleading from the new scientific gents, builds an observatory, with these long telescopes. This was
after the 30 Years War, and people wanted not to fight anymore and
this became an opportune time to start to progress into the
sciences. In England, beginning in 1660 when the English
monarchy was restored under King Charles II (who said lets
all get along) after the English Civil War, a group of several
hundred gentlemen and scientists approached the king. John Evelyn
(October 31, 1620 – February 27, 1706) was an English writer,
gardener and diarist, in 1660, was one of the members of the group
that founded the Royal Society. There was Patrick Hook's job every
week to bring in a new experiment. two-hundred people in a crowed
stood around and suggested improvements, and it was Hook's job to
figure out which suggestion was the better. There slogan was
Nullius in Verba [ iurare, to swear in other words] -
trust no one. There were interesting people like Boyle, and
Christopher Rien, who built a cathedral.
What did the English
start out with? Dissections ( medical); pumps, blood transfusions (
sheep blood into man); temperatures on everything; antidotes on
everyone; mechanics, collisions of bodies. These, sometimes
bizarre experiments brought lampoons and parodies from the Academy
watchers. Gulliver's Travels satire on human nature lessoned
when the scientists began providing benefits for humankind from
their experiments, Therefore these science academies had not be
closed in history ever sense and its phenomena is still with us
French Royal Academia develops
where Henri de Montmor, a Cartesian lawyer discussed the merits of
the Huygens, Descartes progressions on science searches for the cost
effectiveness of starting a Royal Academy for science (only). When
King Louis XIV tells his cabinet, including Colbert (
Minister) the proposition and possible benefits, word gets out and
two camps form calling for free money, because Louis was not going
to make his academy private like the British because he wanted
autonomous control over the business conducted for national
interests. Therefore, natural knowledge would be regulated by the
state. Also this academy leaves out medicine, while the British
Academy doesn't. The huge government bureaucracy creates a finance
problem so only 50 people are hired instead of the 200 private
citizens or so of the English system. The English system was a
pay-to-play proposition, allowed by the King, and freedom was the
price paid, and therefore no royal oversight was the benefit. They
scientists could work on what they wanted. However, to get into this
system, which still applies today, one has to pay to become a
What did the French start
out with? The French began with an
order by the king to map France. This was thought to help the taxmen
and the Army. This was of course a lose of freedom of action (
limiting the scope of inquiry) , setting back the French from the
English who were doing all sorts of experiments. Jean Picard,
measured the distances from triangles and the French scientists used
this method going from church-roof-tops to church-roof-tops
triangulating areas of France then taking a foot measure of one
triangle and using this as the standard and calculating the earth
for maps. The easiest way to map was to make a strait line and
measure on both sides connecting triangles, and hope that the
church-roof-tops were not far out of angle to the standard.
Trigonometry used in the survey was ascertained by finding two
zenith stars on the meridian as two points on a line and then
triangulating separate triangles hoping they added up to 180°
method gets the distance. The hard part was to use the toise,
a French yard-stick that was about 2.2 meters. They placed then
one-by-one to measure from the ground while they surveyed the
stars at night. To get equal and accurate distance, they needed to
build flat scaffolding-like structures to lay out the toise.
When churches couldn't be found they had to build scaffolding-towers
and lay the planks on them. The other order of business was to get a
flat piece of land to use as the measured standard. This was
accomplished in sandy-flat places. The other places that had to go
were on tops of mountains.
Jean Picard, theFrench
astronomer, was close to an accuracy as one could get at that
time. He was about 20'' of acr off. In the first survey, instead of getting the desired boundaries
they wanted, the lost some land of about 150 kilometers on the
coastlines from the previous map. Therefore, it was said that the
Geometers lost more land for the French then losses to Germany,
Italy or Britain. To convert the Erath portion they had to get out
their stars. The formula was
ΔФ = Za +Zb.
