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History of the Arabs -- Overview

Copyright © 1999 - 2013 Michael Johnathan McDonald

Civilization: History of Arabians

Current circumstances of the Muslims:

(a) Muslims at this time in their religious evolution are undergoing their own "dark ages." Most of the populations are illiterate and poverty stricken and are manipulated by both religious as well as political leaders who have their own rotten agendas that have nothing to do with the religion.

(b) Dictators and demagogues must be isolated and if possibly removed.

Ancient Arabs

In the beginning people migrated to the areas of water and outlining deserts around the southern entrance to the sea in the region of the red sea from Africa. The Arabs called Arabia and island as it is like-one in its vastness which is three times is large as France.

11th Century B.C.E. land routes through Arabia were greatly improved by Sumerians  and Arabs wanting to trade with people of the west using the camels as a beast of burden. Frankincense was carried from its production centre at Qana (now known as Bir 'Ali) to Gaza in Egypt. The camel caravans also carried gold and other precious goods which arrived in Qana by sea from India. The chief incense traders were the Minaeans. The Minaean kingdom, which lasted from about 1200 to 650 BC, wads prosperous and whose prosperity was due mainly to the trade of frankincense and spices. Trade brought civilization. They established their capital at Karna (now known as Sadah). In 950 BC another people of Arabia called the  Sabaeans took over. Prosperity attracted onlookers who waited in hiding for the right chance to take over controls. The fighting develops in who gets how much from the trades. This breaks the tight tribal bonds and a new group comes in a takes over everything. This will be a major factor in the future retreat back to obscurity for the Arabs.

 Meanwhile the Arabs made good living from this trade. India had began a trade to the west and new things from foreign lands delighted the wealthy.  The Sabaean capital was Ma'rib, where a large temple was built. Queen Hatshepsut (1504- 1482 B.C.E.) of the 18th dynasty was one of the few female pharaohs of Egypt spoke about a land called Put that had settlers on both sides of the Red sea. Small trade with Egypt had made some people of this region wealthy. Enough money to hire builders and artisans to created cities. Money was used to employ vast workers to think and employ future projects like  high-technology irrigation systems to replenish  the people with food and water. During this time the dissatisfied groups of people crossed the Red Sea and lived on the west side. During the 6-5th Century B.C.E. people settled in the lands of Ethiopia that were Arabs. Much history was not recorded do to any records of writing. However, tales of camels being used in trade surely would have collaborated what came next – civilization.  After this Ethiopians took over and later the Christians (in History).  The Sabaean civilization endured for about 14 centuries and was based not only on the spice trade, but also on agriculture. The impressive dam, built at Ma'rib in the 8th century, provided irrigation for farmland and stood for over a millennium. This was technology that was not rivaled in this area of the world. However, dissatisfied people began to branch out on their own to a new world  See the three reasons).  

Some Arabs migrated north to Arabia today’s Saudi Arabia northern region still hugging the Red Sea fro water and set up camps in a place they called Jordan (a city they built). Other references to these area’s were mentioned in the Bible by Solomon who said that the Queen of Sheba sent him large quantities of gifts as a treaty and friendship gesture.  Her kingdom ruled the east and west sides of the red sea. Stories of this small empire told of stories of Arab travelers who could traverse a large section of their kingdom entirely in the shade. This was do to what they talked about as a vast amount of forest area; forests so think that these tales of people riding camels for a month and never having the sun touch their bodies. 

From about 1000 BC this region of the Southern Arabian Peninsula was ruled by three successive civilizations -- Minean, Sabaean and Himyarite. These three kingdoms all depended for their wealth on the spice trade.

In this great empire was the ancient Sabaean Kingdom  and  a city called Yaman. The earliest recorded civilizations of S Arabia were the Minaean and Sabaean. flourished from c.750 b.c. to c.115 b.c

A Sumerian hymn to the god of the west gives a warlike description of the Amorites (Amurru) [Arabs] who migrated from the Arabian desert into the Mesopotamia and Syria around 2000 B.C.E.


The weapon is his command

Who knows no submission

Who eats uncooked flesh

Who has no house in his life-time

Who does not bury his dead companion.


Unlike a fast moving army the Arabians moved very slowly over the outlining areas of the desert, close enough for water and food, to the Fertile Crescent I the north from the earliest times. They traveled on foot and on donkey; migrating north-east of Jordan and Syria; they turned east at the northernmost hump of the desert and descended on the west side of Mesopotamia, all the way to the Arabian Gulf. To the Sumerians, it looked as a barbarian was descending from the north. This facts accords with Sumerian descriptions of the Akkadians as migrating coming from the north.

This opened up the Arabians from scarcity into abundance, there wandering into settlement; and it obviated their need to plunder and perpetual raiding. It opened up avenues other than war: settlement; family life; and law abiding trade and production. Thus they became world citizens.

There are three major causes than have been touched upon why many of the Arabians left this lifestyle and wandered back into the desert. The first may have been natural disaster. Arab tradition tells of many instances where things like earthquakes have caused havoc upon their peoples; The great destruction of the dam Ma’rib in the Sabaean Kingdom in southwest Arabia in the fifth century B.C.E., which brought about vast destruction. The Azd tribe, for instance, with all of its clans in the Fertile Crescent traces its genealogy back to its settlement ancestry in Yaman.

The second major cause of migration into the desert by the settled population of the fertile lands was ideological disagreements with the ruling regimes. Religious differences led to persecution in Ur ( the case of Abraham and Nimrod) toward the beginning of the second millennium B.C.E. was in Yaman in 523 C. E. ( Christians and Dhū Nuwās ). The persecuted had to leave. The Arabian desert with its trackless terrain makes for an excellent hiding place.

The third reason and major cause of migration into the desert is that life in the desert is superior to the fertile land. Its harshness and privation are compensated by freedom and simplicity it provides. The leisure to contemplate, the meticulous care for pronunciation and diction, the love and ecstasy of poetry and eloquence, the single minded pursuit of murū’ah – the virtues of manliness, courage, fidelity, and hospitality.- to reach a fresh perspective of truth and rise above and harsh reality (Fārūqī)..


Early Islamic Times

Things to know:

1.      Jews don’t confess that the Arabs -or according to interpreting (Guess work) the Bible are the sons of Ishmael. Reasoning: Arabs do not have any right of the Holy Land in Palestine as they are the offspring of Ishmael as he is not a legal son of Abraham because he is the son of the maidservant (slave). The Jews consider that all of Jacob’s sons are legal, although 4 of them are the sons of the slaves, so why not Ishmael be considered as a legal son too?

  1. Muhammad the enforcer of the commandment to Jihad, purported Ishmael lineage - this as part of his religion.
  2. Islam has survived as a religious/political group with the  policy of violence against other cultures, which helps the infighting lessen between themselves: “To those against whom war is made, permission is given (to fight), because they are wronged; and verily God is most powerful for their aid” (Al-Hajj:39). First of all, war is decreed in Islam in self defense. Yet, their history of their imperialism has shown they do not follow their own Qu’ran. Another example of this is: “ Fight in the way of Allah against those who fight against you, but begin not hostilities. Lo! Allah loveth not, aggressors” (Al-Baqarah: 190). Correct me if I’m wrong, but after Muhammad died the Islamite’s begin a series of aggressive wars to take over the entire known world. Fortunately, Charles Martel in 732 A.D. stopped them Jihadiing near Poitiers, France. They planed on taking the entire western civilization with them.
  3. Would Muhammad approve of suicide bombers? Muhammad would not like the suicide bombers of today. For he said: “Fight in the cause of Allah. Fight those who deny Allah; Do not be embittered. Do not be treacherous. Do not mutilate. Do not kill children or those (people) in convents.” I believe the word mutilate takes care of that dilemma. Although, fight those who deny Allah is a disturbing command, this has led to myriad of centuries wars; therefore this is a closer look at what was called fascism.
  4.  What does Islam mean? The word Islam simply means "submission" in Arabic and it is derived from the meaning of
    "peace". In a religious context it means the complete submission to the will of Allah.
  5. What does Allah Mean? The word Allah is the Arabic word for God
    which is used by the Arab Muslims
  6. What do Muslims believe? Muslims believe in One, Unique and
    incomparable God. They believe in the Angles created by Him, in the prophets through whom His revelations were brought to mankind, in the Day of Judgment and individual accountability of actions, in Allah's complete authority over human destiny and in life after death. Muslims also believe in the chain of prophets starting with Adam and including Noah, Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac, Jacob, Josef, Moses, David, Solomon, Elias, Jonah and Jesus
  7. Why do Muslim women cover? Ignorance. Before Muhammad, women were treated as slaves, not unlike the Classical age of Greece. Although, women dressed modest in Greece, they wore no veil. Still the men could wear nothing on the streets. The Arab history shows that in Sumeria and Persia, that wearing a veil was part of their culture.      
  8. What are Women’s rights of Islam? Today, Islam believes (Spins its beliefs) that women should live in modesty, purity and chastity. Muhammad preached that both sexes should abide by equal values. After Muhammad’s first wife died, he took many other concubines and wives. His favorite was a spunky women, who some would considered a dominate women (over males). He liked her the best, and this showed some of his predilections for female superiority. Within one generation, Muhammad changed the entire dowry system around. Women were now the beneficiaries of the men. Men had to pay women a dowry, instead of the other way around. Women have the right to divorce their husbands and hold property in their own rights independent of any male relative. However, Saudi society has decided to force other Muslim Nations to accept its own backward and barbaric traditions. For example, Women cannot drive a car. Usama bin Laden is a Saudi, not an Afghan. The Taliban were created with Saudi money. Iran still practices the stoning of women.

