Crucifixion Eclipse The Large Gizāh  Pyramid : Nostradamus’ Birthdate at Central Axis of Giza Pyramid :

CONCEPTS: THE HISTORY OF THE CALENDAR WESTERN


  Welcome, Guest                        Michael Report  

[Contact, Search] World History - Yahoo! - Help

 : H O M E :  

 

 

 I N D E XBook of Life  Index  directory B I B L E Apocalypse Book of Revelationsdirectory W E B S> Internets  directory J O U R N A L  > Journal Directory directory G A L L E R Y >photo gallerydirectory W M D  > XLXXII  ARMAGEDON  directory G A M M A > gamma index 

Privacy  [Public]  

 


TIME:

bookoflife.org © Archangel Michael:

January 2011

WESTERN CALENDAR:

Topic: HISTORY

 

Introduction to the First Line   PAGEREF _Toc286156492 \h 2

Calendar at Spring Equinox   PAGEREF _Toc286156493 \h 6

Decline of Roman Imperial Calendar PAGEREF _Toc286156494 \h 8

Pagan Protestants Renamed Key Life Subjects  PAGEREF _Toc286156495 \h 8

Tax- Time Equals Calendar Time   PAGEREF _Toc286156496 \h 9

Oldest New Year was, is and will be The tropical year   PAGEREF _Toc286156497 \h 11

The Solar Year, Linear and Cyclical Time Expose of the Ancients. PAGEREF _Toc286156498 \h 12

Horus The Morning Star The Old Kingdom   PAGEREF _Toc286156499 \h 12

Understanding 360 Cycles in Ancient Sumer Texts, via Neo - Babylonia   PAGEREF _Toc286156500 \h 13

But Do You Know What Year you’re in?  PAGEREF _Toc286156501 \h 15

January Created after 715 B.C.E. PAGEREF _Toc286156502 \h 18

The Celtiberian War and Creation of January 1 st.  IUS CIVILE   PAGEREF _Toc286156503 \h 19

Consular Year Roman leadership elections in historical texts Martius 15 ( pre-153 B.C.E.) PAGEREF _Toc286156504 \h 21

real Time Management, No Dumby Scholar simplistic make-up-dates out of nothing   PAGEREF _Toc286156505 \h 22

New Years’ Day   PAGEREF _Toc286156506 \h 24

Orthodox New Year and Catholic Church New Year are Different PAGEREF _Toc286156507 \h 24

153 B.C.E., the kalends of Ian  PAGEREF _Toc286156508 \h 25

Romans understood their dates  PAGEREF _Toc286156509 \h 25

Aries Point as the Modern Definition of the Vernal Equinox   PAGEREF _Toc286156510 \h 27

New Year kalends of Ian   PAGEREF _Toc286156511 \h 30

Egyptians Age of Canis Minor! PAGEREF _Toc286156512 \h 31

Mapping the New Year in Egyptian History (Sopdet) PAGEREF _Toc286156513 \h 32

Renaissance deities & Calendar Changes   PAGEREF _Toc286156514 \h 36

Calendreir d’un livre d’heures ( late Medieval Age) PAGEREF _Toc286156515 \h 37

New Years Mother Mary  PAGEREF _Toc286156516 \h 39

How Anti-Nostradamian Scholars Use Incorrect data  PAGEREF _Toc286156517 \h 40

Summery  of Calendar Wars on Nostradamus Dating   PAGEREF _Toc286156518 \h 46

 

 

Introduction to the First Line

Calendar Expose | What Year is it?

Nostradamus does not mention to which calendar he is using, and mentions a change in calendric time in a prose section, and the Catholic Church acknowledges four calendars running alongside each other in their papal bull for the Gregorian Calendar change. Nostradamus’ almanachs followed an historical year that followed centuries of Catholic feast-calendars – that were created during the later Roman Empire times when 1 January had celebrated the New Year by secular law. However, no-where in Europe was the New Year celebrated in civil terms during Nostradamus’ life. New Years officially and legally was celebrated on a moving and complicated Easter Day, and more formally on each 25th of March for the Feast of the Conception of Mother Mary. When competent historians write Old Style or New Style and provide only years, this means the year-date is different than how we see our year beginning on 1 January today. Just because Nostradamus wrote his almanachs beginning on 1 January does not mean all throughout the Middle Ages the New Years began on 1 January – it is flattering to Nostradamus, but this has no bearing on reality – it was just a Catholic Holy Tradition. Marguerite and her brother promoted a resurgence in Roman – things of the past – after all it was the Renaissance, and thus Nostradamus followed his French people in patriotism.

Words are words, and the first line of X. LXXII has the month described as ‘sept,’ which comes originally from a Neo-Babylonian numbering system for calendar month-divisions.  The month is described as the seven in the sequence of ten-months. The earliest Roman calendar, and preceding the adoption of Janus ( January) centuries earlier, used a ten- month Neo Babylonian calendar system beginning with March and on through December ( December meaning the numeral ‘ten’).  The early colonist of the Roman king period ( before the Roman Republic) had also borrowed the Neo-Babylonian calendar system. There is no reference in Nostradamus writings where he says the number seven must be the number nine. Today’s month of September, numerically follows August the eight month of the modern Calendar in the west and is described as the ninth month, even know its etymology intends this word means ‘seven.’ Words are just words.

During the mid-sixteenth century, for example, the French word ‘nations’ did not mean what we think of as nations today, such as Chile, Guatemala, China, India, Pakistan, Germany, Canada, the United States of America, for example. The term used for describing sovereigns of a region was called ‘a state.’ The French term nations implied then that some foreigner colonies within a state or more locally a foreign colony within in a locality of a wider city fulfilled a communication of a diverse ethnic city. For example, in mid-sixteenth century Lyon, France a city of approximately 60,000,[1] a major trading city  of ancient and second contemporary French trading city had numerous sub-ethnicities-communities within the larger boundaries of the Lyonese city and each ethnic congregation of foreigners were called ‘nations.’  In the U.S.A. 2000 census, southern California had the most ethnic-populations of anywhere in the world, over 230 different ethnic enclaves. A modern term coming from the European balkans, where Christians, Hebrews, Moslems lived apart in separate areas, a term became known as ‘balkanization.’ While this is a more compacted word, and it implies that multiculturalism does not work; it is verily the same concept as ‘nations,’ without the weighted opinions. Basically, history shows us that ethnicities do congregate around themselves in a wider civilization complex – and to France during the mid-sixteenth century these ethnical enclaves were called ‘nations.’ Lyon was a prime example, and since the later medieval ages, the Italian magnate family, de’ Medici moved high-priced woolen textile from Lyon to all of Europe – Lyon also had Italian international bankers which funded François I’s expedition which ended up discovering New York  harbor in the later winter and early spring of  1524. Words are just words.

During accession ceremonies, since midlevel times, the French royal court would visit principle cities and conduct administration work and traditional ceremonial patriotism. The phrase les enfants de la ville ( these children of the village) had no literal meaning. This was a catchphrase for the local aristocracy and rich bourgeoisies.[2] Try not to confuse republican as the rich-class verses liberals the poor- class, as most liberals throughout history were always the very rich-class who paid leftwing scholars to lie and blame all poor people as republicans lying that they were the very rich-class. Karl Marx confirms both the Bourgeois and The Aristocracy are the historical ‘Liberals,’ the term arose from the early Roman republic period as economic competitors against the republicani ( small private business, such as farmers, shop owners, the common poor). With the advent of Marxist or Marxism during the late nineteenth century – meaning a move away from Marx’s definitions to different definitions, liberals replaced republicans and vice-versa. This is why Marx, late in his life, said he was not a Marxist, leftwing activists hijacked his ideas. Today’s Marxist claim that all capitalist, all of the rich-class, all of the wealthy, are all republicans, are all conservatives or are all right-wing – a total fabrication and lie. The 2008 U.S.A. general election voting statistics illustrate that all rich towns, cities, and states voted overwhelmingly for the Democratic Party. When Martin Luther offered a literal version of the Bible, the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, Suleiman, complained to François I about Luther worshiping a Sun-pagan god instead of the omnipotent Christian, Moslem, and Hebrew God.  Literal translations are but opinions. Behind words are meanings, contexts and time. Words are just words.

The Catholic Church constructed their calendar of Feast Days around the Roman Imperial Julian Calendar and therefore by the 1,000s B.C.E. when the Catholic Church had moved the New Year to the moving date of Easter this calendar system of a new year of 1 January had already been a tradition and could be found in Psalters and later Book of Hours. Nostradamus almanachs followed this tradition and begun his New Year on 1 January when Europe celebrated their collective New Year during various calendar times between mid-to-late March or early April. Modern scholars perhaps call this a historical year, but it was not the civil year. The Church moved the New Years’ back close to the Spring Equinox because the Jews’ first calendar had adopted the Neo-Babylonian calendar system during their captivity. To add confirmation they were right, most of the Christian events of the Christian Bible fell around the Spring Equinox: the Feast of the Conception ( 25 March), the Crucifixion ( March or April), the Passover dinner, and Easter. In addition the patrine writings overwhelmingly place Jesus’ birth in the Spring, while aberrations account for a small fraction of guesses for the fall or one for the winter ( 25 December, which was placed because of the festival for the Sun, not Saturnalia!). 

Dates for our calendar are arbitrary usually derived from mis information later promulgated as tradition or fact. Various methods of astronomical cyclicity[3] attempted to resolve these consistent errors. However, using the Moon and all seven planets, and deriving a mathematical system for exact  reoccurrence off all positions back to an earlier match, consists of 45 n=43 ( i.e. 45 with 43 zeros). Therefore, astronomical dating cannot be achieved with any determination to precise measurements. This mathematical proof affirms linear-time. If linear-time exists then our calendar dates are arbitrary and set by human guesses, which is the case as you further read – including the erroneous reported 1 January New Years’ tradition, as it was based upon a Roman consul election for the purpose of war. If linear time exists then history cannot repeat itself, correct? Hold on a moment, read-onward!  Humans cannot think in such vast quantities of distance-to-space, so they created cycles, which were ever the apparent and not exact. 

The first western historian attempt to link a calendar system to the ancients derived the erroneous Sothis cycle ( called Sothic Cycle, the star is called Sothis). [ link here] after a systematic study, I conclude we have no evidence to which date a New Year applied to the old or middle kingdoms of Egypt.  It is true we derive much of our seasonal discourse to ancient Egyptian concepts of deities, such as in ‘the book of coming out by day’ ( a.k.a. Book of the Dead), Atum, the god of the setting sun, becomes our season of Autumn, and poetically relating to the setting Sun, Atum, signified a lapse period into darkness and cold, as well as figuratively we understand that the fall season precursors the cold and darker winter season. 

The Memphis usurping-academics and politicos, who called themselves Ra, and demoted Osiris, Isis and Horus to mere objects, become Romans, some millennia later. Both stories, such as Romulus and Remis are mere updated-plays on the ancient Amen-Ra civilization that emerged from a then defunct ancient Egyptian civilization that traditionally cited Osiris with a founded kingship. The Memphis Amen-Ra civilization could demote Osiris, but never could it get rid of him; as he was tradition, but so as the Romans could never get rid of the Greek traditions of their pantheon and adopted the Greek gods as their own, while elevating Romulus ( Mars – War) to their leading overlord and hundreds of year later elevating Jupiter to the high position.  But the usurpation has its place in our history and calendar. It is from the worship of carnage, war, mayhem, conflict, battle, looting, pillaging, to which Aries the first of the zodiac signs to begin from point-zero became ‘number-one!’ We tend to want to identify when the constellation of Aries intersected the Vernal Equinox period in our history to account for a modern understanding to when the Zodiac was created. The problem is that the Sphinx which faces east and can peer at the Vernal Equinox when it happens is associated to Cor Leonis ( the constellation of Leo), which is Leo and this could be the zero-point for all we know about very, very, ancient Egyptian times.  So Mars and Aries as the usurper civilization are also made up by humans and not some mythical-mystical hidden secret. The various western calendars corresponded to groups in power and appear relative to actual timing of the seasons. Most calendars re adoptions used tax-years as viable time-keeping-movement and this included the Julian and re corrected Gregorian systems. To make tax-systems align astronomically, they became factorable to the sidereal or solar-year – count.

There are only a few references to what may be the star Sirius and its correlation to the New Year. However, this symbol of a crescent Moon and star is in dispute be me. Because its origins predate texts referring to the rising of Sirius and this is for sure as many centuries and even millennia prior.

At the most, it was a watch upon a sidereal year which at time the Egyptians considered a sidereal year as 365.25 and perhaps was based upon a rising star, such as Sirius. Every four years the rising of Sirius was regress a day [ not really it was more like 71 years!] , and after a millennia, it would move around the calendar of the year one-and-a-half-times. It is out of this confusion that the 1,460 Sothic years ( equivalent to 1,461 solar – calendar years) became a legend.  The oldest calendar fixed date known to scholars at the turn of the nineteenth century to the twentieth century was an erronous 4214 B.C. in which the calendar was introduced.[4] The feast of the Rising of Sirius corresponded to the Egyptian New Year in the very distant past in which one very old mundane astrological chart shows Sirius rising with the Sumer Solstice. As there civilization progressed, they had three separate calendars, all referenced in texts of each period, spoken too problems with Sirius rising later and later during the year and workers getting confused in trans-city-business, and finally replacing older system to more modern systems, such as the Mesopotamian Spring New Year calendar. It was late June or early July for the Gregorian Calendar that very ancient Egyptians began to observe Sirius rising and its correlation to the inundation of the Nile which happened shortly afterwards, to replenish their agri- fields. This was a logical step to call this a New Year. But was is the most important here is that the very ancient Egyptian New Year was not recorded as Year 1,Y2,Y3,Y4,Y5....and Egyptians did not view time from a point of reference. Therefore, the Sothic Cycle in which many can read from many Internet or books speak about measuring time of dynasties and of ruler dating, and this certainly began with the Egyptians trying to reconcile what ‘numerical’ year they were in – a type of thing we discuss as such of 20th century or 21st century – time measurement defines our modernity. In fact, it was the local Priests job at the temple to keep a recording and analyses of historical years under the Sothic Cycle so that future generations could record astronomical phenomena to account for time as opposed to a linear numerical count of the solar-year. Egyptians began to significantly to change their calendar systems with the accession of the Persians circa  525 B.C.E.  During this time the Spring Equinox was a logical step into understanding a New Year – at least in the northern hemisphere where Spring brought the carbon cycle of life anew.

In addition, Mesopotamia, prior to Akkadia, Babylonia, and later after the proto-historical Sumerian period, had no actual calendar that we can affirm a civil- scientific New Years’ date. Since Neo-Babylonian times, we have such a calendar system, adopted by the Jews, taken and used by New Kingdom Egyptians and later Hellens ( Greek calendars). Neo-Babylonian astronomical-astrological texts are still being transcribed, translated and elementally analyzed, without any definite conclusion. Neo-Babylonian astronomical-astrological priest we know had derived their historical archives of astronomical phenomena from earlier priest-scholars of the ancient civilizations.

Calendar at Spring Equinox

Akkadian, Neo- Babylonian, later Sumerian cultures, Greek and later the early Roman pre-Republican calendar all used the Spring-Equinox and lunar adopted calendars as the New Years’ civil calendar. Partitioning the year into seasons was rational, divisible without fractions, and attested too as scientific, noting the observation of the stick-in-the-earth-shadow methodology. A doctrine of sorts or at least some agreed upon methods helped distinguish astrology which used mainly the stars in antiquity to become more personalized and horoscopes developed rather late, compared to mundane astrological charts – to which we have no idea what these ancients were looking at in them.

The early calendar of Rome used 1 March as their civil New Year and first month. During the Jewish Captivity, Hebrew scholars unanimously equate the Jewish calendar to the Neo-Babylonian calendar system in use at that time. This calendar starts its day at sunrise. The Greeks had used sunset. During Nostradamus’ time, there were various ephemerides that used both noon and sunset. This Neo-Babylonian  calendar begins in mid-March, during what is considered the period for the Spring Equinox. At various different periods, Egyptians, Phoenicians, and Persians used the fall equinox as a New Year, and the Greeks celebrated a New Year at the winter solstice. The Ancient Sumer (  fourth millennium B.C.E.) had used months sparsely, but current research is still unconfirmed or divided over how to interpret these old-difficult symbolic texts.

