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In MEAM IC history books, the KMT, the Republican Chinese Movement are written in negative light, and Mao or the communists are written in a positive light, but their ways of conscription were identical, and only one gets the stigma of negativity while the other is celebrated. This helps confuse the student and kids trying to learn history.

Leftwing white people sources claim KMT used torture for Chinese soldier conscription.

Chinese living in 2014 giving interviews that were on the battle fields for the Korean war claimed Mao Tse-tung tortured all conscripts -- indicating that leftwing white people supporting communists lie, and these are all Academic people today.

7 th Cavalry ( George Armstrong Custer) now failed at Korea, and it was 100% all of MacArthur's motivations for celebrity status that he chose the 7 th cavalry ( now mechanized horses) . There was a lack of concerned by a nation that had no idea of what was going on or for what reason we wanted South Korea ports. It is called the Forgotten War, because American do not want to acknowledge the ice, sacrifice, blood, and no weapons or funding. It was 1/10 th or smaller a force than WWII, and no funding. All anti-tank weaponry given to American soldiers were said by MacArthur as top of the line, but they were out of date to both Russian and German armor.

 

Korean 1,000,000 s of people died, and world war iii was tried to be started by McCarther.

148,000 Chinese officially killed. Untold civilians of native Chinese Koreans were killed caught up in war for land grabs.

China won the Korea War

 

Mao Tse-tung ( 1950) sent 250,000 trained Chinese soldiers, McCarher told Truman that no Chinese would enter the Korean Land American Grab. But McCarther is a cog in the now understood MEAMIC ( Military Industrial Complex). The 7 th cavalry, sent after WWII they policed Japan, but when the United Nations ( a White Man club) said let us take Korea the believed they would send in the Marines to take on peasants. At first they won. Then Stalin said to Mao, I took Manchuria from you, you can have Korea. So Mao sent troops to Korea to fight McCarther, sent by Truman when the first wave of U.S. troops failed. McCarther, the world war ii south Pacific general was brought in to control more areas. In Japan, the Empreor bowed to McCarther who believed he was god. He was a rogue general and he helped start MEAMIC.

After Chinese forces beat up the 7th and 8 th of the tenth core in Korea, Mao still needed to send more troops. Here is important to hisotyr. To Chinese this was a battle for survival against an crasy new Julius Caeasar, McCarther. but to get those people on the front lines, there were two methods employed by Mao. If you did not voluntarily go to war, you were forced to sit on a hot furnace until you changed your mind.

 

Cockran threw out McCarther, Marshall sent him over to Asia. When McCarther came home, 3/4 s of the population was in support of McCarther, whatever he wanted to do, drop bombs, nuke bombs , 15 atomic bombs plan to drop on China to take over the entire country. So he is MEAMIC. So when he got home, 15 years in absence, people celebrated by parades, 20,000 came out, and this was when the U.S. population was very small compared to today. Then he went to anser Senate quiestioons for weeks and the people turned on him.

 

 

 

The Chinese Road to Modernity, the First Step to Establish Autonomy in its Boarders – a process of the first east decolonization

By Michael Johnathan McDonald: undergraduate at the University of California, Berkeley.

Roosevelt's family rose in politics in China running the aero-heroin-trade, larger than all Latin American cartels combined in all of its history. In November of 1998 A.D., Bill Clinton signed secret executive order ‘The Iraqi Liberation Act’ deemed legally permissible to assassinate Saddam Hussein and invade Iraq , to which his predecessor continued the MEAMIC policy and invaded both Iraq, 2003, and earlier Afghanistan, 2001. Today, the U.S.A. controls much of the global Heroin Trade, and it controls Afghanistan; Drugs, the reason why the U.S.A. is in Afghanistan. The U.S.A. population is hooked on pain killers, which chemicals come from the numerous poppy fields in Afghanistan. Usama bin Laden was used as a patsy to force a cover into a global war on Drugs, where the U.S.A. publically claims it fights it, forces Americans to fund it, and then secretly creates wars around the world to takes its lands and control it for monetary purposes. This is the real history of our world. These people think BIG! -- Archangel Michael.

notes, free writing, commentary.

Roosevelt used the Chinese Nationalist forces as automatons to do his bidding to fight the Japanese with no concrete promises to allow them take over China as rulers – only on contingent they sacrifice and die for the United States first. Roosevelt, not wanting to admit his failed policy, and lose “face” with the accusation of “losing China” he forced the classified documents to paint his generals (Gen. Major Joseph Warren Stilwell) and Chiang Kai-shek as incompetent and corrupt. Roosevelt not only blamed Chinese traditions dating back thousands of years, his epitaphs toward easterners remain his rare cases racial profiling. The incompetence and corruption of the Chinese Nationalist Parties became national discourse, the normative assessment, the required truth to be accepted without question of losing China, and was purposefully orchestrated by Roosevelt edited in his war room which became much of the NSA/22 series, National Security Council secret government reports of the later 1940s. When Stilwell came home to California, he was under guard and forced to keep silent about China. What happened in China, the United States would amend covert policies which would frame their strategies from hereon.  A close look at autobiographies, radio communications by JCS, Roosevelt, and military brass, communications in the field, letters, and other documents outside of the declassified documents of NSC, 6, 11, 22 Series, NSC Action Nos., 32, 41, 79, 89, 120, 121 and 127, “United States Policy Toward China,” gives a different story than the normative narrative. The prestigious academic reliance of declassified documents as “truth,” in a biblical sense – that is to say accepting them on faith, distorts the critical thinking process and tells us more about the motive of higher education and its standards.

It would be useless to call the rise of Communism in China, as Communism cannot be run in a backward nation, according to Karl Marx who made this a strict point of contention to people who asked him if they could start the world proletarian revolution when states have not reached the fruition of capitalist industrialization (in which china and Russia had not). However, the rhetoric in history books, the leaders who used it – non-the-less—is represented here in China’s rise of totalitarianism.  The program was one socialist program against a quasi - capitalist program, in which Chinese knew little about the structures of capitalism. Therefore, as always with Chinese dynastic overthrows, peasant revolutionaries from the south will offer justice, equality, and tax relief and better lives if countrymen ( women too) join forces and overthrow the rhetorical elite – seen here in Chinese post-dynastic period as the Nationalist Forces who ultimately rose to rid the country of English, German, U.S.A., French, and other foreign occupation – then onto the Nationalist Japanese who began to imperialized  the Chinese as they had learned the system from the westerners who forced trade on their islands during the closing period of the Tokugawa era. Mao Tse-tung can be viewed as a long line of continuing dynastic rulers, in this sense, opting for a revolutionary program of tight control of the economy and people – not allowing them freedom to create, to utilize their talents and foster the necessary capitalistic spirit that will eventually bring China out of the dark ages after Mao Tse-tung’s death and the new limited capitalistic communist government headed under Dong Xiaoping in the 1970s.

While in U.S. prime source material at this time speaks about “losing China,” one must keep in mind that China was never the United States of America to begin with and, this process of Russia and Tse-tung collaboration can be seen as advanced decolonization, reformation, reconstruction and allying against the former colonial forces which in the twentieth century included the United States of America with its unofficial intervention with the Chinese National forces.

In 1917 Russian Revolution shook up the world. Modern conceptions of interventionalism and decolonization have been framed in Cold War rhetoric after 1945 and Orson Wells had introduced the neologism. However, could it possible that interventionism pre-Cold War era existed between the two superpowers? Certainly the 1947 National Security Acts that made the CIA and NSA assessments of China illustrate that an ongoing process of military, political and economic support had already taken place in China, as fear against Communism. It is under this difficult framing that possibly the Cold War had begun. However, heretical to contemporary assessments of real communist threat, the U.S. intervention of the Chinese National forces pre-1947 give sway to a grey area to when the real Communist- Capitalist global standoff began.

The United States of America spent considerable time attending to decolonization, intervention, colonizing, and under the conscripts of new-imperialism – seen as “guidance,” or “mentoring,” of under developed countries. As Westad exclaims, the Cold War represented to European powers engaged in a global super-civil-war that finally began steps to end in 1989, a contest between Russia and the United States of America signified the final European colonialist attempt for earth. The first instances of the Cold War and U.S.A. intervention remain in the East. Before World War II, the United States was in its formal interventionist stage. As Westad argues its first intervention was in the east. In 1947, the creation of the CIA, NSA and security councils, as defense in depth, was measures to improve methods of intervention – such as biographical knowledge, geographical knowledge and political codexing. 1945 -’47 efforts at supporting the National Forces were in competition with Russia supporting the communists and asking them to support the Nationalist forces – in which they did not. Here the CIA and NSA reports conflict with information and assessment in who to fund and what to do. The hesitation proved crucial, and as a result, the Philippines would be the base of operation against the “fear” of the Pacific communist threats.

 

Abbreviations of Communist China (1950s)

 

ACFDW
ACFfU
ACSF
CC
CDL
CPC
CPG
CPGC
CPJ
CPPCC
CPR
CPSU
CPV
CY
CYC
ECAFE
18AG
FTCO
GAC
KMT
MGB
MPR
MVD
NCNA
NDC
NDYL
N4A
NKVD
NPC
OGPU
PA
PKI
PTA
PRMC
RCK
SC
SEATO
SPC
SPP
SSFA
VOKS
wrru

 

The All-China Federation of Democratic Women
The All-China Federation of Trade Unions
The All-China Students Federation
Central Committee (of the Communist Party of China)
China Democratic League
Communist Party of China
Central People’s Government
Central People’s Government Council
Communist Party of Japan
Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference
People’s Republic of China
Communist Party of the Soviet Union
Chinese People’s Volunteers
League of Communist Youth
Communist Youth Corps
United Nations Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East
Eighteenth Army Group
Foreign Trade Control Office
Government Administration Council
Kuomintang
Ministry of State Security, USSR
Mongolian People’s Republic
Ministry of Internal Affairs, USSR
New China News Agency
National Defense Council
New Democratic Youth League
New Fourth Army
People’s Commissariat of Internal Affairs, USSR (predecessor of the MVD)
National People’s Congress
Unified State Political Administration, USSR (predecessor of the NKVD)
Peasant Associations
Communist Party of Indonesia
People’s Liberation Army
People’s Revolutionary Military Council
Revolutionary Committee of the Kuomintang
State Council
Southeast Asia Treaty Organization
Supreme People’s Court
Supreme People’s Procuratorate
Sino-Soviet Friendship Association
The All-Union Society for Cultural Relations with Foreign Countries, USSR
World Federation of Trade Unions

 

Notes to table[1]

 

 

Chronology of Major Events in the Rise of Totalitarianism [Communism] in China 1918-1956

Tse-tung  is still revered today because he stood up to the west, notably the United States, and formed an alternative revolutionary movement that aimed to guide China into modernity. At the end of the nineteenth century Karl Marx became a semi-global superstar – his teleological conscript of modernity proposed the solution of “justice” to the colonized territories. In order to conquer the knowledge domain of earth, he called communism a higher reality and more advanced form of modernity. Under this substructure of society based upon economic foundations without institutions that dominated culture such as religion and entertainment, his base structure represented the world’s solution to interconnectivity of social-productivity of justice.  Communism seemed to solve the Thomas Jefferson’s dilemma of”born equal,” and equal representation of each individual in regards to commoners as opposed to the elite. If a leader acting in a kingship role purposely proscribed the substructure model, they could act as benevolent elite – in which Moa Tse-tung’s role proved. However, this was never Karl Marx’s solution – all elite were donned aristocratic privileges’ and the vampire scum so as despised by Marx. As dilemma, Tse-tung never read much of Marx, nor could communism or socialism exist in a feudalistic backward and an underdeveloped territories. This described Tse-tung’s efforts to modernize China and which are in lieu of pending limitations of knowledge. If China had turned economically laissez-faire in 1949, the world may have been a different place today and, China may have been the country that dominated the world economically by the 1970s. This can be explained in that the Chinese work ethic had been engrained in its struggle for modernity. The Chinese people, like the early U.S. Americans, sought to establish these work ethics as disciplinary social constructs of the family which dictated the pre-industrialized era of states as theoretical.  United States of America and its west-European white domination, and the Chinese people were as monoethnical, are and will be no different.  Finally, Tse-tung feared freedom and uncontrolled a process of allowing his talent of his country people from shaping modernity. He controlled, which he saw as the solution to China’s modernity.

Michael J McDonald, March 16, 2008.