Therefore the points A and B on the earth were the angles of the Z
primes of the parallaxes of the stars. 20 minuets of arc is equal to
20 nautical miles. It was important to survey the correct
coordinates. The Meter measurement originally came from this
eventual Royal endeavor of mapping France then getting the northern
hemisphere correct. A meter was deemed 1/10 millionth of the
equator to the north pole. Therefore the toise was deemed later as
107 = 90°, 1m =1/9·106 ~ 1.1 ·105
5 ·104 Ts =1.1 ·105
Ts = 2.2 meters
This was a big stick. It was decided to
measure the meridian spanning the Mediterranean and Dunkirk which
was within French territory by Jacques Cassini in 1719. The
toise was used and placing the sticks level which meant
building the running scaffolds. ( see
Sun in the Church)
It took seven years
to measure baseline, equator to north pole. The best level places
was a frozen medium like a lake or a river. The Artic circle was
frozen and did the job. It was an incredible act by Jacques. TheArc
between the stars had an acr value of the degree of the meridian and
only was off one toise length, in 50,000 places matching the
differences with Picard. (verify see
Sun in the Church) .
" No telescope existing
in1665 could be relied upon to determine the diameter of the solar
disk to within a minuet of arc" (Heilbron,
So they sought to measure
the earth by dividing up the southern and northern hemispheres from
Copernicus was off by
about 18' of arc. Richer whittled it down to 1' of arc. This was
important for declination and calculating the speed of light later
on. Since this project needed a correct solar theory, we look
to Danish astronomer Richer.
Jean Richer who
like to observe the planet Mars from Cayenne, French Guyana, and in
1671–73 he contributed to both astronomy and geodesy. The French
astronomer observed that the clocks beat of seconds in Paris was
slower than in the tropics. Accuracy of the Clock.
Why is it important? Time is critical on the ocean and when one
doesn't want to drift into a coral reef cited from a map because
seconds-off of an hour from a clock can create a disaster -
throw-off the measurement of distance-to-time. So, The theorem of
Galileo, of course utilized by Huygen's was a Pendulum bob between
two metal plates called cheeks ( Jowls) to shorten the cord so that
the pendulum swings equally. One can see a reflector on a wheel when
it is in motion make the same design as a cycloid inverse which is
the same theory of the shortening of the cords at certain places to
increase the accuracy of the clock. Time is to fall in the same
place in respect to the angles of the circle. This helped correct
Jean Picard, a
French astronomer who first accurately measured the length of a
degree of a meridian (longitude line) and from that computed the
size of the Earth, became professor of astronomy at the Collège
de France, Paris, in 1655. His measurement of the Earth was used by
Sir Isaac Newton to verify his theory of gravitation.
The English Academy began
to publish a monthly periodical. Sometimes the articles were not of
the academies findings but of other people's and other places in the
known world's findings. This sparked interest in the speed of
dissemination of knowledge. Therefore the magazine became a popular
image of communication of the western civilization. Previously it
was the annual almanac that held the most coveted ownership parcel
of the sophisticated ( the ones who could afford them) in
Europe during the middle ages during the early periods of the
printing press. The popularity of the magazine led to subscriptions,
noting a new money making vehicle - good for commerce, and
regular reporting on learning. The web of knowledge facilitated the
progress of western civilization. In 1665 the magazine published a
new moon around Saturn.
The important things
going on at this time about planets and timekeeping.
Jupiter and Moons,
and figuring out their orbits for corrections of clocks.
knowing starts and
where they are in the sky.
This method proved
good on land, but on the bumpy sea this method was useless.
Therefore, another method
for the sea needed to come into play for the west.
The Building of the Greenwich Observatory &
Longitude for the Success of Navigation at Sea
Sir John Flamstead, the Astronomer Royal
and namesake of the Flamstead House at the Royal Naval Observatory
Greenwich succeeded in measuring Longitude at sea with use of a
chronometer in a Parish at Port Royal. He measured star positions as
the job for his new appointment at Greenwich, but was given no
instruments. ( See Jean Richer). His findings helped to
correct the clock.