January, the month named after a mythological figure that represents a doorway was not even a named month or written in the historical records that we find in any ancient calendar of Rome, however, devised under Numa Pompilius ( traditionally b. 21 April 753 B.C.E., r. 715-673, d. 673 B.C.E.) ( creator of the college of pontiffs, who were astrological priest-scholars!) . 1 January, as the start of the civil New Year was never used under Pompilius or the following praetors and later consular(s), not a case until 153 B.C.E., and strictly a product of the Celtiberian War for the emergency election and seating of consul Quintus Flavius Nobilior. Even this New Year fell out of practice and the Romans re-adopted the Egyptian calendar system and forgot about the months December, January and February. Julius Caesar brought this 1 January date back into vogue because of its Imperialistic memories – nothing to do with astronomical accuracy at all. After a while the 1 January New Year date became a tradition in Roman times and during the creation of the Church all saints and feasts were set up around this calendar time-frame. This led to European Middle Age ( c. 1,000) to formulate Psalters, and later Hour books ( Religious feasts and saint days) beginning on a historical year-count of 1 January, while at the same time celebrating the Virgin Mary’s day in later March as the New Year which was an official civil date for Europe proceeding well past the Renaissance into the early modern age. In a sense, ancient Egypt has three calendars and so did the Europeans during the Middle to early modern ages.

The 153 B.C.E. Celtiberian War  Roman calendar was reintegrated with Julius Caesars’ calendar reform including replacing back into the Roman adopted Egyptian calendar which was in use during the time of calendar confusion ( 40s B.C.E., Rome) with December, January and February. During more confusion from the years of 25 to 22, the Alexandrian calendar usurped the Egyptian calendar, and outsiders of Rome saw Julius Caesar’s  “astronomical component” utterly trivial. [5] He used the Roman tradition dating back to 153 B.C.E. to proclaim a new count for the Julian Day, named after him to begin on 1 January 45 B.C.E. Legend had it that he walked in intoxicated to the curia and announced to all that he was a deity and the celebration of his name and the calendar were now codified.  The month of Quintilis was changed to July to represent Julius’ name, and following shortly after and in competition, Augustus chanced the month name of Sextilis to August.  The Church later took this as an affront of idiocy, thereby restoring the “19 – year cycle of the Babylonian lunar calendar” for Easter computations.[6]

To add more confusion, Augustus, the next Caesar after Julius, mis- applied the year-date to which sixteenth century records continued to mis-apply. Augustus promulgated compilation of Fasti Capitolini dated the founding of Rome to 752 B.C., to which modern scholars claim this is a fictional date for various reasons, the real year is 753 B.C.E. But even Charles IX commented that there seemed to be two historical year counts, implying for later historians no-one really knew where the calendar was founded in authority. Charles IX concluded that the real year was 1565 instead of 1564.

Then there is a fact that no-one speaks about! The year minus 1 is followed by year plus one, and there was never a year zero. However, the year 999 was followed by year 1,000 and year 1,999 was followed by year 2,000, thus two millennium using a zero integer for a year, but three millennia ago the zero year was absent from an integral count. This led to Fred Espenak (writings approved by  NASA) who claimed that The Second Millennium ended on December 31 st  2,000, and not on December 31st 1999 as the mainstream U.S. media proclaimed erroneously.

Decline of Roman Imperial Calendar

When Rome fell, and after Christianity had taken over the western civilization, the Roman Church distanced itself from Roman imperial calendar systems. They applied Virgin Mary’s celebration every year on 25 March to coincide with a New Calendar system which demarked the year divided between the movable dates of Easter. The issued a decree during one of the Council of Tours ( 567 A.C.E.) to have New Years replaced from the 1 January as the New Year. Various New Years were celebrated and a part of the civil year, most consisting of  dates of 1 March, 15 March ( Mother Mary’s Feast day, a.k.a. Feast of the Annunciation), but most prominently, especially in fifteenth and sixteenth royal memoirs and writings, Easter in France demarcated the year divided following Easter. Royals born pre-Easter had a birth date recorded as one year earlier and royals who had been born after that years’ Easter date were given the following year integer.  This explains why the civil year and the Easter year were intertwined with what we perceive today as 1 January as the beginning of the year integral number.

Pagan Protestants Renamed Key Life Subjects

Protestants, to destroy the Catholic Church advocated everything counterproductive to what they promulgated during the Middle Ages. Therefore, going back to a pagan calendar issued from cries to kill humans, made them happy. The religious wars, were just that—wars, death, destruction. A part of the Counterreformation had the Catholic Church appease the Protestants, and the power of the date of time was paramount to their constituency. Whomever controlled time controlled the truth of Scriptures; but many Protestants were not very intelligent, albeit some enthusiastic game-changers.

All the western Christian countries followed suit, and in the later sixteenth century, slowly the Catholic Nations re applied the 153 B.C.E. 1 January New Years to be observed as a civil calendar mark, and it took about two-hundred years later for the Protestant nations to follow suit and adopt this change, first initiated by Charles IX, and finally abolished by the British and the American colonists around 1752. Yet, most never heard of the year beginning under Quintus Flavius Nobilior’s special consul election; sixteenth century to modern historians keep applying Julius Caesar as the point in western civilization where the New Year began on 1 January and continues to our modern age. When I was address this concern in 1998 persons who are communicated as medieval linguistics and Nostradamus world experts claimed the New Years always begun on 1 January since Julius Caesar’s suggesting in 46 B.C.E ( enacted in 45 B.C.E). I never understood this, but later learned that when various scholars write something, it is published, and later find-out they made a mistake, it is difficult for them to acknowledge publically their mistakes. Nostradamus produced multi-annual almanachs, to which he used the ecclesiastical feast calendar which was in vogue for centuries, based upon the old Roman 1 January calendar to which the early Church was subjected to following. This was already a tradition.  These ‘Book of Hours,’ can be seen in modern museums. They are beautiful hand-crafted illustrations for Catholic Religious observations. They begin with the Feast of Circumcision, set as 1 January, and these books were preceded by Psalters, and widely promulgated throughout the medieval ages.  The problem lies in that people want a simple answer and a simple solution. The Church had no solution. In fact, The papal decree called Inter gravissimas (1582) which addressed the Gregorian Calendar reforms claims the Church follows ‘four’ New Year dates, but secular consensus won a straw – poll and 1 January, again, became the New Year , quickly adopted by Catholics as it was a part of the Catholic Counterreformation. This was an appeasement, and not a part of the Church’s office observance of a New Year.  In Church history, the Church never celebrates an official New Year, and this is elaborated upon in my writings on the calendar. But all religions dealing with secular civilizations they have to concede some idiocy, as many humans see themselves as animals, carnal, murderers, invincible tyrants, and hate ethics or morality – or hate to observe them but champion others to observe them to control them.

Tax- Time Equals Calendar Time

Josephus Justus Scaliger[7] ( 1540 – 1609) (Not Julius Caesar Scaliger, the Italian arrogant-vulgar physician at Agen, France, where Nostradamus [8]settled briefly, but his son! although, the son honored his father and named Julian calendar after him, not Julius Caesar. ) a sixteenth century French scholar of Italian background who used Roman Tax records, erroneous 1 January new Years civil date and a mix of a 28 year solar-period and a 19 year cycle of a Grecian golden rule to arrive at day one of Creation, selecting by working backwards to arrive at 1 January, 4713 BC ( at Alexandria, at noon), (note the year 4713 is -4712, this will be explained below!)  . This erroneous system calculates days accurately but as we know from an arbitrary date, not founded upon any astronomical foundation,[9] but its selective use of an astronomical cycles of the solar cycle and combined with an third-century Roman economic tax cycle and the golden rule. It had nothing to due with the sixteenth century calendar reform under Pope Gregory XIII, a decree signed on 24 February 1582, papal bull known by its opening words, Inter gravissimas. These calendar reforms’ emphasis lay in ‘restoring’ the calendar back to the solstice and equinox positions decreed at the First Council of Nicaea (325 A.C.E, Anatolia).[10] The restoring of the civil year did not resolve for 200 years later, because mostly Protestant-variant countries, such as England and the New American Colonies refused to adopt the old Roman tax-day of 1 January as a model for the New Year, and continued to celebrate, as did others prior to 1580s in all of Europe, that Anno Incarnationis Dominicae M.D. LXXXI ( In the year of the Incarnation of the Lord 1581) is the year beginning 25 March of the year 1581.

However, this was not solely accurate reflection of the Church’s understanding and promulgation of the birth of Christ. In fact the Church never announced the Christ’s’ birth date because the Gospels never reported Jesus proclaiming to celebrate his own birthday. In fact, the Feast of Mother Mary had since the early ecclesiastical calendar had celebrated the New Year for her birth which was reported on 25 March. However, like always, the person who claimed Jesus was born on 25 December, without sufficient proof, also made the papal bull, which claimed “Anno à Nativitate Domini nostri  Jesu Christi Millesimo Quingentesimo Octvagesimo secundo” ( ‘In the year from the Nativity of our Lord Jesus Christ 1582) is the year beginning 1 January 1582’.).  Then there was another year, that of the Pontificatus nostri Anno Decimo ( Our pontificate in the year 10) is the beginning 13 May 1581. Then the fourth New Year or count of a beginning was Indictione decima ( Indiction 10) is the year beginning 1 January 1582. So this papal bull celebrates four-different year-beginning dates, and still most people were not satisfied. [11]

In the nineteenth century when England was a world dominating society, they usurped the time zone and relocated the Julian date foundation of Scaliger’s Alexandria location ( because he worked with C. Ptolemy’s coordinates!)  to Greenwich, England. Then in the early first-half of the twentieth century, Harvard College, Cambridge Massachusetts, confirmed and had refined astronomical data to help correlate with Greenwich England global universal time. Yet, these dates were already discussed in the ninth and tenth centuries, and concluded that the three systems, 19 year cycle of the golden rule, 28 year – cycle of the Sun and tax-records did not add up to 7980 years.

Sir Frederick William Hershel, a German born but English patriot astronomer (b. Hanover 15 November 1738 -25 August 1882 [ Cal?]) who discovered Uranus and two of its Moons, had adopted a helper’s claim that Scaliger’s Julian Day figures were worth considering applying to a New Time System for England’s Greenwich Mean Time to regulate the world’s clocks to the authority of England. Hershel used Scaliger’s date but moved the prime meridian from Alexandria to Greenwich and took on a GMT -4712-01-01 JC ( i.e. 1 January -4713 B.C) as their zero point. Ironically The Zodiac Ages associated to the New Age Movement, and past too of various interested parties, the Precession of the Equinoxes over some constellation are always ‘apparent’ visual and distributed accordingly to each locality. For example, if the Giza Sphinx is actually facing the Constellation of Leo or how the ancient viewed Leo and considered it a marker between ‘ages,’ then these ages are locally construed to 30 north latitude and do not represent perhaps 05 north or 30 south? So the discourse on a command of time becomes a local issue that deals with the carnal realities of animal existent for Domination. For example, China keeps a wholly different Calendar system and does not like using the Greenwich for civil and business, but has too as America still has a dominant military. They have no obligation to resume the Greenwich England tradition once they own the world.

Oldest New Year was, is and will be The tropical year

The tropical year was set earlier than historically reported and assumes a much wider understanding among a northern hemisphere populace than also understanding that precession exists due to various wobbles of our earth ( there are two) and this too had been understood by the ancients and offered to the scholars but refused upon a basis of difficulty of civic implementation. The ancients understood the tropical year by placing a stick into the sand and observing the shadow of the Sun over the course of years. Later as it turns out monuments of varying types, including living quarters – evident in Rome – constructed astronomical buildings usually aligned to an equinox or solstice. Therefore, this explains the earliest calendars from Neo-Babylonian times, adopted by the Jews, and records from Babylonia explaining ancient tropical calendars, suggests that the New Year was pragmatically discourse in coincidence of the biological carbon cycle and remains empirically divisive today. Today, we celebrate 1 January as one of the dominant New Years across the world, which was issued at Rome in 153 B.C. to wage war. Therefore, we celebrate carnage and death without knowing of its origins.

The Solar Year, Linear and Cyclical Time Expose of the Ancients.

These ancient Egyptians and these Mesopotamians kept detailed centuries worth of logs of sidereal positions in regards to planetary and star phenomena. These records were found in the late 19th to early 20th century in the Middle East and pertain to priest ( i.e. scholars) astronomers who advised the kingship administrations upon time-keeping. Over the centuries these priests kept underground archive retrieval astronomical/astrological ( including Omen books) records that they used to form their modern findings. These historical works led to the creation of science, arithmetic, astronomy, and data compilation. The records were necessary because the multi-movements of the Earth and the Solar system and in regards to our own galaxy, time-keeping remained a puzzling adventure.

Horus The Morning Star The Old Kingdom

Thomas George Allen’s Chicago University dissertation partially translated into English writings from walled-writings from a group of five pyramids at Sakkara, the tomes of the Fifth-and-Sixth Dynasty pharaohs of Egypt who ruled from the about 2650 to 2475 B.C; he had continued the pioneering of Gaston Maspero, and translations by Kurt Heinrich Sethe which accounts for the second oldest reference to the Osiris, Isis, and Horus legends following the Palmer Stone.[12] Here, besides the Omen texts of Neo – Babylonian Priest Astronomer/astrologers are the first references we know of for the Morning Star. We also can understand that the king is referenced to being born in the east, a reference to the rising of stars and our Sun in appearance and therefore this can be a hint to our understanding of first accounting of time. The “King is born in east of sky like [...]”[13] and ‘Morning-star, Horus of Dewat, divine falcon, ‘bright green’ [ bird], same divinity in four aspects, is called child of the sky; and his four contented faces see that which is in Kns•t and drive away the ‘dew’ from the offering tables.”[14] Horus is the morning star also in line 255, “Morning-star, Horus of Dewat, etc.”[15] Also other lines have the same description of Horus as the Morning-star.

Understanding 360 Cycles in Ancient Sumer Texts, via Neo - Babylonia

360 degrees of the astronomical circle provides simplicity. The Sumer ancients tried to communicate a rational for this number, they had already understood the solar year was 365 and one-forth days long. So they tried to see when a planet would return exactly in the 360 degree circle back over a star. They never could get an exact match, but worked within a narrow degree-range. They found something startling that could be explained by modern physics on inter-dimensions.

They found out that a planet, lets say, Jupiter will travel past a star and it will not conjoin that star in successive revolutions back to its original position, but at some interval, lets say about the third or the fourth pass, it lines up again ( never exactly but nearly) in a tropical understanding. This understanding led to the concept of base 60 maths for their record keeping and the degrees of  360 as the perfect circumference of a circle-time ( cyclical time). Some investigators of history intend before the Great Flood, an earth had 360 day solar – year.  However, it is not spoken about the 360 cycle in this way in the ancient priest-time-keeping texts. 360 degrees were issued upon planetary phenomena in accordance to cyclical re occurrences over a given time period – as it related to the fixed star and the moving star ( planet). The ancients were concerned with this because according to Omen creation – usually if something important on Earth happened, a priest would note where a planet in regards to a star belonged in the heavens. Therefore, the re occurrence of these planets over the star could re enact a signature earthly event. Therefore, prediction of harmony of 360 degrees became the preferred cyclical time instrument which cross-paths with linear time which always changed each century.

Ancient civilizations, regardless what you read in historical high-school books, or college leftist dribble screeds, understood time in multi-dement ions. They kept a 360 year, and a 365.25 day year, both understood as critical to time-keeping and for civil management. Omen books were kept because the Priests and state- administrations believed they could change the future if they knew it.