As pedagogical purposes, we must recognize that trends of justice and morality are inherent in underdeveloped areas of the world, of its peoples as compared to the narcissistic and hedonist advanced industrial nations actions of its peoples as “rite.” Therefore, revolutionary rhetoric skews toward a pedagogical purpose to oppose the “oppressor” states, such as the case of the western nationalists interfering economically, physically and sociality with China from the period of British imperialism on China in the nineteenth century – on down too western nations vying for rail-contracts and control of money linked to capitalist industry in China – to Japanese aggression of China, as result of learning imperialism first hand at the behest of U.S. extraterritorial rights against the Tokugawa. Chinese independence was framed by the communists ( who were another form of nationalists) and the nationalist forces as the same idea of liberating from the foreign forces of the west. Dr. Sun Yet-sen was a pro-capitalist who saw the need to modernize China without adhering to the “justice” social implications of its people. This describes Tse-tung’s mentoring victory over understanding the people’s voices for social justice, as it takes hard work and extreme sacrifice to industrialize – which is inherently unjust as history had proven. The many mistakes that Tse-tung was accused of after his death by his own communist party members, many who he had temporary exiled or murdered, was that the stage of sacrifice that was absent of social justice was the only means and ways to modernize China – in which explains current Chinese Communist Party rhetoric to world nations not to bring up the issue of human rights – as their factories are just as deplorable to working conditions of health and welfare issues as previous states in history had been during their industrial periods. This means that judging them is inherently unfair – as all industrial nations have gone through this stage and had deplorable records of human right conditions in factories and work space. Tse-tung, from a capitalist perspective, represented a detour and hesitation at the inevitable. Could the Chinese world stay a non-industrial society without foreign influence, intervention and exploitation – if after the Chairman’s death -- a continued program of advancement that only met with a 3% growth rate as average, which for a country the size of China with its immense population was seen by economists as a negative? From the perspective of human rights, justice, equality and democracy, Tse-tung represented someone exploring its tenants, its possibilities and its implication into a world-society. For Chinese who did not like the modernity of industrialization, Tse-tung’s vision of strict-socialism (spoken as communism) represented the most just system on earth, at least when there was not famines, and repression of the innocents. This could also explain why Joseph Stalin supported the Chinese Nationalist Forces, initially against Tse-tung’s communist forces. He understood to industrialize, socialism as prescripted under the constellation of rhetorical social- justice of communism was useless. This also explains Stalin’s unfavorable views of Tse-tung in private as well as his plotting to secure a warm-water port on the pacific – the lowest possible point he could bargain for - -and results why Stalin and Tse-tung’s relationship was cooled after initial meetings. Brezhnev and Tse-tung, after Stalin’s passing, revamped technological supportive cooperation as the Soviet leader decried some of the nationalistic measure his predecessor implemented into the Soviet system of communism. Ultimately after China acquired the nuclear weapons technology (1960s) form the Soviet agreements and that it sought to defend itself with nuclear bombs, relationships between Moscow and Peking floundered, and Tse-tung forced Soviet scientists, and interventionist mentors of industrialization out of the country to focus on a more just form of socialism, communicated as communism. As Stalin had called his system “Socialism in one country,” Tse-tung now made China a defacto part of that concept. As isolationism, China cut itself off from the world to focus upon social justice, and when the Soviets were on the Chinese northern boarders, it was only then that Tse-tung called upon Washington and begged for U.S. interventionism ( early, 1970s, negotiations, leading to President Richard Nixon’s 1972 visit to Beijing (Peking)), spoken as resuming political ties between Peking and Washington.

Note, that Totalitarianism is just a glorified system of kingship, with its elite oligarchy rule, and phrase this way because of the systems of mass-communication that depicted modernity after the industrialized societies invented modern technology – technology to them that was modern. Serfs were not allowed private property, had to work for their knight-masters or Aristocratic Lords, and lived simplified lives. Communism, which had never been run – even until today – existed as terminology of the twentieth century as the more modern form of modernity, according to how to run a state, nation, or civilization. Since only parts of earth had reached post-industrialization, the conditions Marx laid down for the world proletariat revolution could not happen – and to prove Marx correct – no communist proletariat world revolution had yet to appear. The Proletariats are not supposed to use money, or their own value to be gauged by a government – in which Chinese Communism broke with these propositions. Therefore, Communism in China had parts of Marx’s propositions – e.g. the non-private ownership of the state, and the communalization of organs of the state – but not what Marx outlined as Communism. Everything to make Communism work in other forms proposed to him Marx had strictly fought – it was neoMarxists in his time, that called themselves Marxists. There is little evidence that Tse-tung understood or even read the forty-volumes of Marx’s works. Certainly, Tse-tung ran a dictatorship, which makes up one of the criteria to actualize Totalitarianism, laid out by Giovanni Gentile’s actualism philosophy. What is vital to understand about many of the decolonization, and anti-alignment coalition ( see Bandung, 1955) was the use of Thomas Jefferson’s words in the Declaration of Independence. Its vague concept of people are equal meant to the non-alignment states that governments, their own self agency, could guide their own people in socialist – i.e. justice—settings for the betterment of the underrepresented people of the global world. To them, democracy was an ideology of the government organ. Since Jefferson was one of the few idealists in U.S. history, we ascript to his philosophy an idealism which interprets an ideology - -that is to say a set of argument of prescriptions for (a) truth(s) – then all people can be included in their social lives as equal within a state or locality in which fostered the betterment for humankind. Yet, these processes as Marx had described that every state must go through were related to phases of industrialization – and these processes were not ideal to the human condition of justice, equality, civil rights and human rights as we understand them today – but an attitude, the same attitude that describes conservative qualities of non-Jeffersonian movements in the U.S.A. history. It is under these conscripts that we can understand the rise of totalitarianism in China in the twentieth century.

Michael J McDonald, March 18, 2008, from the University of California, Berkeley.

 

Chronology of Westernized Philosophical-Based Events in China in the first half of the Twentieth Century. 

 

1918

Spring Li Ta-chac and others form Marxist study groups in Peking University.

June 5 Dr. Sun Yat-sen and other Kuomintang (KMT) leaders are ousted from Canton by a Kwangsi faction led by Ch’en Ch’unhsüan.
Aug. 1 A letter from Chicherin, the Soviet Commissar of Foreign Affairs, to Dr. Sun Yat-sen, greets him as “the leader of the Chinese revolution.”  [Communist welcome revolutionary forces to disban and remove many European colonialist economic controls of China.]

1919

Mar. 2—6 The First World Congress of the Communist International is held in Moscow.
May 4 Students stage a demonstration in Peking leading to the
dismissal of Ts’ao Ju.lin, Chang Tsunghsiang, and Lu Tsung’ yu, officials responsible for the Government’s pro. Japanese policy.
15 Li Ta.chao publishes “My Marxist View” in the Hsin Ch’ing nie (New Youth) magazine, Vol. VI, No. 5.
July China refuses to ratify the Versailles Treaty because of the Shantung problem.
25 In the First Karakhan Declaration, the new Soviet regime offers a sweeping renunciation of all “predatory” rights and privileges accorded Russia under treaties and agreements with China concluded by the Tsarist regime.

1920
May The Communist International sends Voitinsky to China. Along with Ch’en Tu.hsiu and others, Voitinsky founds the Marxism Society with its headquarters in Shanghai and branches in Peking, Hunan, Kwangtung, Anhwei, Shantung, Chekiang, and Hupeh. Also, Ch’en Tu-hsiu begins to organize Communist groups in Shanghai and Li Ta-chao in Peking. Mao Tse-tung and Ho Shu-hun do likewise in Hunan [south China], as do Tung Pi-wu and Ch’en T’an-ch’iu in Hupeh. At the same time a group of Chinese students in France, including Ts’ai Ho-shen, Chou En-lai, Li Li-san, Li Fu-ch’un, Li Wei-han, Wang Jo-fei and Ch’en Yi, organize Communist groups. The Socialist Youth League is founded at this time.
July 19—
The Second World Congress of the Comintern meets in Mos Aug 7 cow and Petrograd.
1921
Jan. 1 The Peking Communist group opens a labor school at Ch’anghsientien under the direction of Teng Chung-hsia.
February In Paris, Chou En-lai, Li Fu-ch’un, Chao Shih-yen, Ch’en Yen MT nien, Ts’ai Ch’ang, Chen Ch’iao-nien, and Hsiang Chin-yu found the Young Communist Corps of China.
May 5 Dr. Sun Yat-sen assumes the Presidency of the newly-formed Government in Kwangtung.
June 22— July 12 The Third Comintern Congress meets in Moscow.
July 1 The Communist Party of China (CPC) holds its First Congress  in Shanghai and Kashing [Chiahsing] attended by 12 or 13  delegates representing about 50 members. The delegates are  Chang Kuo-T’ao, Ch’en Kung-po, Ch’en T’an-ch’iu, Ch’en  Wang-tao, Chou Fu-hai, Ho Shu-heng, Li Han-chün, Li Ta, Liu Jen-ching, Mao Tse.tung, Pao Hui-seng, and Tung Pi-wu.  A headquarters for the labor movement, called the Secretariat  of the Chinese Labor Union, is established and the publication of a “Labor Weekly” is begun.

Oct. 10 The Hunan branch of the CPC is formally established with Mao Tse.tung as Secretary.

Nov. 11 The Washington Conference convenes under US auspices to
effect a limitation of armaments and to settle outstanding
Pacific and Far Eastern questions.

1922
Jan. 12— Successful strike of Hongkong seamen, called by the Chinese
Mar. 5 Seamen’s Union and partly led by Communists.
Jan. 17 Chang Kuo-t’ao attends the Conference of Toilers of the East in Moscow and Petrograd. Ch’u Ch’iu-pai is said to have attended also.
May The Second Congress of the CPC, convening at Canton, issues a manifesto calling for co-operation with the KMT, anti imperialism anti-warlordism, labor reforms, and “democratic revolution.”
1 Upon the call of the Secretariat of the Chinese Labor Union and under the direction of the CPC, the First All-China Labor Congress meets in Canton, attended by 170 delegates representing more than 100 unions (about 200,000 organized laborers).
1 The First National Congress of the Socialist Youth Corps meets in Peking. The total membership of the Corps is now more than 4,000.
June 15 The Central Executive Committee (the title used for the Central Committee at this time) of the CPC publishes its “First Statement Concerning the Current Situation,” advocate in the establishment of a democratic united front to fight against the feudalistic warlords.
16 Ch’en Chiung-ming revolts against Dr. Sun Yat-sen in Canton. Dr. Sun goes to Shanghai.
July The Second Congress of the CPC meets in West Lake, Hang- chow.
August The Central Committee of the CPC, at a special plenary con ferenc in Hangchow attended by Maring, decides on a policy of entry into the KMT as individuals.
Aug. 12 A. Joffe, representative of the Soviet Union, arrives in Peking.
16 After the First Labor Congress, the Secretariat of the Chinese Labor Union, with Teng Chung-hsia as Director-General, is moved from Shanghai to Peking and renamed the CLU Head quarters Branches are founded in Shanghai, Wuhan, Hunan, Kwangtung, and Tsinan.
Nov. 5— At the Comintern Fourth World Congress in Moscow, Radek
Dec. 5 advocates an alliance between the KMT and the CPC.
1923
Jan. 26 The Sun-Joffe joint declaration on Sino-Russian relations published in Shanghai.
Feb. 15 Dr. Sun Yat-sen returns to Canton following the defeat of Ch’en Chiung-ming.
Mar. 2 Sun Yat-sen announces the establishment of the Headquarters of the Commander-in-Chief in Kwangtung, thus consolidating his position in that area.
June The Third Congress of the CPC meets in Canton, attended by 20 delegates, representing about 300 members. Mao Tse-tung is elected a member of the Central Executive Committee.
In its manifesto the Third Congress calls upon all social revolutionary elements to gather around the KMT.
July The Central Executive Committee of the CPC publishes its “Second Statement Concerning the Current Situation,” suggest in that the KMT appeal to the chambers of commerce, trade unions, peasant associations, student organizations, and other professional groups to convoke a national conference to solve national problems.
Nov. 25 Dr. Sun Yat-sen calls an Extraordinary Conference on KMT Reform in Canton and organizes a Provisional Central Execu tiv Committee, with Borodin as adviser to the KMT.
1924
Jan. 20—30 The Kuomintang holds its First National Congress in Canton, decides to reorganize the party, and to allow the Communists and members of the Socialist Youth Corps to join the KMT as individuals.
May 5 The Whampoa Military Academy is formally established with the help of the Soviet Union.
31 China recognizes the Soviet Union. Fifth World Congress of the Comintern meets in Moscow. The CPC’s “Third Statement Concerning the Current Situ. ation,” urges the KMT or other people’s organizations to call a national conference.
Nov. 11 Sun Yat-sen leaves Canton for Peking to propose the convocation of a national conference.
25 The CPC Central Committee’s fourth Manifesto Concerning the Current Situation calls upon all people’s organizations to help in the preparations for a national conference.
1925
Jan. 22 The Fourth Congress of the CPC, meeting in Shanghai, adopts  the Party Constitution and resolutions concerning the labor, peasant, women’s, and youth movements. In its manifesto the Fourth Congress of the CPC calls for dealing a blow against world imperialism, under the direction of the Comintern.

