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Age of Discoveries, general over-view

By Michael Johnathan McDonald
Russia in Middle Ages

The are the times during the Northern Renaissance to the geographical discoveries of the ‘ New World.’ This was a time of ship building and the superstition of the flat-earth. Earth had long been known to be circular by the learned in the renaissance area. This is the time of the final Arab collapses and the redistribution of the mercantile monopolies into the Far East by Europeans. As we learn in history vital resources from the earth a key players in a sustainable civilization. When Rome was conquered by the leftists and it fell into the dark ages the Arabs kept all the resources of the far east out of the Europeans hands (by force).

The opening up of the “Columbus can of worms” sent everyone with the first knowledge off to claim these New Worlds and Far East trading posts and mercantile colonies. Columbus never found the cities of gold but his discoveries founded two Empires right off the bat. Espanola ( Spain) and Portugal. Portugal managed to take much of Africa and Madagascar and India and eventually to the Japanese Islands ( Including trade directly with China and Polynesian Islands) while the Spanish took most of South America.

It is true that Columbus thought he found the other side of the world when he landed on modern day Cuba. The name comes from the fact that Cubabaca, the word he used to describe the Island was thought to be the domain of a Mongol lord Kublai Khan. Columbus would make four main voyages and the last one would be to the tips of South America, along the Mosquito Coast. The reason why he did not report the many indigenous people that inhabited the continent was that they didn’t like living along they dreaded insect northern areas of South America.

It is said that Columbus never set foot on either of the large continents of America so he did not get the recognition of discovering America. This dubious honor went to Amerigo Vespucci an Italian that explored the northern, eastern coast of South America in which he did go ashore. Yet, Columbus knew that he discovered a large piece of land after traversing the opening of the River Oranoka (?) ( a wide River) flowing out into the ocean from far within the terra’s depts. Christopher Columbus is still regarded today as the one who discovers the Americas ( Although evidence points many civilizations that came before). For more in-depth coverage see: Christopher Columbus.

In 1496 Portugal sends orders to their great progressive shipmen to “go and seek out India.”

The Portuguese had discovered the Far East by way around Africa first and laid claim and became rich. Spain mistake about pushing all the Jewish people out of their country ( Plus recent converted Protestants) caused all the middle class manufactured to leave. The Middle Class was the main manufactures. So when Portugal brought in material from the east they would have to send it out to Germany, France, and other European nations to manufacturer the product, which of course, cost them loads of Money. The same circumstance happened to Spain. Sure they used allot of the gold they brought in given the Catholic Church, yet they wasted much of the power in loosing the income by not being accepting the middle class.
1. Portuguese are the first to get to India by way of sea. They kept the rout to themselves to amass all the trading opportunities.
2. In 1494 Spain / Portugal were arbitrated by the Pope in the boundary lines of the New World. The Pope simply drew a line from the Northern parts of world down to the Southern part. This left Portugal with only Brazil and part Argentina. This was later amended.
3. Meanwhile Portugal is off to Indonesia, Japan, China and quickly monopolies. These materials brought into the European nation will quickly fuel the fire on industries yet to be organized into working machine known in the industrial revolution. But the ideas of mass quantities of materials in trading with the east bring new tastes and desires of entrepreneurs of Europe.
4. Oddly Portugal set up trading posts, but not colonies.
5. The reason why Portugal did not last as an Empire and France, England and Spain took over (Later Spain feel as well) was that it had a small population. The Mercantile posts it set up took its people away from there home and they eventually had to bring in others who were not nationalistic and took over the industries sapping pit the money supply.
6. Eventually England would jump onto this weakness of Portugal and take the Indian trading posts over.
7. Portugal did not want to own the places they set up along the trading spots (posts). They simply wanted to provide for their ships.
8. Portugal had posts and mercantile spots in the Red Sea, entrance of the Persian Gulf, Sri Lanka, Singapore (For China and Japan).
9. What did this all mean? That they, the Portuguese were the first in thinking Global Strategy.
10. These ports that Portugal opened up were of great opportunity to the Western Civilization.
11. Sig: The Portuguese’s Empire will not last long. The world is too big and they have too little of population to take it. When the country got depopulated by all the occupations, they had to bring in laborers from other places to do the agriculture. All of the history shows that the agriculture department is key in establishing fronts to take over countries. See History Strategies. After the other nations, England and France and Germany took over their “pot of Gold” per say, they only happened to mange holding on to Macou ( China) two islands in Indonesia, the west and east coast of Africa, and one major port in India.
12. In the future India will play of the foreign nations bidding of who pays the highest prices in order for themselves to take an advantage of competition.
13. Spain dominates at first. Other nations not in the age of discoveries yet. Other nations are in the wars of religion time.
14. The other countries in Europe will be occupied with other things like the wars of religion until about the 1600s.
15. No colonization for these countries till 1600s.

