During 1968, when the Cultural Revolution was in full swing, and Mao Tse-tung [Zedong] created no jobs for the youth, the new students, the society’s future, he sent them out to the countryside to help the poor-peasant farmers that had been feeding them all these decades – the students and youth had no idea who these peasants, and dead peasant country people were – they were shocked when they arrived, the plan backfired. When the youth arrived in the countryside, they found out that central government policies had lead to millions of death. The peasant farmers were not allowed to produce and sell to each other and others what they had wanted, and failed central policies created self-constructed famines by poor scientific policies. And, yet, Tse-tung’s own officers would not tell him the truth of the failed yield totals, which made critical decision making necessary—the officers feared that the Chinese leader would do more than just reprimand the officer and include his family. The students and youth found out knew world knowledges while out in the countryside. “Air America,” banned and a criminal offense in Chinese cities went unforced in the countryside. Along with western bourgeoisie radio, translated western books ( the same books that Deng Xiaoping would end up reading during his two exiles, the students and youth were exposed to western literature—their curiosity heightened and would eventually lead to questioning “collectivism” – the form of totalitarianism that Mao Tse-tung had wrought upon China’s modernity. Tse-tung had been also, earlier, exiled or retired as historians put it because he would not take advice form Chinese scientists, and made decisions that turned out disastrous for the Chinese people as a whole. The Cultural Revolution was Mao Tse-tung’s idealization of his image—a symbolic figure of the bottom phenomena rising to the top to help the repressed from the elitists. Yet, as quandary, or paradox, communism was just but not just enough to protect a state from predatory states – in which in the later 1960s and by 1972 Tse-tung had angered Russia who were on the Chinese boarders ready to fight in which Tse-tung’s decision to call on Washington was predicated upon self-preservation of the Chinese economic and peoples. Deng Xiaoping, the later de facto heir to the Chinese rulership, had already made plans to introduce ‘zones’ of capitalism into the Chinese economy – in which after this was accomplished the farmers who were partially decollectivized began to turn a small profit which benefited both their families and their communities. At this juncture, Deng Xiaoping then opened up five distinctive ‘capitalist’ or ‘free-trade zones,’ which began to lead to a political split between the old guard hard-line collectivists and the newly freedom thinking Chinese entrepreneurs. Since the country folk could not depose Tse-tung who ran a policy of favoring the city folk who could protect his interests and himself, significant changes to thinking of democracy did not occur until Tse-tung had died. Democracy to the Chinese was materialism – the opposite of the ideology of Marxism. However, like Marxism, as I have shown in “what is communism, and fascism,” a totalitarian state is run by an ideology where the individual is linked to the state as a single organ. Freedom does not take place for most individuals during this process. However, a larger, and more wide spread ‘spirit’ of freedom exists in which to voice one’s opinion
When countries come out of centuries of dynastic rule (Or subjugation), the common pattern is seen as extreme vacillation progressing from extreme right to extreme left -- like a wave pattern that gradually becomes less fluxuating, to eventually even out to a middle bane.
China was no different.
Deng Xaioping : Leader of China age 84.
Hu Yaobang: Secretary General of CCP, groomed as Deng’s successor: Hu’s successor as Sec. Gen. of CCP
Zhao Ziyang: Premier
Hu admits socialist failures. This is a Christian act, although he is no involved in Christianity. What it does is established honesty pact to the public by his admission. He tells about Mao Tse-tungs administrations failures.
The Cultural Revolution had left china in a physiological, physical death. The campaign was a complete disaster. Many people tortured, put to death and imprisoned. Even Deng Xiaoping was exiled, but later brought back to administer the department of economics. Deng Xiaoping reappeared at a soccer match at “Workers Stadium.” He acted as nothing had ever happened. This was for his own protection and against the CCP. His first exile helps in working things out mentally about Chna’s problems, but his second exile helped him escape the Gang of Fourtrial, not implementing him in any of their actions.
China after the Cultural Revolution was almost ruined beyond recognition. Deng emerged as the old guard leader and the only one at the time to take responsible steps to correcting and maintaining, a now fragile, China. His four years in exile were spent in the mornings on a cart making production line and his afternoons reading. This was important in his education because he had time to figure out how to correct China’s problems. This solution gave him the attribute of a pragmatic person. Why? Because he had learned back at ( the place he was exiled) then brought in capitalism (Foreign investment) gently into China. He gave back land to the farming peasants , yet they did not own the land. Yet, he allowed them their own plots with the opportunity to make profit from them. This changed the famine problem overnight and the yields turned from non-yields to surpluses.