Mar. 12 Sun Yat-sen dies in Peking at the age of 59.
Mar. 21— The Fifth Enlarged Plenum of the Executive Committee of
Apr. 6 the Comintern meets in Moscow.
May 1—7 The Second Congress of the All-China Labor Federation meets in Canton; Liu Shao-ch’i becomes a Vice-Chairman, and Teng Chung-hsia the Secretary-General of the Central Executive Committee.
30 In the May 30th Massacre, Chinese students demonstrating against British imperialism are fired on by British police in the British Settlement in Shanghai.
30 Mao Tse-tung begins to organize the peasant movement in Hunan.
30 The Sun Yat.sen University is established in Moscow; Radek is installed as President, and P. Mif as Vice-President; the first contingent of young Communists arrive there from China.
31 Under the leadership of Communists Ts’ai Ho-shen, Ch’ii Ch’iu-pai, Li Li-san, and Liii Hua, the 200,000 organized laborers in Shanghai are organized into the Shanghai Federation of Labor Unions, with Li Li-san as Chairman and Liu Hua as Vice Chairman.
June 4 In protesting against the May 30th Incident, about 200,000 workers and over 50,000 students go on strike. The Municipal Government of the British Settlement issues an order to arrest
Ch’u Ch’iu-pai and others.
June 13—30 The Kuomintang Central Executive Committee meets in pie- nary session. Wang Ching-wei is elected Chairman.
19 The great strike of Hongkong and Canton starts. About 250,000 workers of all trades loin the strike. Under the instigation of such Communists as Su Chao-cheng and Teng Chung-hsia, about 130,000 workers return to Canton. Workers’ patrols are organized to blockade Hongkong.
23 In the Shekki Massacre, British police again fire on Chinese demonstrators.
Nov. 16 Chiang Kai-shek defeats the remnants of Ch’en Chiung-ming’s forces in the East River district. Dec. 5—23 The Kuomintang Right Wing at the Western Hills Conference outside Peking moves to dismiss Borodin and Gen. Galen, the Soviet political and military advisers, respectively, to the revolutionary government in Canton.
1926
Jan. 1—19 The Second National Congress of the KMT, meeting in Can ton is attended by more than 250 delegates, three-fifths of whom the Communists allege to be CPC members. It decides
to retain the Soviet advisers, and censures the Right Wing. The ringleaders of the Western Hills group are expelled from the party.
Mar. 20 The “Incident of the Warship Chungshan” occurs in Canton. Chiang Kai-shek arrests the Communist Captain Li Chih.lung and some 50 other Communists.
Apr. 3 Chiang Kai-shek issues a statement reaffirming the Kuomin tang-Communis cooperation.
May 1—12 The All-China Labor Federation holds its Third Congress in Canton, and elects Su Chao.cheng as its Chairman.
15 Under a resolution of the Central Executive Committee of the KMT, Communists are barred from key positions hi KMT organizations.
June 6 Commencement of the Northern Expedition, with Chiang Kai 0,00 shek as Commander-in-Chief of the National Revolutionary Forces.
12 The CPC Central Executive Committee publishes the “Fifth Statement Concerning the Current Situation,” calling on revolutionary people of all classes to strengthen the people’s united front as the most urgent function of the Chinese national liberation movement to overthrow the warlords and imperialists.
November The Left Wing KMT transfers the government from Canton to Wuhan. Three Communists retain posts in the government: T’an P’ing-shan, Agriculture Minister; Su Chao-cheng, Labor Minister; and Hsiang Chung-f a.
Nov. 29— The Seventh Enlarged Plenum of the Executive Committee
Dec. 16 of the Comintern convenes in Moscow to formulate a new
strategy in China.
December Yeh T’ing, Wang Jo-fei, Ch’en Yen.nien, and other Chinese Communists in Moscow return to China. The Comintern dispatches M. N. Roy to be its representative in Wuhan.
1927
Jan. 3 Liu Shao-ch’i is said to have led workers in Hankow in routing the policemen of the British Settlement and occupying the Settlement. The Wuhan Government then takes over the
British Settlement.

4 In the 32 days from this date to February 5th, Mao Tse-tung surveys the peasant movement in Hsiangt’an, Hsianghsiang, Hunshan, Liling, and Changsha, and writes the now well- known Report on an Investigation into the Peasant Movement in Hanan.

Mar. 22 Chiang Kai-shek’s Northern Expeditionary Forces occupy Shanghai; two days later they take Nanking.
Apr. 5 Before departing for Hankow, Ch’en Tu-hsiu and Wang Ching we issue a joint declaration at Shanghai supporting the con tinuanc of KMT-CPC collaboration.
6 The Peking Government sends police to search the Soviet Embassy and arrest more than 60 Communists. Li Ta-chao is arrested on April 9 and executed by Chang Tso-lin on April 28.
12 Chiang Kai-shek launches an Anti-Communist drive, forcibly disbanding left-wing organizations in Shanghai and Nanking, and putting to death a large number of Communists and leftists.
17 The Left Wing KMT in Wuhan declares Chiang Kai-shek and his associates expelled from the party.
18 Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek sets up the National Govern men in Nanking.
Apr. 24— The Filth Congress of the CPC meets in Wuhan, attended by early May more than 100 delegates, representing more than 57,900 members It adopts a program of continued co-operation with the Left-Wing KMT in Wuhan.
May 20—26 The Executive Committee of the Comintern holds its Eighth Plenum in Moscow; Stalin defends his policy on China in the face of Trotsky’s opposition.
June 1 M. N. Roy delivers Stalin’s telegram to Wang Ching-wei.
13 The Wuhan Government orders the withdrawal of the Chinese Communists from office. It also decides at about this time to dismiss Borodin and other Soviet advisers.
19— The All-China Labor Federation holds its Fourth Congress at
28 Hankow.

July M. N. Roy resigns as the Comintern representative in Wuhan, and is replaced by Lominadze.
July 15 The Wuhan Government holds a “Separating-Communists Conference. Wang Ching-wei formally proposes the expulsion of the Communists from the KMT. Thus the co-operation be twee the CPC and the Left Wing KMT finally comes to an end  and the break between the KMT and the Commintern is complete.

27 Borodin leaves Hankow for Chengchow on his way back to
the Soviet Union.
Aug. 1 More than 20,000 men under the command of Yeh T’ing and Ho Lung start an uprising in Nanchang, Kiangsi province. Chu Teh, Chou En-lai and others also participate. This is the so-called “August 1 Uprising,” observed thereafter as the birthday of the Chinese Red Army.
1 Stalin’s speech on “The International Situation and the Defense of the USSR” is delivered at the Joint Plenum of the CPSU Central Committee and the Central Control Commission.
7 The CPC calls an emergency meeting, deciding on a general policy of agrarian revolution and armed revolt and ending the leadership of Ch’en Tu-hsiu. Lominadze, the Comintern representative, also attends. This is the “August 7 Conference.”
September Mao Tse-tung is sent to Changsha to lead the uprising during the autumn harvest in Hunan. After the failure of this uprising, he flees with his remaining forces into the Chingkang Mountains in Ningkang County, Kiangsi Province, and establishes the first revolutionary base there.
Nov. 1 Kwangtung peasants, under the leadership of P’eng Pai, occupy Haifeng and Lufeng and declare the establishment of a Soviet Government, thus constituting the first Soviet regime in China. The Hailufeng Soviet lasts until February 1928.

18 Wang Ching-wei and Chiang Kai-shek decide on common
action.
Dec. 11—14 Following the order of the Central Committee of the CPC and of the Comintern, Chang T’ai-lei, Yeh T’ing, Su Chao-cheng, P’eng Pai, Yeh Chien-ying, Yün Tai-ying, and others lead an uprising of workers in Canton known as the Canton Commune. Chang is killed during the outbreak.
15 The Nanking Government severs relations with Soviet Russia.
1928
February The Fourth Plenum of the KMT Central Executive Committee meets.
9-25 The Ninth Plenum of the Executive Committee of the Commtern, meeting in Moscow, adopts a new line on China. More than 2,000 men under Chu Teh withdraw to Ningkang
in Kiangsi province, along with over 8,000 peasant troops from such counties as Laiyang and Yunghsing, and meet Mao Tse-tung and his more than 1,000 men at the Ching- kang Mountains. These two groups are reorganized into the Fourth Army of the Chinese Workers and Peasants’ Red Army. Chu Teh becomes the Army Commander and Mao Tse- tung the Party Commissioner. ( part of page 10)

 May 3—4 The Tsinan Incident, involving a clash between the National Revolutionary troops and the Japanese forces illegally in oc- cupation of Shangtung. June 5—8 Chiang captures Peking and Tientsin, concluding the North- em Expedition. Nanking becomes the new capital of China. July 7 The National Government announces its plan to abrogate the unequal treaties and agreements concluded with foreign pow. ers by previous regimes.

17 The Sixth Congress of the Comintern opens in Moscow.

21 P’eng Teh-huai and Huang Kung-lieh revolt in P’ingkiang and organize the Fifth Army of the Red Army. P’eng is made Army Commander and T’eng Tai-yuan the Party Commissar.

23 The P’ingkiang Soviet is established, July The CPC convokes its Sixth National Congress in Moscow.
November— The United States, Britain, and France formally recognize the December National Government as the de jure Government of the Re publi
of China and restore to China her tariff autonomy.

Dec. 29 Chang Hsueh-liang pledges his allegiance to the National Government.

1929

Mar. 15 The Third National Congress of the KMT convenes in Nanking.

June 27 The Soviet Consulate General at Harbin is raided.

July 17 The USSR announces that it is recalling all its consular representatives and personnel of the Chinese Eastern Railway.

August Mao Tse-tung and Chu Teh establish a soviet regime in south- eastern Kiangsi.

September Oppositionist groups headed by Ch’en Tu.hsiu, P’eng Shu-chih, Liu Jen-ching, and others organize meetings in Shanghai.

Nov. 15 Ch’en Tu-hsiu and other leaders are expelled from the CPC.

November The Fifth Congress of All-China Labor Federation meets se- eretly in Shanghai, and elects Hsiang Ying as Chairman of the Federation.

1930

Mar. 18 A soviet government is founded in western Fukien.
May Twenty-eight young Bolsheviks including Ch’en Shao-yü (alias Wang Ming), Chang Wen-t’ien (alias Lo Eu), Ch’in Pang. hsien (alias Po Ku), Shen Tse-min, Wang Chia-hsiang return to China from Moscow. The Comintern also dispatches P. Mif as its representative to China.
July 27 The Third Red Army Group captures Changsha and organizes the Provincial Soviet Government of Hunan. The Communist forces evacuate Changsha on August 9.
August— The CPC Central Conmiittee convenes its Third Plenum at September Lushan. A faction led by Ch’en Shao.yu criticizes Li Li-san for his “putschist” policy.
Oct. 10 KMT sources consider that as of this date the protracted campaign for the reunification of the country is at an end.
Nov. 2 Chiang Kai-shek orders the first Annihilation Campaign against the soviet areas.

16 The Li-san line is condemned by the Comintern in a letter to the CPC.

1931

Jan. 8: The Fourth Plenum of the CC of the CPC, meeting in Shanghai, officially renounces the Lisan line, and agrees to convene a Congress of Soviets in Kiangsi. Li Lisan is later ordered to Moscow for consultation.

January Opposition groups confer in Shanghai in response to Trotsky’s suggestion.
May—June Chiang Kai-shek launches the second Annihilation Campaign against the Kiangsi Soviet.
June The CPC elects Ch’en Shao-y
ü as acting Secretary-General.

June 21 Chiang Kai-shek leaves for Nanchang to assume personal command of the Communist Suppression Campaign.
21 Hsiang Chung-fa, Secretary-General of the CPC, and other CC members are arrested and later executed by the KMT in Shanghai.
July Chiang Kai-shek starts the third Annihilation Campaign.
Autumn Delegates to the All-China Congress of Soviets, including Ch’en Shao-yu, Chou En-lai, Chang Kuo-t’ao, and others, arrive at Juichin, Kiangsi.