They wrote and were well aware of the solar year consisting of 365 days and one-fourth ( 365.25), now corrected to a near 365.2424 for the Gregorian reform and modern calculation. Planet ages and the lunar ages all became realized under this cyclical system.  These systems became more popular to compute during the early medieval ages and onward with the rise of the print media for others to communalize upon others’ efforts to correct the solar year, and during the age of industrialization modern clocks arouse. In the post-mid-twentieth century, atomic clocks further correct small bits of errors of time to which our space agencies are competent to use to calculate flight maneuvers and to organize satellites.

That is to say, every revolution did not emphasize an age, but multiple revolutions (cycles) would eventually come close to a repeated position in the heavens. One such more used system is modernly called the great chronocator series of conjunctions of Jupiter and Saturn in tropical triplicities, in which four elements of the ancients comprised all of matter: earth, air, fire, and water. These series can last centuries or even millennia, and often there are times when they fall into another sign before returning to their series triplical- element!

Over time, Calendars were constructed upon these planetary and luminary ages, both argued in secular and religious circles.  Cycles included a solar- cycle, lunar cycles ( different ones), cycles of days of the week, and all different planet cycles. By the Roman times the calendars were constructed upon decisions to fight wars, tax payment periods, and other mundane, non-astronomical phenomena. The more complex the system, the more the interpreters tried to combine all these systems, and Nostradamus attempted a rare system as well, as we will find out. Nevertheless, some of these many different cycles were left out of the computation, and finally a chosen three-system, 15 indiction, 19 Metonic, and a 28 year Solar Cycle overtime became our modern astronomical time used by space agencies across the globe. This system came from the nutter Julius Caesar Scaliger’s son.  All Scaliger did was multiple the 15 year indiction cycle 19 Metonic, and a 28 year Solar Cycle  and come to a 7980-year Julian period.  Scaliger among many of his errors used Roman tax-record periods as intervals of historical time back millennia before Rome was conceptualized.

Indiction began as a Roman period of tax collection years in the third century A.C.E, most likely begun under Constantine (312 A.C.E.)  for reasons to alleviate the poor who suffered under a state-wide barter system. Tax-systems have been around in ancient times, and were around during the Roman Republican Era too, but this was a modern twist.  Indictions were never counted as year 1 of indiction, years were always regnal at this time and people spoke in the mode of in this year (regnal description) we are in the fourth year of indiction. Every 15 years, it was proposed for Rome to balance its financial matters, and thus the cycle of indiction became a mode of time-keeping which later was forced to coincide, erroneously, to the equinoxes and solstice points.

Yet, it was not uniform nor was an official date given as a tradition. But the western Church was not only duped, also the eastern Church to allowing Roman war to define their modernity. Augustus birth date defined the Orthodox Church’s view of the New Year as Augustus birth date of 23 September. Indiction ( or tax-periods) were never an invention of Constantine, they had been in use as a money system for millennia in most cultures across the earth.  In the west, Venerable Bede fixed the beginning of this New Year as 24 September, but this too was an erroneous fall equinox calculation for the year of 313 A.C.E . In the medieval ages, this calendar system began to be used as a document dating system, and by the ninth century, Roman officers reintroduced the Julian calendar 1 January date or some used 25 December, which became a tradition to which Scaliger used the 1 January as the marking of the beginning of Creation. For example, Tax-Day in the U.S.A. has changed constantly. Since 1955, tax day is on 15 April. This would be called Indiction Day, if in the third-century Rome,  and the beginning of the New Year. So if Scaliger was living in the modern U.S.A., he would derive the creation of the Julian calendar to start on 15 April, instead of 1 January. So his date is an amalgamation of government commerce regulation and astronomy/astrological data.

Then Scaliger worked backward and started the year at noon on 1 January for Alexandria, because of the influence of C. Ptolemy on his work. But indictions were tax-period for collection, and spanned years, depending upon what a leader wanted. One indiction beginning was pointed out to be 23 September, Augustus’ birth date – it had no astronomical phenomena attached to it. So Scaliger is using tax-collection periods to date our world and at the same time using the Roman curia to place a general in command of the Roman army to fight against the Iberian Army as a New Year.

[ IBERIA] It was a time of great instability in Roman history so this date stuck as pressing matters at hand were much more important. The Roman calendar in place was already a Neo-Babylonian calendar, and the months January and February were later added as months, meaning there was no 1 January as the beginning of the year at anytime. Julius Caesar Scaliger using erroneous information from Roman historical texts surmised that 1 January was the New Year before the ancient Mesopotamians and ancient Egyptians civilizations had begun on Noon, January 1 st, 4737, B.C., Monday, jul. cal, at Alexandria. In other words he made this erroneous date out of his head. Others had followed his erroneous date, and now we use it as our standard time. Scaliger’s error was not the only erroneous errors going around during Nostradamus’ day.

But Do You Know What Year you’re in?

Northern Renaissance historians inaccurately applied ab urbe condita (AUC) to their writings. But were they to blame?   This phrase communicates an epoch to the founding of Rome in 752 BCE, an inscription issued by Augustus called Fasti Capitolini; however, it was issued by someone who called themselves the ‘son of god,’[16] and who had no idea of what he was speaking about. Yet these dates are often seen in history books in the time of Nostradamus. Romans did not count their years like we do; they counted them from the time of the councilors and later these emperors’ time in office (in power as a leader). Evidence for this counting structure of yearly time also is found in the Jewish and Christian Bibles.  Not a western invention at all. Indian and Chinese ancient calendar systems also dated periods according to their ruler’s reign. It was only the rise of historical writings that sought to communicate a linear-time as precedence and to decide what is a New Year?

Sextus Julius Africanus, a Christian historian (b. circa 180 A.C.E., d. circa 250 A.C.E.)  demonstrated a linear time difference with Eusebius of Caesarea (b. circa 263 A.C.E., d. circa 339 A.C.E.) and Bede (English Monk-Scholar, known for Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum[17]),  over what linear year the world was in, both measuring the same data but arriving at different conclusions. For example, from the twentieth year of Artaxerxes just before the death of Darius, Eusebius and Bede believed 116 years had passed, while Africanus claimed 115 years; Both believed the epoch of Macedonia consisted of 300 years, while differing on the death of Cleopatra to the death of Jesus Christ: Eusebius /Bede 59 years and Africanus as 60 years. The year of the death of Christ, Eusebius /Bede claimed the 17th or the 18th year of Tiberius’ reign, while Africanus claimed it was in the 15th year of Tiberius’ reign.[18]

An Egyptian astrological chart of the third-millennium B.C.E. published in the twentieth- century also had no year-date. Early neo-Babylonian horoscopes do not have year-dates either. They instead, like later Romans continued the tradition, marked their year according to who was on the throne and the length of time from the accession of that particular ruler. Therefore, it is understandable that Charles IX prior to the Gregorian calendar reforms had delineated the numerical year count to be 1565 instead of 1564. What this communicated to us in modernity is that no-one knew anything in precise measurements in regards to solar-time.

The modern understanding that there is no year ‘zero’ is of little consequence when we find out that the ancients prior to Dionysius Exiguus proposed system of anno Domini (A.D.) in 525 A.C.E. and now prior to Anno Diocletiani ( named after Diocletian, used by Alexandrian Christians) , and as well prior to Julius Caesar, who adopted the ad hoc election of Quintus Fulvius Nobilior who was sworn into the office of Roman councilship on  I kalands ian  (1 January)  159 B.C.E., but legally was supposed to be sworn in during March’s legal election cycle, and prior to Julius Caesar there were many years called the great confusion to what year they actually were participating in, and on-it goes – so- much so it is no secret that European medieval mystics and clerics used astronomy/astrology to understand their place in the world. In fact, confusion remains today. What was the end of the real twentieth century? according to Fred Espenak writing approved by  NASA , claims that The Second Millennium ended on December 31 st  2000, and not on December 31st 1999 as the mainstream U.S. media ( mainly leftist sub-intellects) claimed the 21st century commenced on the next day after December 31st 1999. If there was no zero from -1 BC  to 1 AD, but there was a zero count during the year 1,000 AD, and obviously 2,000 AD ( 2,000 A.C.E., after common era) than what date do we suppose we are living in then? The answer is that no-one knows really! Dionysius Exiguus helped unify things or in fact slowly Christian locations picked up on this demarcation and today is a world commerce standard.

The Julian day Calendar was misconceptionalized in the nineteenth century. John Herschel published ‘Outlines of Astronomy’ (1849) and claimed: “The First year of the current Julian period, or that of which the number in each of the three subordinate cycles is q, was the year 4713 B.C., and the noon of the 1 st of January of that year, for the Meridian of Alexandria, is the chronological epoch, to which all historical eras are more readily and intelligibly referred.” Not only the Julian calendar had not been realized, January or any other month had not been formulized, the city of Alexandria had not been formalized and no of this made any sense whatsoever. Julius Scaliger in Opus de Emendatione Temporum ( “Work on the Emendation of Time” 1583, Paris) also incorrectly stated that Julian merely accommodated Julius Ceasar introduction of this calendar in 46 B.C.E. His source was Manilius,[19] who I discuses in another section in regards to time. Too correlate a beginning time he combined three different calendars systems of cycles, the 15 year indiction cycle ( 3 d cent. A.D.E), 19 Metonic cycles ( Lunar medieval but already in used in India, China, Mesopotamia third millennium B.C.E., Scaliger had no idea), and a 28 year Solar Cycle, system where seven possible leap-year points can sequence a repeating 28- year sequence so Sunday can line up as the first-day in the calendar repetitions. The epoch ( beginning point) could be attained by working backwards where all of these cycles could resolve, and that turned out to be Noon, January 1 st, 4737, B.C., Monday, jul. cal at Alexandria ( copying the significance of Ptolemy, who he used much of his work!). Scaliger suggested such a far-off distance past so no-one could claim he was wrong –because there were no historical texts or ancient inscriptions to prove he was making it all up of course! The date is arbitrary and eventually England during their Imperialist age decided to move this Julian system to Greenwich, England instead of Alexandria, thereby usurping time-control management for Earth. Harvard College (U.S.A) in the very late nineteenth century adopted this move and most astronomical calculations for future times reset upon a numerical count derived by idiocy. Nevertheless it became tradition, and again, modern academic tacitly believe the Julian Calendar, which started on 1 January had always been the case in all of history. It should be noted that England (1752) and Eastern U.S.A. pre-American revolution used the Mother Mary Catholic Church as the civil New Year (25 March) up until the 1750s and the old Julian Calendar system. If they used the Gregorian system for Greenwich, then time would have been correlated to these shifts in the calendar, but all astronomical notation and country-to-country astronomical communication is still done in the erroneous Julian numbering system – which was an arbitrary point in the past promulgated by an arrogant grunt.

January Created after 715 B.C.E.

Numa Pompilius ( traditionally 21 April 753 B.C.E., r. 715-673, d. 673 B.C.E.) the second of the legendary Roman kings, according to Livy and Plutarch, fancied mystic-writing and championed lesser known gods, one of then Ianuarius ( Janus) a god of a doorway, connotatively illustrated in historical art as looking both forwards and backwards. The Roman calendar was an adopted amalgam from the Greek duel planetary- deity and numerical count calendar of ten months. Babylonian numerology counted one-through-eight, numerically, the number 8 was perfection, whereas later Sumerians adopted the number nine as perfection, therefore their numerology increased to one-through-nine, nine being sacred. Pythagoras, some have mentioned he inspired some of Pompilius’ thinking, differed with the past and created numerological ten as the number of perfection. The Greeks had a ten-month calendar, where December ( tenth month) was the perfect numerological number and the end of the calendar. But eagerly time-keepers had a whole lot of trouble keeping up with varying aberrations in the cycles of the planets and the various lunar calendars and waited until the spring equinox to resolve the lack of day discrepancies. This period was called “Month of Purification,” most likely was not a reform by Pompilius but occurred over a century later, and during the later date, the intercalations begin as a method of fixating a statis calendar.

So according to tradition from Augustus, Pompilius added two more lesser deities – not planetary or numerological months, but January and February. Because Plutarch was writing in the later stages of the European medieval ages, be took a guess that January first as the creation of the New Year began at this time. It was a  stretch, but since tradition claims that the office of the Pontifex  Maximus ( later the seat of the Pope, 3 rd cent. A.C.E.) this must be a time when everything started. However, that was not the case. The pontiffs became later the chief descriptions of the offices chosen by the pope for bishops, heads of Churches in a regional sense. When this office was created, it implied a learned scholar of a traditional priest who was versed in social issues of the pagan gods ( Greek mythos, and such). They like the astronomical/astrological priests of Akkadian, Neo-Babylonian, Sumerian, and ancient Egyptian appraised astronomical data to keep track of the days of the year for financial, festival, and civic planning.  Romans at this time did not have days of the weeks marking calendars, but the days of ides ( markers of the movement of the Moon!). As a part of the college of Pontiffs, they had a duty to advise the Roman leaders what phases of the Moon they were in : Kalands, Nones or Ides ( and when things did not align, they had numerical count add-ins). For example, nones ( Latin nonus, English ninth) is a demarcation in the Roman calendar system indicating that from the new Moon to the first quarter-phase, the Pontiffs guessed about nine-days. So if one was trying to understand day six, they would say the sixth day before Nones. However, the Moon does not always reach day nine and the first – quarter, thus the consistent problems with the old Roman Republican calendar.  This is how they understood time. And then the civil section of government would indicate if legal institutions were open or not according to advancing the phases of the Moon and adopting this three-part astronomical system. The ides were divisions from the full Moon, dedicated to the planetary god Jupiter. Ides comes from ancient Etruscan and meant ‘divide.’ Tradition held that Etruscan Tarquinius Priscus ( 616 -579 BCE), one of the five traditional kings of Rome, introduced a calendar. Why type? Probably what the Greek had in use. 

But most of all they were social class peace keepers and kept tract of all the different tribes host deities. Class warfare in pagan clans, tribes, and groups, often involved bravery to their elected leaders who communed with the tribe’s claimed host deity to wage war on another clan for various motives. Therefore, deities fought each other through proxy clan divisions. This was the main concern during the time of Prophet Muhammad, and is arguably the single reason he changed the plurality-religious to monotheism – to unity his people under a common purpose. The office of the Roman Pontiffs were a reflection of the ancient Babylonian Priests who jobs were eerily the same description, thus confirming the more things change the more they stay the same. 

However, there still did not exist a unified calendar at this time or for centuries. Most calendars were painted on walls, and modern archeologist noted that most geographical areas held different gods, leading to regional variations of days of the year. This explains the effort in 45 B.C.E. the Romans coming out of chaos of imperialism and calendar confusion sought to line up the year to the seasons. But Romans understood time from their leaders, at that time their chief leaders were two councils elected at different times of the year. One election was in April and the other in the fall.

 

The Celtiberian War and Creation of January 1 st.  IUS CIVILE

After 153 B.C.E., we have the consulor ‘special election’ on 1 January, which starts the real tradition of the New Year, which Plutarch and other Roman historians had guessed wrongly and applied it to the semi-mythological Pompilius’ time. This may in fact be Augustus’ ultimate fault, he followed Julius Caesar’s 1 January New Year attribution to historical New Years for all of the Roman past – but was solely incorrect and many centuries incorrect, as his promulgated consulor list proved he had no idea of what year he lived in and thus made it up.  Polybius in his “The Histories” (XXXV.I) speaks of the Celtiberian War between the Romans and the Celtiberians, which was called the ‘fiery war.’[20] “[F]or almost a quarter of a century when in 155 BC, a raid into Hispania Ulterior ( Father Spain) by the Lusitani and the defeat of two successive Roman praetors encouraged the town of Segeda in Hispania Citerior ( Nearer Spain) to rebel. The following year, it refused to pay tribute or provide a military contingent to Rome but formed instead a confederacy with neighboring towns and began the construction of a defensive wall. Quintus Flavius Nobilior ( the son of Marcus Fulvius Nobilior) was sent against the Celtiberians in 153 BC, with nearly thirty thousand men. But the consul was late in arriving and ambushed soon after, with six thousand Romans slain. ( Nobilior had been designated consul for the following year [ 15 March ??]  but could not assume office until the Ides of March. Given the military situation, the Senate decreed January 1 to be the start of the new civil year, which permitted him to depart with his legions that much sooner. His defeat on August 23 was so disastrous that the day on which it occurred was declared a dies aster [ an Omen!] and subsequently considered unlucky. Indeed, Appian relates that no Roman general would willingly initiate a battle on that day.).”[21]  Even prior to 305 B.C.E., the consul office was titled as praetors ( leaders), and they elected two praetors, one in the early Spring, around April, and the other six months later, late September or early October.  During the turbulent fifth century B.C.E., the Romans were in disarray and elections often went absent, but by the time of Augustus, centuries later as all stories get twisted to some extent, a glossy history implied that consuls were elected in March and January – which of course were recorded by some contemporary and later historians which caught the eyes of Plutarch, and thus the attribution(s) to misconceptions in the 16 th century history books.