In 1904 Deng Xiaoping was born. At the age of 16 years old he was sent to France to study with other Chinese students. This is where he learned about the communist party and nationalism at an early age. He joined the communism party in France and when he finished his studies in France he went home and joined the Long March. He turned out to be a capable commander in Mao’s red army in which he beat on Chang Kai-Shek’s forces using American military. Although, he was a capable, sometimes brilliant general he excelled at debate and became the Chinese representative debater at Moscow. There was a Sin0-Soviet debate in which he won and was praised by other intellectuals on both camps. During the cultural revolution he was branded a “ capitalist dog,” by other CCP members. He was imprisoned in a home for the military where he was treated genial. He was confined beginning October 1969 to February 1972. This gave Xiaoping time to reflect. He was a mechanic during some work time of his youth and had studied a little about the subject in France. He was good with machines. He worked in the mornings on carts and read in the afternoons. His daughter would be concerned about him because he would walk around a lot mulling what he would change if he returned to Beijing and the CCP. Out of this came the hopes and dreams for China and his famous byline: “It does not matter is the cat is black or if the cat is white, as long as the cat catches the mouse.” This was practicalism, or capitalism at its roots. In the west, some slogans say “ just do it.”
The Cultural Revolution had made friends now enemies and the healing of the country would be to take the minds of the populace off their wows and to make them focus on something promising. Mao had taken all property away from people and made them live in barracks on the farms and no private land. Slowly, yet not too slowly Xiaoping introduced private quarters and having your own plots to make profit. Although the land was still government owned, the good thing about this move was that these plots were sectioned out to one family for their own ability to make their destiny. It was the first time that they could now be able to make a profit and buy items that Xiaoping would be importing in to the country for their comfort.
The great Earthquake in 1976 had been an omen when roughly the same period Mao had died. Deng Xaioping was the only one who knew the government and could act quickly to save china from fully falling apart. He became their leader.
He set about to change vital things that made the people angry about Mao policies.
People could not come into the cities by law looking for work. Although, people from Lower and Upper Mongolia managed to make it into the cities, found jobs restricted because they were not educated in the positions. The “ Pincher Squeeze” was a term used to describe the tight restrictions on wages for workers in the big Chinese cities. The Agriculture careerist were living better now to a profit reform set up by Xiaoping. Also, coinciding with this gripe was that the CCP were involved in taking kickbacks from the foreign investors they allowed to come into China. Still new reforms in the cities had allowed the people to now be able to purchase bicycles; the people now saw their CCP leaders riding around in expensive cars in which they could not afford. There were many contradictions now in society that some capitalism was allowed to move into the society.
Before, Moa had made a hard line on CCP leaders could not skim money from business deals. Xiaoping’s own son and Zhao’s son were taking kickbacks and becoming filthy rich. Contradictions always arise in free market economies. This usually frustrates the have-nots who, in a free society demonstrate for reforms.
On April 15, 1989 one of the honest leaders who had apologized about Mao’s mistakes died. Hu Yaobang had died of a heart attack right after he criticized Xiaoping corruption. In 1986 Hu publicly admitted to the social failures of Moa Tse-tung. All nations admire people who apologize. The American puritans in their communities made this one of the utmost important factors of their existence: “If you did something wrong, one goes to the public hall and stands before the many and admits his or her mistakes.” After the apology there is a need for a punishment that fits the crime and/or a correction of a new policy. In 1987 Deng who had ‘held many hats’ ( Many positions which can be done in fascist state, like Hitler’s Germany) retired with only the position of commander and chief of the Chinese military. He had groomed Hu Yaobang for the leadership post and moved Zoa Ziyang into Hu’s spot. Although, Li Peng was the Premiere, he had little power in the top echelons of the CCP. Early in April 1987 Hu had given a speech stating “ we have failed the people and the nation.” The CCP were none to happy about his speech. He dies of an heart attack on the 15th of April. He had won the peoples hearts with his apology and this starts the crowds coming out to mourn which begins the crowds of the protests.