Sept. 18 Japanese troops occupy Mukden in a surprise attack. By the end of the month, important cities in Liaoning and Kirin have fallen into Japanese hands in rapid succession.

Nov. 7  The First All-China Congress of Soviets opens its session at Juichin. The Chinese Soviet Republic is formally proclaimed with Juichin as its capital. The Congress elects a sixty-four- member Central Executive Committee, adopts a Constitution of the Soviet Republic, and enacts an Agrarian Law and a Labor Law.
27 The Central Executive Committee of the Chinese Soviet Republic holds its first meeting and elects Mao Tse.tung Chairman, Hsiang Ying and Chang Kuo-t’ao Vice Chairmen, Chu Teh Comniander-in-Chief of the Red Army.

1932
Jan 23: Japanese troops attack Shanghai, and the 19th Route Army puts up stiff resistance. The National Military Council is created with Chiang Kai-shek as Chairman.

Mar. 9: Henry Pu Yi is sworn in as Chief Executive of the Japanese puppet state of Manchoukuo in the Northeast with Changchun as the capital.
Apr. 15: The Provisional Central Government of the Chinese So Republic publishes a Declaration of War against Japan.

Apr. 28: Chiang Kai-shek arrives in Hankow to direct the campaign against the Communists.
May 1: China and Japan agree on an armistice, bringing the Japanese attack to an end.
June 16 Chiang Kai-shek starts the fourth Annihilation Campaign against the soviet areas.
October The main body of the Fourth Front Red Army withdraws from
the Hupeh.Honan-Anhwei Soviet Area.
Oct. 1 Ku Shun.chang, head of the CPC’s Special Service Depart. ment, after his arrest by the Kuomintang, goes over to their cause. Ch’en Shao-yu, Chou En.lai, Ch’ü Ch’iu-pai, Chang Wen-t’ien, Ch’in Pang-hsien, Liu Shao-ch’i, and other members of the CC flee from Shanghai, and make their way north to Mao Tse.tung’s headquarters at Juichin, Kiangsi, The National Government seizes and imprisons Ch’en Tu.nsru and other Chinese Trotskyites in Shanghai.
Autumn: Ch’in Pang-hsien replaces Ch’en Shao-yu as Secretary-General of the CPC. Ch’en departs for Moscow as the CPC’s representative to the Comintern.

1933

Jan 23: The Fourth Front Red Army captures Chengpa and moves south into Szechwan Province.

Feb. 27: The Japanese invade Jehol.

Oct. 2: Chiang Kai-shek commences the Fifth Annihilation Campaign against the Soviet areas.

Nov. 20:  Li Chi-shen and leaders of 19th Route Army, including Ch’en Ming-shu, Chiang Kuang-lai and Ts’ai T’ing-kai, found a “People’s Government” in Foochow, Fukien, in opposition to the Nanking Government.

21: The Government of the Soviet Republic of China and the Chinese Peasants and Workers Red Army sign an Anti. Japanese Cease-Fire Agreement with the Fukien Government and the 19th Route Army.

1934

January: Liu Shao-ch’i becomes Chairman of the All-China Labor Federation. The Fifth Plenum of the CPC Central Committee convenes at Juichin. Chang Wen-t’ien succeeds Ch’hi Pang. hsien as Secretary-General of the CPC.

15: The Fukien rebellion collapses.

21: The Second All-China Congress of Soviets meets at Juichin. It passes the Revised Outlines of Constitution, a Resolution for Soviet Construction, a Resolution for Red Army Construction, and a Resolution for Economic Construction. One hundred seventy-five persons including Mao Tse-tung, Ch’en Shaoyll, and Chang Wen-t’ien are elected members of the Central Executive Committee. On February 2, the CEC again elects Mao as Chairman.

Oct. 16: The mass evacuation of Communist forces from their Kiangsi stronghold marks the beginning of the historic 6000 mile retreat known as the Long March.

Nov. 11: Government troops capture Juichin, the Communist capital in Kiangsi. The Communist forces withdraw across Hunan, Szechwan, Kweichow, Yunnan and Sikang toward the northwest.

December: The main force of the Red Army enters Kweichow.

1935

Jan. 13: The Central Political Bureau of the CPC convokes a conference at Tsunyi, Kweichow, affirming the Party leadership of Mao Tse-tung, who becomes Chairman of the Central Committee.

29 Japanese troops invade East Chahar.
Mar. 11 China protests to Moscow against the transfer of the Chinese Eastern Railway to Manchoukuo.
June 18 The National Government executes Ch’ü Ch’iu-pai at Nanchang.
July— The Maoerhkai Conference is held in north-western Szechwan August to discuss the final destination of the Long March.
July— The Seventh World Congress of the Comintern convenes in August Moscow and adopts an anti-Japanese united-front policy for China.
Aug. 1 In a statement known as the August First Declaration, the Central Committee of the CPC appeals to the Chinese people to resist Japan and to save their homeland.
August— Communist troops under the command of Mao Tse-tung and November others, finally arrive in the Northwest, and join hands with
local Communist guerrilla forces in Northern Shensi led by Liu Chih-tan and Kao Kang.
Nov. 12 The Fifth National Congress of the KMT, twice postponed as a concession to the Southwest party leaders, is formally convened with Kwangtung representatives participating.
November The Red Army surrounds and attacks the city of Yenan.
Dec. 25 The Central Political Bureau of the CPC meets (the so-called Wayaopao Conference) and discusses the problems of the national united front, the anti-Japanese allied army, and the government of national defense. It passes a Resolution Con. cerning the Present Political Situation and the Responsibility of the Party.
1936
Jan. 25 The military leaders of the Red Army writç to the soldiers of the Northeast army and urge a joint discussion of united action against Japan.
Feb. 17 In the name of fighting against Japan, the Central Government of the Chinese Soviet Republic sends the Red Army across the Yellow River into Shansi and publishes the “Declaration of the Eastern Expedition.”
Aug. 25 The Central Committee of the CPC writes to the KMT, calling for the concentration of all national powers for the purpose of resisting foreign invasion, and suggesting that both the Nationalists and the Communists send representatives to discuss the co-operation of the two parties.

December The Headquarters of the CPC is now officially transferred to Yenan.
Dec. 12 Chang Hsiieh-liang mutinies in Sian, holding Generalissimo Chiang and other high-ranking government officials in con finemen (the Sian Jncident).
1937
Feb. 10 The Central Committee of CPC sends a telegram to the Third Congress of KMT requesting: (1) termination of the civil war; (2) granting of freedom of speech and assembly and re leas of all political prisoners; (3) convocation of a National Conference; (4) joint participation in the war against Japan; and (5) improvement of the people’s livelihood. On its part, the CPC guarantees to: (1) cease all armed insurrection in China; (2) abolish such designations as “Soviet” and “Red Army”; (3) institute democratic reforms in Communist-held areas; and (4) put an end to the program of land confiscation.
July 7 Japanese soldiers in night maneuvers in vicinity of Lukouchiao (Marco Polo Bridge), west of Peiping, attack Wanping city. Thus begins the Chinese War of Resistance against Japan.
15 Representatives of the Communists (Chou En-lai, Ch9n Pang hsien and Lin Tsu-han) and the Nationalists (Chiang Kai-shek Chang Ch’ung, and Shao Li-tzu) meet at Lushan. Chiang agrees to announce the recognition of the Shensi-Kansu Ninghsi Border Region.
28 Chinese troops evacuate Peiping, leaving Tientsin two days later.
Aug. 13 The Japanese attack Shanghai.
21 The Sino-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact is signed in Nanking.
22 The Chinese Peasants and Workers Red Army is [are] formally
reorganized into the Eighth Route Army.
Sept 15 China appeals to the League Assembly against Japanese aggression under Article XVII of League Covenant.
22 The CPC renounces all Communistic programs, pledges full support to the Three People’s Principles, and announces the abolition of the Chinese Soviet Republic and the Red Army.
September The Eighth Route Army advances as far as Northern Hopei and Shansi; the first major victory of the war is reported at P’inghsingkuan in Shansi.
September The Shensi-Kansu-Ninghsia Soviet Government, formed in
March, 1937, is renamed the Shensi-Kansu-Ninghsia Border Region Government.

Oct. 12 The Central Government reorganizes the Communist and other forces in Kiangsi and Fukien into the New Fourth Army under the command of Yeh T’ing and Hsiang Ying.
Nov. 11 The Eighth Route Army Headquarters decides to promote guerrilla warfare and create “liberated areas.”
24 With Italy dissenting, the Nine.Power Conference adopts a report and declaration urging the suspension of Sino-Japanese hostilities and the resort to peaceful settlement, and then adjourns indefinitely.
1938
Jan. 10 The recently created Shansi-Chahar.Hopei Border Region calls an all-region conference of military, political, and people’s representatives. The Provisional Administrative Committee of the Border Region is founded on the 15th at Fup’ing in western Hopei.
March The Communists establish a base in northwestern Shansi.
Spring Ch’en Shao.yü returns to Yenan from Moscow.
April Chang Kuo-t’ao is expelled from the CPC, after taking refuge in KMT territory.
Apr. 1 The central Hopei base is established by the Communists.
1 An Emergency National Congress of the KMT elects Chiang Tsungtsai (Director General) of the party, and adopts a. Program of Armed Resistance and National Reconstruction. It also decides upon the formation of the San Mm Chu I Youth Corps and the People’s Political Council.
May The New Fourth Army establishes the southern Kiangsu,
Huainan and Huaipei (south and north of the Huai River)
bases. The Hopei-Shantung-Honan base is also established.
July 6 First session of People’s Political Council, held in Chungking, is attended by seven CPC delegates including Chou En-lai, Ch’in Pang-hsien, Ch’en Shao-yu, and Wang Jo-fei.
Aug. 4 The Communists establish the Southern Hopei Administrative Director’s Office.
11 The fighting on Siberian border between Japanese and Soviet troops is ended. The cease-fire order comes after a month of hostilities. A frontier commission is set up to re-define the Siberian, Manchoukuo border.
Sept. 30 The League Council adopts a report urging member states to abstain from any action that would weaken China and to consider individually measures to aid China. Members may act accordingly to the stipulations of Article XVI of the Covenant.
Oct. 12 Mao Tse-tung delivers a report On the New Stage before the Enlarged Sixth Plenum of the CC, meeting at Yenan.
Dec. 29 Wang Chiag-wei in Ilongkong urges a peace based on Konoye’s three-point statement.
1939
January: The First People’s Council of the Shensi-Kansu-Ninghsia Border Region meets and elects Kao Kang as its Chairman and Lin Tsu-han as Chairman of the Border Region Government.
Jan. 21—30 [ mjm – Creation of the National Forces of china against Japan and eventually against Communists] The Fifth Plenary Session of Kuomintang CEC opens at Chunking. It decides to create a Supreme National Defense Council under the chairmanship of Chiang Kai-shek.
Summer
The Communists protest that the Central Government has instituted a rigid blockade of the Shcnsi-Kansu-Ninghsia Border Region.

1940
Jan. 15
The first issue of Chinese Culture, published in Yenan, includes Mao Tse-tung’s On the New Democracy.
Mar. 30
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs declares the Nanking puppet organization illegal arid its acts null and void.
August
The Shansi-Hopei-Shantung-Honan Border Region Government is established.
Aug. 20 Chinese Communist forces announce the opening of a “One Hundred-Regiment Offensive” against the Japanese.

1941

Jan 4: The New Fourth Army or Southern Anhwei Incident. The headquarters of the New Fourth Army is attacked by Central Government forces under Gen. Ku Chu t’ung. After capturing its Vice-Commander, Ych T’ing, and killing its Commander, Hsiang Ying, General Ku disbands tile New Fourth Army. The remnants of the army, under time command of Ch’en Yi flee to northern Kiangsu and Shantung.
13 The National Military Council orders the disbandment of the
New Fourth Army as a measure of military discipline.
29
A new headquarters of the New Fourth Army is established
in northern Kiangsu.

1941
Jan. 4 The New Fourth Army of Southern Anhwei Incident. The headquarters of the New Fourth Army is attacked by Central Government forces under Gen. Ku Chu t’ung. After capturing its Vice-Commander, Yeh T’ing, and killing its Commander, Hsiang Ying, General Ku disbands the New Fourth Army. The remenents of the army, under the command of Ch’en Yi flee to northern Kiangsu and Shangtung.