It is during the ius civile and the Grecian adopted ius naturale [22]period of Rome ( c. 240s– 100s B.C.E.) we start to see legal systems and calendar formations, actually much of it adopted by the Romans from their Hellen immigrants – fleeing the failed multiculturalism and Macedonian racism overlords in Greece so that new relations between established Roman citizens and new intelligent foreign citizens began to set up a legal and civil institution which lays the foundation of the Roman Republic’s eventual traditions to which Julius Caesar refers back to in re establishing 1 January as a civil New Year. It is during this time that Janus ( do not confuse with the Hellenic ideas of Janus the forward and backward looking diety) Ianus  in Latin had been an already famile deity whose attributes and characteristics were like Jupiter, but also had a semblance of the Creator. “The Romans invoked Janus even before Jupiter [ he forgets that Mars was tradition for many centuries as the number one god before Jupiter] to protect the beginnings of all notable ventures and undertakings. He enjoyed the right to be the first named in any list of gods in a prayer, and in 153 BCE the month under his auspices, Ianuarius ( our January), became the first month of the Roman Calendar.”[23] William E Dunstan in his survey book Ancient Rome ( 2011) goes a little way to explain that early to mid-republican Romans honored a family religion ( usually in all cultures, ancestral worship and somewhat guardian spirits – we can think of Christian saints as comparables – and along with worship of a family figure whose stature remained celebrated). He uses the more difficult concept besides the Roman household religion as ‘genius,’ where larger groups rather than the family intended groups of peoples or some places could be subjected to a ‘special honor’ of these deities. Paganism derives from ancestral and ‘genius’ conglomerate groupings – a type of syncretic example common to most of our histories. It is worthy to go on and note that Dunstan does exemplify that Romans adopted this more modern calendar because of the need of Romans to organize and commit to regal periods and festivals; this is nothing different than the Sippur Priests at Neo Babylonia, or at Memphis under the Ra ( or later Amen-Ra) ‘Seer’ priests – it was their duty set forth by civil-to-kingship understanding of a working system of calandric time for setting up fun-times for the people to engage the administration and their local relaxments; all work and no play makes a dull day! Once this new calendar begins to take shape do we start to see annual – subsections devoted to rival ‘genius’ such as Mars to Jupiter or Jupiter to Saturn....etc....

Consular Year Roman leadership elections in historical texts Martius 15 ( pre-153 B.C.E.)

The Consular Year referred to two consuls ( originally praetors, which means leaders) who ruled over Rome, each having veto power over the other, but mainly the Senate ( Curia) issued the proclamations prior to their announcement by one of the two consular. Before the rogatio Metilia, one consular had supreme dictatorial powers over the other in regards to military matters. However, according to Livy, who Plutarch followed and ignored Polybius’ definition, the rogatio was not a dictator in such ways we think of them as having absolute power, it meant they had some type of military authority to conduct emergency military operations in a time of crises.[24]   Livy explains sometimes consulars are weak in this regard, so we can interpret this these consulars may have been elected upon domestic experience, and in times of crises, the Roman state needed a different type of consulor, a Roman experienced general. This explains those special elections.   Each consular could hold office for one year, and usually wait a mandatory ten – years before they could re apply for this position. According to Livy, the civil year and Martius 15 ( March 15, their calendar)  216, [25] the first day that the new Consular arrives in office and begins the election of his cabinet officers ( many whom are of the college of pontiffs!). Consuls had capital offices, such as today’s governor offices or a parliamentary office. One consular office at this time in Roman history was at Airiminum. Livy 22.8.5 addresses a need for an interruption and consular being voted out of power because of a military emergency in 217 after the disaster of Lake Trasimene (c. 21 Iunius). What Livy is describing was the turbulent consular history where sometimes there were weak intellectual consulars when Rome needed a fighting general consular who could direct a military, or at times there were no consulars due to the enemies ambushing the consular capital and holding them hostage.[26] 

From 223 B.C.E. to 153 B.C.E. the elections of the consul and praetor took place in late February ( depending if they knew what day) but usually on the 1 March and then after the election process the magistrates took office with the New Year of 15 March. After 153 B.C.E. and the change to 1 January, the elections took place in December. Before Sulla’s reign, at least one consular lived abroad meaning that elections were usually orchestrated very close the end of the year from 1 March to 14 March. After his reign, the consulars resided mainly in Rome, and elections were held much earlier. By Caesar’s time elections were held in July and entrance to office began on 1 January. There is no proof to the Nostradamians that 1 January was the civil year since time began, therefore Nostradamus dated all his prophecies to this erroneous date.

real Time Management, No Dumby Scholar simplistic make-up-dates out of nothing

Computus not only related to canonical rule but used real astronomical time to gave the real time. As suggested before, the ancients in the third - millennium B.C.E. had already adopted tropical computations to demark yearly intervals in the solar year. By the time of Claudius Ptolemy and the dominant Alexandrian scholars, it was offered to move away from the Tropical Zodiac year of the solstices and equinoxes to gave a more accurate reflection of linear time. However, the scholars, like the scholars today who complain that the zodiac does not follow the tropical year, so astrologers have to be dumb, are the stupid same people who argued with the astrologers c. 150 B.C.E. that changing the tropical year to a sidereal year was to complex for their little minds. For example, J.C. Scaliger loved to ridicule religious scholars such as Erasmus – most likely because Erasmus was smarter in every regards than Scaliger – and Scaliger could not understand sidereal astronomy, and thus explains why he just made an arbitrary date of Noon, January 1 st, 4737, B.C., Monday, jul. cal at Alexandria – because he knew he had no idea of what he was speaking about in the first place. Leftists spend much of their life blaming others to cover the fact they have no idea of what anything is in life.

Computus studies are found in various historical records from England as early as 1,000 A.C.E., and afterwards all over Europe were complex calendars that used calculations of the date of Easter for the Christian Calendar. Easter is the first Sunday after the 14 day of the lunar month ( the nominal full Moon) that falls on or after 21 March ( nominally the day of the Spring Equinox). This became a general method by Christopher Clavius (b. 25 March, 1537-‘38, d. 12 Feb. 1612)[27] in the Six Canons (1582) in accordance to the Council of Trent(s) and the Pope Gregory Calendar reforms.  The Council of Nicaea 325 A.C.E. on the authority of Eusebius established the first month of the ecclesiastical year ( The Paschal month) should start between 8 March and 5 April ( 29 day month) and the mid-point 14 days fall between 21 march and 18 April, but sometimes the Moon would not line up, and this was in part due to the Earth’s rotation slowing down. Victorius of Aquitaine, a country man from Prosper of Aquitaine  went to Rome and during interpretations of the councilor list ( Roman leaders, pre- Empire period) in 457 A.C.E. he produced an Easter Cycle in his work, Victorii Aquitani Cursus Paschalis annorum DXXXII.  The Synod of Gaul in 541 made this official for use in historical works, mainly England used it for the East Anglican king-list (c. 740s). This was needed because Eusebius had chosen Sunday as a reoccurrence but never gave a calculation to how to arrive at this repetition. However, it turned out that Victorius of Aquitaine was using sources from Annianus of Alexandria ( 5 th. century B.C.E.) . He was a monk connected to the bishopric of Theophilus of Alexandria ( the Church of Alexandria was dominant at this time in history), he criticized the various world chronologies of that time ( such as Panodorus of Alexandria) and promulgated the Creation of the world to be dated at 25 March 5492 B.C.E. Note how this becomes the celebration for the Virgin Mary 25 March when describes the New Years for many different Churches!  This created the Alexandrian Era which eventually turned up as the proleptic Alexandrian civil year in progress, 29 August 5493 B.C.E. This year was eleven Paschal cycles of 532 years each before the Alexandrian year beginning 29 August 360 ( known in the Coptic Church as Era of Grace) , which itself was a four 19 – year cycles after the epoch of the Diocletian Era on 29 August 284 ( a.k.a. Era of Martyers). Annianus of Alexandria first recognized the 532 – year cycle of Easters in the Julian Calendar.[28]  Annianus of Alexandria lived in the east, and Prosper of Aquitaine   lived in Gaul, and therefore the western Easter cycles were attributed to him.

However, this calculation goes back even before Neo-Babylonian, is used frequently in Jewish Calendars, and regards real time in astronomical means, then arbitrary numbers such as the erroneous J. C. Scaliger, Julian epoch. This computation revealed lunar ages from 1-30, and because of scientists mapping the course of the Moon Soros Cycles which are 1- 60 ( twice as the Moon follows two eclipse courses, concurrently) . The Chinese ancient astronomers, at least by second- millennium B.C.E. had already devised correct and elaborate calendar system upon cycles of the Moon and also came up with a 60 – base Lunar cycle.

New Years’ Day

How the New Year came into existence is another problem all together.  The third millennium B.C.E. Egyptian astrology chart bears witness to the moment Sirius (Canis Minor) appeared on the horizon near the hour of the Summer Solstice. Modern historians tacitly assumed that Egyptians linked this appearance to the forthcoming late Summer Floods, which brought ‘New Life” to the lower Nile. It is communicated that this was the New Year, at least for people living in the supposedly Pyramid Age of ancient Egypt. However, the New Year celebrations in the east and the western Roman Empires had no idea of what is a year, even to the third century A.C.E.

The Indiction was the first calendar used in Rome during the late third century because of a need for agri-commerce tax-cycles. Still the year was in constant confusion, so in 537 A.C.E. Eastern Emperor Justinian required historians or writers to include the emperor’s name, the year in indiction, and the council, thereby correlating many date-reference points for accurate record keeping. This did not last long as most historians were illiterate; so the New Year demarcation was set on September first. This formed the first stable calendar date for a New Year count. This became tradition and is still used as the main sequence of years in the Orthodox Church and the secular Byzantine Empire. The Orthodox Church’s liturgical year is still considered from the 1st of September today.

Orthodox New Year and Catholic Church New Year are Different

The various Roman celebrations Backus, Saturnalia, Solar gods, there were many others too, never communicated that a New Year had commenced to the Romans. Saturnalia began in early December and finished well before 25 December, so it was never a replacement for Christmas because of wantonness and anti-Christian. In the Orthodox Church ( Eastern Roman Empire) some one suggested 25 December as the Nativity scenes from the Bible, and this pragmatic solution helped suppress the solar god celebrations that were at that time like college –frat-block - parties.  The western Church remained closer to intellectual-critical thinking method. In fact, the Catholic Church never relied on the time of Christ’s actual birthday, because in the Bible or extra writings they had knowledge of, Jesus never tells anyone to celebrate his birthday. That did not stop early Church fathers or others desperately trying to figure it out. When the secular Romans promulgated a New Year, the Church counter acted with alternative dates of their own. However, the idea of using Jesus birth disturbed the western Church, so they offered the New Year to Jesus’ mother.

New Years’ Day was on the 25th  of March the Catholic Church promulgated;  a celebration for Theotokos ( Greek, for ‘God-bearer’ or Birth-Giver to God’), who was identified as the Virgin Mary the mother of Jesus Christ. This day was given as the Annunciation because according to the Gospel of Luke 1:26-38, the Archangel Gabriel appeared to Mary to announce to her that she would conceive and bear a son – and the Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed had suggested “of the Holy Spirit.” It was practical because it also coincided with the ancient Jewish Calendar system  -- they of course adopted during their Babylonian captivity and the New Years under the civilization of the Neo-Babylonians commenced in Mid-March of each- year.  

153 B.C.E., the kalends of Ian

These inaccurate fifteenth and sixteenth century recordings of AUC kal ian led a few Nostradamians to believe that 1 January was celebrated as the New Year two millennia before Nostradamus and thus he applied all his dates to a New Year beginning on 1 January.

A New Year was not even understood as we use it today to divide a solar – year and mark our calendar birth dates. Early neo-Babylonian horoscopes do not have year-dates either. They instead, like Rome continued the tradition, marked their year according to who was on the throne and the length of time from the accession of that particular ruler.

Romans understood their dates

Varro’s [29] Roman Epoch year 1 = 753 B.C.E.[30] has been universally accepted by modern scholars. ( formally mis-applied by Augustus whose inscription Fasti Capitolini [31]promulgated the incorrect year ( equivalent to the modern date of the founding of Rome as 752 B.C.E.), something that Pierre Brind’Amore[32] fell for and became angry in confusion and blamed everyone else but his own errors).

Different calendars were in use in Anatolia, northern east Europe and the western main-land of Europe after Christ was born. In the third millennia B.C.E. most civilizations, India, China, Mesopotamian, Egypt, all investigated the Solstices and Equinoxes. The Aries point, known in western astrology is arbitrary and no-one considered the stars in Aries as the beginning of the vernal quarter-season. However, the tropical year as we understand its entomology meaning ‘turn’ of the seasons could be accurately measured by sticks in the sand ( the Helens style) or even older methods of stone buildings and monuments to which civilizations all over the globe attest too. When the zodiacs were being argued in a solar-year sense ( most calendars of ancient times relied on various cyclical Lunar calendars) perhaps Aries stars were correlated to the Vernal Equinox  before -300 B.C.E – an already established divide of time of the year saw after this date Ushakaron, xi Tauri, rise with the Vernal Equinox, at least from Baghdad, a modern city but in the precise location of the thriving Mesopotamian civilizations to begin to worship the Bull as an age of Tauri. At Baghdad on the Vernal Equinox for -300 B.C.E. at 6:08 am L.M.T., U.T. 3:10:20, Sidereal Time 18:00:48, 33n21,44e25 (Placidus/Fixed Star) the Sun is at 00ARI08’00” and the Horizon is at 00ARI18’32” which is not the exact time of the equinox but the closest for the rising observation from the local of ancient Mesopotamia. Therefore, the Aries point may be garnered from this time-onward, [ that is if they did not combined Taurus and Aries?] and we can concern ourselves to an age of Aries commencing at least form the ancient Mesopotamian vantage point from their horizon the age of Aries begins[M1] . This is about 100 after Socrates, and Post Alexander the Imperialist. Circa 150 B.C.E. from the Alexandria Library Claudius Ptolemy will lose a fight to have academics include precession of the equinox in a calendar system. They tell him it is too difficult for them to understand ( same with modern academics). So he sets the tropical system in motion, and we can assume that the Aries point is adjusted to this period of our collective history.  The city of Alexandria was founded in 331 B.C.E. so we can suggest this has an Aries age flavor to it beginnings. When Ptolemy wrote his position for Stars, he worked with the ecliptic, he had no idea of the pole – positions at this time ( today most catalogues use the poles). At Alexandria, Egypt, 31n12, 29e54, -150 B.C.E. the equinox took place the preceding nighttime. However, when the Sun rose between 6:11 -6:12 am the constellation of Aries was on the horizon and the Aries star Botein has not risen yet., its longitude is 20ARI53’07” and its latitude is at 1° 37’ 54”. However, the visible rising constellation at the Vernal Equinox period for -150 B.C.E. is the constellation of Aries. However, since Botein is the last of the Aries stars, Ptolemy worked backwards to position the first star as the zero Aries point – contrary to the precession of the equinoxes. But what could he do? Tell the academics to use critical thinking? that was out of the question, so he has taken some heat for fixing the tropical year, and today astronomers do not use tropical zodiac signs, however they do use hours and minuets from the first star of Aries as a global time-space positioning to calculate all  their star catalogues. Hipparchos (b. c 190 B.C.E.,d. c. 120 B.C.E., a Greek astrologer, astronomy, geographer and mathematician decided to fix the zodiacal ( because they are intersecting the ecliptic) constellation to time-management. This meant that the stars of the zodiac defined the ages of astrology, whereas Ptolemy used Aries because this was the constellation rising at Alexandria during his studies and writings. Most of our current knowledge of Hipparchos comes from Claudius Ptolemy’s writings, and to a lesser extent Pappus of Alexandria and Theon of Alexandria both commenting on the Syntaxis mathematica ( commonly known from Arabic preservation as Almagest ( Latin, or in English translation The Great Compilation or the Greatest Book)  of Ptolemy’s trigonometric solar system model,  in the fourth century A.C.E.