Observatory, Greenwich (formerly the Royal Greenwich
Observatory or RGO) was commissioned in 1675 by King
Charles II. At this time the King also created the
position of Astronomer Royal, to serve as the director
of the observatory and to "apply himself with the most
exact care and diligence to the rectifying of the tables
of the motions of the heavens, and the places of the
fixed stars, so as to find out the so much desired
longitude of places for the perfecting of the art of
navigation." It is situated on a hill in Greenwich Park
in Greenwich, London, overlooking the River Thames (wikipedia).
Mean Time (GMT) is mean solar time at the Royal
Greenwich Observatory in Greenwich, London, England, the
United Kingdom, which by convention is at 0 degrees
geographic longitude. Noon Greenwich Mean Time is not
necessarily the moment when the Sun crosses the
Greenwich meridian (and reaches its highest point in the
sky in Greenwich) because of Earth's uneven speed in its
elliptic orbit and its axial tilt. This event may be up
to 16 minutes away from noon GMT (this discrepancy is
known as the equation of time). The fictitious mean sun
is the annual average of this nonuniform motion of the
true Sun, necessitating the inclusion of mean in
Greenwich Mean Time. As the United Kingdom grew into an
advanced maritime nation, British mariners kept their
timepieces on GMT in order to calculate their longitude
"from the Greenwich meridian". This did not affect
shipboard time itself, which was still solar time (wikipedia).
Malematica , Romana., G.G. Ciampini
or Fisica Matematica
Improving the carriages
because Italy's road were rough on the back. They wanted to make
According to every comet
since Julius Caesar.
time on the public squares of Italy. (verify see
Sun in the Church) .
Geminiano Montanari (Sun
in the Church).
Eustaschio Manfrede ( now, Degli Inquieti)
fell into a despair over the professors, now professors would teach
and no students went to class. At the time there was ration of 1:2
of professor to student. Including holidays, festivals, a religious
days-off meant that not all the professors could find positions to
teach the students as by law they were to teach consistently. There
was too many of them. Fights broke out over who lectures, so
everyone just quit. The new scientific style school, the Degli
Inquieti replaced the school system, needing a new focus, people
like Luigi F. donated his world travel writings on condition that
only a few teachers would teach at the school.
First Research Instatution
Benedict XIV's School system replicated ever since.
Pope Clemet XI loves art
so Donato Creti, Marsili had commissions to give to the pope and
this winds his heart to help finance some of the schools. Therefore,
the Pope says, go ahead with scientific schools but we must have art
schools in the same institutions.. One of, or possibly the most
expensive part of these schools were the astronomy departments. He
gives money to start the astronomy departments, but fails to pay
salaries for the teachers and the old ways return. Next, Benedict
XIV dropped the prohibition of heliocentricism, and paid 24 teachers
full time in which half of them were just researchers. This became
our modern system of western style Universities. In these new types
of schools we have the stereotype dormitories of cramped spaces and
First Women to become
Laura Basse becomes the first women in
the Italian schools to make a professorship (of Physics | Depicted
in art of the period). Women had to get a hold of books, and this
was difficult as it was somewhat restricted to young women. However,
secret retrievals of scholastic material was not unknown.
From the 13th Century the astronomy
devices were the astrolabe and the naked eye, and the schools in the
14th century were tables in private homes, with emphasis of pious
writings. 14th Century , Dissection was allowed but not with
Bologna citizens and including their relatives.
About.com , Bernard Le Bouvier de
Drake, Stillman trans., Discoveries
and Opinions of Galileo, (Garden City, New York:
Doubleday & Company, INC.,1957).
European Graduate School EGS, René
Descartes, ( New York: New York, 1997) <http://www.egs.edu/resources/descartes.html>
Galileo Galilei, "The Institute and Museum of
The History of Science "
Heilbron, J. L. Astronomy and Astrology in
Medieval and Early Modern Europe. Represented in University of California
Berkeley Reader. History 181A. January 2006.