13 The National Military Council orders the disbandment of the New Fourth Army as a measure of military discipline.

29 A new headquarters of the New Fourth Army is established in northern Kiangsu.

Apr. 13 The Soviet Union and Japan conclude a five-year neutrality pact. June The Liberation Daily (Chic/i-fang JiIi-pao) begins publication at Yenan as the organ of the CPC.
1942

Jan. 3 Chiang Kai-shek accepts the command of the China Theater of War.
Feb. 1 At the opening ceremony of the Central Party Academy in Yenan, Mao Tse-tung inaugurates the Cheng-feng (Party rec- tification) movement with a speech entitled Reform in Learn- ing, the Party, and Literature. May 28 Ch’en Tu-hsiu dies at Kiangtsin, near Chungking.

1943

Jan. 11 The American and British Governments, under new treaties with China concluded in Washington and Chungking respectively, relinquish their extraterritorial and other related rights in China.

February The CPC introduces an “Increase Production” movement, relying on the work of labor exchange groups and labor heroes to stimulate output, and especially attempting to make army units, schools, and administrative organs self-sufficient.
Sept. 6 The 11th Plenary Session of the Kuomintang CEC opens in Chungking.
Oct. 1 Liu Shao-ch’i becomes Secretary of the CPC Central Secretariat.

1944

May 2 The representative of the Chinese Communists, Lin Tsu-han, and representatives of the Kuomintang, Wang Shib-chieh and Chang Chih-chung, meet in Sian to discuss problems concern in political democratization and military reorganization.
Aug. 17 Tannu Tuva “requests” incorporation into the USSR, accord- ing to the Soviet version. (The “request” was accepted on October 13, 1944, by the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet.) Sept. 15 Lin Tsu-han, the representative of the CPC, reports on the negotiations between the Kuomintang and the Communists before the People’s Political Council.

November: Chou En-lai, representative of the CPC, flies to Chungking to discuss with the Nationalists the problem of a coalition government.

1945

Jan. 24 : Chou En-lai flies to Chungking again for negotiations.

January: The China Democratic League issues a declaration in Chungking, suggesting that the Nationalists should end their one- party dictatorship immediately.

Feb. 7 : The Yalta Conference meets.

June 11:The Seventh Congress of the CPC meets in Yenan.

August

Li Li-san returns to China with the Soviet occupation forces and becomes political adviser to Lin Piao in Manchuria. ( mjm—So the Soviets were a threat to the US intelligence briefing of the first NSA and CIA eastern investigations – the NSA 1947. )

Aug. 6 : American superfortress drops the first atomic bomb on Hiroshima  

8 The Soviets Declare War on Japan.
14 The signing of a Sino- Soviet Treaty of Friendship and Alliance is announced in Moscow.

14: With the surrender of Japan, on this date, the Chinese National Government forces, aided by US air and sea transport, occupy certain key cities. Meanwhile, the CPC forces expand their control in other areas previously held by the Japanese. Lin Piao, Kao Kang, Ch’en Yün, Li Fu-ch’un, P’eng Chen, and others exercise control in Manchuria; Ch’en Yi, Jao Shu-shih, and Su Yü do likewise in Shantung; Liu Po-ch’eng, Li Hsiennien, Teng Tzu-hui, and Ch’en Keng in Hupeh and Honan; and Ho Lung and Nieh Jung-chen in eastern Hopei, northern Shansi, Suiyuan, Chahar, and Jehol.

25: The CPC Central Committee publishes a manifesto concerning the current situation.

28:  Mao Tse-tung flies to Chungking from Yenan, accompanied by US Ambassador Patrick Hurley, to discuss with Chiang Kaishek the problem of the realization of peace, democracy, and unity.

Sept. 2: The Instrument of Japanese surrender is signed on board the USS Missouri by Shigemitsu and General Umetse. General ilsu Yung-ch’ang signs for China.

Oct. 10 Representatives of the Chinese Cornmunists—Chou En-lai and Wang Jo-fei----and of the Nationalists—Wang Shih-chieh, Chang Ch’ün, Chang Chih-chung, and Shao Li-tzu—after 40 days of negotiations sign the records of their meetings. Both sides resolve to avoid a civil war and to build an independent, free, and strong new China. Unsolved problems are to he settled by the Political Consultative Conference.
11 Chiang Kai-shek and Mao Tse-tung, in a joint statement, pledge their desire for peace and unity. Mao then flies back to Yenan.
25 Taiwan is formally returned to China after fifty years of Japanese occupation. [Decolonization?]
Late Fighting between Government and Communist forces spreads
October to ii provinces. A Government compromise proposal is rejected by Communists. Chinese Communist troops entrench themselves in Manchuria along the rail lines and behind three ports where US warships are scheduled to land Nationalist
Nov. 27 President Truman appoints General George C. Marshall as his
Special Envoy to China with ambassadorial rank.
27 Chungking reports that the Russians have agreed to help the
Government forces take over Manchuria and urges the Chinese
Communists to leave Changchun and Mukden.
Dec. 16 Industrialists in Chungking, including Li Cho-ch’en, Chang Nai-ch’i, and Huang Yen-p’ei, form the China Democratic National Construction Association.
27 Government and Communist delegates resume discussion on the cessation of hostilities and convening of a Political Con sultativ Conference.
1946
Jan. 3 The Communists accept the Government’s proposal to make
General George C. Marshall mediator in peace negotiations.
Jan. 10—31 The Political Consultative Conference meets in Chungking. The seven Communist delegates are Chou En-lai, Yeh Chien ying Tung-Pi-wu, Ch’in Pang-hsien, Wang Jo-fei, Wu Yü chang and Teng Ying-ch’ao (Mme. Chou En-lai). In his opening speech, Chiang Kai-shek announces his Government’s  decisions on civil liberties, the equality of political parties,  local self-government, and the release of political prisoners.  The conference reaches complete agreement on a reorganization of the government on the basis of a coalition of political parties. At the final session, important resolutions are adopted on the expansion of the State Council, the nationalization and reorganization of the armies, and the appointment of a special committee to review the Draft Constitution.
Jan. 10 A cease-fire agreement between Government and Communist negotiators, brought about through General Marshall’s efforts, is announced at the Political Consultative Conference. The Nationalists and the Communists simultaneously issue a cease- fire order. For carrying out the order, representatives of the Nationalists, the Communists, and the United States form an Executive Headquarters in Peiping.
Mar. 5 Foreign Minister Wang Shih-chieh tells a Kuomintang meeting
that China has rejected the Soviet claim to all enterprises in Manchuria which had served the Japanese Kwantung Army.
12 Government forces enter Mukden upon the evacuation of the Soviet forces, after fighting with Chinese Communist forces in the surrounding territory.
13
The Chinese Communists set up administrative machines in Kirin, Heilungkian g. and Hokiang Provinces.
17 The KMT Central Executive Committee ratifies the agreements for tile reorganization of the Government and for cooperation with the Communists.
24 Moscow confirms the announcement that the USSR will complete the withdrawal of its troops from Manchuria by the end of April.
Apr. 8 Wang Jo-fei, Ch’in Pang-hsien, Yeh T’ing, and Teng Fa are among the prominent Communists killed in a plane crash en route from Chungking to Yenan.
15 Chou En-lai announces “all-out” hostilities in Manchuria. The New First Army clashes with Communist forces in Szepirigkai in its drive toward Cliangchun.

18 The Chinese Communists occupy Changchun.

May 10 A new truce in Central China is announced, paving the way for further efforts to settle the Manchurian conflict.
16 The Government is advised that all Russian forces have withdrawn from Manchuria except some troops at Port Arthur and Dairen.
19 Fighting between Government and Communist forces in Shantung, Hopei, and Jehol is developing into large-scale conflicts.

June 22 Mao Tse-tung demands that the US cease all military aid to The Chinese Government and promptly withdraw US forces from China.

July 7 Pravda charges that US military assistance to the Chinese Government violates the Moscow Agreement as expressed in the communique of the British, American, and Soviet Foreign Ministers of December 27, 1945.

12 A full-scale civil war breaks out.

Aug. 21 The Communists announce the establishment of a government in Manchuria.
Sept. 16 Chou En-lai leaves Nanking for Shanghai, ending hopes for a negotiated peace through US Ambassador Stuart’s proposed five-man committee.

Oct. 11 Nationalist troops occupy Kalgan.

22 Chou En-lai and delegates of other parties return to Nanking. Preliminary peace discussions take place.

Nov. 15 The National Assembly at Nanking, convoked by Chiang Kai-shek, is boycotted by the Communists.

December The CPC promulgates its Regulation on the Compulsory Purchase of Excess Land from the Landlords.

1947

Jan. 7 General Marshall, admitting failure in his efforts to bring the Nationalists and Communists together, returns to the US.

29 The US State Department announces the abandonment of the US effort to mediate between the Chinese Government and the Communists. The decision involves ending the American connection with the Committee of Three and the Executive Head- quarters in Peiping and the withdrawal of all US military personnel from China.

Feb. 11 The Nationalist Government orders Chou En-lai and the other CPC representatives to leave Nanking.

Mar. 19 Nationalist troops capture Yenan.

July 22 A US mission headed by Lieutenant General Albert C. Wede- meyer arrives in China.

Aug. 21 The US State Department protests to the USSR over the continued Soviet occupation of Dairen and its procrastination in making the port available to world shipping.

Oct. 10 A new Land Law is promulgated by the CPC for the “liberated areas.” In general it confiscates the property of the landlords but includes them in the land redistribution program along with the peasants.
27 The Nationalist Government outlaws the China Democratic League—an amalgamation of third-party groups sympathetic to the CPC.
Nov. 12: The Communist troops capture Shihkiachwang.
Dec. 25: Mao Tse-tung makes a report on The Present Situation and Our Task at a meeting of the CPC Central Committee, and declares that the “Chinese people’s war of liberation has turned into an offensive on all fronts.”
1948

Mar. 29: China’s First National Assembly is convened; though the Communist take no part, 1629 representatives attend the opening session.
Apr. 1 In a speech to the Congress of Cadres of the Shansi-Suiyuan
Liberated Area, Mao warns against ultra-leftist tendencies.
19 Chiang Kai-shek is elected President of the Republic of China under the constitution adopted in December, 1946.
Apr. 22 Communist forces recapture Yenan.
May 5 The Revolutionary Committee of the Kuomintang, the China Democratic League, the China Association for Promoting Democracy, the China Chih Kung Tang, the Chinese Peasants and Workers Democratic Party, the Chinese People’s Salvation Association, the Kuomintang Association for Promoting Democracy, the San Mm Chu I Comrades Association, and other so-called democratic groups send telegrams to support the calling of a new Political Consultative Conference.
July 3 An Economic Aid Agreement between China and the US is signed in Nanking.
15 The CPC endorses the Cominform position regarding the Yugoslav Communist Party.
Aug. 1—22 The Sixth Congress of the All-China Federation of Labor meets in Harbin. Its 504 delegates elect Ch’en Yün as Chairman and Liu Ning-yi, Li Li-san and Chu Hsüeh-fan as Vice- Chairmen. It decides to restore the Federation of Labor Unions in China.
19 A North China People’s Government is formed at Shihkiachwang, Hopei Province, with Po 1-po as Chairman and Tung Pi-wii as Vice chairman.
Oct. 15 Communist troops capture Chinchow.
19 Communist troops capture Changchun.

Nov. 2 The Communists occupy Mukden. Subsequently the CPC Cen- tral Committee establishes a Northeast Bureau headed by Kao Kang. On the government side a Northeast Administrative Council is set up, whose Chairman, Lin Feng, is elected by a Council of People’s Delegates.
Dec. 1 Süchow is captured by the Communists. 1 The People’s Bank of China is established.

1949

Jan. 15 Communist forces capture Tientsin.

31 Peiping falls to the Communists.

March The All-China Students’ Federation is set up at a meeting of the All-China Students’ Congress in Peiping.

Mar. 16—23 The Second Plenum of the Seventh Central Committee, CPC, meets near Shihkiachwang. It adopts the decision to shift the emphasis in Party work from the countryside to the urban areas.

25 The Central Committee of the CPC and the I-headquarters of the People’s Liberation Army move to Peiping.

26 The Communists announce that peace negotiations will start iii Peiping on Apr11 1. Fighting continues in Anhwei Province.

27 The All-China Women’s Congress meets in Peiping, leading to the formation of the All-China Federation of Democratic Women.

Apr. 11—18 The First Congress of the New Democratic Youth League meets in Peiping.

23 The Communists capture Nanking.
May 11 The All-China Youth Congress sets up the All-China Feder- ation of Democratic Youth—a united-front organization in contrast to the Party-affiliated NDYL.
16
Hankow is captured by the Communists.

27 Shanghai is occupied by Communist forces.

June 2 Marshal Yen Hsi-shan is appointed Prime Minister of the Nationalist government,

15—19 The Preparatory Committee of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference holds its first plenary session in Peiping.