Early in 1989 Hu spoke publicly: “ We have failed the people and the nation.” April 26 Deng in a newspaper editorial accuses the students of plotting an over through of government. The students are viewed in history as liberals wanting to over through the old guard, misapplied the conservatives of the communist party. In actuality, the old guard were the leftist communist that didn’t want to change to overt capitalism and right-wing freedom of expressions and choice of careers. The Tiananmen Square incident is also referred to as “Bloody Sunday.”
Also confusing political ideology the is that the kids, then later the people in general saw how crime exists in capitalism. This cannot be avoided, but controlled by a honest police force and open freedom of the press not financial linked with the suppressing government or local leaders. The kids saw that the leftist leaders were riding in fancy cars and living lavishly while they lived in shrapmill conditions at Beijing University. So the kids wanted a return to the Mao form of ideal that everyone live in abject poverty including the leaders, which was never the case for Mao in the first place.
The students began to set up camps, and when it rained the local community provided tents and jackets. The police even helped some of the students who were weak because of their hunger strike.
After it was over Deng sent letter to everyone stating that each person write how they felt, where they were on June 4, 1989.
May 20th Deng Xiaoping lectured on refocusing on communism and loyalists to the Chinese Communist Party. He ordered martial law. On one of his points of the speech he emphasized a program to bring a renewal of policies to gather high-technology to bring China into the 21th Century at the level of European powers. This was a move to further Mao’s claims of the same idea that began with Lin over a hundred years earlier. Xiaoping also began to move China further out of the bad policies of Mao.
The Good Policies
The Bad Policies
“What is and what is hoped for” usually makes a problems turn into revolutions. For instance, when there are grips by the many not met by the few, in this case the CCP, the sentiment is to rebel and force reforms. In this case the government used forced but still had to change eventually for what was called for by the students. Although, freedom of the press was never established, because this was a main threat to the communist party, this student grip was no honored. Once reporters had publicly shown that they were extreme criminals they would lose face, something that the Chinese have an extreme dislike over.
People forgave Hu Yaobang because apologizing goes a long way in people’s minds. By 1986 small demonstrations had already begun about government grips. This was a good thing. This meant that although there was communism which restricted freedom of speech there also was some freedom to protest government vocally without everyone being tortured and killed who dared to speak out.
Deng said “ I’m too old” and gives up some of his titles so Hu whose funeral was taking place was a sores spot for the people because he was looked as the next leader of China now that their enemy Xaioping was stepp0ing down. When he died the people lost hope as Xaioping had to stay in power. There was a line, four miles long that marched to Tiananmen Square. On every street intersection were lines of police that the students struggled then broke through. People from all over the country supporting the students came to Beijing.
By April 27 at least 100,000 were in the streets and the movement of cries to change the government moved to the other cities in China.
May 4th brought celebration and with it a holiday of the celebrated movement. Zhao makes some moves to show that the CCP is patriotic as well. He talks to the students and their anger disperses. He says “ your moves are patriotic.” However back at the CCP headquarters the old guard ( Super-Leftists) become upset and feel threatened. Zhao “fucked up” they angrily said. It is not good for a ruling party in communism to give the people what they want as much as it is to pass laws of changes continually even though none are needed, or to take anything the public says as important to your own ideas as to how communism should be run. The leftist say “Lets crack down, but not until after Gorbachev leaves.” New media had been descending on Beijing for the important occasion and received more than it bargained for with the added spectacle of right-wingism. The CCP feels ill-at-ease about all of this as Gorbachev is taken from one place to the other and not on his toured schedule to not see the demonstrators. Deng finally realizes what a public relations problem if Gorbachev sees the demonstrators.
Instead of the welcoming at the Great Hall the welcoming party t was to take place at a location that Gorbachev would not see the demonstrations. It was moved to the airport. The media was making chiding comments like this is “ Glasnost gone amuck.” Doctors helped, police helped and peopled helped the students as the who city, and finally the nation became involved. There was only one thing Xiaoping had in his back pocket – it was millions of men in the military at his command.