Muhammad cut down on the female infanticide. He passed creeds that were adhered to and did much for women’s equality. Although, many rulers distained silently and sometimes openly about this law. This has become a sticking point for the entire Arab progression in history. They continue not to follow the equality rule. Mohammad’s own advisors told him that Aisha, one of his later wives, was aloud to get away with disrespecting men. She has been known to say “ I’m equal to any man out there.” Periodically, Aisha road away into war to fight or help with the men in battle; she didn’t listen to their orders and refused to be put in her place. This was one of the enduring things about her that Muhammad loved.

The dowry system that Muhammad manages to change in one generation was troublesome from the start. First off, if an Arab male was to marry a female, he could look forward to her father handing over a dowry. Divorce was not uncommon and any male could get one at anytime. Scrupulous males were taking advantage of this system by marring one girl than receiving a dowry then quickly divorcing her to again remarry quickly for some more money. This caused myriads of trouble. Muhammad came up with a solution to end this entire quandary: “we will change the whole system around.” He said.  Now when the woman looks for a man she knows that he has to pay her a dowry to marry. This way if he decides to keep divorcing it will become mighty expensive for him. This was now considered a bribe price to get the girl.

Polygamy: Muslim men are allowed to take four wives as long as they can decently provide for, with the consent of his current wife (s). Usually, the men would marry a woman who had been widowed and had no one to provide for her since her husbands death, in an attempt to help her survive and live a respectable life.

Divorce is optional and is considered a male burden as he has to pay for another dowry for another wife and she keeps much of the property. "The most detestable of the permitted things in the eyes of God is divorce," Muhammad said indicating he discouraged divorce. Although he had at least nine wives, he changed his own mind and believed that four was enough for one man.

1.      Why do Muslims beat women? Passage 4:34 of the Qu’ran  says, "Men have authority over women because God has made the one superior to the other, and because they spend their wealth to maintain them. Good women are obedient. They guard their unseen parts because God has guarded them. As for those from whom you fear disobedience, admonish them and send them to beds apart and beat them. Then if they obey you, take no further action against them. Surely God is high, supreme." ([Dawood translation.] Ali’s [apologist] translations says ‘beat the women lightly’).

2.      Is it true that Muhammad was 53 year-old when he bed and married a 9-year-old? This is true by many accounts (but in dispute by others) and in the modern west this is called a Pedophilia. However, marriage of young women in history was not a hidden past to some cultures. People recorded these happenings so the future could judge them. (Aisha's age in records see bottom of page & 2013 updated recorded sources). As a matter on all accounts, Moslem men cannot consummate a marriage until the girl has biologically evolved to a woman. However, there are no specifications to an age where a female can be betrothed or married.  As far as precedence for Islam: Muhammad married her at 6, consummated at 9.  When Aisha (her name) was about 4-5 years old Muhammad started dreaming of a union with her. When she was 6, Muhammad asked Abu Bakr, Aisha's father, for her hand. Abu Bakr thought it was improper, because, as he said "I am your brother"; Muhammad brushed aside Abu Bakr's reservation by saying that it was perfectly lawful for him to marry Aisha. Aisha was socially and psychologically, still, a child as is evidenced by the fact that she was still given to her toys, she was unaware of what was happening around her, and her playmates behave as would the children at present times. (ii notes) Also not that cultures and religions evolve over time and Western Civilization has had arranged marriages of the younger age for political reasons. Muhammad marriage was not of political reasons. Also note that King David was offered a young virgin during the last months of his life, and discoursed as to keep his old and cold body warm. This was possibly a practice that has since evolved, hopefully, into extinction. However, twentieth century accounts have Mao Tse-tung and young women and men, and sexualapades not associated with normative pathologies.  Note: For disputes and sources of the disputes please visit this link for the pros-and-cons of her actual age at the bottom of the page.

3.      Total Arab Population Surrounding Israel = 271,056,560
Total Population of Israel = 5,186,367 (2004). Never in modern history have so few dominated so many so thoroughly. The Jews are outnumbered 52 to 1, and they still dominate the Arabs. 2004.

  1. The Hadith is the record of sayings of the Prophet Muhammad's precepts (deeds), actions, and life, which constitute his Sunna, for example. It is accepted as a chief source of Islamic belief and practice and is second in authority only to the Qur'an (Koran). The six canonical Sunnite collections of Hadith, which date from the 9th century, and the corresponding Shiite collections of the 10th and 11th centuries delineate the various relationships among individuals and between the individual and God. They include provisions of law, discussions of theological matters, such as methods of fasting and prayer, and codes of personal, social, and commercial conduct. (
  2. The word Sufism, which is probably derived from the Arabic suf ("wool"; hence sufi, "a person wearing an ascetic's woolen garment"), denotes Islamic mysticism. In addition, the preaching of the Qu’ranic last judgment was a way that these individuals in the late 7th  and  early 8th century dealt with the loose morals and corruption of the spirit observed among certain pious persons.
  3. Islam religion is informal. There are no bishops, cardinals Pope or hierarchy like that of Christianity. The leaders are the government. This means that there is no structured central control. This, of course, is harder to deal with when one has a problem and want to go tot the top to change something. One cannot go to the headquarters and destroy it.


Chronology of Events

Ancient Arabs

Early traditions of cities and grids (see: Alexander the Great) were apart of arab contributions to the world. Irrigation and pluming in the ancient times was their past triumphs. Today much of the layout of the cities is the same as in ancient times in the Middle East. Swap meets, with compartmentalized shops. They build the layout in mazes to keep forces confused during attacks, but this will change as Greeks will bring with Alexander’s men who gave us the idea of the grid system.

500 A.D.

Pre- Islamic flourishes in Arabia. They have many gods in a system  like Sumer and Persia. Infanticide was going on before Islam arose. If a Arab had too many daughters, or not enough money to raise more children than necessary , he just killed them. This is not unlike the Hellions who exposed their female children to the elements on tops of mountains when they had more girls than boys.  Many gods and magic ceremonies were the norm. The Kaaba, the main shrine to the polytheistic gods of the Arabs was in Mecca. A black meteorite fell from ancient times and the town’s people built the shrine thinking that the place was magical.

Dogs were welcomed in Pre- Islamic world. The dog was sacred to the ancient persons because they were herders. Modern Arabs love dogs and treat them as coveted friends often carrying them around like little children. When the extremist took over the Arab world these dogs became disregarded, this is because they can point out the bad people. For example, if a terrorist is seen with a dog but they do not know who the name of the person is, he or she is usually well known because of the popularity of everyone knowing which dog belongs to whom. Thus, like a cloistered community, dog’s friendliness hampers bad people’s autonomy. 

By the time of Muhammad’s arrival the camels were being domesticated.

571 A.D.

Muhammad born close to  Mecca. In the desert of Arabia was Muhammad born, according to Muslim historians, on April 20, 571. The name means "highly praised". Some historians have placed his birth date at September 11, 571.