19 The Nationalist government announces a blockade of the Corn- monist held coast of China.

July 1 In commemoration of the 28th anniversary of the CPC, Mao publishes his report On the People’s Democratic Dictatorship. [ note the use of the term democracy as different from the USA version of freemarket and private ownership, and anti-communal, until Socialism in the 1930s returned New Liberalism, i.e. The New Deal]
2 The First All-China Conference of Writers and Artists meets and establishes the All-China Federation of Writers and Artists.
16 The Sino-Soviet Friendship Association is established with headquarters in Peiping and branches in other major cities.
31 The Soviet Union and the “Manchurian people’s democratic authorities” sign a one-year barter trade pact, in Moscow. Kao Kang heads the Chinese delegation negotiating the agreement.
Aug. 7 The US State Department issues a “White Paper” on US- Chinese relations.
10 The United Press reports that the 12-year-old Dalai Lama of
Tibet has proclaimed a religious war against Communism.
17 Foochow is captured by the Communists.
26 The Communists take Lanchow.
27 A Northeast People’s Government is set up under Kao Kang as Chairman and Li Fu-ch’un, Lin Feng, and Kao Ch’ung-min as Vice-Chairmen.

Sept. 21-30: The Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC) is held in Peiping. It is made up of 510 regular, 27 alternate, and 74 invited delegates. It adopts the Organic Law of the CPPCC, the Organic Law of the Central People’s
Government of the People’s Republic of China, and the Com mo Program of the CPPCC; elects the Central People’s Government Council, with Mao Tse-tung as Chairman, and the First National Committee of the CPPCC; proclaims Peking as the capital of the country; adopts the national anthem and the national flag.
October 1: Mao Tse-tung proclaims the establishment of the Central People’s Government of the People’s Republic of China. The Central People’s Government Council, with Mao as Chairman, holds its first meeting. Later this date is celebrated by the Chinese Communists as National Day, the founding date of the new regime.
2 USSR announces recognition of the Peking regime.
2 The Government of the USSR notifies the Central People’s Government of its decision to establish diplomatic relations with China, thus becoming the first nation to recognize the People’s Republic of China.

Soviet-Sino Global State Alliances

 

Oct. 3 Nationalist Foreign Minister George Yeh announces severance of diplomatic relations with the USSR.
3 The USSR establishes diplomatic relations with Communist China.
4 The US State Department issues statement reaffirming the US recognition of the National Government as the legal government of China.
4 Bulgaria establishes diplomatic relations with Communist China.
5 Rumania likewise establishes diplomatic relations.
5 The Sino-Soviet Friendship Association is established in Peking.
6 Hungary, Czechoslovakia, and North Korea establish diplomatic relations with Peking.
7 Poland establishes diplomatic relations.
9 The First National Committee of the CPPCC holds its First Session, which elects its Chairman (Mao Tse-tung), ViceChairmen, and the members of its Standing Committee.
Oct. 12 A Nationalist presidential mandate announces the moving of the Central Government from Canton to Chungking.
14 Communist forces occupy Canton.
14 Nationalist troops evacuate Amoy.

16 Outer Mongolia establishes diplomatic relations with Communist China.
19 The Central People’s Government Council (CPGC) appoints the Vice-Premiers and members of the Government Administration Council (GAC) and of its various committees, designating the persons in charge of the ministries, commissions, and administrations, as well as the President of the Academia Sinica, the Managing-Director of the People’s Bank of China, and the Vice-Chairmen and members, the Chief of Genera) Staff, and the Deputy Chief of General Staff of the People’s Revolutionary Military Council, etc.
27 East Germany establishes diplomatic relations with Communist China.
Nov. 15 Foreign Minister Chou En-Iai cables the United Nations, repudiating the claim of the Nationalist government to represent China at the UN.
Dec. 1 The Trade Union Conference of the Asian and Australasian
16— Countries, sponsored by the Executive Bureau of the World Federation of Trade Unions, is held in Peking on November 16—December 1. Fourteen countries are represented by the 120 odd delegates. Liii Shao-ch’i presides and addresses the congress. It adopts a resolution for the establishment of the WFTU Liaison Bureau for Asia.
22 Kweilin is captured by the Communists.
23 Albania establishes diplomatic relations with Communist China.
Nov. 30 Chungking [ wealthy southern province city] is occupied by the Communists, with the National is Government moving to Formosa (Taiwan).
Dec. 2 The CPGC passes the state budget for 1950 and adopts the organizational rules of the people’s representative conferences in provinces, municipalities, and counties. It names October 1 as the National Day of the Chinese People’s Republic (CPR).
4 The GAC takes the decision to set up Regional Military and Political Committees.
9 The Nationalist Cabinet starts functioning in Taipei.
10—16 The Asian Women’s Conference is held in Peking.
16 Mao Tse-tung arrives in Moscow and is received on the same day by Stalin.
27 Chengtu is captured by the Communists.
1950
Jan. 6 The GAC adopts the organizational rules of the people’s
governments of provinces, municipalities, and counties.
6 Britain notifies Peking of its decision to establish diplomatic relations with Communist China.
7 Ceylon and Norway likewise notify Peking of their decisions to establish diplomatic relations.
9 The Republic of Israel sends notice of its decision to establish diplomatic relations.
12 Afghanistan also gives notice of its decision to establish diplo mati relations with Communist China.
18 The Vietnam regime of Ho Chi Minh establishes diplomatic relations with Peking.
Feb. 14 Conclusion in Moscow of the Sino-Soviet Treaty of Friendship, Alliance, and Mutual Assistance; the Agreement on the Chinese Changehun Railway, Port Arthur and Dairen; and the Agreement on the Granting of Credit to the People’s Republic of China.

17 Mao Tse-tung and Chou En-lai leave the Soviet Union for China, arriving in Peking on March 4.

Mar. 8 Conclusion of the Sino-Polish barter agreement in Peking. 3 The GAC announces the Decisions on the Unification of the Financial and Economic Work of the State.

27 Communist China and the Soviet Union conclude an agreement for the enlistment of the services of Soviet experts by China, and an agreement for the formation of three Sino-Soviet joint stock companies for oil, non-ferrous and rare metals, and civil aviation respectively.

27 The Netherlands notifies Peking of its decision to establish diplomatic relations. Apr. 1 India establishes diplomatic relations with Communist China.

19 Conclusion of the Sino-Soviet barter agreement for 1950 in Moscow.

28 The China Peace Committee sponsors a signature campaign for the Stockholm Peace Appeal. By November the number of signatures allegedly collected totals 223,739,000.
30 The Central People’s Government promulgates the Marriage Law.

May 2 Nationalist Government Spokesman’s Office announces that the evacuation of Hainan has been completed. 9 Sweden establishes diplomatic relations with Peking.

11 Denmark establishes diplomatic relations. June 6—9 Third Plenum of tile Seventh CC of the CPC meets. Chairman Mao Tse-tung delivers a speech entitled “Fight for a Fonda- mental Turn for the Better in the Financial and Economic Situation in China.”

June 8 Burma establishes diplomatic relations with Communist China.
9 Indonesia does likewise.
10 UN representatives meet with North Koreans, after two years of futile effort, to discuss the unification of Korea.
14 Following a report by Lin Shao-ch’i on the question of agrarian reform, the Second Session of the First National Committee of the CPPCC endorses the Draft Agrarian Reform Law.
16 Construction wor on C engtu- ung ing ai way egins.
25 The Korean War begins as North Korean troops invade South Korea. [CALLED A POLICE ACTION NEVER DECLARED A WAR ~ the forgotten war]
27 North Korean forces enter Seoul.

27 US Ambassador Kirk and Deputy Soviet Foreign Minister Gromyko exchange notes concerning the responsibility of each other’s governments for the hostilities in Korea.
27 The US State Department, in an Aide Memo ire, informs the Nationalist Chinese Government to the effect that President Truman has ordered US 7th Fleet to prevent any Communist
attack on Taiwan and to see to it that the Chinese Nationalist Government ceases all air and sea operations against mainland.

28 Mao Tse-tung, speaking at the meeting of the CPGC, strongly
denounces US aggression in Taiwan and Korea. On the same day Chou En-]ai calls on the Chinese people to fight for the liberation of Taiwan.
29 The Central People’s Government promulgates the Trade Union Law.
30 The Central People’s Government promulgates the Agrarian Reform Law.
July 4 Soviet Deputy Foreign Minister Andrei Gromyko charges the United States with aggression in Korea, which “was the result of a plan prepared in advance.”
5 US Secretary of State Acheson calls the Soviet charges that the South Korean Government attacked North Korea lies comparable to those of the Nazis.
8 President Truman names General MacArthur commander of all UN forces in Korea. [MacArthur will devise a plan to use nuclear weapons tactically in North Korea – the plan is scraped]
27 Announcement of an additional Sino-Soviet trade agreement.
31 Soviet Ambassador Malik, President of the UN Security Council for August, proposes that the Council discuss the admission of Communist China as the first item when it convenes.
Aug. 10 Professor Andrei Karpinsky, exiled Soviet geologist, reveals that the USSR has completed the second Soviet Far Eastern railroad, paralleling the route of the Trans-Siberian Railway.
10 Jacob Malik admits that the USSR has provided supplies to the North Koreans hut insists they were “sold” before Soviet occupation forces evacuated North Korea.
16 A broadcast by the Communist Radio Pyongyang acknowledges the “friendly support of the Soviet Army.”
20 Foreign Minister Chou En-lai cables the UN, declaring Communist China’s support for the proposal brought forward by the Soviet Union at the Security Council for a peaceful settlement of the Korean question.
Sept. 6 A trade agreement between Taiwan and Occupied Japan is signed in Tokyo.

14 Switzerland establishes diplomatic relations with Communist China.

19 By a vote of 33 to 16 with 10 abstentions, United Nations General Assembly refuses a seat to the Chinese Communist regime.

Oct. 10 Conclusion of a trade agreement between Communist China and the East German government in Peking.

25 Communist Chinese troops, organized as the “Chinese People’s
Volunteers,” enter the Korean fighting.
26 The Chinese Communists enter Tibet. 28 Finland establishes diplomatic relations with Communist China.
Nov. 4 All minor parties in Communist China jointly declare their full support of the “voluntary” aid rendered by the Chinese people to North Korea.

Dec. 4 Chou En-lai declares that the proposed Japanese peace treaty contained in the memorandum sent by the United States to the Soviet Union in October completely violates all international agreements with regard to the Allies’ policy towards Japan. 28 The Government Administration Council orders control over US property and the freezing of US bank deposits in China. Regulations are also issued regarding the cultural, educational, and charity organizations and religious bodies subsidized by the United States.

1951
Jan. 29 Conclusion of the Sino-Polish barter agreement for 1951 and agreements on payment, shipping, and the interchange of mails, parcels, and telecommunications.
30 The United Nations Political Committee formally brands the Chinese Communists as aggressors in Korea.

Feb. 13 The GAC announces the target of agricultural production for 1951: an increase of 7.1 per cent in grain production and 36.9 per cent in cotton production over 1950.

26 The GAC promulgates the Labor Insurance Regulations.

Apr. 18 The GAC promulgates the Provisional Customs Law.

May 1 Over 186,430,000 people throughout the nation are said to participate in demonstrations in support of the Resist-America Aid-Korea Campaign and in opposition to the remilitarization of Japan.

May 14 The United Nations Sanctions Committee approves a global embargo on shipments of arms and war materials to the Chinese Communists.
21 Pakistan establishes diplomatic relations with Communist China.
22 Chou En-lai announces Communist China’s support for the Soviet note of May 9 to the United States concerning the proposal for an over-all Japanese peace treaty, and denounces the US draft peace treaty with Japan.
23 Conclusion of the Agreement on the Measures for the Peaceful
Liberation of Tibet, between representatives of the Central
People’s Government and the Tibetan local government.
June 21 Conclusion of the Sino-Czechoslovak trade agreement for 1951 in Peking.
July 1 Nation-wide celebration of the 30th anniversary of the Communist Party of China.
2 The Chinese and North Korean Communists accept the UN’s proposal for a meeting to discuss a cease-fire in the Korean conflict.
10 Korean armistice negutaLions open at Kaesong.
Sept. 4: The Nationalist Government Spokesman’s Office issues a statement declaring that the peace treaty with Japan, concluded in San Francisco without Chinese participation, would not be binding on the Republic of China and would in no way affect relations between China and Japan.
18 Chou En-lai denounces the joint US-British draft Japanese peace treaty as a violation of international agreements and therefore unacceptable.
Oct. 12
Publication in Peking of the first of the four volumes of Selected Works of Mao Tse-Tung.