May 15th: Gorbachev arrives as 200 hundred students began a hunger strike. CCP leaders fully embarrassed. He is supposed to go to Tiananmen Square and the Forbidden City, but this had to be cancelled. Further cancelled was trips to the Heroes of the Revolution monuments. Also, he was diverted from seeing an Opera that was on the schedule because of the demonstrations and the publics’ involvement on all the corners of the streets. Deng appeared smiling in a diner ball with the Russia head Commander in Chief, yet his hands were noticeable shaking. To Deng this was one big embarrassment, and the Chinese leadership detested loosing face. “ Its getting personal now: Deng told a comrade. At this banquet Zhao who knows he is to ascend to Hu’s position begans to work the Russian diplomats. He tries to smooth things out, yet tension could be cut with a knife in the room between the CCP members. Zhao makes a feudal mistake by calling ding some other names than his Proper titles. He calls Xiaoping “ the helmsmen of the state.” In addition, “ It is not good for political reform to lag behind the economic, the two need to be synchronized,” Hu said. He was setting up to make Deng the scapegoat for all of China’s problems. A reported called the festival of Democracy was becoming a “ far eastern Woodstock.”
Meanwhile, Students began to call their demonstration the “ Festival of Democracy.” They had heard about how Gorbachev was opening up Russia to forms of democracy and wanted to be also included by their own government into this type of government. It began to rain and the people brought raincoats and tents for the students, but it did not dampen their spirits.
The problems with the students were that they were speaking in too much generalizations. They needed more specific reform calls. Democracy never comes fast to a nation and the students clearly were taken away wanting all at that moment and time. Still this was the leaderships worst nightmare. Signs began to mock the CCP leadership and especially Deng’s famous ‘cat’ statement. Instead of the famous Deng slogan a sign said: “It does not matter if the cat is back or if it is white as long as it resigns.”
Like the French Revolution, the Chinese did not want to fire on their own people. It was the Peoples Liberation Army and not the Peoples Suppression Army. Students joined by private entrepreneurs, steel workers, national volleyball team, urban workers; “flying tigers” on motor bikes who roar around delivery messages to different protesting locations in the city. This meant that the protestors were getting organized. Civil servants got into the act and joined the party. National airline employees joined also. China’s travel service, foreign ministry workers, and even some communist party members got caught up in the storm. “We want a democracy, and the people support us!” The students now feel they are gaining success.
Ay 18th Gorbachev’s departure day arrives and an emergency meeting is called before dawn. Deng says “What will we do?” Zhao urges to make concessions, not to give everything that they want but something to quell the storm. Zhao suggests immediate opening of dialogue with the students. He tells the CCP members at this meeting he is ready to implement his own son in the anti-corruption campaign which was one of the large talking points of the demonstrations. Deng’s son and his son were both publicly known to be criminals who made rich off skimming the money from government business contracts. “ I will set the example by implementing my own son,” says Zhao. Deng with steely eyes looks over at Zhao and says “ I have three million Chinese military men behind me.” Zhao replies “ I have the people of China behind me.” Deng retorts, “ You have nothing.” Li ping rushes out and tells them he is to have a one hour interview on TV with the students. While on the TV he harshly chides the student that was his partner. The Chinese communist party must prevail: Deng and his supporters oust Zhao from all his party positions. Zhao went among the students crying “You are still young…its not too late.” Li Ping back at headquarters announces that “Chaos has occurred.” The party was beginning to crumble. What to do quickly Deng told himself. Get the Army “Shot those bastards.” The PLA moves in but cannot shoot at their own citizens. “How can a Chinese person shot at another innocent Chinese person? “they asked. They did nothing wrong and have caused no violence. One after another of a hundred Chinese officers refused systematically to fire on their own people.
Deng calls up Inner Mongolia and gets some foreign army on the phone. “I need some special work…can your do it” The Mongolians and Turkish commanders say what? “ I need to take control of Tiananmen Square… do it at any cost” Yang Shankun and his foreign ruthless 27th army are flown in at nightfall. Late at night the barriers are moved reading for the move. Suddenly a reign of terror explodes as machinegun fire and tanks descend running over people and killing everyone in sight. Kids were running away from the square they were being gun down. Tanks ran over people screaming. By morning over 200 were dead and thousands and thousands were rounded up and locked up in jail. Students leaders fled the country and the ones who stayed were sentenced to prison. Deng placed the communists back into power. He said “I did it to save the nation.” He was a lair. He had lost the mandate of heaven and the people had agreed. To appease the people Deng stole some of the thunder of the students. He began by making marching band tour the cities playing nationalistic songs. He resurrected Chaing Kai-SheK’s image as a person who really loved China. The Communist Party considered the national movement of Kai-Skek’s forces as thugs in the Communist revolutionary period, now they were honored. Patriotism of the communism party resulted in a renewed fashion of support. Deng won this support by awarding huge money and jobs to people who converted to staunch supporters of the Communist Party.