595 A.D.

Mohammad marries Khadija, a wealthy widow. She is a trader and Mohammad becomes widely known in city. At the age of 25 Muhammad married Khadija, then 40. Khadija had children from both of her former marriages. She had seven children with Muhammad.

608 A.D.

The Ka’aba in Mecca is tore down and rebuilt (actually cleared of all the polytheistic idols and only the meteorite remaining) and becomes the main shrine of Arabia.

610 A.D.

In seclusion of Mount Hira, Muhammad has his first revelation through the angel Gabriel, telling him that he is the prophet of god. Muhammad likes Jews, Christians and his own people. Although the people that he hung around with in the desert were not Christian scholars.  Therefore an accurate picture of Christianity probably was not given by them to him. The first person to be converted to Islam, was Khadija, Muhammad's wife. Abu Bakr was the first outside of Muhammad’s family to convert to Islam.

619 A.D.

Khadija died in 619, and soon Muhammad remarried. Unlike the monogamous relationship he had with his first wife, Muhammad plays the field with slave girls and marries as many as nine more women. Some scholars have the most ten and some have the lest seven. Although, Muhammad will decree that four is enough women for one man in the institution of marriage. 

622 A.D.

Muslims migrate to Medina hijira or hegira. In Medina, Muhammad builds his house, which serves as a gathering place for his followers and as a model for future mosques. ( Note: He left because of the opposition to his new teachings ). This marks the beginning of the Muslim era

624 A.D.

Muslims defeat the Meccans at the Battle of Badr.

630 A.D.

Muhammud calls for holy war (jihad) on Mecca and begins the so-called peace teachings with mass murder. He literally forces Mecca to convert to his religion or die.

632 A.D.

Muhammad dies in A’isha’s house in Medina after conducting the ‘farewell Pilgrimage” to Mecca; the rule of the Caliphs begins.

Gold mines are controlled near the Muslim regions -- these new incomes help them purchase war weapons, horses, swords, etc... and this kick -starts Imperialism.

Summery: At the time of Muhammad’s post-jihadiing people got along with each other. Identity of you belong to this group or that group will emerge with who will rule? The bloodline or the general line? This problem is best looked at in what is called Nationalism: A group that forms an identity. Sunni & Shiites begin.

‘Upon Muhammed's death, a hastily collected group of prominent Muslim leaders elected Muhammed's father in law, Abu Bakr, to be the secular head of Islam. However, 'Ali, Muhammed's son-in-law and cousin, was not part of this committee nor were other members of Muhammed's immediate family, and many believed that Muhammed had designated 'Ali as a successor, for the Traditions had Muhammed naming him as both his brother and his successor. 'Ali had been raised with Muhammed and was the second person (after Muhammed's wife Khadija) to recognize Muhammed's role as a prophet; he was the first of Muhammed's tribe to declare himself an apostle (rasul )’ (Hooker 1).

Things turned sour as the Umayyads in charge of the various governments would not accept this arrangement.

632 A.D.

Abu Bakr becomes the first caliph under extreme protests. He was Muhammad’s best friend but was not an Arab from the tribe of Muhammad. Leaders of Mecca and Medina gave him the right to lead as long as he was a puppet and forced Ali to wait. The voters in this process were no members of Muhammad’s house. It was not a strait democracy vote, but a leadership vote almost like an oligarchy of various factions.  


The First Four Caliphs

633 A.D.

Muhammad’s holy war ‘ 6th Pillar tenant’ makes the Arabs believe they can go out and conquer the world. So they begin by attacking Syria and Iraq. They finally take them over. The era of Jihadiing the world has begun.

634 A.D.

At Abu Bakr’s death, Umar is named caliph. Ali works in both Bakr’s and now Umar’s government.


639 A.D.

Muslims begin Jihadiing Egypt. They conquer it.

640 A.D.

Persia then falls to Muslim Rule.

644 A.D.

After the murder of Umar, Uthman comes to power. It is here that Ali wants the next spot. After making backroom deals he is assured of the next rulership.


650 A.D.

Uthman establishes the first version of the Qu’ran (Koran). Out of the six ‘must things to do’ if you are a Muslim, sometimes called the six pillars of faith, you must wage holy war, or, called Jihad on those who do not submit to Islam.


'Uthman placed members of his family in charge of various provinces and they ruled disgracefully; various rebel factions, seeing their grievances unredressed, attacked 'Uthman's house and assassinated him [ In his own office]. The prominent families of Medina and other areas persuaded 'Ali to become Caliph, which he did in 656; 'Ali had become the fourth Caliph of Islam and the last of the Patriarchal caliphs (hooker 2)


656 A.D.

Uthman is murdered and is succeeded by Ali; Civil war breaks out. Ali (Ali ibn Abi Talib), b. c.600, d. Jan. 24, 661, fourth caliph of the Muslim community, is regarded by Shiite Muslims as the only legitimate successor of the Prophet Muhammad.


657 A.D.

Mu’awiya, governor of Syria, challenges Ali’s rule and they fight an indecisive battle near Siffin. Ali now under extreme strife because nothing seems to be working and fate is out of his control. One thing about Ali. He was not a good politician. He may have been an ideal leader of the teachings of Muhammad, yet he made a couple of bad decisions that cost him dearly. One was the back room deals with the secular Umayyads. Kharjites a break off sect  from Ali’s followers formed this faction as a decry of his appeasement deals with the Umayyads.


661 A.D.

A Kharijite zealot murders Ali at the mosque in Kufa. Down through history mosques are places to kill the leaders. In Islam, the leaders have to go to Friday services and be on the same level as the commoners. It is here that they are exposed to assassins.  This proves monumental in their history as many leaders are killed in this way. One thing to note: The assassin knows he/her will not escape. So later on drugs are introduced and frenzy-making methods to ensure a person who does the killings has left his/her inhabitations at the door of the mosque.


The Umayyads in charge of the various governments would not accept this arrangement and rose up in rebellion and named Mu'awiyya caliph. Eventually, 'Ali would be forced to flee Medina and settle in Kufa in Iraq. 'Ali would eventually have to contend with dissension in his own army while fighting the Umayyads; after defeating these dissenters in battle, he would be assassinated a few years later by one of them in revenge for this defeat(hooker 3).


The Umayyad Caliphate



From this point onwards, authority was divided in the Islamic world. The Umayyads continued to pass the Caliphate down through the ages among their family; but their now existed in Iraq a separate Islamic community that did not recognize the authority of the Umayyad Caliphs. Rather they recognized only the successors to 'Ali as authorities, and they gave these successors the title Imam, or spiritual leader of Islam, both to differentiate their leaders from the more worldly and secular Umayyads and because Abu Muhammed Hasan ibn 'Ali, the second Imam, ceded the Caliphate to the Umayyads. A grand total of ten Imams succeeded 'Ali, passing the Imamate down to their sons in hereditary succession. However, the eleventh Imam, Hasan al-Askari, died without a son, and the Shi'ites were thrown into disarray. Shi'a Islam divided into several different sects, the most important of which was the Qat'iyya ("those who are certain"). The Qat'iyya believed that Hasan al-Askari did indeed have a son, Muhammed al-Mahdi; one of the Qat'iyya sects believed that Muhammed al-Mahdi, the twelfth Imam, had hidden himself and remained in hiding. This sect was called Ithna-'Ashari (Twelver) or Imami (Imam) Shi'a, and was the form of Shi'a that eventually came to exclusively represent Shi'ism (Hooker 3).



The Kharjites

   The civil war between the followers of 'Ali (Shi'a 'Ali) and the Umayyads produced another Islamic faction, the Kharjites, which would be a force in early Islamic history. The Kharjites were originally followers of 'Ali who grew disaffected when 'Ali began bargaining with the Umayyads. Many people in early Islam agreed in principle with the Kharjites and mourned the steady secularization of the Islamic leadership and the Islamic world. However, many who did not agree with the Kharjites still rallied around them. (hooker 4)


661 A.D.

Mu’awiya becomes caliph, establishes his capital in Damascus. Thoughts about this from the muslim community was that it was far removed the centrality of Arabia. However, Mu’awiya establishes central control here which helps him form the Arab empire administrations plans. Damascus's most glorious time was in the first decades of Islam. Its first appearance in history, is as a city conquered in the 15th century BC by the Pharaoh Thutmosis III. According to the Old Testament, it was once the capital of the Aramean Kingdom in the 11th Century BC. The name "Damascus" comes from the pre-Semitic "Dimashka". The city is in Arabic also known as "as-Sham" meaning "The Northern", indicating is geographical position north of the Arab homelands.