Aries Point as the Modern Definition of the Vernal Equinox

Using the modern location of Baghdad, Iraq for the year of -1700 B.C.E., Thus. 22 March -1700 ( greg. cal.) Delta (δ) Ari or (δ) Arietis the ending star of the Constellation of Aries indicates that this date was over the official ending of an Aries- Spring Equinox observation at least from 33n21, 44e25 where Mesopotamian civilization had prior created a vast network of civilizations. The Sun at this time is separating from delta Ari at 1° 43’. at 6:04 am, UT 3:06:20, Sidereal Time 17:58:16 the Sun has already passed the equinox by 14 minuets and 29 seconds.

Alcyone rises with the Sun separating from it at 4° 47’ at Baghdad on Thurs. 22 March -2100 (greg.) between 6:06 am and 6:08 am L.M.T. Alcyone’s longitude at this time is 03 ARI 31’51” and its latitude is at 3° 39’ 10”. We can assume by this the age of Taurus had for hundreds of year commenced. Therefore, the Aries point ( a modern concept) must be at least a millennia prior when the stars of Aries had risen in approximation to the Vernal Equinox. [ Correct this!] Ushakaron, xi Tauri, rises with the Sun at Baghdad in -2600 BCE. , Sat. 22 March -2600 B.C.E. greg. cal. This commences a possible century for the beginning of the Age of Taurus.  On this date, delta Ari ( Botein) has a longitude of 17 PIS 03’00” and a latitude of 1° 27’02”.  Ushakaron, xi Tauri has a longitude of 18 PIS 09’04” and a latitude of 9° 10’36”.

The Ancient Zodiac ( ± 1500ys of  3,000 B.C.E.) had the first sign commencing with Taurus, where al-Cyone (Zion) resides as well as Hyades, Hell in Greek mythology, and the Persian Royal Star Aldebaran. Also the anti-dark rift extends at the horns of the Ox/Bull. In ancient times there were only 6 constellation of 60° degrees.  This is the ancient symbol for the Ox, and had a Right Ascension of α = 00° 00’ 00” . This meant that Aquarius (Human) was at the south or I.C., al-Cyone was at α = 00° 00’ 00” at 2335 B.C.E[1] or close to the mythical 2300 pyramidic interger of al-fard Right Asc. = '0'. ( star positions of ancient times).

So early religious investigators used terms like Jesus was born nine-months after the New Year, etc... to take guesses to his birthdates? Each calendar had a different New Year, which led to much confusion.[33]  The earlier dates point to late spring such guesses as May and the majority early  guesses suspected early April or various March dates, and to a lesser degree because of a calendar confusion someone intended it was in mid-January.  Under Lucius Dominius Aurelianus (b. near Sirmium in Pannonia, 9 September 214, d. 275, jul. cal) the well known solar feast of Natalis Invicti,[34] celebrated on 25 December reached its celebratory height under the popularity of the Roman Emperor Aurelian in 274. The church’s main contention was the lascivious of pagan holidays had upset believers.

In the fourth century, Chrysoston (II., p.118, ed, 1588) took a guess at word plays and offered that VIII Kal. Ian. [ actually 25 December] we possibly Christ’s birthdate. “[I]f they sat that it is the birthday of the Sun [note the solar festival of Natalis Invicti!], He [ Jesus Christ] is the Sun of Justice.”[35] Further down through the histories, Roman Emperors fought with Popes over what should really be Jesus Christ’s birthdates. The arguments is why subjugate him to an affinity to a Solar diety, when he is Lord of ‘everything’ in the Universe. “The origin of Christmas should not be sought in the Saturnalia [ celebrations (1-23 December) nor in the midnight holy birth at Eleusis.”[36] These ideas were promulgated by the Naasene at Phrygia, and were no closer to the truth than anyone else.[37] The reality was there were many winter celebration, festivals, all as traditions going on in both east and west and it provided convince to ‘create’ Jesus’ birth date to carry on a counter celebration to paganism merely applying a solar deity’s ancient celebration to coincide with Christ because this deity’s main attribute was to give New birth. Pope Julius I had pressure to altercate or adjudicate a Christmas ( A mass for Jesus Christ), to release  pressure from his followers. So Christmas is arbitrary, and since a few, but perhaps powerful civil leaders had taken wild guesses at Jesus’ Birth, they somehow associated it to 25 December, and Christ’s birth date took on this tradition by the fourth century. But this again, did not deal with a New Year.

It was logical because most of the earliest known scholastic guessed preceded centuries before Chrysoston word-play, and most identified dates in the spring. Not only was this time-period of the spring convenient, it went against Roman power, and it invoked ancient Neo-Babylonian calendars to which the Hebrews adopted, and celebrated many of their historical triumphs in the spring. In reality, the Church never recognized a New Year. They only were forced too because of civic duties to the common world. The Church had argued, and argued correctly, in my opinion that Christ’s birthday should not be celebrated like Roman Emperors or mythological god-celebrations or other in vogue celebrities. These were human idolatry festivals. In the Bible they claim, Jesus never proclaims to his disciples to celebrate his birth day.

The first council of Nicaea (325 A.C.E, Anatolia)  dealt with the problems of the  calendar; it fixed Easter and concerned itself with the actual date of the Vernal Equinox. The city had been set up in four-square “centuries before the crucifixion,”[38] and later connected to Apocalypse of John’s astronomical/astrological city idea in Bible’s twenty-seventh book. The Nicene Creed, “a declaratory of the Christen faith as associated with the corresponding declaration of the calendar. The Council of Nicaea dealt with the determination of Easter incidentally with certain vagaries of the vernal equinox. It was decided that this first day of spring should fall where it falls today, on March 21. Thus was the seasonal year determined. It is as follows: March 21. Vernal Equinox, Spring Begins; June 21 Summer Solstice, Summer begins, September 23 Autumnal Equinox, Autumn begins; December 22, Winter Solstice, Winter begins.”[39] Meton (5 th cent. B.C.E. solar year: 365 days, 6 hours, 18 minuets, 57 seconds), Hipparchus (  2 nd cent B.C.E. solar year: 365 days, 5 hours, 55 minuets, and 12 seconds), Sosigenes ( 1 st cent B.C.E. solar year 365 days, 6 hours, 0 minuets, 0 seconds), Albategnius ( 9 th cent. A.C.E. solar year: 365 days, 5 hours, 49 minuets, 16 seconds), Copernicus ( 16 th cent. A.C.E.  solar year: 365 days, 5 hours, 49 minuets, 6 seconds), Tycho Brahe (16 th cent. A.C.E.  solar year: 365 days, 5 hours, 48 minuets, 45.5 seconds), Johannes Kepler ( 17th cent. A.C.E.  solar year: 365 days, 5 hours, 48 minuets, 57.65 seconds), Halley ( 17th cent. A.C.E.  solar year: 365 days, 5 hours, 48 minuets, 54.691 seconds), Lalante ( 18th cent. A.C.E.  solar year: 365 days, 5 hours, 48 minuets, 51.6 seconds), Dalambre ( 18th cent. A.C.E.  solar year: 365 days, 5 hours, 48 minuets, 49.7 seconds), Hind ( 19th cent. A.C.E.  solar year: 365 days, 5 hours, 48 minuets, 46.2 seconds).[40] Of course participants were not aware of the non-uniform rotations, and torques, associated to the multiple motions of our spinning globe. The earth’s rotation is retarded by tides, the Moon moves ever so slowly toward the Earth each year, and two very different oscillations of the Earth produce varying rates of spin. Sosigenes solar year was too long by 11 minuets, 14 seconds each year or 18 hours, 43 minuets, 20 seconds per century.

The fifteenth century Italian Renaissance exhumed many movements toward modernity, they believed they were living in a Golden Age. One such movement advocated to update the Calendar. Pope Sixtus IV, builder of the Sistine Chapel had been approached first. Danté’s Paradiso had a passage in complaint that each the winter was shoved into spring., he believed the discrepancy was 15 minuets per year.[41]  By the time of the drama surrounding the calendar arguments during Gregory XIII’s reign, the calendar was argued to be changed 11 days, not 10 days to bring it back, so-to-speak to the Council of Nicaea’s vernal equinox on 21 March. It was also warranted to adjust the confusion leap-year to about one leap-year in four hundred years. “This meant that the calendar year on the average would contain 365.2425 days or 365 days, 5 hours, 49 minuets, 12 seconds [ the actual calculation is 365.2424 days] . The true solar year [ tropical year is the same as in Greek this work mean ‘turn’] contains 5 hours, 48 minuets and 46 seconds and is 26 seconds shorter than the Gregorian year. It will require 3,323 years for that error to amount to a day.”[42] “There are fourteen different years in the Gregorian Calendar. These are the 7 years of 365 days, each beginning with a different day of the week, and the seven corresponding leap years of 366 days. The succession of the 14 years varies like the chimes of bells rung in different order, and the succession only repeats itself every 400 yeras. These 400 Gregorian years contain 146,097 days, or exactly 20,871 weeks. Four centuries thus comprise the cycle of the Gregorian year, the 7 – day week, and the Gregorian month. It is found that 5,700,000 Gregorian years of 2,0812,882, 250 days are almost exactly equal to 70,499, 183 lunar months. The error in such a month is only a millionth of a day, and in 300 years it will correct itself. This period of 5,700,000 years is thus the ultimate cycle that embraces day, month and week with a true astronomical exactitude.”[43] “The Torre dei Quatro Venti, or tower of the Four Winds,” a building within the Vatican City and built during the sixteenth century is within another tower known as the Sala del Calendario or the Calendar Room. “This room is the memorial of the vivacious drama of the great Gregorian reform enacted in 1582.”[44]

New Year kalends of Ian

The Calendar for The Roman date 1 January did not begin under Julius Caesar, nor was it linked astrologically/astronomically, or to a feast or celebration. It was created to advance a war against the aggressions of Iberian imperialists. During the decline of the Roman Republic to powerful military generals that increased in regional power, in 153 B.C.E., the kalends of Ian commenced a tradition, but in fact was due to a quick decision to get a desired military officer into the seat of Roman Power to fight Iberia. 1 January becoming the New Year remains arbitrary and explains why in the middle ages the Church ignored this secular power stance and placed Jesus Christ and the New Year next to the Spring Equinox. Because the Roman Emperors were also the pontiffs, the unofficial church began its liturgical hours books on 1 January, which remained throughout all of the medieval ages and into the Renaissances. Perhaps this confused lesser scholars who believed that the New Year always existed on 1 January of each year. In reality, the Church understood Jesus told never told anyone to celebrate his birthday, so the Church never did. When the New Year was changed in the early medieval ages to the date of  25th of March it was in celebration of the Virgin Mary’s saint-day. This New Year was in direct competition with pagan traditions of the Roman War Year of 1 January, already discussed and elaborated upon in further on in this piece.

Egyptians Age of Canis Minor!

In Chinese lands and Mesopotamia as well as Egypt, the tropical year was being already understood by the mid-third millennia B.C.E.. The concept of an Aries point is arbitrary as well. Tropical derived its modern name from Greek which means ‘turn,’ as in turn of the seasons. July 16 th, -2766 B.C.E. Julian Calendar ; 4.01 am L.M.T., Universal Time 1:55:44, Sidereal Time 22:07:39, Heliopolis, Egypt, 30n06, 31e19, geocentric/sidereal, Egyptians had linked the rise of the Canis minor’s star Sirius on the Summer Solstice as a wise New Year marker for the inundation of the lower Nile which is understood in their record keeping as bringing a New Year.

Sosigenes had advised Julius Caesar ( who was the Pontificate at this time, no longer during the  16 th century, as it was solely the Pope’s seat!) and by the sixteenth century the vernal equinox was about 10 days off its original argued place in history. This concurred with the Pole Gregory Calendar Reform (postmid-16 th cent.) to which we use today the Gregorian calendar.

Pope Julius I in 349 A.C.E. proclaimed Jesus’ birth date to coincide with Natalis Invicti. [ THIS NEEDS CONFIRMATION] Liturgically, Circumcision identified the first sacrament of the kalands of Ian ( 1 January). This was not the first of the New Year but it allowed Christians options of worship and community gatherings apart for the orgiastic elite and peasant atheist celebrations that described almost celebrations for the entire month of December. Calendreir d’un livre d’heures and progression from Psalters decorated the high cathedrals and important monasteries in the medieval ages.  These all begin with 1 January with the day of Circumcision.

Protestants led a revolt against a Catholic dominated ecclesiastical history and displaced the Catholic proscribed Saints with idols of mid-sixteenth century personal glorification. France became one of the earliest countries to change the New Year back to the arbitrary Roman war calendar date of 1 January. This was accomplished during the mid-period of the Wars of Religion. This result indicated the Protestants were winning against The Counter Reformation. Protestants were so angry and enraged about difficult aspects of religion, they wanted to throw out books from the Bible ( the most famous case was The Revelation according to John, book 27, NT as canon by the third century A.D.), and displace Easter as the civil New Year, most of the significant events in Christ’s life back to paganistic Roman war agendas. The Protestant theme which built much of western civilization and drove the industrial age was based on simplicity. Work hard, make money and do not think too much about God, your fate is already sealed ( predetermined, Martin Luther surmised!). This led to Protestants adopting Calvin’s four simple rules for Christian Life and the move away from spiritual focuses to materialistic focuses, readjusted principles under child Satanist Karl Marx who took God out of modernity and replaced it with atheistic materialism as the mode of modern human progress as well as a prescription of continual class-conflict. That religion is now a U.S. State religion, and Jesus and prayer of Christianity is being dissolved in increments each year. After World War II, Europeans slowly abandoned Christian Churches, and a low point of only 10% of the population declared they attended some sort of Church service(s) per year.

Barak Hussein Obama, a vital proponent of the system, hangs holiday ornaments of Mass Murderer Mao Tse-tung on the White House Christmas tree to show fealty to Atheistic barbarian mass-murdering government systems. This is because ‘power’ is achieved by atheist-materialism and ‘power’ is worshipped at the alter of our modernity.

 Some biblical interpreters read into Revelations and claim this Karl Marx Satanic Atheist system takes over one-third of the earth, and creates war!  Twentieth century cartographers illustrating Karl Marx’s government influence across the earth confirms such interpretation as factual.  Marxists intend things should be very simple and not complex. So a prominent Nostradamus claims that 1 January was always the New Years during the European Medieval ages and its programme of beginning the New Year on 1 January has continuously been the calendar system used even until today. This way dating Nostradamus’ quatrains are simplistic because it is all a uniform calendar system. Karl Marx was not about fact, he was about an ideologue, and most of Academic follow this programme today, and it has taken over the office of the presidency as well as schoarship. This intends thinking and spiritualism are irrational and feeling and materialism are rational modern conclusions for scientists. It is understandable that thinking involves discomfort and truth, where as the New Left ( first New Left U.S. President was bill Clinton) drew their programmes upon Saul Alinsky’s  neo-Marxism which advocated to change society one must repeat lies. To clear up these lies we need a persuasive argument, the types of discourse we see from the founding fathers of the U.S.A., or the pre-twentieth century United Kingdom universities. Today’s modern universities are dominated by the ideology of neo-Marxism. This page does not use ideologues or ideologies, but seeks to demonstrate a complex – historical narrative of contending calendar system and searches to clear up the misnomers of modern academic simplicity. Today we are still in this simplistic modern atheist religion – and it is under this realization that scholars know little to nothing about anything of the past. If it is not simple to understand in U.S. Tier I Universities, like their often claim that G.W. Bush ’s refusal to sign the Kyoto Treaty caused leaves to fall of the trees during the fall in the northern hemisphere, then they cannot understand a damned thing! There is no secret why America is falling and the rest of the world is rising in intelligence.