Deng had reported in the newspaper that the students were no patriots of China, but were traitorous to the communist party. Now, he had stolen their ideas, he further opened up ways for people to work harder. He issued a system that turned into fascism.
The students had no specific requests, and many historians believe this is not good when going against hardliner governments. However the spirit was there and Tiananmen was not a loss in history. It made Deng force to see that the people needed to be rich if his own party members were living rich. If he didn’t change this the next time the people of China could over through the government like past history has shown. The students learned about absolutes: no compromise; purities with there principles; standing for the goodness of China. The students showed patriotism and nationalism. Deng hijacked patriotism.
Deng went about forcing heavy indoctrination classes on communistic party supporting. The brainwashing that the students chanted about didn’t bother Deng as he made this new policy of indoctrination at the classroom. Everyone must go and participate on a regular basis.
China was turning into a one party system dictatorship that was inline with capitalism. This tern is better known as fascism. In 1990 Deng was opening up the southern coastal regions to the world for trade purposes. But, in ’92 he made many laws open for the foreign investors to come in. By ’92 China’s first millionaires appeared and ever since the tied has changed to a capitalism-fascist society. Deng visits Nanjing and tells the nation to copy its material progress.
After World War II in China Communism follows. China had fought against the Japanese and domestic-political issues were back on the front burners for the people. During the war Japanese had occupied the coastal areas and agricultural mainland. Many cities were indescribably bombed including Beijing University, Beijing and the World Center in Shanghai. Japanese had committed atrocities and brutal experiments on the Chinese. Some cases the Japanese a hose would fill up bodies with water and they would jump on the stomachs to watch them explode. It was a bad time for the Chinese. But, torture was invented by the Chinese who had used them in politics for many centuries as methods of punishment of its peoples. For instant torture was a method accepted in Chinese civilization all the way up to the Opinion War period.
Other areas of conflict were that Japan had controlled Taiwan since 1895. Hostilities were created after WWII about this, even to this day. In Manchuria, the Soviet Union remained quiet, by tact and some by agreement. There was enough war on both sides of their boarders to keep them occupied and China out of the question. Atomic bombs dropped and signaled the end of the War for Japan. When about the same time that America makes Japan sign a peace treaty, Russia calls for a war with Japan. Russia wanted to take North Korea and Manchuria away from the Japanese. By signing the peace treaty Japanese had to pull out of China. Russia had thought it an ample time to take some easy territory. Yet, Russia was depleted after the war and so many Chinese had to reoccupy their lands, reinstate new laws for new things and technologies that brought new things.
Chaing's Rise to Power:
"After the takeover of the Republican government by Yuan Shikai, Chiang became Sun Yat-sen's protégé and divided his time between exile in Japan and haven in Shanghai's foreign concession areas. In Shanghai, Chiang also cultivated ties with the criminal underworld dominated by the notorious Green Gang and later served as an officer in the army of the Cantonese Warlord, Ch'en Chiung-ming. In 1923 Sun Yat-sen moved his base of operations to Guangzhou, and, with the help of the Comintern, undertook a reform of the Kuomintang and established a revolutionary government. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chiang_Kai-shek)"
Chang Kai-Shek headed up the Kuomintang (KMT). 1887-1975, Chinese Nationalist leader. He was also called Chiang Chung-cheng. After completing military training with the Japanese Army, he returned to China in 1911 and took part in the revolution against the Manchu. He moved armies to battle the Russians in Manchuria. At this point Mao was on its move and Russia dragged its feet to allow Moa ( Their partner) to move into key positions in the country to shutdown the food supply. The race to get theses communist revolutionaries in control of Chinese government was in full swing. If China would have gone democratic and allowed its people to rule the government the earth would be in a different place than it is now.
Chiang and his American-educated wife Soong May-ling, commonly referred to as "Madame Chiang Kai-shek", held the unwavering support of the United States China Lobby which saw in them the hope of a Christian and democratic China. Kai-Shek's wife went to the U.S. and asked the congress to support kicking out the remaining Chinese and the growing communist movement. The Americans agreed sending in army equipment, but no men or commanders. This was a mistake in the long run. Pupet Chinese leaders of Japan began a campaign to raise money by kidnapping wealthy Chinese citizens for ransom.