Mu’awiya Pushed to get Ali out of office. It was Ali’s mistake to try to agree with Mu’awiya that most of the arabs were on his secular side. This agreement was a big political mistake by Ali that cost him his life. His support dwindled because extremist who were on his side saw a sinking ship. This came to a conclusion when Mu’awiya and Ali’s forces faced off and Mu’awiya, although the battle was a draw, had a formidable force. When Mu’awiya finnaly become Caliph by proclamation he is known as a good organizer. This will help in the Emperialism forces that began to take over much of the world at this time. From the beginning there was bickering from the law of Mohammad who told the arabs not to go out and hurt people to the secular forces and beliefs of the first Umyyadian leader who looked for fame, glory and greed to appease his alter-ego.


680 A.D.

Mu’awiya dies and the accession of his son Yazid takes place while the Massacre of Ali’s son and his tiny forces at Kerbela pushes the never ending murder cycle onward.

687 A.D.

Dome of the Rock built in Jerusalem. This was believed the sight of Abraham’s conversation with God to sacrifice the Arabs favorite son Ishmael.  This is the main link that ties Christianity to Islam. This was a strategic move on the arabs part knowing how far along the west had become in civilization.

696 A.D.

Arab coinage introduced and  Arabic becomes the official administrative language of Islam.

711 A.D.

Muslims invade (Jihadiing)  the Iberain ( Modern Spain) Peninsula and the Indus

Valley.  Arabs ( sect. Moors) begin 800 years of domination of the Spanish.


Province of Andalusia includes the major towns of Seville - Granada – Cordoba, Málaga, Ronda, Almeria , Cadiz, Huelva, Jerez, Jaen Torremolinos Estepona Marbella, Fuengirola, Benalmadena.




The last great stronghold of the Arabs in Spain. The final 150 years of Moorish occupation Granada was the last stronghold for the Arabs. When the powerful landowning nobility successive wars with Castile created a manpower crises, the rich landowners looked to employ the Arabs from Morocco. Moroccan recruits then caused the kingdom to undergo an intense process of 'arabisation', citing itself off from all Castilian influences thereafter. The City turned into a absolute military form of government. Appeasement of foreigners as played out in many western and eastern civilizations brought about the down fall of Spanish culture.


Granada paid close attention to the Strait of Gibraltar in which the control of the Umayyad took over during the Arab conquest periods. This was the key island to block or allow trade to flow, thus a significant powerful position that either cut you off from entering the Mediterranean via the Atlantic Ocean or barred one from exiting it.



 Was the capital where the Umayyad Caliphate set up shop. When the Gothic monarchy collapsed, after they took the city in 572 A.D., the Arabs took control. The city took a while to establish as central Arab capital until Abdahlraman I was declared emir independently of Damascus. Under Arab control now,. The city will flourish off of taxing the Spanish and subjugating them to labor, all the while allowing for the Arabs to live a richly cultured life. The population will become large for a city of this time reaching over one million inhabitants. The Great Palaces and famous Library where the ancient books were kept originate as the holding place for western civilization while it is in its dark age. The Caliphate will fragment into division called  "taifas" (splinter states) weakling the control and eventually in 1236 it fell to the Christian powers.



732 A.D.

Charles Martel, Frankish ruler, halts Muslims Jihadiing near Poitiers, France.


The Abbasid Caliphate


750 A.D.

Abbas becomes caliph.


The Great thinkers


751 A.D.

Arabs learn paper-making from captured Chinese prisoners.


754 A.D.

Abbas is succeded by his brother Mansur.

756 A.D.

The Uymayyad Abd a;-Rahman founds the Emirate of Cordova.

762 A.D.

Mansur founds Baghdad as the new capital.


Baghdad the new capital of the Abbasids begins golden age of Arabs. Key: Diversity tolerated and encouraged leading to flowering of thought and science. It was under al-Mansur (754-775) who used the Sh’ia to get the Abbasids into power then deserted them because they were not militant enough to keep the civilization protected. Much of the arab world was still secular Sunni and the Abbasids new to keep their power they would have to appease them. Although they did changed much of what was wrong with the Umayyads’; like lying about tax-exemption to the clients and converts who [paid their dues by many years serving the arabs. Arabic as the official language. The reign of Harun al-Rashid (786-809) reaches the pinnacle of Abbasid power and arab achievement, also coinciding with the reign,  one begins to see signs of weakness. The great cities at this time were in order: Changon (China) 1,000,000 pop; Baghdad ( Iraq) 600,000 pop; Constantinople ( east Roman Empire) 200,000 pop.

786 A.D.

Accession of Harun al-Rushard to the caliphate

809 A.D.

Harun dies and civil war begins between his sons



813 A.D.

Ma’mun defeats his brother and becomes caliph.

827 A.D.

Mu’tazilite teachings become state doctrine for 22 years.


833 A.D.

Mu’tasim becomes caliph and guards himself with Turkish slaves.

892 A.D.

Mu’tasim moves the capital from Baghdad to Samarra.

934 A.D.

Firdausi , Persian Poet, was born Abu Ol-Qasem Mansur in Tus, Iran. He wrote the greatest national epic in world literature, the 'Book of Kings' or 'Shah-nameh' (60 000 couplets). (b. 934 – d.1020) after laboring for years he presented his poem to the king who was to pay him handsomely for it. The king gave him next to nothing and he gave the money to a bath attendant left the kingdom to Afghanistan. Afghanistan. During much of the Arab imperialism was a place where the persecuted free thinkers lived in safety from the militant civilization and all the hub-bub of materialism. Significance: The poet wrote a savage satire on the king (usually prefaced to editions of the Shah Namah) and fled. He wandered from court to court and arrived in his old age at his home. His poem, in 60,000 verses, is the first great work of modern Persian literature.


945 A.D.

The Persian Buyids take Baghdad and control the empire.

980 A.D.

Ibn Sina (Avicenna) (980-1037) is one of the foremost philosophers of the golden age of Islamic tradition that also includes al-Farabi and Ibn Rushd. He is also known as al-Sheikh al-Rais (Leader among the wise men) a title that was given to him by his students. His philosophical works were one of the main targets of al-Ghazali’s attack on philosophical influences in Islam. In the west he is also known as the "Prince of Physicians" for his famous medical text al-Qanun "Canon". In Latin translations, his works influenced many Christian philosophers, most notably Thomas Aquinas (Islamic Philosophy).


1048 A.D.

Born: 18 May 1048 in Nishapur, Persia (now Iran) Died: 4 Dec 1131 in Nishapur, Persia (now Iran) Omar Khayyam's full name was Ghiyath al-Din Abu'l-Fath Umar ibn Ibrahim Al-Nisaburi al-Khayyami. A literal translation of the name al-Khayyami (or al-Khayyam) means 'tent maker' and this may have been the trade of Ibrahim his father. Khayyam played on the meaning of his own name when he wrote:-


Khayyam, who stitched the tents of science,

Has fallen in grief's furnace and been suddenly burned,

The shears of Fate have cut the tent ropes of his life,

And the broker of Hope has sold him for nothing!


The political events of the 11th Century played a major role in the course of Khayyam's life. The Seljuq Turks were tribes that invaded southwestern Asia in the 11th Century and eventually founded an empire that included Mesopotamia, Syria, Palestine, and most of Iran. The Seljuq occupied the grazing grounds of Khorasan and then, between 1038 and 1040, they conquered all of north-eastern Iran. The Seljuq ruler Toghrïl Beg proclaimed himself sultan at Nishapur in 1038 and entered Baghdad in 1055. It was in this difficult unstable military empire, which also had religious problems as it attempted to establish an orthodox Muslim state, that Khayyam grew up.


Khayyam studied philosophy at Naishapur and one of his fellow students wrote that he was:-


... endowed with sharpness of wit and the highest natural powers ...