For introductory of Cortez see:
Cortez 1519
The Return of Quetzalcoatl

Cortez asks permission to go to the Gulf of Mexico by one of the Governors of Española. Where upon his orders were not to go into the middle of the country on any conditions. When he go there is burned all his ships and told his crew that there is no way back so lets go into the middle of this place. Cortez was daring and bold and had allot of determination. He had fire arms, cannons, horses and armor and the natives ( Indians) never seen anything like it before. Horses used to live in South America but were hunted out by the Indians long ago. Cortez numbers were 200 hundred Spanish men. After Cortex ceased Mexico for Spain he was a leader and darling of the Spanish royal families. There were huge silver mines in Mexico. Cortez was sending the silver directly back to Spain bypassing the governor ( Vice Roy) ho was seething mad at him. Oh Well.

In 1532 Francisco Pizarro crossed the isthmus of Panama and landed in a desert coastal area. He had discovered the Inkas. He was born in 1474 in Trujillo, Spain, as the illegitimate and poorly-educated son of a minor noble. It was in 1502 when he arrived in the Spanish colony of Hispaniola. He had horses and fire arms and armor. He went to Cusco, the Inka capital and met up with the Inka ruler, Atawalpa (Atahuallpa), and held him for ransom. Inkas had plenty of Gold and Pizarro wanted it all. Atawalpa being smart himself lied until he was toutured by the brutal man. Atwalpa confessed he had the gold but would not tell him where it was. He drew a line around the tops of the wall him his holding place to promises to give Pizarro that much full to the brim if he would let him go. Eventually Pizarro tortured him to death.

At first Pizarro kidnapped the leader, and detained him with fire arms. “Where is the gold come from,” Pizarro asked? Atahualpa was cooked to death in a torture scene out of hell. Pizarro put the Indians to work, yet Spain had outlawed slavery, the new leftwing word play made it easier to fell guiltless. The term forced labor was used.

Inka were in the Civil war over the brother debacle.

In 1490-1524 came a different Inka, his name was Huayna Capac, and he was a Emperor. He had 200 sons and daughters and he did what no other Inka had ever done. He divided his empire between his sons, Huascar, the legitimist, and Atahualpa, the more loved by illegitimate. His name in Indian means, “ well loved.” The Emperor was ding of small pox and on his death bed told his son Atahualpa to listen to Huascar “ when I divide you will take the north.”

Atahualpa after his father’s death took his army and killed off all of the supporters and his brother in order to be the lone Emperor. This set off a revelation of loyalist and sympathizers that the Empire would never recover from. Imprisoned Huascar while thinking what would be the best rout for his conspiracy, then killed off the entire royal family. In history the reasoning for this is that all rulers kill off their enemies so that they cannot claim dynasty. (Notice, Samuel in the Bible telling King Saul that he sinned when he didn’t kill off every person and animal in a battle with Palestine’s.) It was said that King David kept this practice, but was probably curtailed after he became a legitimate warlord and was in order respected in this regards.