At first the Japanese had placed Chinese leaders in puppet positrons and the population was gullible enough to think the nationalist had control of their actions. This was not a case, so Chang Kia Shek had gotten a bad rap. Miscommunications of who to direct one army toward: Mao or the Japanese or a civil war with the people griping on all sides. The reason China fell was overwhelming armies against one army. Chiang Kai-shek's was not really in favor of Christianity or democracy and the restriction of strong state-imposed censorship in China lead to the west and U.S. in particularly not receiving the correct information on what was needed immediately to certain flash areas to combat the armies.
(Website) Chiang was in Manchuria and could not deal with the entire country all at once. In 1926 Chiang launched the Northern Expedition , leading the victorious Nationalist army into Hankou, Shanghai, and Nanjing. Chiang followed Sun Yat-sen's policy of cooperation with the Chinese Communists and acceptance of Russian aid until 1927, when he dramatically reversed himself and initiated the long civil war between the Kuomintang and the Communists. By the end of 1927, Chiang controlled the Kuomintang, and in 1928 he became head of the Nationalist government at Nanjing and generalissimo of all Chinese Nationalist forces. Thereafter, under various titles and offices, he exercised virtually uninterrupted power as leader of the Nationalist government.)
In 1936 Gen. Chang Hsüeh-liang seized him at Xi'an, to force him to terminate the civil war against the Communists in order to establish a united front against the encroaching Japanese.
"Chiang's strategy during the Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945) opposed the strategies of both Mao Zedong and the United States. The US regarded Chiang as an important ally able to help shorten the war by engaging the Japanese occupiers in China. Chiang, in contrast, used powerful associates such as H. H. Kung in Hong Kong to build the ROC army for certain conflict with the communist forces after the end of WWII. This fact was not understood well in the US. The US liaison officer, General Joseph Stilwell, correctly apprehended Chiang's strategy was to accumulate munitions for future civil war rather than fight the Japanese, but Stilwell was unable to convince Roosevelt of this and precious Lend-Lease armaments continued to be allocated to the Kuomintang.
Mao after seizing some Soviet tanks comes out of the Mountains and attacks Manchuria. The KMT had American equipment, but the communist somehow stolen it and used it on the nationalist troops. There were attempts at negotiation between Mao and Chiang but they produced nothing and full-scale civil war began in 1946. Corruption of the Chinese Puppet leaders and inflation sabotaged the KMT efforts.
"Chiang resigned as President (and Vice President Li Tsung-jen became Acting President) on January 21, 1949, as KMT forces suffered massive losses against the communists in the Chinese Civil War. In early morning December 10, 1949, CPC troops laid siege to last KMT occupied city in mainland China of Chengdu where Chiang Kai-shek and his son Chiang Ching-Kuo directed the defense at the Chengdu Central Military Academy. The airplane May-ling evacuated them to Taiwan on the same day; they would never return to mainland China(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chiang_Kai-shek)".
The peasants supported the Communists from the start. Mao had promised many things that he later betrayed the promises. Common in politics
October 1949 Chiang and the Nationalist government fled to from the mainland to the island of Taiwan (Formosa) and U.S. aid had been cut off. Mao had won and communism was now in place for a system that almost destroyed China permanently.
(MJM)In Taiwan Chiang claimed he was still president of China and he resumed his duties as president on March 1, 1950. He had moved the Republic ideas to the island in which today it is a type of democracy. Chiang was reelected President of the ROC on May 20, 1954 and later on in 1960, 1966, and 1972. In this position he continued to claim sovereignty over all of China. Some Taiwanese believed his rule was overbearing. This meant that many of the people where not ready for the responsibility of democracy.
1956 Mao Tze-teng begins to change. Moa was a revolutionary at heart and he nature was to continually want to change. This would play heavily into his policies once he comes to power as China’s lead ruler.
Peng Pai and Mao Tse-tung launched rasal-proletariat peasant movements in 1927. Peng Pai had at one time claimed that communist law would be simply the execution of landlords once they were caught.Copyright © 2004 Michael Johnathan McDonald. All rights reserved. Bookoflife.org
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