However, this was not an empire in which those of learning, even those as learned as Khayyam, found life easy unless they had the support of a ruler at one of the many courts. Even such patronage would not provide too much stability since local politics and the fortunes of the local military regime decided who at any one time held power. Khayyam himself described the difficulties for men of learning during this period in the introduction to his Treatise on Demonstration of Problems of Algebra (see for example [1]):-


I was unable to devote myself to the learning of this algebra and the continued concentration upon it, because of obstacles in the vagaries of time which hindered me; for we have been deprived of all the people of knowledge save for a group, small in number, with many troubles, whose concern in life is to snatch the opportunity, when time is asleep, to devote themselves meanwhile to the investigation and perfection of a science; for the majority of people who imitate philosophers confuse the true with the false, and they do nothing but deceive and pretend knowledge, and they do not use what they know of the sciences except for base and material purposes; and if they see a certain person seeking for the right and preferring the truth, doing his best to refute the false and untrue and leaving aside hypocrisy and deceit, they make a fool of him and mock him.


However Khayyam was an outstanding mathematician and astronomer and, despite the difficulties which he described in this quote, he did write several works including Problems of Arithmetic, a book on music and one on algebra before he was 25 years old. In 1070 he moved to Samarkand in Uzbekistan which is one of the oldest cities of Central Asia. There Khayyam was supported by Abu Tahir, a prominent jurist of Samarkand, and this allowed him to write his most famous algebra work, Treatise on Demonstration of Problems of Algebra (O'Connor).


The Rubaiyat


By Omar Khayyam

Written 1120 A.C.E.

The Quatrains:


Omar Khayyam composed somewhere between 200 and 600 Rubaiyat (quatrains). They are among the few masterpieces that has been translated into most languages, including English, French, German, Italian, Russian, Chinese, Hindi, Arabic, and Urdu. The most famous translation of the Rubaiyat from Farsi into English was undertaken in 1859 by Edward J. Fitzgerald.


there are three levels of interpretation: First, there is the literal with tries to stay close to the original language. Second the meaning is a freer translation of what the poet might be saying, and thirdly, is the corresponding, not always accurate translation of Edward J. Fitzgerald.


For example:




The caravan of life shall always pass

Beware that is fresh as sweet young grass

Let’s not worry about what tomorrow will amass

Fill my cup again, this night will pass, alas.






To be aware of each moment spent

Is to live in the now, and be present

Worry for morrow shan’t make a dent

Caring for the now, your mind must be bent.






One Moment in Annihilation's Waste,

One moment, of the Well of Life to taste--

The Stars are setting, and the Caravan

Starts for the dawn of Nothing--Oh, make haste!

1055 A.D.

The Seljukes seize Baghdad, retaining the Abbasids as rulers.

1096 A.D.

Crusaders reach Constantinople and advance southward.

1099 A.D.

Crusaders capture Jerusalem

Abu Abdallah Muhammad Ibn Muhammad Ibn Abdallah Ibn Idris al-Qurtubi al-Hasani, was bom in Ceuta, Spain, in 1099 A.D. He was educated in Cordova. Later he traveled far and wide in connection with his studies and then flourished at the Norman court in Palermo. The date of his death is controversial, being either 1166 or 1180 A.D. He associated with the court of a Christian king and written in praise of him which got him into trouble in the history books of the arabs.

Significance: major contribution of medicinal investigations into plants.  Wrote several books, specially Kitab al-Jami-li-Sifat Ashtat al-Nabatat. He studied and reviewed all the literature that included roman and Greek in which the arabs received much of their information from on the subject of medicinal plants. He formed his own opinions but used much of previous opinions from his sources. Significance is that he propagated medicinal knowledge to this part of the world. He also contributed to geographical encyclopedia of the time, which contained information of Africa, Asia, and Western countries.

1119 A.D.

Farid od Din Attar was born in Nishapur and lived about 1119-1220 (Another source mentions he lived about 1136-1230). He lived close to 100 years and was killed by the Mongol invaders. His tomb is in Nishapur. .His work has been the inspiration of Rumi and many other mystic poets of Persian Empire. Attar met Rumi at the end of his life when Rumi was only a boy and gave his book Asrarnameh as a present to him. He was a druggist, perfumist and a doctor in addition to being a poet. Attar wrote 114 pieces, the same number of suras in the holy book of Koran. About thirty of his works survived. To name a few of his works are love stories, biographies of saints, Asrarnameh ("The Book of Secrets"), a collection of quatrains, Illahinameh ("The Book of God") and the last not the least, his most well known masterpiece of Mantiq at-Tayr ("The Bird of the Sky") known as "The Conference of the Birds."  In The Book of God, he describes six human capacities and abilities: ego, imagination, intellect, thirst for knowledge, thirst for detachment, and thirst for unity. In The book of Secrets, he uses a collection of small stories to elevate the spiritual state of the reader. In "The Conference of the Birds," Attar explains seven valleys (veils) which the "Bird of the Sky" goes through and passes to meet Simurgh (God). This is a process that each of us goes through. What we make of ourselves and what we become, good or bad, happy or unhappy, satisfied or dissatisfied, we do ourselves. (BestIran).

1187 A.D.

Saladin defeats the Crusaders at Hittin and takes Jerusalem.

1200 A.D.

Poet, prose writer and thinker, Muslihuddin Abu Muhammad Abdullah ibn Mushrifuddin Sa'di, also referred to as Shaykh Sa'di and Sa'di Shirazi, was born in Shiraz in or around 1200. He died in Shiraz in or around 1292 of old age. Sa'di's travels coincide with a time when Chingiz Khan (1206-1227) passed the scepter of Mongol power to Ogadai Khan (1221-1241) and when, under Khan Mongke (1251-1258), Batu Khan devastated Russia and Eastern Europe. In this respect, Sa'di is very much like Marco Polo who traveled in the region from 1271 to 1294. There is a difference, however, between the two. While Marco Polo gravitated to the potentates and the good life, Sa'di mingled with the ordinary survivors of the Mongol holocaust. He sat in remote teahouses late into the night and exchanged views with merchants, farmers, preachers, wayfarers, thieves, and Sufi mendicants. For twenty years or more, he continued the same schedule of preaching, advising, learning, honing his sermons, and polishing them into gems illuminating the wisdom and foibles of his people.

1256 is the date usually assigned for the time when Sa'di's zeal for travel gave in to his desire to document the fruits of his travels. He returned to his home town of Shiraz which, under Atabak Abubakr Sa'd ibn Zangy (1231-60) was enjoying an era of relative tranquility. Not only was he welcomed to the city but was respected highly by the ruler and enumerated among the greats of the province. In response, Sa'di composed some of his most delightful panegyrics as an initial gesture of gratitude in praise of the ruling house and placed them at the beginning of his Bustan.

Intended as a vehicle for the transmission of his poetic and literary gifts, the Bustan (orchard) is an exquisite piece of didactic poetry composed in 1257. It is comprised of ten sections of verse, each a dissertation on wisdom, justice, compassion, good government, beneficence, earthly and mystic love, resignation, contentment, and humility. Dedicated to Abubakr Zangy, over the centuries, many of its verses have become popular proverbs, an indication of the level of excellence at which the public holds this contribution of the Shaykh.

Within a year of the composition of Bustan, Sa'di authored another volume which he entitled Gulistan. Dedicated to Sa'd ibn Zangy, the Gulistan (rose garden) is intended to pass to subsequent generations the essence of the Shaykh's sermons. The volume consists of a cycle of eight rhymed-prose partitions each interspersed with poetry. The themes discussed include the manners of kings, the morals of dervishes, the preference of contentment, the advantages of keeping silent, as well as youth, old age, and the like. The following, translated by this author, illustrates Sa'di's attitude towards wealth and authority vis-a-vis freedom and enjoyment of a tranquil life: (Bashiri)

1207 A.D.

Rumi was born in Wakhsh (Tajikistan) under the administration of Balkh in 30 September 1207 to a family of learned theologians. He name Mowlana Jalaluddin Rumi stands for Love and ecstatic flight into the infinite. Rumi is one of the great spiritual masters and poetical geniuses of mankind and was the founder of the Mawlawi Sufi order, a leading mystical brotherhood of Islam.

