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The Industrial Revolution


By Michael Johnathan McDonald
Industrial Revelation - Revolution

There are main events in history that we call immense changes that have occurred.

(a) 8000 BC: The Agricultural revolution. This is the discoveries of man/women to grow food, which resulted in man settling down from a nomadic lifestyle to organizing large communities which will turn into civilization. (b) 3100 BC: The urban revolution. This is the expansion ( and creation) of cities to include large numbers of people that habited an area and made their life revolve around these new cities. (c) The Industrial revolution: 18-19th Century. This period change the people of earth’s lives from here on. How they work, affecting how they lived.

The Industrial Revolution changed forever how work was done. The Mule was created and power machinery that used oil and some used water. Mechanical devices, inventions, discoveries, at a rapid pace began to change how we live and conduct ourselves. This monumental period has affected out current world to take the steps that the Agricultural revolution began to the final plateau of the urban revolution. That means in the next few thousand years we will began to colonize space. Back in the main continent of Europe the nobles still controlled most of the lands and this is why most of Europe remained behind the fast reforming English. That is the main continent was still restricted by nobles and kings.

Industrial Revolution

New resources are availed now after few hundred years of reawakening of Europe ( and opening the trade routs that the Arabs had blocked on during the middle ages) the political and social changes came to change with the enlightenment ( the common people who began to go to school). These new resources and inventions that begun under people who had the time, Usually the upper middle class, created a beneficial situation for this to happen. Think of it as a recipe for a dinner dish and all the right ingredients need to come together for the dish to be perfect.

The glorious revolution opened the political atmosphere in England for a ripe jump into mass production. Now people were not under the direct control of the aristocracy, so they could work hard and reap what they sown – this of coerce was from any level of society that one was born into.

In this ideal climate of inventors and small town creators, a vast system of resources lay underneath Britian’s landscape waiting for the right time to be used. Vast coal mines and Iron ore and the sea filled with fish made an atmosphere where 80% of the inventions, all at basically the same time, came to fruition. Also, their was a petite agricultural revolution run by the country gentry. These were big land owners and were elected to the house of Parliament. Regarding property owners , they still lived in middle aged villages. In these villages, the middle class held on to small plots of land and as time grew lager property owners bought them out. As more and more property owners began to hold more land, this displaced the small property owner to work with the larger owner. So, instead of making your wage by harvesting and selling your crop, you now were a employee of a larger property owner. Each small holding farm had subdivisions of different crops and some people owned small strips of land of their won in the village. There were problems with animals wandering onto other properties and damaging the crops. There were no fences. In addition herds of animals escaped into other lands. This caused a law to be passed called the Enclosure Acts. This law designated boundaries with new inventions of fencing that enclosed each person’s property. This had an impact on not damaging crops and food supplies which made the prosperity better for the society. This caused confusion, in that now people could not get by own community togetherness. Instead, the owners of large lands that now fenced their areas in became wealthier and put the smaller land owners at a disadvantage. This caused them to have to see to the larger land owner and go to work for him or her. Significance Small farmers go out of business. No one has to work for a salary and pay rent in his village. As more and more smaller land owners were being bought out, the big buyers now consolidated their farms which caused a big worker pool.

The big land owners now consolidated brought in much money. This created a surplus of move for them to hire inventers to look into creating better ways to harvest and work the fields. This is because consolidation created the means to pay for the scientists. This created hybrids of cattle and pigs and plants. An English cross bread cattle was in effort to soften the meat for eating. Before this only milk was the prime function of the cattle. This term created what is known as ‘ beefeaters’ So England is the first one to create cattle as food and put it on the market.

Specialty breeding

Specialty breeding created breeds of animals for different functions. For example, some were bread for clothing and some were bread for food. Chickens were bread for eggs and meat. Fences increased these populations. As the fences kept them in and created a better survival and turnout of product, the more consumption was increased. Inventors take a look at how to make work easier.

• The first real step in the industrial revolution was the textile production.

Wool: England grew it and soon they brought ( and created) their own spinning machines work force that at the time India was doing. People more free time on their hands because they now were not working on their farmers because they sold them to larger companies, became the workforce in England. Husband works at their cooperation’s while the women stay home and weave. Traditionally all farmers had their own rooms and their wives had spinning wheels. This caused the term to be used called the ‘Cottage Industry.” That means that the work was done at home. Then the women would see their products in town whenever they felt like it. This also meant that one could set their own production hours. Even thought the spinning was done by the wife, she still had time to spend with her kids.

1640 - 1699

1640 London begins stagecoach services i. Stages coaches prevent problems as more are created. The horses leave roadapples ( Manuer) and the there is not a system of cleanup. This includes no paved road. The only paved raods were the ones left by the Romans when they conquered it.

The spinning wheel: The spinning wheel is an ancient machine that turned fibers into thread or yarn, which were then woven into cloth on a loom. The spinning wheel was probably invented in India, though its origins are obscure. In 1733, John Kay invented the flying shuttle, an improvement to looms that enabled weavers to weave faster.