( Astrolabe/23 J. L. Heilbron).
Heilbron, J. L. The
Sun and the Church. 4th ed., (Boston: Harvard University
Keris, Steven, Lecture 17: The Origins of
the Industrial Revolution in England, History
Guide, 2001 <http://www.historyguide.org/intellect/lecture17a.html>
Khun S. Thomas. The Copernican
Revolution 'Planetary Astronomy in the Development of Western Thought'. by
the President of Fellows of Harvard. 1957. r. 1985. 30,32.
Koyré, Alexander , The Astronomical
Revolution: Copernicus-Kepler- Borelli 2nd ed. ( Ithaca: Dover Publications,
Inc, New York),1992.
UCLA, Galileo, Francis F. Steen, Early Modern
Huygens, Free open-source Encyclopedia. (wikipost
Mar 2006) <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christian_Huygens>
the Two Chief World Systems, Free open-source Encyclopedia. (wikipost
Mar 2006) <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dialogue_Concerning_the_Two_Chief_World_Systems>
Wikipedia, Evangelista Torricelli
, Free open-source Encyclopedia. (wikipost
Mar 2006) <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Evangelista_Torricelli>
Bianchini , Free open-source Encyclopedia. (wikipost
Apl. 2006) <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greenwich_Observatory>
Galilei, Free open-source Encyclopedia. (wikipost Mar
Lemaître, Free open-source Encyclopedia. (wikipost
Mar 2006) <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Georges_Lemaitre>
Domenico Cassini, Free open-source Encyclopedia. (wikipost
Apl. 2006) <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Giovanni_Domenico_Cassini>
Wikipedia, Giuseppe Campani , Free open-source Encyclopedia. (wikipost
Apl. 2006) <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Giuseppe_Campani>
Mean Time, Free open-source Encyclopedia. (wikipost
Apl. 2006) <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greenwich_mean_time>
Wikipedia, François d'Aguilon, Free open-source Encyclopedia. (wikipost
Mar 2006) <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francois_d'Aguillon>
Wikipedia, Robert Bellarmine, Free open-source Encyclopedia. (wikipost
Mar 2006) <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Bellarmine>
Observatory, Greenwich, Free open-source Encyclopedia. (wikipost
Apl. 2006) <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greenwich_Observatory>
Wikipedia, Society of Jesus, Free open-source Encyclopedia. (wikipost
Mar 2006) <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jesuit>
Pisa on February 15, 1564, Galileo was the son of Vincenzo Galilei
(1520-1591), a music scholar, and Giulia Ammannati (1538-1620). He
studied at the University of Pisa, where he held the mathematics
chair from 1589 to 1592. He was then appointed to the chair of
mathematics at the University of Padua, where he remained until
1610. In the Padua years, he conducted studies and experiments in
mechanics, built the thermoscope, and invented and built the
geometric and military compass. In 1594, he patented a water-lifting
machine. In 1609, he developed the telescope, with which he
performed the observations that led him to the discovery of
Jupiter's moons. In 1610, he was appointed mathematician and
philosopher to the Grand Duke of Tuscany. He studied the peculiar
appearances of Saturn and observed the phases of Venus. In 1611, he
went to Rome, where he joined the Accademia dei Lincei and observed
sunspots. In 1612, opposition arose to the Copernican theories,
which Galileo supported. In 1614, from the pulpit of Santa Maria
Novella, Father Tommaso Caccini (1574-1648) denounced Galileo's
opinions on the motion of the Earth, judging them dangerous and
close to heresy. Galileo went to Rome to defend himself against
these accusations. However, in 1616, Cardinal Roberto Bellarmino
(1542-1621) personally handed Galileo an admonition enjoining him to
neither advocate nor teach Copernican astronomy, because it was
contrary to the accepted understanding of the Holy Scriptures. In
1622, Galileo wrote the Saggiatore [The Assayer], which was approved
and published in 1623. In 1624, he developed the first known example
of the microscope. In 1630, he returned to Rome to apply for a
license to print the Dialogo dei Massimi Sistemi [Dialogue on the
Great World Systems], published in Florence in 1632. But in October
of that year, he was ordered to appear before the Holy Office in
Rome. The court issued a sentence of condemnation and forced Galileo
to abjure. He was confined in Siena and eventually, in December
1633, he was allowed to retire to his villa in Arcetri. In 1634, he
was deprived of the support of his beloved daughter, Sister Maria
Celeste (1600-1634), who died prematurely. In 1638, when he was
almost totally blind, the Discorsi e dimostrazioni intorno a due
nuove Scienze [Discourses and demonstrations on two new Sciences]
was published in Leiden. Galileo died in Arcetri on January 8, 1642.