Escaping the Mongol invasion and destruction, Rumi and his family traveled extensively in the Muslim lands, performed pilgrimage to Mecca and finally settled in Konya, Anatolia, then part of Seljuk Empire. He was introduced into the mystical path by a wandering dervish, Shamsuddin of Tabriz. Rumi is the author of six volume didactic epic work, the `Mathnawi', called as the 'Koran in Persian' by Jami, and discourses, `Fihi ma Fihi', written to introduce his disciples into metaphysics. (Texas University)

He wrote The Masnavi

One of the greatest Sufi poets, his 13th century poems found a new audience in the U. S. in the 1990s. Rumi was a teacher and theologian when, around 1244, he encountered a wandering dervish (a Muslim ascetic) named Shams of Tabriz. Spiritually inspired by the dervish to find God in worldly experiences, Rumi founded the Mevlani Order of the Sufi sect. Sometimes referred to as "the drunken Sufi," he became famous during his lifetime for his poetic works, especially Divan-e-Shams, poems praising Shams, and the 6 volumes of Mathnawi (pronounced "masnavi" in Persian). His followers, called Whirling Dervishes, combine music and dance, spinning around to achieve a trance-like state as a way to reach God. <>

1221 A.D.

On orders of the great Khan, the Mongols ravage Persia.

1258 A.D.

The Mongols Hulagu Khan takes Baghdad, ending the Abbasid rule. Hulagu lines 200,000 people up and beheads them.

1821 A.D.

Burton, Sir Richard Francis, 1821–90, English explorer, writer, and linguist. He joined (1842) the service of the East India Company and, while stationed in India, acquired a thorough knowledge of the Persian, Afghan, Hindustani, and Arabic languages. He spoke 22 Languages and three forms of Arabic. He is one of the few in modern history to complete the Hajj safely, although his guide found out he was an infidel it was too late and he already liked him. He studies Polygamy of the American Mormons (1861).  Disguised as an Arab merchant, he made the journey to Harar, Ethiopia, where he met with the local ruler. He went with Speke to uncharted E central Africa to discover the source of the Nile; Although he was wrong in identifying Lake Tanganyika (1858) as the source. He explored Santos, in Brazil, while consul (1865) there, he crossed the continent and wrote Explorations of the Highlands of Brazil (1869).  Shortly before he dies he conducted himself as councilor at Damascus (1869–71) and then (1872–90) at Trieste, where he died. He spent over 20 years on the translation of the Arabian Nights (16 vol., 1885–88) with large volumes of notes. In addition, he kept meticulous diary records in which his wife burned them. He wrote in his diaries that he hoped that she would not read them – well – she found them. The document of his report of leaving the Army is lost today. If found could be as much as 5-10 million dollars. He also published remarkable literal translations of Camões and was consul (1861–65) at Fernando Po (now Bioko), off W Africa, he explored the Bight of Biafra and conducted a mission to Dahomey, Benin, and the Gold Coast. He also recorded his Hajj in his book A Pictorial Pilgrimage to Mecca and Medina

The Arabian Nights (AKA) 1001 nights are a compendium of stories thought the ages gathered up and put together during the pinnacle of the Abbasid dynasty. The king most recognized in these stories is Harun’ar-Rashid (born February 766/, March 763, Rayy, Iran
March 24, 809, Tus). He was Caliph of Baghdad (786–809) during the period of most diversity and tolerance to others religions. It was at this time in history that the Arabs finally for this region of the world seemed to separate Church and State ( religion taken out of politics). The political tolerance of all the religions that coincided together allowed people the freedom to create and progress civilization. This does not mean that this was a secular society – no, this meant that toleration was reached to allow Christians, Jews, Zoasterins (sp), Buddhists, and other religions to coincide together. The religious and secular fanatics (Left-Wing) were the ones who objected and brought down burgeoning great society to its keens. Some people in this world cannot handle people with a common civil ideology to coexist with separate religions.

Popular stories like Sinbad, Ali Babba and Aladdin all have origins earlier than the Islamic Empire. For example, many stories of Sinbad the sailor can be traced to the Pharos courts’ of Egypt and these stories were the favorite escapist mediums in which the Egyptians entertained themselves.

1930 A.D.

Abdul Aleem Siddiqui, the first Muslim missionary in Canada dedicates the first Canadian Mosque in Edmonton, Alberta.

1937 A.D.

Ayatullah Yusuf Sana'i was born in 1316 A.H. (1937 A.D.) in the village of (Neek Abad Jarquyah) in  the province of Isfahan.  His father Hujjatul Islam Shaykh Muhammad Ali was a  well-known scholar and a pious personality.

In 1946 he entered the Hawzah of Isfahan, and after having finished the preliminary stage, he travelled to Qom and entered the Hawzah to continue his studies.

He also finished the major part of the second stage of studies known as 'Sutuh' with the late Ayatullah Haj Shaykh Abdul Jawad Jabal `Aamuli,Ayatullah Musa Sadr, and Ayatullah Ali Mishkini.

In 1955, Sani'i attended the lectures of Kharij stage of Ayatullah Boroujerdi, and until the year 1963 he benefitted from Kharij stage in Fiqh and Usoul of Imam Khumayni.

The year 1975 is the actual year when Sani'i began, and still teaching Fiqh from the book titled "Zakat" in Haqqani school. It is worthy to mention that the main subject of Sani'i's lessons is the book of "Tahrir al-Wasilah" of Imam Khumayni. (Islamic thought Foundation)

1969 CE

First Mosque in Toronto dedicated by Dr. M. Qadeer Baig

1980-2000 CE

Increased visibility of Muslims presence in Canada through Muslim religious and cultural institutions (i.e. Mosques, Islamic schools, funeral homes, etc)

Terms to Know

Islam: A monotheistic religion characterized by the acceptance of the doctrine of submission to God and to Muhammad as the chief and last prophet of God.

a.      The people or nations that practice Islam; the Muslim world.

b.      The civilization developed by the Muslim world.


The name of the Islamic god


Pilgrimage to Mecca FIFTH PILLAR


The flight of Muhammad from Mecca which begins the official calendar of Islam ( See Jihad).


Holy book of Islam; Seen as God's word


The City of Shah Abbas in Persia, modern day Iran. The city is in the center of the country. The cite for one of the Iatolas wars in the ‘70s that destroyed much of the landmarks. Mountain chains  enclose the Iranian plateau, and a wide basin at the bottom holds the historical city. Between the endless expanse of rock and behind the sand lies the huge oasis that services the city. The main monuments of Isfahan are essentially the work of one man; Shah Abbas I (more commonly known as Shah Abbas the Great), There were magnificent gardens and a royal palace. Abbas made this his town in capital in 1598. He rebuilt large avenues also. He moved from the old capitals Tabriz and Qazvin, which were considered too close to the Ottoman Empire. It is that refugees and diplomats hoping to secure alliances against the common Ottoman enemy came. There were English and Dutch merchants, European artists who helped make it one of the most glorious cities of its time. "Isfahan nesf-eh jahan" (Isfahan is half the world) was coined in 16th century to express the city’s grandeur.

English and Dutch merchants, European artists, and diplomats hoping to secure alliances against the common Ottoman enemy


 to Medina in 622AD, marking the beginning of the Muslim era SIXTH PILLAR


Holy book of Islam; Seen as God's word


Any leader of the religion after Muhammud. In general the name means successor


An indent in the wall of a mosque, indicating the direction of Mecca


Platform that Imam stands on


Muslim Place of Worship


Islam Patriarch


Quraish (Quraysh) Tribe

This is the overlord tribe of many smaller offshoot tribes in which Hashemite ( Muhammad’s tribe was one of them, and the Quraysh who had been family controllers of Mecca and Medina and will emerge the secular leaders of the conquests of world.


Ritual player (or service of worship) SECOND PILLAR



A member of the branch of Islam that regards Ali and his descendants are the legitimate successors to Muhammad and rejects the first three caliphs. (Blood /Family relatives only to succeed to leadership)


A refined Mysticism


A branch of Islam. The name means something like ‘Striving to follow God.’


The branch of Islam that accepts the first four caliphs as divinely rightful successors of Muhammad. (Any Muslim to succeed to leadership)


The where Muhammad grew up , and the holiest city of Islam because it was the predominate oasis of trade during the time of Muhammad and this is where all the power struggles for this business originated the arab controls.