Mapping the New Year in Egyptian History (Sopdet)

A bright star in Canis Minor called Sirius defined the New Year in the very ancient Egypt, during the late third millennium B.C.E. It was a rational solution as this was and remains one of the bright and visible stars in the Northern Hemisphere. Today we know of its Greek name, Sothis ( ancient Egyptian, Sopdet) defined the helical rising in the late third millennium which occurred around the Summer Solstice in lower Egypt, and thus this communicated that in the near future the Nile would bring life ( the flooding of the Nile was integral with canal building for irrigation of the agricultural sections, which in a rather desert region was the Egyptian lifeblood of their civilization).

1 January as the New Year did not begin with Julius Caesar in 46 BCE change of the Roman Republic’s calendar which began on the ides of March; however it was a tradition brought on by a need to ferment war with Iberia (pre-Spain). The choice to have 1 January as the New Year was arbitrary but necessary to elect an incoming competent Roman council-field General who was to be sworn in on the ides of March, as legislation approved; but a need to organize a resistant quickly,  the Roman councils and Curia forwent tradition, and thus creating a new tradition. Acting quickly the curia made a special circumstance to put the general commander in power to lead the Roman Republican army against the Iberians, and this date was 1 January. A tradition commenced and continues today, and it is based upon the message of War!  There is nothing to do astronomically or linked to ancient astrological-astronomical archival sources. Likewise the Church under traditional atheist government had to adopt the liturgy under a method of starting on 1 January. This was prior to the fall of the Roman Empire when the Church took back controls of the calendar system and changed New Years to Easter, the proper place. However, illuminated prayer guides, otherwise known as calendar of Hours produced before the printing press was invented had continued along the Roman Empire lines of recording religious functionary dates. These books began on 1 January and must have confused the simpleminded because all over Europe multiple calendar system existed, a historical, liturgical and civil – all vying for a unified acceptance.  Yet, what was actually a New Year?

The Sothic Cycle (Helical rising of Sirius) has been known to have been the used during the early Egyptian times but now scholars are in dispute about this evidence, and Cyril Fagan (b. Dublin 22 May 1868, 12;25;21 GMT, d. Tucson, Arizona, U.S.A. 5 January 1970, heart complications) using recent deciphered Cuneiform (1880s  -- 1920s) realized ( convinced by 1944) that  the sidereal astrological-astronomical material recorded by Babylonians defined the construction of their Calendars. There were only seven constellations, and the tropical locations of an equal division of 30 degrees did not exist at this time. The first in-depth analysis of marking days were 28 day lunar calendars, but oddly Egyptians before Akkadians and Babylonians used the marking passages of Stars for the long-count of calandric history. The very ancient Egyptians used only six constellations, perhaps blending two or more into one.

In 1973, Cyril published “Astrological Origins” ( Llewellyn Worldwide, 1973) where he published what he called the oldest mundane astrological chart, a helical rising of Sirius ( July 16 th, -2767 [ actually it is -2766, and this is due to the continual confusion, even in astrological programs that refuse to acknowledge that there is no year ‘zero’!] Julian Calendar ; 4.01 am L.M.T., Universal Time 1:55:44, Sidereal Time 22:07:39, Heliopolis, Egypt, 30n06,31e19, geocentric/sidereal ).  He was off by a full year but this is due to the consistent confusion to which year we are actually living? Using the same coordinates and data, only the following year of -2766, as the Sun is at 00CAN16’50” and the Ascendant of our astrological chart is 17GEM34’39” on the horizon line lay the “Scorcher” ( Sirius).  This gives us a plausible helical ( but wide) rising for Sirius and the Summer Solstice.

If we factor in a pre-tropical coordinate, Sirius’ Longitude is at 08TAU53’55” and its latitude is at 38° 34’35”. Modern astrologers would use this longitude to announce Pluto at 10TAU27’37” (2° 15’S) in conjunction to Sirius. They may also convince us that aspects between the Planets and Fixed Stars lay Thuban’s conjunction to the Sun at 0° 05’, 66° 04’ and approaching! Many historical investigators intend this date is a perfect match to the Great Pyramid building age. One thing should be noted, however, one of Nostradamus key-astrological claims is present in this chart (discussed in another section!) and is relevant to X. LXXII.

Sirius cosmically rises on 5 July – 2766 B.C.E., and thus we are in a good standing to understand the origins of the New Year.  But ancients needed to see the star, thus heliacal rising had a superior importance.  If the star is too close to the Sun, no-one can see it due to the sun-beams.  In our modern era, and reading up on deciphered hieroglyphics, Eduard Meyer organized what the Egyptians used for a calendar’s New Years,  and this became a the Sothic Cycle which differs from any lunar count or solar count that was in use we know at least from the Akkadian and Babylonian times. Over three millennia, the Sothic Cycle shifted 41°. 53’ [41. 899... degrees THIS IS NOT RIGHT?] , shifting the cosmic and helical rising points in the heavens at Heliopolis, Egypt, as an example. Around the year of 246 A.C.E. at Heliopolis Sirius would cosmically rise on the 8th of  July ( Jul. Cal. 4:28 am L.M.T., UT 2:22:44, Sidereal Time 0:08:35, Heliopolis, Egypt). The altitude for Sirius    then in 246 A.C.E. would be around 14CAN57’18” on the ascendant ( I’m not exact here, only close!) which is about 14 degrees separating from the Sun which is below the horizon at that time. Thus the Romans could see the star as a rising star before the sunbeams had prevented a local observer from witnessing the star.  The visibility of the star rising over the local horizon before the Sun rose became the tradition known as the helical rising. When Claudius Ptolemy (c. 150 B.C.E) worked with helical rising perspectives, he used only bright-stars, which remains a tradition today. To Ptolemy, Sirius was a red star and to confirm stars change radiance and color, Betelgeuse I observed in 1985 as very large in the sky, almost duplicating the brightness of Sirius. By 2010, and collaborating in observation, U.C. Berkeley astronomers produced a paper explaining the recent fading of the brightness of Betelgeuse – so stars do change their overall appearance over time.

This is not the Summer Solstice any longer! The Sun rises about 5:10.11 am, L.M.T. At this moment, the Sun is under five minuets from 24CAN, marking a progression. When Sirius rose at 4:28 am, the Sun was at 23CAN53’39” meaning the Sun and Sirius’ connection to the Summer Solstice was no longer a valid empirical witnessing, approximately 2,999 years later. Sirius longitude for 18 July 246 A.C.E., jul. cal. is 19GEM58’29” and its latitude is at 39° 12’ 39”. So Sirius shifted from these two dates from 08TAU53’55” to 19GEM58’29” which is not 41°. 53’ of shift, but that is because these calculations for exactitude are not an easy round of  whole numbers such as 71.6 years of precession for 1°.  The shift is 41° 04’34”. This tells us that this system is too difficult for the Marxist simplistic emotional academics, thus we have in history the tropical year which has nothing to do with stars constellations or planets, but a scientific method of observing a stick in the sand ( the preferred Hellenistic pouvre methodology) and observing the shadow over the course of years. This was something that the academics could handle and teach their charges. The tropical year came into use at least by the Royal Persian Star System, meaning it was not a system solely for white people of the Hellenistic ages. It is understandable that the tropical system was correlated to the stars we identify with Aries as part of the zodiac because that was the constellation near the Spring equinox and in concordance horoscopes, a more recent astrological tradition began about this time as well. This can help explain why horoscopes ( a persons’ own astrology chart) has Aries as the first house and in the eastern quadrant of the horoscope.

The Zodiac are thirteen constellations that cut the ecliptic but we only use twelve currently, and this is not a problem as the ancient combined constellations and only had seven ( the mystical religious number!) or earlier in Egypt six of them.  The tropical zodiac for civil, liturgical, & historical, use is pragmatic and came with a reason that most scholars are imbeciles and simply ways of conducting things is preferable. Each year the Sun and the Earth pass intersections where shadows either equal out from the perspective of the human watching the stick in the earth or extremes, such as the solstices.  The Sun is not really doing anything but spinning, it is the elliptical revolution, in Semitic and in Genesis called (hours, the Latinized languages, and French expounded upon its idea with a word called  siècle) which is really a solar revolution apparent from the appearance form an Earth vantage point.  The imbeciles could understand a stick and a shadow but precession was too difficult for them to conceptualize. 

It should be noted that ancient to modern star catalogues can list as many as 17 different names for the same star or star system. It is also of note that tropical horoscopes are not promulgated at this time or at least to our discovery of ancient texts.  Helical Rising means that the Star appears before Sunrise in an atmosphere where it is visible and not under the Sunbeams – thus not confused with what some call a cosmic rising which is another way of saying a conjunction, where the Sun’s diameter blocks out the vision of the Star, if we could actually look at the Sun for any length of time.

However, this chart helped solidify Eduard Meyer’s postulations in 1904; he combined Egyptian inscriptions and writings that mentioned Sirius rising and led to the wider-completive calenderers of the Mechanics of The Sothic cycle. The normative school children history books will intend that the ancient Egyptian New Year relied on the rising of the star Sirius ( Sothis!), and this symbol recognized that the Nile River would soon in the future flood, irrigating their crop-fields, food for another year. Unfortunately many school children Books place Sirius on or around 1 January for each year.

This New Year happened around the early part of Summer in the 30th century B.C.E ( third millennia B.C.E.). Fagan garnered attacks by the leftist establishment of academia, a common problem recorded throughout history.  In the first decade of the twenty-first century, academics have been trying to catch-up to so-called ‘non-scholars’ ideas. The current method is to get the books out anonymously without an opinion which is of the norm for the last 100 years.

Fagan’s hypothesis was correct, and the Neo-Babylonian Venus tablet and many other ancient Mesopotamian cuneiform texts reveal what astrologers were promoting as early as the 1930s in their American journals on Astrological studies.

Got it, cosmic rising is 5 July – 2766 for the Julian Calendar, but what is it for the Gregorian Calendar? Regulus cosmically rises around 10-11 th of July for – 2766 ( Jul. Cal.), and therefore a possible connection to one of the royal stars of Persia, who we may link to our tropical zodiac because our tropical zodiac angles are based upon the square of fixidity ( Aires, Cancer, Libra, Capricorn).  NEED TO FIND OUT WHAT TROPICAL LOCATION REGULUS IS IN AT THIS TIME

The debate raged in the last years of Nostradamus’ life, however he had finished writing Les Propheties and the promulgation of this date change took place a year after he died.  It is important to have a debate upon the importance of calendrics, perhaps deconstructing a said English Nostradamian, so-called, expert that has consistently claimed that during the medieval ages  that 1 January was always the New Year and repeatedly claimed that Nostradamus used all but one poem in a liturgical calendar context to date everything from 1 January as the New Year.  What we have is a failure of education, or for this matter Cambridge University has failed the collective academic system. It is fitting to debate these calendar wars because the prophecy in question has a rare grammatical date applied when otherwise a dateless and vague process of writing dominates Les Propheties.

Renaissance deities & Calendar Changes

Thus new Protestant dates confirmed the rise of Renaissance deities, such as Luther, Calvin, and other Reformationists. Moses, Jesus and others would have intended that these changes were indeed non-harmonious and idolatric at its basic principle.  Tradition had the Church celebrate Jesus’ birth in the spring, to which the Biblical sources ascribe grazing sheep corresponding to the weather of Jesus’ birth. 

“Among the Jews the first day of the seventh month, Tishri ( end of September), began the civil or economic year “with the sound of trumpets” (Lev., xxiii, 24; Num., xxix,1).”[45] They are referencing the Jewish adoption of the Neo-Babylonian calendar. Calendar wars took place also during the II Council of Tours, held in 567 (can. 17) which proscribes prayers and Mass of expiation for New Year’s Day, adding that this is [was] a practice long in use (patres nostri, statuerunt). This of course was in direct contention to the lascivious [?]  pagan ritual of  the fall equinox celebration.

The New Year was held In Octabas Demini but to try to distant itself the Church decided  to move it to the 25 of December but not everyone was happy. In fact the Sacred Jewish Year beginning in Nisan ( early April), their preferred New Year was in direct Biblical correlation to the “[...] month the Lord thy God brought thee out of Egypt by night” ( Deut., xvi,1).

In France, the Edict of Foussilion, article 39, ( organized at Paris in January and promulgated at Roussillion on 9 August 1564) decreed that the New Year would change to the Roman pagan councilor year of 1 January. There was a struggle and different French cities adopted such as Lyon, while others refused to follow such as Vienne. [ CHEKC THIS IN BOOKS]

Calendreir d’un livre d’heures ( late Medieval Age)

In the later periods of these  European medieval ages (14th – 15th cc.) when the Catholic Church promulgated their calendars for hours of our lives ( hours comes from the Semitic term used in Genesis of the Bible, which merely is a term they used for a full solar ‘year’; so these concepts are astronomical but linguistically can lead to some modern misconceptions) which allowed its patrons to observe festivals, feasts, Easter, and look up which saint was born on their day so they can pray to them (Archangel Michael is for the 29th of September, as an example), their Calendreir d’un livre d’heures begin of 1 January.[46] On January 1st , this is the celebration of circumcision a symbol of civility in contrast to the barbaric world as understood to the Jews to identify themselves to each other after the Exodus. However, not many people know that the Church did not recognize a New Year at all. The contention to the liturgical year arouse in competition of the tradition of paganistic Rome. It should be noted that the 25th of March celebration of the New Year in some European places were linked to the celebrations of the Virgin Mary to which this date was given in liturgy. The French word siècle often used by Michel Nostradame is not century but cycle of the Sun, thus its entomological origins to Genesis’ in the Semetic term of hours.  Thus the Church had to follow the pagans because they had codified a war-date of 1 January and tradition had it Julius Caesar, the commencer of Imperialistic Rome, readopted that tradition, and it carried onward through time.

Not every Christian nation agreed to the New Years’ date. For example, “The Annunciation , with which Dionysius began the Christian era, was fixed on 25 March, and became the New Year’s Day for England, in early times and from the thirteenth century to Jan., 1752 [ the year of the change for England], when the present custom was introduced there. Some countries (e.g. Germany) began with Christmas, thus being almost in harmony with the ancient Germans, who made the winter solstice their starting point.” [47] Of course the ancient Germans had perceived their New Year from the Roman’s councilor election date of 1 January, which was an arbitrary date not correlated to any birth or astronomical significance. “Notwithstanding the movable character of Easter, France and the Low Countries took it as the first day of the year, while Russia, up till the eighteenth century [ this is out of date, they moved their celebrations back and forth, and still continued today in some Churches!, this is old Byzantine calendar celebrations and tends to lend to All Saints Day, which the western Catholic Church adopted in appeasement.], made September the first month. The western nations, however, since the sixteenth [ Charles IX 1567, France as the first!], or, at the latest, the eighteenth century [ Venice and England], have adopted and retained the first of January.”[48]

 [ is this a solstice?]  It had been understood that Jesus’ tropical zodiac sign should be a Pisces as his predominate Christian symbol communicated such trivialities. More or less one of Nostradamus astrological signatures is present only during this unique time-date and it appears expressed by Nostredame in his A L’INVICTISSIME TRES-PVISSANT & tres chrestien Henry Roy de France Second.

 

 

 

 

 

Calendar reformations still abound today, advocating for a simpler and accurate calendar system. One thing that disturbs me is that in leftwing academic screeds, Claudius Ptolemy is blamed for fixing the tropical zodiac as the normative calendar, thus creating confusion down through the centuries. So it is his fault that zodiac constellations do not line up today with their respected ‘sign.’  The truth is exactly opposite of that; Ptolemy advocated a sidereal conversion to then Roman calendar but roman academics were to stupid to think in complex manners; thus they relied on the old tropical shadow casting as a means to tabulate time. The tropical zodiac has been in use for millennia, and ancient stone structures apparently convinced modern archeologist that measuring the solstices and equinoxes ( because they cast shadows at preconceived points, in which the calendar organizer marks off the season) appeared a standard practice among all civilizations or ancient groups.