In the early 1700s (In 1733), John Kay develops an improvement for Mechanical Loom. The Flying Shuttle, it is called, made it so that only one person needed to operate a spinning wheel. This meant that now, instead of two women for one job, only one was needed – this meant twice the production capabilities. This increased the output of textiles. The significance of this was that suppliers could not supply enough thread fast enough. Later an improvement of the mechanical power looms created a loom and hooked it up to a stream and the water turned the wheel: a power loom was invented by Edmund Cartwright in 1787. The pulley’s when into the water and Cartright called it a water frame.
Sig: the first mechanical device to be run on water that created a term we know today as power. These looms still need supervision. These machines created the first factories. So spinning and weaving is done by water and workers now go to factories to work , now that they do not have any of lands to till because they were bought up by the rich corporations. Also, greater variety of goods became available with mass production. Thread began to be spun more tightly and better garments were the result. ( So variety when consolidating is a key factor in this time period).
India mainly manufactured cotton and spun the wheels. Now corporations moved this business to England. We can see results today , as more places around the world make products to sell to America, that the American dollar is going down, whereas, when the British brought back the manufacturing industry that was in India, the English began to prosper and progress and be the light of the world in inventions and human progress. What this meant was that cotton manufactured in England instead of India made cotton more cheaper than shipping it in. this is against the NAFTA democratic policies of shipping in oranges for orange juice and other foods from other countries when we pay our farmers not to grow food. The significance of this is that England resulted in a big change.
In the ideas that rivers ran these new water factories the English decided they needed faster streams. So the faster streams were in northern England where the population was thin, because most British lived in the southern portions of the country. These new factories would be located in the northern mountains of England. So people now began to emigrate. These first cities became industrialized cities. Cotton gin, having been invented, brought numerous small shops to open up on many corners of these towns. This created alcoholism, and many people fell into the streets blind drunk. However, very few people went back to the old ways. People saw the change in society. New things they never saw before. Every year new inventions and gadgetry filled the stores and people could live in more comfort than before. Still people worked 14-15 hours a day back then. But even when they were farmers they worked hard as well.
• Some bad things about the working conditions of these new factories.
One can hardly blame Britain for the set backs of this new idea and inventions. They did not have anyone else to model this new lifestyle after. There were many bad things, such as dangerous working conditions. For example, in the cotton factories, link and cotton dust was bad for the lungs. People got their clothing caught in the pulled and belts of these new machines and lost limbs and sometimes died. There were no child labor laws and some of these jobs required no mental ability which was perfect for children. One has to remember that back on the farm the children worked from the time they were tots long hours on the farm.
So England could not predict what effect this had on society. James Watts successful steamengine helped pump water out of new coal mining industry. England had 2 ˝ of seams under their rocks of earth that they could mine. This was considerably smaller that North America where the seams were usually 6 feet high. This meant that children could easilier crawl throught these tight places , so they were employed in the mines. So were women. Some women would carry coal in whicker baskets on their backs up long flight of ladder rungs. One after an other would get onto the ladders and clime, if the top women slipped up and missed the next ladder rung because she had been working for eight hours and was tired, the who line of women fell to injury. Water needed to be pumped out of the mines and the Watts engine did the trick. There was also methane gas that exploded killing and injuring workers. So they would pay a labors a little more money to go down the tunnel and light a fuse and blow out ( up) the gas for a few hours and get to work. That is if he survived. Coal dust created black lungs and the Methane was poisonous. Canary birds were brought down in cages and if they died then the workers knew that the levels of methane were to high. Methane is poisons at high (levels)doses.

Coal was used for steam factories. It was an important resource. Next Iron mines came into use. Iron mines had been in England for a long time but intense heat needed to be generated to melt iron. So these new steam engines could fan the fires and do just that. That meant that better steel and stronger iron products emerged. Also, burning would into coals ( the pulpy wood) which makes charcoal ( Carbon) that burns steadier and greater heat. Sherman forest and many other forests were burnt for coal. Now one saw the damage of deforestation. So much of the forests were burnt down for charcoal. Yet this was the price to pay. When the forests were gone, this is when mining began at full steam. Mining was dangerous and hard work. Sig: Coal mining leads the blast furnace to make steel. It blasts oxygen into the flames making the air hotter that creates a hotter fire for melting the iron.
Before trails littered the English landscape. Only old Roman roads could be seen. People emptied their bathtubs and toilets onto the street. This meant that if you walked underneath a person who through out their toiletries you could be drenched. Roads turned to mud in the wet months. Travel was difficult and slow. England used barges by coastal rives and low lined rivers to move heavy things. The paths were made by the river and the horses drug the barges. The Irish came over with cheap labor prices and built canals where transportation was needed. This created an intricate system of canals. Later England put down effective rocks, then smaller rocks and then gravel to make paved roads. John Loudon McAdam, a Scotsman, created the roads in England and was the master road builder. This meant that travel by winter was possible. This increased production and distribution. Gutters were also created for the dumping of the smelly urine that when the summer time hit, even the mayor of London would have sent for scented flowers to carry with him on inspection week (Not to smell the stench).