1952
Jan 1: At the New Year celebration, Chairman Mao Tse-tung opens the Three-Anti Campaign by calling on the nation to fight corruption, waste, and bureaucracy.
Feb. 15 The GAC sets the agricultural target for 1952: an increase of 8 per cent over 1951 in grain production and 20 per cent in cotton production.  [ actual later figures show about 3% gain in growth and production]
24 Chou En-lai announces Peking’s support to the protest of  North Korean Foreign Minister Bak Hun Yung against germ  warfare waged in Korea by the US government.

March 8: Chou En-lai protests against the alleged US intrusion over Chinese territory and its germ warfare in Northeast China.

9 All political parties of China jointly protest against the alleged germ warfare conducted by the US government.

15 The Commission for Investigating the US Crime of Bacteriological Warfare, headed by Li Teh-ch’uan, President of the Chinese Red Cross Society, is formed.

April 1: Northeast China Group of the Commission for Investigating the US Crime of Bacteriological Warfare makes public its report on the alleged spreading of germ-laden insects and infected objects in NorLheast China by the United States.

10 Publication of the second volume of theSe lected Works oj Mao Tse-tung.

12 Conclusion of the Siiio-Soviet trade protocol for 1952 in Moscow.

28 The Treaty of Peace between the Republic of China and Japan is formally signed in Taipei.

26 A contract for exporting 100,000 tons of rice from Communist China to India is signed in Peking. 

June 1 Conclusion of the Sino-Japanese barter agreement in Peking, involving the exchange of commodities to the value of 30 million pounds sterling.

20 Chingkiang flood diversion project on the Yangtze River in Hupeh Province is reported completed after 75 days of arduous labor of 300,000 workers, involving 7,800,000 cubic meters of earthwork, 117,000 cubic meters of concrete work, and the building of a i,O54-meter regulator, the biggest in the country.

28 The Nationalist Government and the Spanish Government reestablish normal diplomatic relations.

July 1 The Chengtu-Chungking Railway is opened to traffic.

2 Construction work begins on the Chengtu-Tienshui Railway.

11 Conclusion of the Sino-Polish trade protocol for 1952 in Warsaw.

21 Conclusion of the Sino-Bulgarian trade agreement for the exchange of goods and payments for 1952 in Sofia.

30 The Chinese Nationalist delegation withdraws from the International Red Cross Conference in Toronto, Canada, in protest against the presence of Chinese Communists at the Conference.

30 Conclusion of the Sino-Rumanian agreement on the exchange of goods and payments for 1952 in Bucharest.

Aug. 2 The second year’s work on the Project for Harnessing the Huai River, started on December 8, 1951, and involving 187,000,000 cubic meters of earthwork and 55,000 cubic meters of concrete work, is said to be completed before the flood season.
9 The Central People’s Government promulgates the General Program for the Implementation of Regional Autonomy for Nationalities.
17 A Chinese Communist delegation headed by Foreign Minister Chou En-lai arrives in Moscow for the first open conference between Soviet and Chinese Communist leaders since February, 1950. Stalin receives Chou En-iai on August 20.
Sept. 15 A joint communique on the Sino-Soviet negotiations in Moscow is made public; it announces the transfer of the Chinese Changchun Railway to Communist China and the extension of the term of joint use of the Chinese naval base of Port Arthur.
21 Conclusion in Moscow of the Sino-Soviet-Finnish agreement on the supply of commodities in 1952; the total value of goods to be exchanged is placed at 34 million rubles.

28 The Government Delegation of the Monogolian People’s Republic, headed by Premier Y. Tsedenbal, arrives in Peking.
29 The Tienshui-Lanchow Railway is opened to traffic.
Oct. 2 Liu Shao-chi’i arrives in Moscow as head of the CPC delegation to the 19th Congress of the CPSU. He stays over three months in the Soviet Union before returning to Peking by air on January 11, 1953.
2—12 The Peace Conference of the Asian and Pacific Regions is held in Peking, attended by 367 delegates and 37 observers from 37 countries. It passes an Appeal to the Peoples of tile World, an address to the United Nations, resolutions on the Korean question and the Japanese question, and seven other resolutions.
4 Conclusion of the Sino-Mongolian Agreement on Economic and Cultural Co-operation in Peking.
13 Conclusion in Peking of a trade contract for selling 50,000 tons of Chinese rice to India.
23 Conclusion of a Sino-Chilean trade agreement in Peking.
Nov. 15 The CPGC passes a resolution concerning the establishment of administrative committees for the Greater Administrative Areas and the readjustment of the existing boundaries of some provinces.

20 The Kangting-Changtu section of the Sikang-Tibet Highway is opened to traffic. Dec. 18 Conclusion of the Sino-Ceylonese Five-Year Rubber and Rice Trade Agreement in Peking, whereby China will sell rice to Ceylon in exchange for rubber.

1953

Jan. 1 The Peking People’s Daily editorially announces the beginning of the First Five-Year Plan and calls upon the people through- out the country to fulfil and overfulfil the production target for 1953.

9 Conclusion of the Sino-Rumanian Technical-Scientific Co- operation Agreement in Peking.

13 The CPGC adopts the Resolution on the Convening of the All-China People’s Congress and the Local People’s Congresses at All Levels.
13 The GAC Committee of Financial and Economic Affairs calls a financial-economic ministers’ conference to discuss curtailment of the 1953 building and construction plans. Decision is reached that the total figure of the plans should be cut back
by about 30 percent.
16 A Postal and Telecommunications Agreement between the CPR and the Mongolian People’s Republic is signed in Peking. 19 The 1953 agreement on barter trade and payments between the CPR and Rumania is signed in Peking.
19 As part of the anti-bureaucratism drive, tile Shanghai Libera reqition Daily announces that the CPC East China Bureau has expelled Huang Yi-feng, director of the East China Communication
Department, from the Communist Party for “suppression of criticism.”

21 Chou En-lai issues an official protest against the alleged “intrusion into territorial air of Northeast China” on January 12 of a plane “carrying special agents sent by the US Govern- ment for strategic reconnaissance.”

23 Establishment of the Thai Nationality Autonomous Area in southern Yünnan Province (Cheli) adjacent to the Lao-Buran border.

28 The 1953 administrative agreement for cultural co-operation between the CPR and Poland is signed in Warsaw.

Feb. 7 Addressing the closing session of the First National Committee of the CPPCC in Peking. Mao Tse-tnng stresses the following points as “imperative”— 1) Strengthen the Resist-America Aid-Korea struggle (“We are ready to light” for “as many years as American imperialism wants to fight.”) 2) Learn from the Soviet Union (“We must set going a tidal wave of learning from the Soviet Union on a nation-wide scale to build up our country.”) 3) Oppose bureaucratisrL1 among the leading cadres and organs of the government.
11 The 22nd meeting of the Central People’s Government Council adopts the Electoral Law for People’s Congresses (later promulgated on Mar. 1 by Chairman MaoL A Central Election Committee is set up, headed by Liu Shao-ch’i.
19 A Treaty of Amity between Nationalist China and Spain is signed in Madrid.
Feb. 20 Promulgation of the GAC Measures for the Refund of PreLiberation Bank Deposits.
22—24 Release by Peking of the full texts of signed depositions by Colonel Frank Schwable, USEC, and Major Roy Bloy, USEC, on tie alleged use of bacteriological warfare in Korea by American forces.
23 Observance of Soviet Army Day in Communist China. Chou En-lai, accompanied by Soviet Ambassador Panyushkin, arrives in the Port Arthur-Dairen area as head of the CPG (Iclegatiorl to visit tile Soviet garrison troops there.
24 An official order of the Military Control Commission in Canton requisitions the British property belonging to Butterfield and Swire in that city.
24 Signature of a Non-Trading Credit Agreement between the CPR and the Mongolian People’s Republic.
24 The Peking  office of the Dalai Lama established. [ in effect, imperialistic move toward Tibet]
25 Nationalist President Chiang announces the abrogation of the Sino-Soviet Treaty of Friendship and Alliance of 1945 and its related documents.
Mar. 4 News of the serious illness of Stalin is first announced by NCNA. Mao Tse-tung, accompanied by several members of the Politburo of the CPC, calls on Soviet Ambassador Panyuslikin to convey “profound anxiety.” Mao sends a telegram to Stalin expressing “deep concern” over his illness, and CPC Central Committee sends a similar message to Moscow.

6 The NCNA announces the death of Stalin and issues an order of the Central People’s Government proclaiming the period from March 7-9 as a period of national mourning throughout
Communist China. 7 An official Chinese delegation headed by Chou En-lai leaves
Peking for Moscow by air to attend Stalin’s funeral.
17 Chou En-lai, head of the Chinese delegation, and Marshal Bulganin, head of a Soviet delegation, fly from Moscow to Prague to attend the funeral of Czcchoslovak President Kiem cu
Gottwald.
21 Conclusion of the Sino-Soviet trade protocols for 1953 in Moscow.
24 V. V. Kuznetsov, Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs of the USSR, leaves Moscow by air for Peking to become Soviet Ambassador there, succeeding Panyushkin.
26 Following extended negotiations in Moscow, three Sino-Soviet agreements are reported signed: a protocol on trade between the CPR and the USSR, a protocol to the agreement on credits to the CPR of February 14, 1950, and an agreement on the Soviet Union rendering assistance to China in the expansion and construction of new power stations.
30 The 1953 agreement on barter trade and payments is signed in Peking between the CPR and Hungary.

30 Conclusion in Peking of the Sino-Hungarian barter and payment agreement for 1953.
Apr. 6 Resumption of liaison meetings at Panmunjom.

6 The NCNA announces the Measures for National Census and Registration of the Population.
10 Publication of the third volume of the Selected Works of Mao Tse-tung.
11 An Agreement for the Repatriation of Sick and Injured Capture Personnel is signed at Panmunjom.

15—23 The Second All-China Women’s Congress meets in Peking.
17 The GAC adopts a directive ordering local governments to stop the “blind influx” of peasants into the cities and to mobilize those already there to return to the countryside.

19 The NCNA denounces the “slanderous allegations against China” made by Mr. Harry Amnlinger, US representative, at the April 15th session of the UN Commission on Narcotic Drugs to the effect that Communist China is exporting narcotics to areas in the Far East and even to the United States.

[Note the phrasing of democratic youth league in China – they have their own version of democracy rhetoric.]

20 The exchange of sick and injured POWs begins at Panmunjom.
30 Conclusion in Peking of the Sino-(East)German barter and payment agreement for 1953.
May 2—11 The 7th All-China Congress of Trade Unions, held in Peking, is the first to meet since 1948 and is attended by over 800 delegates and over 150 observers, including delegates from foreign Communist parties. Out of the working class in China, stated to be 15 million strong, some 10,200,000 are members of trade unions, Of these, about 450,000 are reported to be members of the CPC and 650,000 are members of the New Democratic Youth League. There are 180,000 basic trade unions.
4 May 4th, celebrated by the Communists as China’s Youth Day (stemming from the May 4th movement in 1919) is observed throughout the nation.
7 Conclusion of the Sino-Czechoslovak goods exchange and pay men agreement for 1953 in Peking.
7 Conclusion of the Sino-Czechoslovak radio agreement in Prague.
8—11 A China Islamic Association is established at a meeting in Peking. Burhan, the governor of Sinkiang Province, is named Chairman.
19 An Association of Huii (Mohammedan) People established.
19 An exchange of notes in Peking provides the 1953 imple mentatio plan for the Sino-Hungarian Cultural Co-operation Agreement.
21 A special conference is called in Mukden to discuss the “blind  flow of peasants to the cities.” During the winter and spring some 85,000 migrated to the cities of the Northeast from the countryside in Manchuria and North China. Special cadres are organized to persuade them and to “escort” them back to their villages. [ actions like this is what scared many U.S. Americans]
22 An exchange of notes in Peking establishes the 1953 imple mentatio plan for Sino.Buigarian cultural co-operation.
25 Conclusion of the Sino-Polish trade agreement for goods exchange and payment in Peking.
May 26— The 7th Plenary Session of the Central Committee of the
June 8 China Democratic League meets. Among other things, it re vise its constitution and decides that its central task under the unified leadership of the Communist Party and the govern men organs is to participate in the cultural educational construction of the country.