1. The viceroys got 4/5ths of treasures and the King received 1/5th.
2. The result is that tremendous wealth pores into Spain. Yet the coffered didn’t last long. See: Spain’s throwing out of the middle class.
3. A lot of the wealth went directly in to the hands of the Catholic Churches which can still be seen today.
4. By throwing out the Jews they placed their own tombstone in their own back yards.
5. When setting up the South American colonies, Spain will not make a middle class. This results in 450 years of backwardness. The feudal mentality of Portugal and Spain keep South America in the dark until the middle of the 20th Century.
6. Spain controls much of the Silver/Gold in South America.]
7. The rest of Europe will not get into colonization until 1600s. They are busy with religious wars. The religious wars helped bring about a different thinking of running government. Instead of the feudal (left-wing) middle ages way of doing things capitalism and free market opportunities are re-awakened and progress is made. The protestants ( The Protesters) made much of the competition and fought for their rights. The Protestants were made up of mostly middle class. The poor and wealthy made (most of) up of Left-wing.

Human Sacrifice was discovered in all parts of the South American Indians civilizations.

John Cabot - or Giovanni Caboto, to use his original, Italian name. He sails close to Greenland and hits Canada. He calls it New Foundland. He didn’t find much gold or anything, a few little Indian tribes. He manage to realize that Cod was plentiful and other fish, so many fishing industries resulted out of his expeditions.

By 1603 England’s Queen Elizabeth dies and much of the religious fighting had died down. James the I is ruling now (Scottish) Many turned to protestant ideas in England. So colonization will begin. As England who took over Portugal’s routs in the Far East resulted in the making companies exclusive rights to certain areas of the world. These were joint stock companies and they were part of the colonization machine. When the King gave them rights they would colonize, establish trading colonies, and stock exchange. England started world regional companies such as the Russian division, and a East Indian company. They were usually authorized for pay-offs and such. These were considered the first in Monopolies of the rest of Europe that was not part of Spain and Portugal’s monopoly of the middle and south America.

There was a Virginia sock company that was in the division to colonize Virginia (establish colonies and settlements). The first was Jamestown. You will not many of the Early place names of America come from English noble names. In James Town they grow Tobacco and farm beans for blue color. Also, silkworms.

The labor force was indentured and was played as small as amount as possible. So all these private companies ( Not State Controlled as left Government is geared toward) authorized by the King to establish colonies. England works the Caribbean islands growing the sugarcane to make Rum that lasts for a long time. So this is another company that is called the Caribbean Company. The Far East Company ( They are purchasing Calcutta port) get cotton their and spin it to make cloth. Later they move the industry to Europe end America. The reason why cotton fabric is so popular in that it washes well, does not shrink and it is light in weight. When England purchased Calico, they could not say it so they decided to call it Calcutta.

India was ruled by an Emperor and various Princes governed their own territories. When competition came in the princes fought over who would get the business. During this period the Emperor was losing control of India. So Prince attacks the next Prince and instability takes over. This helps out the English who will pay a Prince for the port and spinning services. The prince can buy arms to fight his foe. Yet, all the Princes wanted the business that leads to more of the fighting. Treaties were signed, but quickly broken. “How to have security,” The English said to themselves. The English began to hire Hindu soldiers to protect their interests. They started to recruit them. This is the beginning of the control of India by England. Yet, the French traded with England too. This will be a problem seen later on down the line in the American Revolution.

By now the Dutch get the Indonesian Islands ( much, but not all from the Portuguese). They displaced the Portuguese. All these places are described in history as the mercantile colonies.

As for Portugal’s contribution: They managed to find the passage way to India via sea and finally sail around the world. 1519 Magellan left Portugal to sail around the world. He dies in a fight with an Islander King in the Pacific Ocean ( was killed by a yo-yo). His expedition manage to finish the Job.

Why was not Africa colonized and explored? Well the first thing is the geography. Africa is on a plateau. The interior of Africa is hard to get into by way of ship. Steep cliffs of the sides prevent a ship from sailing in. In addition there was diseases by flies that once they bite you them a sleeping virus kills one: Called the Sleeping Sickness. The flies bite the horses and mules and they go down.