The birthplace of Islam (also sp. Medina)


This was the viceroy, or vice president. It is the creating of this political position that distanced the Caliphs from direct relations of the Caliph. Now the people went to the Wasir and rarely saw the Caliph. By the late 9th Century two small cliques attached themselves to many leading politicians which had become polarized. Like the right and the left parties they balanced each other out.  One called itself the Banu Furat, and the other Banu Jurrah. Each of these factions was built around a wasir and his relatives and his clients. These cliques based their following on shared social and ideological affiliations. By the middle of the 9th Century the two factions had grown powerful enough to influence state policy. These steps closer to representation and checks and balances helped this city thrive like no other during this time.


Mandatory Almsgiving THIRD PILLAR



Abu Bakr was not from the family of Muhammad, although he was a close friend of his. He was wealthy and he gave his wealth away which garnered him a name and praise by Muhammad. He was also the first person to join up with Muhammad. He was a paragon of goodness. The old man didn’t upset the people that he was not a blood relative of Muhammad’s. At the death of Muhammad he was elected to the seat of first Caliph ( meaning successor). This fighting over who was going to succeed Muhammad really began after the death of Bakr. The Quarish, the major over family of Mecca decried moving away from elections to allow Ali ( Blood relative) to take the next seat. Ali was a nephew, ( son-in-law ) and from the Muhammad family tribe.

Umar and Uthman both took part in Mecca as part of the Quraish tribe to fight-off Muhammad and expel him to Medina. These powers were reinforced because Mecca was an influential trading city at the time. These were powerful working parties. And with a vote system, politics still played in regional contracts for special interests. This is where the split began in history over what is deemed being a Shiite or a Sunni. Umar and Uthman were not blood or tribe related to Muhammad, thus they were not supposed to hold any seat of power according to a new sect that opposed anyone who was not a family or blood related person. Then Ali, accepted a back room deal so that if he let the first two hold these offices that he would be next on the list. Well assignations ensued to the final three of the Caliphs in turn, Ali being the final one.

Some supporters who had found out that Ali had made a political deal became disenfranchised. So even some of the followers who wanted to give blood-electing a try moved on to form their own thoughts of secularization.  Today there are more Sunni’s than Shiites and most have been fractionalized to many groups with varying ideas and beliefs about this subject. For example, Wahhabism are members of a Muslim sect founded by Abdul Wahhab (1703-1792), known for its strict observance of the Koran and flourishing mainly in Arabia. This applies to the modern Oil Shakes. They teach strictness of Islam and have even created new laws that were never anything that Muhammad had said or envisioned. This has lead to a dispute to its real origins of justice as Muhammad had decried. The Oil Shakes have become tremendously wealthy off of western civilization money from owning oil reserves in which they are paid handsomely. In fact, one prince in Saudi Arabia owns a billion dollar home. They have formed strict school systems in Pakistan that promote hatred of the west. The Arabs loved the west until a few years after world war II.  Many of the leaders promoted Hitler in their communities when they found out his plan to rid the Jews from the earth. Continuing animosity was the replacement of the Jews in Palestine after WWII.

The Oil Shakes are not close to the teachings of Muhammad and support terrorism and ignorance in their governing territories. Why, because they love to party and not live by the rules set down by Mohammad. For example, they own harems and have more than the allowed four wives. They take drugs and drink, which is not allowed for the commoners. They live in fabulous wealthy opulence and do not share what was required of goodness set as an example by Muhammad.

During the ‘70s and ‘80s the British petroleum empire established in Iran grew frightful of uprisings of nationalistic muslins who wanted to nationalize their oil. At the time the British companies took 80% of the profits and gave 20% to the leaders of Iran. This worked for a while, until the leaders began to pocket the money and no money went to help the poor. The Shaw of Iran supported the west yet the extremist wanted the oil. The U.S.  set up Saddam Hussein and Russia and America supplied him with bio weaponry to attack Iran. The Russians gave ready made weapons and the U.S. gave the raw materials. It was the Russian chemicals that were used and the American raw materials were stored and later depleted and destroyed. Yet, the 10 year war that ensured between Saddam’s Iraq and now nationalistic Iran drained Saddam to near bankruptcy. After Saddam asked the west to invade Kuwait to recoup some oil fields for payback for helping the U.S. , they held their silence.

The British companies only allowed Iranians to work the menial jobs in the oil refineries. They had no chance of advancement.  The trouble that ensured in Iran in the ‘70s and ‘80s did not go the British way. They lost contracts and thus lost out of the 80% margin of business of the oil. So all of this was for no good as the Iranians got what they wanted and U.S. had to mount two wars against Iraq. Still what has been overlooked is that the oil shakes and Saddam led billion dollar lifestyles while the rest of their population suffered and many died. Saddam didn’t have to attack Kuwait either. Both liberals and conservative in the western civilizations cannot complain that it was either big-party-oil-interests because each of them use the product for themselves.

Saudi Arabia is the main culprit in this persona of living against Muhammad’s justice-like rules. Long ago the U.S. and Britain could have taken the Middle East and the oil, yet they were trying to set an example of benevolence top the world. 

Modern Afghanistan

Mullahs were religious teachers of Islam. They were not like bishops who were ordained by an establishment. They just were versed well enough to be recognized in the communities of Islam. In fact, many did not learn how to write. They simply learned the Qu’ran by rot memorization. They are always called forward to unify a particular party where politics are involved. They are versed in law, rule and closure. It is better if the Mullah is not from a major tribe.

The Mullah’s came from parts of Afghanistan to Kabul, who came the king who preached tolerance as Muhammad wanted. The Taliban, and Shiites came to the cities mosques and preached hatred against the more liberal king and his allowing of women rights. Again and Again the king would drive out the rabble-rousers with captured Russian tanks. Still, the petulance would return after a few days in hiding. After thirteen months of constant preaching of hatred the king falls and the leftist-hatred government takes over.

After Muhammad's death Caliphs (successors) took the place of Muhammad as the leader of the Islamic people. The first Caliph being Abu Bakr who formed the Quran (Koran) into one compilation of writings, rather than having many separate ones. He also suppressed Arab tribes who saw the death of the Prophet (Muhammad) as an opportunity to turn against Islam and continued the Muslim expansion started by the Prophet before his death. Abu Bakr was in charge of the Muslim people from 632-634. He was old when he took the reins and died soon after.

The Five Pillars of Islam

The Five Pillars of Islam are core beliefs that shape Muslim thought, deed, and society.  A Muslim who fulfills the Five Pillars of Islam, remains in the faith of Islam, and sincerely repents of his sins, will make it to Jannah (paradise). If he performs the Five Pillars but does not remain in the faith, he will not be saved.

1.      Shahada 

A.    The Shahada is the Islamic proclamation that "There is no true God except Allah and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah."

B.     This is the confession that Allah is the one and only true God, that Allah alone is worthy of worship, that Allah alone is the sovereign lord who does what he wills with whoever he wills. It means that all his rules and laws found in the Koran are to be followed. It means that the Christian doctrine of God as a Trinity is false as are all other belief systems including pantheism.

C.    Muhammad is the true and greatest prophet of Allah and recognition of Muhammad as the Prophet of God is required. It was through Muhammad that Allah conveyed the last and final revelation.

2.      Prayer (Salat)

 .      Prayer involves confession of sins which begins with the purification of the body and ends with the purification of the soul. Prayer is performed five times a day. The first prayer is at dawn and the last at sunset.

A.    The names of the prayers are Fajr, Dhuhr, Asr, Maghrib, Isha. The Maghrib prayer is the sunset prayer. Isha is the prayer that is said after sunset. There is also a prayer that is said right after Fajr known as Shurooq.

3.    Fasting (Saum) The month of Ramadan is the month of fasting in Islam. It is an act of worship where the faithful follower denies his own needs and seeks Allah. Usually, this fasting entails no drinking, eating during, or sexual relations during the daylight hours for the entire month of Ramadan.

4.    Alms-giving or charity (Zakat) Charity given to the poor. It benefits the poor and it helps the giver by moving him towards more holiness and submission to Allah. Alms-giving is considered a form of worship to God.

5.    Pilgrimage (Hajj) This is the pilgrimage to Mecca. All Muslims, if they are able, are to make a pilgrimage to Mecca. It involves financial sacrifice and is an act of worship.  Muslims must make the pilgrimage the first half of the last month of the lunar year  (Christian Apologetics & Research Ministry)

6.    Jihad.  This is sixth Pillar of Islam and has been demoted to not appearing on the main personal relations texts in the world. However it is as important if not most important as observing the five Pillars.