Solar aberration became so complex to the shadows cast upon the solar wood markers that a new division of time had been needed. So the dividing of the shadow period commenced with demarcating the year by geometric shadow and light proportion – we know this as the solstices and equinoxes. But who was in charge of the calendar? This dispute arose in every generation and periodically overtime the tropical calendar won out and is used as the standard time for our Earth and its people – everywhere. It is based upon tropical astrology where the year is divided upon two equal length shadow times and two elongated shadow times breaking up the year into four parts that could be regularity tested as accurate. Using the star system, called heavens, the canopy, etc.... remained millennia into the future because of its disorganized patterns and divisions and its apparent movement from our perspective due to the some earth wobbling.

During the Neo- Babylonian era the captured Jews retrieved their modern calendar system from their hosts. This was a lunar/solar calendar with the deity of Marduk ( Mars) and celebrated as the first month which corresponded to astronomical equilibrium of the Sun intersecting the galactic plane, we call the Spring Equinox. The first month, therefore, was celebrated from approximately mid-march through mid-April. The Neo-Babylonians did not attribute personal names, thus they counted each month numerical from month one, which was March. Rome adopted a similar composure and held Mars (Greek Aries) as their chief deity (Romulus, their mythic deity proscribe), later displaced as Jupiter well into the Imperial period, post- crucifixion. Rome too adopted the Neo-Babylonian calendar system prior to wars and crisis of ethnic nationalism between the Spanish ( Iberia) and Italy (220 B.C.E. to 153 B.C.E). The council(s) at Tours, a center of Christian programs, argued against paganistic ancient Roman Calendars using the winter solstice and a week after, January 1 as the New Year. They sought to place it back close to the Spring Equinox ( 25 March).[49] The Christian Calendar. At some time the Byzantine Empire counted New Years beginning from 1 september 5509 BC. [ check this][50]

New Years Mother Mary

The Church celebrated the feast of Conception (15 March Jul. Cal.) as the New Years’ date in which prime sources illustrate in France prior to 1567 A.C.E., thus confirm that birthdates had followed this model as other scholars have pointed out usually as notation.  We are led to believe by mediocre Nostradamians that Nostradamus had written all or most of these dates in the modern calendar we now use today. This helps their agenda and claims of Nostradamus was an idiot. It is a parlor and a witchcraft trick, much like the novelty term ‘propaganda,’ of the 20th century, all which have the exact same objective as ancient witchcraft/magic – to influence the future by word-manipulation and fact manipulation. Witchcraft is closer to political spin-doctoring than prognostication or astrology. It seeks to change the future by manipulating information for a desired result – much like the political arena throughout history. The left intends that politicians always lie to get what they want.

[ Note, a summery of the evidence provided later below should be summarized in this first gragh. ]

How Anti-Nostradamian Scholars Use Incorrect data

 

To tie this into Protestant thought, the rebels assumed that replacing Catholic promoted Saints with new sixteenth and some fifteenth century academics would lead to a scientific deities to dominate ‘truth – discourse.’ Celebrations of religious holidays included a modern Christmas, replete with a Christmas tree decked-out with ornaments, lights, and presents below – all started in Protestant towns of what today we call a union member as a show of materialism prosperity and an opposition to the Catholic Christmas Mass. Since the Protestants wanted to replace all Catholic meanings, this included time-recognition. The Catholics chose the Spring Equinox as a very spiritual date and loosely connected to scriptures which tied into the mysticism that surrounds Jesus Christ. Protestants in order to remove the Church’s time dominance, searched for piaganistic choices for the New Year. During the Wars of Religion, especially the emotions surrounding the Saint Bartholomew Massacre, France took the lead to change the New Year to ‘one of the ‘ an old Roman styles of January first and chose the winter solstice as the date of Jesus’ birth – with no scriptural proof. Protestants did not make an effort to formulate a factual persuasive argument for Christianity. It was solely based upon materialistic gains.  Not only that Lutherans and later Calvinists made efforts to change the Christian canon, relinquishing defeat because of high scholarship that existed at that time.  These Protestant groups wanted to throw out Apokálypsis Ioannis, the final book of the New Testament which had been a traditional Biblical book for over a millennium.  One such empirical result of the Wars of Religion, included the calendar wars. To take power away from the Church meant returning it back to paganistic traditions.  The Church in the early middle age, after Rome had already fallen, it promoted the paganistic winter solstice for Jesus’ birth date and thus they incorrectly believed this date was approved by Rome, and it had turned Christian this could be the actual birthdates, as Jesus birth data was unknown. It also added an emphasis on pagan recruitment.  By the 1300s The Church changed it back to the spring equinox, masking it as Easter celebration after they regained control over western civilization. Then the Church lost out to the Protestants after the mid point of the sixteenth century and a return to the New Years’ on the winter solstice again reappeared and argued to bring back the Roman Empire prestige, even if symbolically by readopting traditional Roman celebrations.

The dating of this quatrain does not have to be considered by a modern calendar or equivalent based upon witchrafters, including modern day skeptics who criticize everything not coming out as gospel from far leftist Marxist websites or comedian-leftist pundits on television. If our first recollection of a calendar indeed brings us to 2,000 B.C.E. in Mesopoamia, then March 10th of our modern Calendar is the first day of the New Year. That’s we allow three to five degrees of precession for corrective purposes. During Nostradamus’ day, the summer solstice happened on the 12th of June. Our modern calendar happens to pit the phenomena of the Sun close to 23 degrees of the tropic of Cancer during the varying days between 21st and 24th of June, ranging in variations between centuries of data tabulation. Then we have a discrepancy between what actual year we live in compared to the many changes enacted by our human race over the centuries. Did we actually lose a year because of the calendar wars waged during the Paris Parliament fights after King Charles IX had delineated the numerical year count to be 1565 instead of 1564? Then we have Fred Espenak writing approved by  NASA who claims that The Second Millennium ended on December 31 st 2000, which would place Nostradamus seventh month ( Dizzying as it may seem) at 11- 13 th of September 2001 as the quatrain eludes too. Much of this has to be considered in order to reveal what Calendar system Nostradamus used for Les Propheties. It is a matter of fact that Montaigne, Scaliger's son, Calvin, Luther, and many others including a plethora of theologians explored time trying to understand their place in the universe and where they were at chronologically took up much of their lives. Pierre Brind’Amore was so confused about cyclical time verses linear time that he claimed all the astrologers of the Roman Empire court were abject idiots – contrary to the historical record and modern scholarship. For example, he states that I.LI is copied from Roussat’s Livre de l’estat et mutations des temps...”[51] and it refers to the Saturn and Jupiter conjunction of 1703 A.D.  I found no scholar, scientist, astronomy or astrologer to claim this is so. Lemesurier claims Brind’Amore does seminal work, however others like I intend he cannot get simplistic facts strait – this is regardless of a reverence to a professorship at the l’Université d’ Ottowa. Professorship does not instantly qualify you to babble out anything and claim it as fact. Oh wait! Yes it does, never mind.  The Jupiter and Saturn conjunction takes place in the previous year (1702, 21 May 1702, Sunday Angoulême, France, 00e09, 34n39, 21 May 1702 (L.M.T. 9:00 pm))[52] and T.W.M. van Berkel found this mistake as I found others pertaining to Roman chart analyses by Brind’Amore indicating he has a trend to get his basic astrological facts incorrect – demonstrating cognitive limitability -- to which blame his formulations as dysfunctional histories; Why is this a problem?  This poor scholarship then affects the feeble mind of Lemesurier to promote Brind’Amore’s mistakes as truth.  Brind’Amore appears often in recent works  on Nostradamus – thus passing on false histories to the English Speaking audiences.  Lemesurier main side-effort is a continuing of his siege of wikipedia’s Nostradamus page to promote his poor scientific books as definitive academic works.

Using Sunday Angoulême, France, 00e09, 34n39, 21 May 1702 (L.M.T. 8:00 am, Universal Time 7:59:24, Sidereal Time 23:53:49 just a few hours before the actual conjunction appears from the geocentric position in Anglouleme France that Venus is at 19ARI39’17”, Mars is at 19ARI39’46”, Jupiter is at 06ARI30’09”, Saturn is at 06ARI33’21”, so before the Grand-Conjunction  at 9:00 pm we have a Venus and Mars conjunction  up till the minuets not seconds, and still we have a sidereal location of the Sun conjunct and separating at 4° 44” Haydum II ( Hyades, in the middle of the constellation of Taurus).  This conjunction that takes place about 9:00 pm at Angoulême is over delta (δ) Piscium ( and Linteum as it is popularly called ) and will be the notable star closest to solstice of December 21, 2012.) . Taking Angoulême, France again, at 12:11 p.m. L.M.T. the Sun passes 00CAP00’00”. Tropically, Linteum is at the longitude of 14 ARI 20’02” at 12:10 LMT with a latitude of 2° 10”37”. At that moment, The Moon is separating from its conjunction to Linteum at 1° 17’.

Brind’Amore’s  problem in which he did not live to have it explained to him was that calendar conversions of year dates rested on a complexive histories of domination fights between leaders, groups, movements, and egos.  He obviously used spurious and inaccurate sources for astronomical data.  He wrote a comparative astrological study on Nostradamus called ‘Nostradamus astrophile’ to which as earlier efforts demonstrate he set out to demonize Roman astrologers to fulfill the modern academic narrative that superstition of the past lay in modern astrological claims. Like his Saturn and Jupiter conjunction of 1703 A.D claim and is over a year off in accuracy, similar results added he had no idea to which he spoke. It is similar to U.C. Berkeley that promotes from their education website ( Berkeley.edu) a refutation on astrologers linking them to the irrational superstitious without a thread of evidence to support such a claim. If they link to celebrated Shawn Carlson’s undergraduate thesis they run the risk of devaluing their credibility of any worthiness to fact or reason. Shawn Carlson’s undergraduate thesis misrepresented the modern astrologer’s craft, promoting it as a definitive study refuting astrology, being paid for his efforts by U.S. taxpayer grants, and applauded by his professors to which he lied to them to cover up the fact that astrologers predicted a 50% accuracy rate despite the 50% margin of error that Carlson offered as a challenge.  Shawn Carlson who had sequestered by James Randi for his study to be included in “The Mask of Nostradamus” and joined Randi’s skeptical society and reported he did a two-choice study when in fact he did a three choice study but erroneously reported such nonsense to his advisor Richard A. Muller, still a current professor of psychics at U.C. Berkeley.  Carlson was published in Nature, vol. 318, pp. 419-425 ( December 5 1985) for a double – blind study on the validity of personality traits in astrology. This was odd because usually each paper that makes it into this type of science media has been deemed by a peer review. No such peer review took place, and James Randi reported this fraudulent study as definitive in effort to frame Nostradamus as a sixteenth century wacko – as well as anyone who ascribes to astrology today as well a part of the team of wackos. 

Carlson’s school has a namesake as one of the top-Universities in the world, therefore the study was reported all over the world; it is in books and the claims are on websites and Carlson’s study remains promoted as definitive scientific. However, he did not follow the scientific method, and European peer reviews after the publication elucidated an immature undergraduate who apparently was never given a lesson on scientific methodology. The Journal of Scientific Exploration (vol. 23.2) by Suitbert Ertel, professor of psychology at Göttingen University debunked the study by Carlson. A “Re – analysis of the published data by using the standard procedures  shows that the astrologers correctly matched the CPI profiles to natal charts better than would be expected by chance with marginal significance (p=.054).”[53] Carlson reported to Muller by way of his manipulating conclusions to his paper that astrologers correctly predicted (p=.027).  The trick according to the scheme was to have the erroneous 27.67% reported as the findings of this study which is close to random chance. Therefore, the claim intends that astrology has no more validly than random chance. Therefore it does not aspire to a field that can be claimed as scientific. With examples of Carlson and Brind’Amore defective scholarship do we justify a reprisal of the validity of ethics and morals in academia? This applies to the Nostradamus skeptical community as well.  More visited skeptic Internet websites always cite the wrong quatrain to X. LXXII and argue from that vantage point. The most recent high scholarship appeared in the 1980s and prime sources today are located on Wikipedia’s page of Nostradamus for any skeptic websites to figure out and compete in high scholarship representation. They no-longer have an excuse to represent incorrect quatrains, but for years continue to ignore those facts!

In like manner Laurent Videl a contemporary of Nostradamus claims the spring equinox occurs at Venice on 10 March 1557 at 3:00 pm. He chastises Nostradamus for being incorrect in comparison to his preciseness as a real astrologer. Yet, the Sun is at 29PIS39’06”, Venice, Italy, 12e21,45n,27, at 3:00 pm, indicating Videl is incorrect too. The Sun at Venice at 11:27.33 pm, 10 March 1557  hits 00ARI00’00”, thus indicating the Spring Equinox exact time. Videl’s initial claim was Nostradamus 52 minutes off the correct mark. Yet Videl is 41 minuets off the correct mark, but hypocritically promoted as the real astrologer by Brind’Amore and Lemesurier. In turn Lemesurier writes an entire book based upon the Spring Equinox. He reports that all his hard efforts of time-frames are determined by the accuracy of his date claim – of 21 March -2141 BC – and the entire book’s message resolves around this precise moment in time. Lemesurier’s claim is of course 21 March -2141 BC for the spring equinox at Giza, pertaining too the Great Pyramid’s code, in his 1977 first edition “The Great Pyramid Decoded.”  This book was Lemesurier big hit book, and made many reprinting and a fame of sorts for Lemesurier.  The code for the Great Pyramid lay in the accuracy of the claim for the spring equinox and according to Lemesurier arrives on 21 March -2141 BC. Yet, the facts do not add up and indeed the spring equinox does not occur until 22 March -2141 BC.   The Spring Equinox occurs at 3:16 sec. 33 am, L.M.T., Giza, Egypt, 22 March -2141 B.C.E., Gregorian Calendar (Swiss Ephemeris P03, Capitaine/Wallace/Chapront 2003). So what do we do now? Suspend Armageddon?

Theogenes biography of Suetonius misreported Caesar Augustus published horoscope. Manilius Astronimica,, book iv resurrected the misreporting by Theogenes of Suetonius astronomical figures. However, Brind’Amore could not figure this out and promulgated that all the Roman court astrologers were just as stupid as Nostradamus.[54] Making matters worse Brind’Amore couldn’t figure out the correct year of Augustus’ birth date but more importantly he used Placidus de Titus’, a sixteenth century domicile system over an ancient Roman Empire domicile system.  It boggles the mind that Lemesurier promotes Brind’Amore’s work on Nostradamus astrology as seminal ( meaning the very best  and top of the line) and any challenge to Brind’Amore’s authority should be countered with guttural epitaphs of a ‘nutter’ ( mentally insane, a retard!). Nor could Brind’Amore figure out Roman Astrologers used sidereal coordinates over equal houses systems and while during the Renaissance unequal house system were tied to a local constructed astrolabe which had unequal lines dividing up the day and the night – which seemed the fad for precision – an outcropping of progressive advancement in domicile astrology.

In medieval Europe in 567, the Council of Tours abolished the January 1st beginning of the New Years’ celebration and from then on various places celebrated News Years as December 25 [Dec. 15th Jul. Cal.), March 1st ( February 21st of Jul. Cal.), or March 25 [ 14-15 th of Jul. Cal.). Prime source material, especially  of the noble class who were literate celebrated birthdays, for example French royalty, prior to 1570s as a dividing date between the celebrations of Easter. Persons born in February for example had a different year –birth than those of lets say who were born in May of the same year. There has been a great confusion in historical writings and many of the traditional authorities made mistakes placing years that are ascribed in these troubled-accounting zones to the wrong conversion date/year. Britain was the last country to adopt the change from the liturgical calendar to the old Roman calendar, they remained indebted to the old style until 1752, Protestant counties gradually adopted the new style. Venice was the first, a type of opposition to their trade empire and ideology against the southern Catholic Church dominance. Some prominent Nostradamus scholars claim that all over Europe during Nostradamus’ life and time the start of the New Year was on January 1st of each year. They offer proof that international almanachs, such as the field Nostradamus published his bi-annual or annual almanacs under, begun on the old Roman January 1st format-calendar – thus the civil calendar must have conformed to Nostradamus' books. This is the furthest from the truth and  of shabby scholarship. Even for a long time the American colonies celebrated the change in the year during the mid-March point of the year. Various royalty discourses’ on birth charts and royal birth times led scholars not associated to Nostradamus to contemplate discrepancies for changes of birth years during our January – through – December period. This led me to believe that Nostradamus may not have worked entirely with the modern calendar, choosing to hide his messages in alternative dating systems – which may have been commonplace during his time. If a Nostradamian is telling you, the reader, in a book that Nostradamus’ writings were too cryptic or vague to understand what he is speaking about – and then at the same time they claim what calendar Nostradamus had used, more likely they are confused and perhaps mediocre intellects.