So the overall significance of the Age of Discovery is that claiming most of the land of the Earth takes place in this age.


In the Middle Ages the Russians arte made up of Slaves. They are derivatives of Poles, Serbians, Ukrainians, and Slaves.

Russia: They are more interested into penetrating what is east of them. They go to Siberia and to the Pacific and claim that part of the world for them. They make a great fur business and Europeans paid a high price for the clothing. So hunters in Russia made good living. The people who penetrated the eastern part of Russia were cave like people and they tried to claim parts of China, as well.

In the middle ages the Russians lived in the North Central area of Russia. They were mainly of tribesmen who hade tribal leaders. They did not want to unified and elect a leader over the all the tribes.

Around the middle to the late 800s AD the Russian tribes were attacked periodically which made them come together to figure out what to do. (C. 862 AD) Once they knew that Unity was the only way of survival, then they called all the heads of the tribesmen together for a meeting. No one tribe could unify on a certain leader. "What tribe would be the leader." So they decided to send a scout to the European Lands to survey out a Leader.

After sending the messenger, he came upon a Danish Viking named Herorika. After Herorika decides to be the Russian leader he takes up his family and relocates to upper middle Russia. Here he establishes the Russia Capital and begins what is known as the

Tsars (Kings). These Tsars began the Russian Monarchy in 900 AD. The Russians started to invite skilled German and Dutch people to share their skills with the Russians.

One of the next Tsars, Vladimir, wanted to start an unified religion. He had heard of Christianity in the Roman- Europe area and heard of a Pope. He also heard of different types of religion . So he selected a handful of delegates to travel to find the best place on earth that represented the best religion. In the Biggest Church in the world, at the time, at Constantinople, his delegates went to a service and returned to tell Vladimir that they found heaven. Thus Greek Orthodoxy was born in Russia. Greek Orthodoxy was at complete odds with the Roman Catholics Church. each thought that each other were the Devils themselves. The Greeks really thought that the Roman Catholics Church was really the Devil. The significance of this is that the Russians will put up a wall against the trading to the west because of the Churches involvement in the middle ages.

As times goes by, in 1200s a little western trade develops with the Russians and Europeans. Russians produce furs that the wealthy like in in Europe and they also produce beeswax. The different with Beeswax, compared to other waxes at the time is that they didn’t give off a smoke trail and that they had a milder scent. In addition, the beeswax is good for meaning clothing, as it sticks to fabric well. The Russians were about to start off huge trade as they were big producers of beeswax, a middle age electricity. The middle age person needed to see at night and the smokeless candle wax was the best; but, something drastic happened that changed the course of history for the Russians...

The Mongols came yelling and galloping in with war cry’s and slaughtered most people in Russian villages, according to the chronicles and foreign accounts ( See Russian section for in-depth notes and information) . This was an absolute disaster for the People of Russia. The Horeback Empire ( The Mongols) begin to conquer everywhere. By 1240 they had defeated the Middle of Russia and nearly destroyed all of the Russians. They destroyed Kiev and butchered all the people. The Russians fled to hiding. ( Mongols eventually will be close to wiping out Hungary, Germany, Poland in their march toward total world control). Conciliations recall became the only saving factor for the world 0 the Mongols would never come back to Europe.

The significance of the Mongols in Russia was that they dominated, controlled all areas, exacted tributes and demanded culture change for 600 years of the Russians. In addition, this put the Russians further from transforming to western culture. The photos of the Tsars appear to be dressed in Mongol outfits and Mongol Adornments. Even their crowns were in the shape of the Mongol kings. The influence of the Mongols over the Russians would be until 1450s. Still the Russians would hold on to much of the Culture until being opened up to western culture later on.

The Mongols did not rule the Russian Administrations; they simple exacted the tribute, of gold, of money, of fur, of minerals, and of workers for their own.