1660----Filippo di Chiese builds first long distance coach in Berlin
1662----Blaise Pascal begins omnibus service in Paris
1664----Work begins on the Canal du Midi which will link the Mediterranean to Biscay
1670----Steel springs are invented for a smoother ride in England
1681----Canal du Midi opens (see above)
1690----Denis Papin works on precursor to steam engine
1698----First steam engine patented by Thomas Savery

1769----Steam engine condenser patented by James Watt 1769----
1775----Girard invents first water turbine.
1776----First commercial steam engines produced by James Watt
1776----First submarine used in warfare built by David Bushnell in Connecticut i.

East coast of America began cotton producing and railways are put in. Steam power boat navigate only rivers in American because the limited power of the engine, not fully develop, is too weak for the oceans.

France: 1830 the Middle class revolution where the Monarch begins to wear business close and has limited power begins to see England’s mistakes and improves on worker conditions. However, central-middle east countries must go through political change before their own industrial revolutions.

Vienna at the time the farmers in England were controlling the parliament and raising the prices of food in greed said that we want no more revolutions. In late 1805 in Liverpool workers gathered to protest deplorable working conditions. The Law authorities ( Dragoons – cavalry on horseback) killed six people. Vienna took notice. The people said “ we need reform.” Vienna didn’t want another war to bring other countries into England so they pressed their influence for the English parliament to change its special interest groups. News papers published: “ Peter Lou Massacres.”

“ we need reforms.”

The people who had time on their hands made the documentation to bring these charges to the Parliament. That is all the deplorable working conditions and the human rights conditions. That meant higher-middle class and some concerned aristocracy people played a part in the reforms. They made investigations, documentation of specific acts, like child abuse, and it took allot of evidence. Then their was a problem with getting enough members in the Parliament to vote for the reforms.

The Parliament at this time was bribed, paid off and had a special interest group controlling their every vote.

Before there were no secret balloting so people held grudges against other people. Now this was implemented and some bad people who had power were voted out. In addition the names were not released to the public. Census was taken and redrawn. Their was a total redistributing of voting rights. Better districts were represented now. This new policy broke the farming special interest groups.

After the Napoleon times there was food inflation. This was controlled by the special interest group of the farmers. What could have brought down the English fixed prices on food was to import the cheaper slave labor grain and food from America. Parliament put tariffs on American food imports. So this didn’t happen. Farming interests did the voting in the Parliament.

Farm interests who did the voting and Parliament controlled the house of Parliament.. Migrations to factory towns ensued. Farmers fixed the prices and had their cronies in Parliament vote to keep it in place.

England was a limited democracy and was crooked with corrupt politicians in Parliament who took bribes of the farmers special interest groups. What was needed was reforms.

Dogs and Cocks were staged for fighting in the countryside, now were brought into the cities for gamboling purposes. Through the dogs into a pit and watch them kill each other – this was the original term for ‘pit-bull’ dog. Significant is that people earn a little money then they gamble it away. Horses were fed as little as possible

1820s The Royal Society fro the Prevention of Cruelty against Animals pops up in society. This movement popped up before the human rights movement did. Just to show that animals took priority over humans.

Germany agrees between their many states to uniform trade procedures.

Corn laws, set high tariffs on grain.

• More welfare for the people.
• No cockfighting.
• No child labor.
• Shortening the length of the working day.
• Employers could not beat people now.
• Fencing
• 14-15 was an age limit set for the children to word. No more 8-10 year-olds.
• Davey Safety Lamp keeps out methane from exploding candles in mines.
• Established ventilations in mines

• 1825
• Railways put in East Coast of America
• Travel by steam power boats on rivers ( Not on oceans)

1830 French Revolution called the middle class revolution and elects a business man Monarch. France sees England’s mistakes.

1832: Great Brittan: a bill in parliament passes called the The Great Bill. Reform takes the power away from the farming interests and out of their hands in politics. People had enough of it.

• Steamships now cross the Atlantic ocean.
• Building of Americas interior

1870: Second industrial revolution: New discoveries; the combustible engine; the workings of the internal combustible engine which needed oil and liquid oil products. This created the oil industry.

1. Oil industry
2. Mystery of what is electricity had been solved.
3. Current with is conducted in mettles makes the copper industry boom.
4. Oil is in demand.
5. Rubber for insulation is in demand
6. Chemistry industries get going and create a demand for new products
7. Electricity and oil industry come into being
8. All this makes numerous jobs for populations of people in western civilization.

More Information and work cited:

England: Coal Mining and Railways in the North East
i Dated Sequence of events that shaped history

Copyright © 2004 Michael Johnathan McDonald
All Rights reserved.




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