( Galileo Galilei,
The Institute and Museum of The History of Science ).
V.2 Galileo’s telescope
Inventor and maker: Galileo
Date: Late 1609 - early
Materials: Wood, leather
Dimensions: Length 980
Current inventory: 2428
|Galileo Galilei, The
Institute and Museum of The History of Science
made by Galileo consisting of a main tube with separate
housings at either end for the objective and the eyepiece.
The tube is formed by strips of wood joined together. It is
covered with red leather (which has become brown with the
passage of time) with gold tooling. The plano-convex
objective, with the convex side facing outward, has a
diameter of 37 mm, an aperture of 15 mm, a focal length of
980 mm, and a thickness at the center of 2.0 mm. The
original eyepiece was lost and was replaced in the
nineteenth century by a biconcave eyepiece with a diameter
of 22 mm, a thickness at the center of 1.8 mm, and a focal
length of -47.5 mm (the negative focal length means that the
lens is diverging). The instrument's magnification is 21 and
its field of view 15'. It is registered in the 1704
inventory of the Uffizi Gallery as "A telescope of Galileo 1
2/3 braccia [973 mm] long in two pieces to lengthen it,
covered with leather of several colors and gold tooling,
with two lenses, of which the eyepiece is at an angle": the
eyepiece was thus still present, but loose in its housing.
By the end of the eighteenth century, it was missing. In
1611, Prince Federico Cesi, founder of the Accademia dei
Lincei, suggested calling this instrument telescopio [from
the Greek tele ("far") and scopeo ("I see")].
Galileo designed ingenious accessories for
the telescope's various applications. One of the most
important was the micrometer, an indispensable device for
measuring distances between Jupiter and its moons. Another
was the helioscope, which made it possible to observe
sunspots through the telescope without risking eye damage. (
The Institute and Museum of The History of Science
studies were deeply influenced by two historical precedents. The
first was the investigative model of Archimedes, characterized by
rigorously geometric analytical methods. The second was the detailed
interpretative work of Archimedes's legacy performed by humanists
with geometrical expertise, such as Federico Commandino and
Guidobaldo del Monte. In his Mathematical
discourses and demonstrations, Galileo inaugurated
the science of the resistance of physical bodies. For the first
time, strict methods were proposed for theoretically predicting the
breaking point of bodies subjected to traction and of bodies to
which weights had been applied. Galileo also made major
contributions in the field of statics, through innovative analyses
on the problems of equilibrium and the operation of simple machines.
In hydrostatics, we should note his reconstruction of the method
used by Archimedes to expose the craftsman who had sold the tyrant
of Syracuse a crown in gold and silver alloy, passing it off as a
crown of solid gold. And there are his ingenious reflections and
demonstrations on the phenomena of floating
IMSS - Multimedia Catalogue - Galileo and mechanics.
European Institute of Protestant Studies Interesting side notes
on Galileo and the period of his wars with the Jesuits.
1999 - 2007 Michael Johnathan McDonald. Bookoflife.org . All rights