If you did not comply, they would sick a ten-foot pole in the hole and sharpen it like the head of a pencil, yet it was four-inches in diameter and sit you on it and it would take days because of gravity for you to penetrate the entire pole causing a excruciating elongated death. The Mongols are brutal, this will show its self in the new Tsars attitudes when the Mongols finally collapse ( Their Empire) and leave. In addition to this death methods the Romanians pick up the practice of this slow death sentence torture and began to use it. Significance is that Russia will be Isolated from the rest of the world because of the Mongols.

By 1450 AD in Moscow, The Russians become free. They gain independence, and Turks ( Muslims) take over southern Russia. Now the Russians get back northern areas. South Russia Mongolians become Muslim, and sell slaves of Russians as the Arabs are into slavery at this particular time.

By the 1500s Russia Tsars reappear in the form of fierce fighting men. They adopted their masters roles of aggressors and produced Ivan The Terrible. The reason was that he grew up knowing nothing but the Mongols ruling ways.

1. Russia 1648-1918 Romanovs

In 1648 the Russian Royalty went through a change.

New Tsars take over and their called Romonovs. They began a dynasty that will last until the Russian Communist revolution 1918. The Romanovs were happy to maintain the statusquo in Russia

In the pictures of the Mongols they’re dressed in silk linen robes of Mongols clothes and culture. The first ruler is named Michael Romanov. He is pictured on horseback, like the Horseback people, the Mongols. Cavalrymen were the pride, and constituted the Russian elite. By this time the culture is Christian Mongol Russian. Pearls are sown on the robes barrowed from the Byzantine Empire, and this will be the fad of the Russians The embroidered pearls adorned the uniforms of the rulers and dress codes and even the crowns are made in the image of the Mongol war headdress. The Royal scepter is typical western royalty, yet the orb with the cross is Mongol, Christian influenced. Michael’s son Alexia had a picture of a scepter and Mongol outfit. His sister Sofia, as well, yet she was not fit to rule. Alexander died and so nobles begin joking for power. Another son was to mentally ill to rule so Ivan was put on the thrown. This will start the "foreign quarter." The Russians were conditioned not to trust others cultures so they set up a place in the city for only traders to live when they did business. This was called the Foreign Quarter. At the time the Russia made way for only limited trade, when they badly needed cash. They wanted to stay away from other cultures as much as they could. All westerners who traded had to live in this foreign quarter. Peter happened to live in the quarter and grew up alongside other western children. He even had a Danish ( girlfriend) mistress. He also had a intermixed with western adults. One result is that he learned how to sail on the open seas. He would know that it would be important to set up a sea port if Russia was going to be a world player. Before this time Russia was only traveling by river and local sea, they didn't know about open sea travel. Peter gets the west culture in hand this plays a significant part in later times for him. Meanwhile the nobles put Theodore on the thrown, but he could not handle it. So they asked Peter to co-rule with him. Then Theodore dies leaving Peter the absolute ruler. As the new Tsars he rules with his own will. He wants western culture after growing up with it. This finally opens up Russia to the world and progress could step in. This would modernize Russia. The only obstacle to opening up Russia to the World was that of the Muslims ( Turks). Turks were a major power and held the key access routs in trade. Especially by the Black Sea. So he would send his first army to combat the Turks and lose handedly. Security was Peters main concern, so instead of sulking ( About Turk Control of the Black Sea) he began a plan to modernize his troops with western army gear. " It wont be easy..." he said. He needed western tactics and weapons. Gordon, a Scotsman, is recruited and he trains the army well. He trains them in the western form of warfare and this changes their style of fighting. Now the Russian soldier fights the western civilization style. He then launches an attack on the Sea of Osaf ( Southern Russia) to get access to the Black sea. The Turks hack his army into pieces. He failed, but is resilient and he will look into what needs to be better.


Prot•es•tant: A member of a Western Christian church whose faith and practice are founded on the principles of the Reformation, especially in the acceptance of the Bible as the sole source of revelation, in justification by faith alone, and in the universal priesthood of all the believers.1

1. The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Houghton Mifflin Company. Sept 27, 2003

Copyright © 2003 Michael Johnathan McDonald, BookofLife.Org

Copyright © 1999 - 2013 Michael Johnathan McDonald