There were even problems in France adopting the Gregorian calendar, to which happened two months late, and December 9th was followed by the 20th of December. (Jérôme Delatour, “Noël le 15 décembre. La réception du calendreir grégorian en France” (1582), in Bibliothèque de l’Ecole des charts 157 (1999): 396-416, see n. 15, p. 7., (An Approach to The Spirituality of Time, Max Engammare, excerpt, Cambridge University Press, online, accessed 15 November 2010) available from http://www.cambridge.org/9780521769976_excerpt_[1].pdf. This even bothered Joseph-Juste Scaliger who was working on Biblical Chronology and history, as were many theologins, he wrote about these troubling changes in time in a worked entitled De Emendatione temporum (1583, 2nd, expanded topics in next edition of 1598).

Michel de Montaigne ( in The Essays of Michel de Montaigne, trans. and ed. M.A. Screech (London: Penguin Press, 1987, p. 1143) was upset about the 10 day change. The Decision to change New Years came from Charles IX in 1563; Ordinance of Roussillon in January/August 1564, with an implication date of 1565; although the Paris Parliament only applied this change in 1567 (n. 11, p. 5, ibid., Engammare) – a year after Nostradamus had gone.

The calendriers historiaux documents that Protestant reformists elevated themselves to sainthood and dropped the Catholic Church’s saints en masse in the mid-sixteenth century. Two reformist movements confirmed this dropping the liturgical year of circular time ( that is astronomical time) in “favor of a cumulative linear time, which included the great names and key dates of Protestant history as they occurred.” ( p. 10, ibid., Engammare).

Summery  of Calendar Wars on Nostradamus Dating

It is all subjective and if some scholar tells you Nostradamus used 1 January as a consistent New Year they are lying to you, and certainly they have problems in their scholarship. Nostradamus secretary Chavigny called Nostradamus ‘ The French Janus,’ which connotatively, at least in early Roman ‘genius’ tradition means the god of or from the beginning – as in the Creator. Most books commenting on this title by Chavigny relate the standard later Hellenic character of a god looking forward and backward. In early Roman paterfamilies, if a family used Janus to protect them, he or she was the god of the home’s door for protection – therefore the association to the ‘door’ that is a boundary from without and to within – a similar construct of the normative explanation of the Grecian myths of Janus as the god that looks forward and backward. There is no evidence that Chavigny refers to the Grecian account. When Nostradamus was alive 1 January was never the civil New Year as many hater Nostradamians claim to their discredit, but Mother Mary’s Feast of the Conception had attentively  been demoted as second place to the moving Easter Day, lunar- calendar – celebrated in all Catholic countries. The Reformation of the Protestant and their human deities ( they themselves as human worshiping other humans) forced the people through, war again, to adopt a more standardized and basterdized calendar based upon killing humans, which we still celebrate ironically today as 1 January. So no-one can say for certain which calendar Nostradamus used for which poem, and he mentions changes in a calendar in his prose writings, so he is well aware of changes of civil time. So now lets look for some options to dates.

 


 

[1] Bayard, F., & P. Cayez, Histoire de Lyon (Le Coteau: Horvath, 1990), 2:53; R. Gascon, Grand commerce et vie urbaine au XVIe siécle: Lyon et ses marchands (Paris: S.E.V.P.E.N., 1971), 138-40, 346-51, in Scève, Maurice, The Entry of Henri II into Lyon, September 1548 (Tempe, Arizona, Medieval & Renaissance Texts & Studies, 1997), p. 1.

[2] Ibid., Scève, n. 6, p. 2,  Reception du tréschrétian monarque Louis XIII ( Lyon, 1623); c.f .  E. Pariset, . “Souvenirs Lyonnais de 1496 à 1896, Mémoires de l’Académie de Sciences Belles Lettres et Arts de Lyon, 3e série, 5 (1898): 48.

[3] my word for persons who assumed a notion of astronomical repetition.

[4] Breasted, Ph.D., James Henry, Ancient Records of Egypt, historical documents, from the Earliest times to the Persian Conquest: Collected, Edited and Translated with Commentary ( Chicago: Chicago University Press, 1906), p.26.

[5] Ibid., Neugenbauer, Otto Eduard,   A History of Ancients Mathematical Astronomy, Vol. 2. (Berlin: Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, 1975), p. 621.

[6] Ibid., Neugenbauer, Otto Eduard,   A History of Ancients Mathematical Astronomy, Vol. 2. (Berlin: Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, 1975), p. 621.

[7] ref. Danby, J.M. Eqn. 6.16.4. in “Fundamentals of Celestial Mechanics” ( Richmond, VA: Willman-Bell, 1988), p. 207. in Science World Wolfram Research, accessed 27 January 2011), available from http://scienceworld.wolfram.com/astronomy/JulianDate.html ;Internet.

[8] Nostradamus says a new age in 1609.

[9] It is always claimed that this system is soley astronomical, but even Christopher Clavius in his version of interpreting Inter gravissimus, clains that the fourth side-calendar is “Indictione decima” –‘ Indiction 10, or the tenth year of the current indiction, which was a fifteen year third-century Roman tax cycle, not based on anything of astronomical portents.

[10] This council never defined a day on which the solstices or equinox lay, but the 14 th day of the tabular Moon had drifted, as well as a eleven day drift of the Sun to the equinoxes.

[11] Opera Mathmatica of Christopher Clavius,  in  “Les texts fondateurs du calendrier grégorien,” ( Rodolphe, Audette, an original post 09 December 2007 , 18:06, in Henk – Reints, Netherlands,   accessed 27 January 2011, available from http://henk-reints.nl/cal/audette/calgreg.html#cgcr ; Internet.

[12] a stele known as the Royal Annals of the Old Kingdom, containing records of the kings form the first dynasty to the fifth.

[13] Allen, Thomas George, sec. Horus in the Pyramid Texts,  a dissertation 1915, ( Chicago: Chicago University, 1916),  line 44,  p. 29 available online http://www.pyramidtextsonline/library.html ; Internet.

[14] Ibid., Allen, Horus in the Pyramid Texts,   line. 61 p. 29. the punctuation is by Allen, and not in the texts on the walls.

[15] Ibid., Allen, Horus in the Pyramid Texts,   line. 255 p. 37. also ref. Morning star to Horus in lines, 90,91. 142...

[16] after the assassination of Julius Caesar the common people rose up and demanded the curia make him a mere living god, after the likes of Jupiter, Mars, or Saturn. Thus Augustus called himself the ‘son of god.’

[17] The Ecclesiastical history of the English People.

[18]  Roland-Pierre  Pillonel-Wyrsch, Le calcul de la date du Pâques au Moyen Âge (Saint – Paul Fribourg Suisse: Academic Press Fribourg, 2004),  p. 121.

[19] Marcus Manilius, “ Astonomicon a Ios. Sacligero ex vetusto codice Gemblacensi infinitis mendis repurgatum. Eiusdem Iosephi Scaligeri notae....” Leiden ( Christophorus Raphelengius for Joannes Commelin (1599-1600),  title page available from  http://warburg.sas.ac.uk/scaliger/pdf/754%20E2024.pdf ; Internet.

[20] Grout, James, “The Celtiberian War (Chicago University:  Essays op the Roman Provinces of Britannia and Hispania and on Classical Greece, James Grout 1997- 2011, accessed 25 January 2011), available from http://penelope.ucchicago.edu/~grout/encyclopaedia_romana/hispania/celtiberianwar.html ; Internet. ref. Appian: Wars of the Romans in Iberia ( 2000) by J. S. Richardson;  Roman Spain: Conquest and Assimilation (1991) by Leonard A. Curchin; The Romans in Spain ( 1996), by J.S. Richardson; Hispaniae:Spain and the Development of Roman Imperialism, 218-82 BC (1986) by J.S. Richardson; Roman Spain (1988) by S.J. Keay; Spain: An Oxford Archeological Guide (1998), by Roger Collins; Appain’s Roman History (Vol. I: The Wars in Spain) ( 1912), trans., Horace White ( Loeb Classical Library); Polybius: The Histories ( Vol. VI) ( 1972) trans., W.R. Paton ( Loeb Classical Library); Dio Cassius: Roman History (Vol. II) ( 1914), trans., Earnest Cary (Loeb Classical Library); Lucius Annaeus Florus: Epitome of Roman History (1929), trans., Edward Seymour Forster (Loeb Classical Library); Livy: War with Hannibal (1965) trans., Aubrey de Sélincourt ( Penguin Classics); Cassius Dio: The Roman History ( 1987) trans., Ian Scott-Kilvert ( Penguin Classics); Tacitus on Britain and Germany ( 1948), trans., H. Mattingly (( Penguin Classics).

[21] Ibid., Grout, James.

[22] think of ius naturale as an Age of Reason.

[23] Dunstan, William E., Ancient Rome (Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, INC., 2011), p. 31. Dunstan states on page 107 to confirm my research that March was the first month of the Roman year, a day starting at midnight ( 8 day week until Empire period adoption of 7 day week) officially changed in 153 B.C.E.

[24] Dorey, T.A., The dictatorship of Minucius, p. 92.  in “The Journal of Roman Studies,” London: 1995,  accessed 26 January 2011), available form http://www.jstor.org/stable/298748; Internet.

[25] Sumner, G.V., Elections at Rome in 217 B.C., in Phoenix,   vol. 29, no. 3 (Classical Association of Canada, Autumn, 1975, accessed 26 January, 2011) p. 252, c.f., Livy, 30.39.5; T. Mommsen, Römisches Staatsrecht, 2³ 160 n. 4. , available from http://www.jstor.org/stable/1087618 ; Internet.

[26] Ibid.,  Sumner, n. 23, compare Polyb. 3.103.3-5; Nepos Hann. 5.3; Livy 22.25-26; Plutarch Fab. 7-9, other references in MRR 1.243 ( in Livy 22.25.3 the emendation Metilius for Metellus is sound, see Walters-Conway, OCT, ad loc.).

[27] No one actually knew what year it was so he had two years, 1537 or 1538 he was born, because the New Year was not really understood by most historians at that time!

[28] none of his writings survive and he is known through George Syncellus, writing during the ninth century. c.f. Josef Lössl Anianus of Alexandria, in “Encyclopedia of Medieval Chronicle” ed. Graeme Dunphy ( Leidin:, Brill, 2010), pp. 43-44.

[29] Varro is a contemporary of Castor, who gave five lists of civilization dates, they are – Assyrian (2123 -862 B.C.E.), Sicyonian (2123-1162 B.C.E.), Argive/Myceanean (1856 –1105 B.C.E.), Cole, Thomas,  Ovid, Varro, and Castor of Rhodes: The Chronological Architecture of the “Metamorphoses.” p, 375 in Harvard Studies in Classical Philology ( Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University, Department of the Classics,  vol 201, 2004, a part of a greater effort as 1890-2004, vols. 1-102, accessed 23 January 2010), available from http://www.jstor.org/stable/4150046?seq=3 ; Internet. .

[30] Varro is accepted by scholars today as accurate.

[31] This was an official list of the councilors of Rome which had applied 752 as the epoch for Rome, but all historians of merit and importance have consensus this is incorrect, and 753 BCE is the accurate date.

[32] This author is used by haters of the Nostradamus industry who intend his works are seminal, when in fact he had no idea what year it was, become so angry he dismissed all astronomers and astrologers in all ages as lunatics. For example, the SolarFire Astrological Program identifies a year ‘zero’ which discombobulates all the dates, pre 1 A.C.E. to a different year. This is not the only early and miscalculated software astrological program that does this, but so-called academics that have no idea of astronomy, but are adept at linguistics in their field used this program and formed their mistaken options upon a flawed computer program.

[33] Martindale, Cyril Charles, Christmasin ‘The Catholic Encyclopedia,’ vol. 3. ( New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1 November 1908, accessed 22 January 2011), available from http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/03724b.htm ; Internet. 

[34] Sol Invictus. already in wide celebration in the fourth century, The birthday of the Unconquerable Sun, associated to Mithras was not Saturnalia as most scholastic books had incorrectly took at someone’s word.

[35] Ibid., Martindale, Christmas.

[36] Ibid., Martindale, Christmas. quoted, Harrison, J.E., Prolegom., p. 594.

[37] Ibid., Martindale, Christmas.

[38]  Wilson, P.W., The Romance of the Calendar ( New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 1973), p. 138.

[39] Wilson, P.W., The Romance of the Calendar ( New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 1973), p. 139.

[40] Ibid., Wilson, The Romance of the Calendar, p. 140.

[41] Ibid., Wilson, The Romance of the Calendar, pp. 140 - 141.

[42] Ibid., Wilson, The Romance of the Calendar, p. 143.

[43] Ibid., Wilson, The Romance of the Calendar, pp. 143 - 144.

[44] Ibid., Wilson, The Romance of the Calendar, p. 141.

[45] Charles George Herbermann, Edward Aloysius Pace, Knights of Columbus, Catholic Truth Committee. Condé Bénoist Pallen, Thomas...et al. eds.  The Catholic Encyclopedia: an international work of reference... vol. 11 ( New York: The Encyclopedia, Press, Inc, 1913;  1 February 1911 for Robert Appleton Company, )  , p. 19.

[46] Nice illustrations in Medieval Latin can be seen in Jean-Loup Lemaitre, “Un Calendrier des Heures Saint-Pierre-du-Queyroix, Musée du pays d’Ussel, Ms. 6. (Ussel: Musée du Pys D’Ussel, Paris, Diffusion de Boccard, 2005).

[47][47] Ibid.,  The Catholic Encyclopedia:... vol. 11, p. 20.

[48] Ibid.,  The Catholic Encyclopedia:... vol. 11, p. 20.

[49] Tøndering, Claus & Trine, The Christian Calendar, available form http://www.tondering.dk/claus/cal/node3.html

[50] Ibid., Tøndering, The Christian Calendar.

[51] Brind’Amore 1996, pp. 122-123. The quotation on pp. 122-123 from Livre de l’estat..., but on p. 132, n, 1 in T.W.M. van Berkel, Nostradamus, Astrology and the Bible (De Meern, NL: Nostradamus Research, 2002 – 2011, dated entry as 24 Feb. 2004,  accessed 14 Jan. 2011 ), available from http://www.nostradamusreserch.org/en/quatr/01-51.htm#a01 ;Internet.

[52] Jupiter is at 06ARI36’18” and Saturn is at 06ARI36’18”.  MJM: note, the mean node is in Praesepe, and this conjunction takes place in the constellation of Pisces.

[53] Kenneth McRitchie, Reprisal of 1985 Carlson Study finds support for astrology, in ‘Center of the Universe at the Edge of the World,’ ( 11 July 2009,   accessed 6 September 2010), available  from   http://theworldedge.blogspot.com/2009/07/reappraisal-of-1985-carlson-study-finds.html ; Internet. cf. Joseph E. Vidmar, Ed. D, A Comprehensive Review of the Carlson Astrology Experiments, published in Correlations, a referred journal of research in astrology, Vol. 26 (1) 2008, available from  http://www.astronlp.com/Carlson Astrology Experiment.html .

[54] Brind’Amore,  Le Calendrier romain, p. 58.


 [M1]actually more investigation to what is aries point

 

 

 

 


Copyright © 1999 - 2013 Michael Johnathan McDonald