BestIran. Persian 2004.,

<>, 2004


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Slave Girls in the Quran




Civilization: History of Arabians

Evidence on Aisha



Evidence that Aisha was nine when the marriage was consummated

These traditions are from the hadith collections of Bukhari (d. 870) and Muslim b. al-Hajjaj (d. 875). These two collections are in general regarded as the most authentic by Sunni Muslims.

Other hadith in Bukhari repeat this information.

History from Tabari, volume 9, page 131


Evidence that Aisha was older than nine



From, Muhammad,  Wikipedia, March 26, 2006. [ database online], 2006.


From Hadith quotes "Narrated 'Aisha: I used to play with the dolls in the presence of the Prophet (Muhammed), and my girl friends also used to play with me. When Allah's Apostle used to enter they used to hide themselves, but the Prophet would call them to join and play with me."
(Hadith: Volume 8, Book 73, Number 151)

"Narrated Jabir bin 'Abdullah: When I got married, Allah's Apostle (Muhammed) said to me, 'What type of lady have you married?' I replied, 'I have married a matron'. He said, 'Why, don't you have a liking for the young virgins and for fondling them?' Jabir also said: Allah's Apostle said, 'Why didn't you marry a young girl so that you might play with her and she with you?'"
(Volume 7, Book 62, Number 17)

"...[T]he Prophet (Muhammed) said to her (Aisha), 'You have been shown to me twice in my dream. I saw you pictured on a piece of silk and someone said (to me). 'This is your wife.' When I uncovered the picture, I saw that it was yours. I said, 'If this is from Allah, it will be done.'"
(Hadith, Sahih Bukhari 5:58:235)

"[T]he Prophet (Muhammed) married her (Aisha) when she was six years old and he consummated his marriage when she was nine years old, and then she remained with him for nine years (i.e., till his death)."
(Hadith, Sahih Bukhari 7:62:64)

"Narrated 'Aisha: 'I used to wash the traces of Janaba (semen) from the clothes of the Prophet (Muhammed) and he used to go for prayers while traces of water were still on it (water spots were still visible).'"
(Hadith, Sahih Bukhari 1:4:229)

From Muhammed the PedophileHadith quotes
"Narrated 'Aisha: I used to play with the dolls in the presence of the Prophet (Muhammed), and my girl friends also used to play with me. When Allah's Apostle used to enter they used to hide themselves, but the Prophet would call them to join and play with me."
(Hadith: Volume 8, Book 73, Number 151)

"Narrated Jabir bin 'Abdullah: When I got married, Allah's Apostle (Muhammed) said to me, 'What type of lady have you married?' I replied, 'I have married a matron'. He said, 'Why, don't you have a liking for the young virgins and for fondling them?' Jabir also said: Allah's Apostle said, 'Why didn't you marry a young girl so that you might play with her and she with you?'"
(Volume 7, Book 62, Number 17)

"...[T]he Prophet (Muhammed) said to her (Aisha), 'You have been shown to me twice in my dream. I saw you pictured on a piece of silk and someone said (to me). 'This is your wife.' When I uncovered the picture, I saw that it was yours. I said, 'If this is from Allah, it will be done.'"
(Hadith, Sahih Bukhari 5:58:235)

"[T]he Prophet (Muhammed) married her (Aisha) when she was six years old and he consummated his marriage when she was nine years old, and then she remained with him for nine years (i.e., till his death)."
(Hadith, Sahih Bukhari 7:62:64)

"Narrated 'Aisha: 'I used to wash the traces of Janaba (semen) from the clothes of the Prophet (Muhammed) and he used to go for prayers while traces of water were still on it (water spots were still visible).'"
(Hadith, Sahih Bukhari 1:4:229) .


2013 Ages of Muhammad's Wives at Marriage

Aisha's Age

This question has already been adequately answered here and here. In sum, there is absolutely no reason to doubt Aisha’s own statements.

The Messenger of Allah married me when I was six and consummated the marriage when I was nine. I was playing on a see-saw … I used to play dolls.
Bewley/Saad 8:44.
Allah’s Apostle married me when I was six years old, and I was admitted to his house when I was nine years old.
Sahih Muslim 8:3310
The Prophet married Aisha in Shawwal in the tenth year after the prophethood [13 May - 10 June 620], three years before the Hijra. He consummated the marriage in Shawwal, eight months after the Hijra [11 May - 9 April 623]. On the day he consummated the marriage with her, she was nine years old.
Al-Tabari, Vol. 39, p. 171.

Copious documentation on hundreds of Muhammad’s companions shows that most Arabs knew their age to the nearest year. Why should Aisha, with her extraordinary memory,[50] her penchant for details and her talent for arithmetic,[51] have been any exception? To suggest that, contrary to her clear statement, she miscalculated or fabricated her own age is not logical. The information about her death only confirms her consistency.

Aisha died on Tuesday night, the 17 Ramadan 58 AH [16 July 678], and she was buried the same night after the night prayer. She was then 66 years old.
Al-Tabari, Vol. 39, p. 173.

The year 66 years before 58 AH was once again nine years before the Hijra, making Aisha nine years old at her consummation in 1 AH. While it may well be true that most Arabs only knew their age to the year and not to the day, there is some evidence that Aisha’s family had noted at least the month in which she was born.

Aisha was born at the beginning of the fourth year of prophethood, and she married the Messenger of Allah in the tenth year, in Shawwal, when she was six.
Bewley/Saad 8:55.

If they knew that she had been born at the “beginning” and not the “middle” or the “end” of the year, it is unlikely that they would have been wrong about the year itself. “The fourth year of prophethood” was indeed the ninth year before the Hijra (25 October 613 - 13 October 614). It was the year when Muhammad first preached Islam in public;[52] Aisha’s parents would not have forgotten what was happening around the city at the time when their daughter was born. Abu Bakr’s accuracy is not really surprising, as he was a recognised expert on genealogy,[53] so a person’s month of birth was exactly the kind of detail that he would remember.

Aisha narrated that Allah’s Apostle married her when she was seven years old, and he she was taken to his house as a bride when she was nine, and her dolls were with her; and when he died she was 18 years old.
Sahih Muslim 8:3311
Abdullah narrated. The Holy Prophet married Aisha while she was a seven-year-old girl and took her to his house as a bride when she was nine years old and he parted with her when she was 18 years old.
Ibn Majah 3:1877

These two narratives offer a variant for Aisha’s age when she was legally married, but this is an uncertainty about the date of the contract (two rather than three years before the consummation). It does not reflect any uncertainty about Aisha’s date of birth, since they confirm that the marriage was consummated when she was nine. The real discrepancy can be missed by a casual reader, but it is obvious to anyone familiar with the Islamic calendar.

Aisha was married in the first year AH (19 July 622 - 7 July 623) and widowed in the eleventh (1 April 632 - 20 March 633). Since she was married at nine, she should have been 19, not 18, when Muhammad died. This is possibly just careless counting by some person other than Aisha: “Nine and a bit plus nine and a bit is still only 18.” But it could also mean that on the day when Muhammad died, Aisha had not yet passed her birthday. Muhammad died on 12 Rabi-Awwal 11 AH (i.e., in the middle of the third month) (10 June 632).[54] If Aisha knew that she had been born on some date later in the year than 12 Rabi-Awwal, then she was still only 18 and not 19 when she was widowed.

This gives us Aisha’s date of birth to within six weeks. It might have been as early as 13 Rabi-Awwal 9 BH (4 January 614). But it is unlikely that it was any later than 29 Rabi-Thani 9 BH (19 February 614), as any date later than the fourth month would not have been “early” in the year. So we can express Aisha’s birthday as 27 January 614, plus or minus three weeks.

Her marriage was consummated in the tenth month of the first year AH. This fell between 11 April and 9 May (median = 25 April 623). We can now take an informed estimate of her age at consummation.

The exact age or age difference down to the day or even to the year do not matter. The real points are that (1) Aisha was a prepubescent child, and (2) Muhammad was old enough to be her grandfather.

Aisha was the youngest bride whom Muhammad married. It does not follow that she was the youngest wife in the household. Towards the end of his life, Muhammad acquired a few women whose age in years was even younger than Aisha’s.



Copyright © 2004, 2005, 2006, Michael Johnathan McDonald. All rights reserved.