June 3 The Chinese Buddhist Association is founded in Peking to unite the Buddhists of China under the leadership of the Central People’s Government and to link up with Buddhists of other countries.
5 Li Teh-ch’uan heads the Chinese Communist delegation to the World Congress of Women opening on this date in Copen- hagen. 5 An agreement on goods exchange and payments in 1953 is signed in Peking between Communist China and Finland.
8 An Agreement on the Repatriation of Prisoners of War taken
in the Korean fighting is signed at Panmunjom.
10—15 The 2nd All-China Youth Congress, sponsored by the All- China Federation of Democratic Youth, is attended by 560 delegates from various parts of China and overseas countries.
13 A new Sino-Japanese trade pact is signed, providing for US$74,500,000 of trade each way.
15 Kuo Mo-jo heads the seven-member Chinese Communist delegation to the meeting of the World Peace Council in Budapest.
15 Basic-level elections of people’s congresses are started in mid June and early July in a few areas in the Southwest, East, Central South and Northeast regions. June 23— The Second National Congress of the New Democratic Youth
July 2 League is held in Peking. It adopts amendments to the constitution making Socialism rather than New Democracy its ultimate goal and providing for the direct leadership of the Communist Party and its various branches.
June 27 The Communist Party calls a halt to the recruiting of rural members, which was part of the Party membership campaign  started in June, 1952. (2 ) As a result of nearly four years of negotiations between Chinese Nationalist and French authorities, the first contingent of nearly 30,000 interned Nationalist soldiers, their dependents, and other civilian refugees who had fled to Indo-China, arrives in Taiwan. The returned soldiers were officers and men of General Huang Chieh’s First Army Group who, until their repatriation, were living on Phuquoc Island off the south coast of Cambodia.

July 1 On the CPC anniversary An Tzu-wen reports that there are 6,100,000 members of the Party. 6 A British Trade Delegation, led by Mrs. Joan Robinson, signs a “business arrangement” with the China National Import and Export Corporation.[2]

 

( end page 39)

 

April 7th 1955 Mao Tse-tung issues and order extending the state of war with Germany.[3]

Notice the Chinese Call Their System a Democracy – a different version, a more modern version to them than the United States of American version.

 

History behind the Chinese Communist Constitutions:

The Constitution of the People's Republic of China (simplified Chinese; pinyin: Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó Xiànfǎ) is the highest law within the People's Republic of China. The current version was adopted by the 5th National People's Congress on December 4, 1982 with further revisions in 1988, 1993, 1999, and 2004. Three previous state constitutions--those of 1954, 1975, and 1978--were superseded in turn. The Constitution has five sections: the preamble, general principles, the fundamental rights and duties of citizens, the structure of the state, and the national flag and emblems of state.

 

First Communist Constitution:

September 20, 1954

First National People’s Congress

 

Mjm—China’s French Revolution Version – The Democracy of China was born, 1949. The victory marked the “peoples’ “ struggle against imperialism ( they had 9 dynasties of Emperors prior in their collective history. Now for the first time, the people were placed as the number- one motivation for justice. The west called them communists, they called them communists, but they understood they were running a more “just” form of democracy – the equality of humans of economic-socio proportions. What needs to be understood were the spatial- transformational difficulties in adjusting to commoner rule – in this case the Leader was a former middle-class school teacher turned Communist revolutionary – Mao Zedong.

 

CONSTITUTION OF THE PEOPLE’S

REPUBLIC OF CHINA

 

Adopted by the First National People’s Congress

of China at its first session September 20, 1954

 

PREAMBLE

 

In the year 1949, after more than a century of heroic struggle, the Chinese people, led by the Communist Party of China, finally achieved their great victory in the people’s revolution against imperialism, feudalism and bureaucrat- capitalism; and so brought to an end a long history of oppression and enslavement and founded the People’s Republic 0f China, a people’s democratic dictatorship. The system of people’s democracy—new democracy—of the People’s Republic of China guarantees that China can in a peaceful way banish exploitation and poverty and build a prosperous and happy socialist society.
From the founding of the People’s Republic of China to the attainment of a socialist society is a period of transition. During the transition the fundamental task of the state is, stcp by step, to bring about the socialist industrialization of the country and, step by step, to accomplish the socialist transformation of agriculture, handicrafts and capitalist industry and commerce. In a few short years our people have successfully carried out a series of large-scale struggles:
the reform of the agrarian system, resistance to American aggression and aid to Korea, the suppression of counter-revolutionaries and the rehabilitation of the national economy. As a result, the necessary conditions have been created for planned ecotomic construction and gradual transition to socialism.


The First National People’s Congress of the People’s Republic of China, at its first session held in Peking, the capital, solemnly adopted the Constitution of the People’s Republic of China on September 20, 1954. This Constitution is based on the Common Program of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference of 1949, and is an advance on it. It consolidates the gains of the Chinese people’s revolution and the victories won in the political and economic fields since the founding of the People’s Republic of China; and moreover, it reflects the basic needs of the state in the period 0f transition, as well as the general desire of the people as a whole to build a socialist society. [4]

 

CONSTITUTION OF THE PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC
In the course of the great struggle to establish the People’s Republic of China, the people of our country forged a broad people’s democratic united front, composed of all democratic classes, democratic parties and groups, and popular organizations, and led by the Communist Party 0f China. This people’s democratic united front will continue to play its part in mobilizing and rallying the whole people in common struggle to fulfill the fundamental task of the state during the transition and to oppose enemies within and without.


All nationalities of our country are united in one great family of free and equal nations. This unity of China’s nationalities will continue to gain in strength, founded as it is on ever-growing friendship and mutual aid among themselves, and on the struggle against imperialism, against public enemies of the people within the nationalities, and against both dominant-nation chauvinism and local nationalism. In the course of economic and cultural development, the state will concern itself with the needs of the different nationalities, and, in the matter of socialist transformation, pay full attention to the special characteristics in the development of each.
China has already built an indestructible friendship with the great Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the People’s Democracies; and the friendship between our people and peace-loving people in all other countries is growing day by day. Such friendship will be constantly strengthened and broadened. China’s policy of establishing and extending diplomatic relations with all countries on the principle 0f equality, mutual benefit and mutual respect for each other’s sovereignty and territorial integrity, which has already yielded success, will continue to be carried out. In international affairs our firm and consistent policy is to strive for the noble cause of world peace and the progress of humanity.

 

CHAPTER I

Article I

of China is a people’s democratic state led by the on the alliance of workers and peasants.

Article 2

All power in the People’s Republic of China belongs to the people. The organs through which the people exercise power are the National People’s Congress and the local people’s congresses.[5]

GENERAL PRINCIPLES

The People’s Republic working class and base

 

Article 46

Should the Chairman of the People’s Republic of China for reasons of health be unable to perform his duties over a long period, the Vice-Chairman exercises the functions and powers of Chairman on his behalf. Should the office of Chairman of the People’s Republic of China fall vacant, the Vice-Chairman succeeds to the office of Chairman.

The State Council of the People’s Republic of China, that is, the Central People’s Government, is the executive of the highest organ of state power; it is the highest administrative organ of state.

Article 48

·        The State Council is composed of the following persons;

·        the Premier; the Vice.Premiers;

·        the Ministers, the Heads of Commissions; the Secretary-General.

·        The organization of the State Council is determined by law.

Article 49

The State Council exercises the following functions and poWers:

(1) verify
(2) Committee;
(3) to co-ordinate and lead the work of Ministries and Commissions;
(4) to co-ordinate and lead the work of local administrative organs of state throughout the country-
(5) to revise or annul inappropriate orders and directives of Ministers or of Heads of Commissions;
(6) to revise or annul inappropriate decisions and orders of local administrative organs of state;
(7) to put into effect the national economic plan and provisions of the state budget;
(8) to control foreign and domestic trade;
(9) to direct cultural, educational and public health work;
(10) to administer affairs concerning the nationalities;
(11) to administer affairs concerning Chinese resident abroad;[6]

 

 

SECTION 3. IN STATE COUNCIL

Article 47

to formulate administrative measures, issue decisions and orders and their execution, in accordance with the Constitution, laws and decrees; to submit bills to the National People’s Congress or its Standing

 

 

CONSTITUTION OF THE PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC

Article 83

In the exercise of their authority local organs of the people’s procuratorate are independent and are not subject to interference by local organs of state,
Article 84
The Supreme People’s Procuratorate is responsible to the National People’s Congress and reports to it; or, when the National People’s Congress is not in session, to its Standing Committee.

Citizens of the People’s Republic of China are equal before the law.

Article 86

Citizens of the People’s Republic of China who have reached the age of eighteen have the right to vote and stand for election whatever their nationality, race, sex, occupation, social origin, religious belief, education, property status, or length of residence, except insane persons and persons deprived by law of the right to vote and stand for election.
Women have equal rights with men to vote and stand for election.

[Insane people, as stipulated,  were possibly anyone who was against the government; similarly to red-baiting and non-affiliation with communist clubs in the U.S. in the 1950-‘70s, least one is charged as a “rebel with a cause.”( Postel ref.  ]


Article  87
Citizens of the People’s Republic of China have freedom of speech, freedom of the press, freedom of assembly, freedom of association, freedom of procession and freedom of demonstration. By providing the necessary material facilities, the state guarantees to citizens enjoyment of these freedoms.
Article 88
Citizens of the People’s Republic of China have freedom of religious belief.
Article 89

Freedom of the person of citizens of the People’s Republic of China is inviolable. No citizen may be arrested except by decision of a people’s court or with the sanction of a people’s procuratorate. [7]

 

CHAPTER III
FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS AND DUTIES OF CITIZENS

Article 85

The homes of citizens of the People’s Republic of China are inviolable, and privacy of correspondence is protected by law.
Citizens of the People’s Republic of China have freedom of residence and
freedom to change their residence.
Article 91
Citizens of the People’s Republic of China have the right to work. To guarantee enj oyment of this right, the state, by planned development of the national economy, gradually creates more employment, and better working conditions and wages.
Article 92
Working people in the People’s Republic of China have the right to rest and leisure. To guarantee enj oyment of this right, the state prescribes working hours and holidays for workers and office employees; at the same time it gradually expands material facilities to enable working people to rest and build up their health.
Article 93
Working people in the People’s Republic of China have the right to material assistance in old age, illness or disability. To guarantee enjoyment of this right, the state provides social insurance, social assistance and public health services and gradually expands these facilities.
Article 94
Citizens of the People’s Republic of China have the right to education. To
guarantee enjoyment of this right, the state establishes and gradually extends
the various types of schools and other cultural and educational institutions.
The state pays special attention to the physical and mental development
of young people.
Article 95
The People’s Republic of China safeguards the freedom of citizens to engage in scientific research, literary and artistic creation and other cultural activity. The state encourages and assists citizens engaged in science, education, literature, art and other fields of culture to pursue their creative work.
Article 96
In the People’s Republic of China women enjoy equal rights with men in all spheres—political, economic, cultural, social and domestic. The state protects marriage, the family, and the mother and child.[8]

Article 97
Citizens of the People’s Republic of China have the right to bring complaints
against any person working in organs of state for transgression 0f law or
neglect of duty by making a written or verbal statement to any organ of state
at any level. People suffering loss of their rights as citizens by reason of in fringemen by persons working in organs of state have the right to compensation.
Article 98
The People’s Republic of China protects the proper rights and interests of Chinese resident abroad.
Article 99
The People’s Republic of China grants the right of asylum to any foreign national persecuted for supporting a just cause, taking part in the peace movement or engaging in scientific activity.
Article 100
Citizens of the People’s Republic of China must abide by the Constitution and the law, uphold discipline at work, keep public order and respect social ethics.
Article 101
The public property of the People’s Republic of China is sacred and inviolable. It is the duty of every citizen to respect and protect public property.
Article 102
It is the duty of citizens of the People’s Republic of China to pay taxes according to law.
Article 103
[9]It is the sacred duty of every citizen of the People’s Republic of China to
defend the homeland.
It is the honorable duty of citizens of the People’s Republic of China to
perform military service according to law.


CHAPTER IV
NATIONAL FLAG, STATE EMBLEM, CAPITAL

Article 104
The national flag of the People’s Republic of China is a red flag with five
stars.

 

 


 

[1] Tang, S.H. Peter, Communist China Today: Chronology and Documentary Supplement, vol. 2 ( New York: Frederick A. Praegar, Inc.,  1958), p. iv.

[2] Tang, S.H. Peter, Communist China Today: Chronology and Documentary Supplement, vol. 2 ( New York: Frederick A. Praegar, Inc.,  1958), pp. 2 – 39.

[3] Ibid., p. 52.

[4] Ibid., p. 90.

[5] Ibid., p. 91.

[6] Ibid., p. 100.

[7] Ibid., p. 107.

[8] Ibid., p. 108.

[9] Ibid., p. 109.

 

Copyright © 1999 - 2014 Michael Johnathan McDonald